Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results
1 Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale Window Systems testbed facility at the Lawrence of this emerging technology. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency; Electrochromic windows; Daylighting; Control
Automated support for experimental approaches in daylighting performances assessment
Ljubicic, Dean M
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The study of daylight and solar reflection has been a topic of increasing interest over the past two decades. A novel mechanical support has been constructed to help better understand this topic that consists of a five ...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into buildings. Daylighting in businesses and commercial buildings can result in substantial savings on electric bills, and not only provides a higher quality of light but also improves productivity and health.
Alnuaimi, Maitha Mohammed
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
This study investigated the potential of the daylighting systems used in the indigenous architecture of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), located in Dubai (latitude 25° N longitude 55° E). The analysis tested the lighting performance of three...
and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitz Eleanor Lee Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords: daylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, field testing, IEA31 1. INTRODUCTION Most
Yi, Lu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Daylighting design has great impact on the performance and aesthetical quality of a work of architecture but requires many issues to be addressed during the design process. The way existing daylighting tools deliver data ...
Light and Energy -Daylight measurements
Light and Energy - Daylight measurements #12;Light and Energy - Daylight measurements Authors: Jens;3 Title Light and Energy Subtitle Daylight measurements Authors Jens Christoffersen, Ásta Logadóttir
MANDATORY MEASURES DAYLIGHTING
California at Davis, University of
a general lighting system with a power density greater than 0.5 watts per square foot 10/31/2014 DAYLIGHTING, the automatic daylighting controls requirements for primary sidelit zones also apply to general lighting
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Daylighting—the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation—is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses.
SBi 2006:08 Assessment of daylight quality
and daylight factor..................................................9 Cylindrical illuminance (sunny sky-to-horizontal illuminance............................10 Luminance distribution..............................................................................10 Luminances in the field of view.................................................................11
None
2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
Daylighting?the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation?is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.
None
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Daylighting—the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation—is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Daylighting—the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation—is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient,...
Lighting and Daylight Harvesting
Bos, J.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
is cost, lack of flexibility Market is trending away from these. The ballasts are higher cost without returning information. Lutron, Advance, Tridonics all make systems using these Daylight Harvesting Parts and Pieces 4. Smart Protocol.... Currently Walmart, Home Depot, Sam?s Club all use a switching variant with multitube fluorescent hi bay fixtures Control of Electric Light 1. First and foremost windows, skylights, and clerestories. Maximize all potential for free light. New...
Lighting and Daylight Harvesting
Bos, J.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
glazings are allowing more opportunities for light without losing as much in added HVAC load. Daylight Harvesting Parts and Pieces 2. Dimmable light source i.e. Incandescent, Fluorescent and LED commonly. Metal Halide is not appropriate because...The firm was founded in 1992 to serve the lighting design needs of the architectural and interior design communities. With over fifty years of combined experience, our areas of expertise range from architectural and theatrical lighting...
Daylighting Islais Creek : a feasibility study
Jencks, Rosey; Leonardson, Rebecca
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for daylighting the creek and other green infrastructure.Daylighting Islais Creek for stormwater conveyance wouldGlen Park Cayuga Islais Creek Runoff Elev. Slope coeff.
Natural Daylighting - An Energy Analysis
Jarrell, R. P.
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. This yielded striking results. By modifying the building with the new glazing and incorporating the available daylighting to reduce the existing artificial lighting level, a significant reduction in the estimated energy consumption was realized. The improved...
Daylighting Calculation in DOE-2
Winkelmann, F.C
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the sequence: d. space reference point exterior wall windowsystem (BCS). space system to Begin Exterior Wall Loop (1)least one daylit space. 3.2.1 Exterior Daylight Availability
Do Daylight-Saving Time Adjustments Really Impact Stock Returns?
Steigerwald, Douglas G; Conte, Marc
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Taylor, 1935, World Daylight Saving Time, Chicago: Cur- ranthe Market: The Daylight Saving Anomaly”, American Economicat the Market: The Daylight Saving Anomaly: Reply”, American
Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.
2006-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
A nine-month monitored field study of the performance of automated roller shades and daylighting controls was conducted in a 401 m{sup 2} unoccupied, furnished daylighting mockup. The mockup mimicked the southwest corner of a new 110 km{sub 2} commercial building in New York, New York, where The New York Times will be the major tenant. This paper focuses on evaluating the performance of two daylighting control systems installed in separate areas of an open plan office with 1.2-m high workstation partitions: (1) Area A had 0-10 V dimmable ballasts with an open-loop proportional control system and an automated shade controlled to reduce window glare and increase daylight, and (2) Area B had digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) ballasts with a closed-loop integral reset control system and an automated shade controlled to block direct sun. Daylighting control system performance and lighting energy use were monitored. The daylighting control systems demonstrated very reliable performance after they were commissioned properly. Work plane illuminance levels were maintained above 90% of the maximum fluorescent illuminance level for 99.9{+-}0.5% and 97.9{+-}6.1% of the day on average over the monitored period, respectively, in Areas A and B. Daily lighting energy use savings were significant in both Areas over the equinox-to-equinox period compared to a non-daylit reference case. At 3.35 m from the window, 30% average savings were achieved with a sidelit west-facing condition in Area A while 50-60% were achieved with a bilateral daylit south-facing condition in Area B. At 4.57-9.14 m from the window, 5-10% and 25-40% savings were achieved in Areas A and B, respectively. Average savings for the 7-m deep dimming zone were 20-23% and 52-59% for Areas A and B, respectively, depending on the lighting schedule. The large savings and good reliability can be attributed to the automatic management of the interior shades. The DALI-based system exhibited faulty behavior that remains unexplained, but operational errors are expected to be resolved as DALI products reach full maturity. The building owner received very competitive bids ($30-75 US/DALI ballast) and was able to justify use of the daylighting control system based on operational cost savings and increased amenity. Additional energy savings due to reduced solar and lighting heat gains were not quantified but will add to the total operational cost savings.
Daylighting Application and Effectiveness in Industrial Facilities
McCowan, B.; Birleanu, D.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
artificial lighting became available, most older industrial buildings had their daylighting features boarded over. With modern glazing systems and sophisticated designs that minimize glare issues, daylighting for industrial buildings is making a strong...
Andersen, Marilyne
This class provides the tools necessary for an efficient integration of daylighting issues in the overall design of a building. The fundamentals of daylighting and electric lighting are introduced and their relevance to ...
CALIFORNIA ENERGY Daylighting In Schools
Group Lisa Heschong, Project Director Fair Oaks, California Managed By: New Buildings Institute Cathy Departments, JimVan Dame of My-Lite Daylighting Systems and Products, Doug Gehring of Celotex, Ivan Johnson Johnson of Target. Project Management: Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute; Don Aumann, California
Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system
Grobe, Lars
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Singapore’s Zero-Energy Building’s daylight monitoringSingapore’s Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoringchambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These
Experimental Evaluation of Innovative Wall Daylighting Systems
Place, J. W.; Howard, T. C.; Paulos, S.; Chung, K.
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Sidelighting systems are of interest because the wall is the only available source of daylight in many commercial buildings. Innovative static and dynamic reflector assemblies have been examined and proven effective. Compared with typical sidelighting designs...
Energy 101: Daylighting | Department of Energy
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
but save you money as well. For more information on daylighting and other home energy-saving tips that can benefit the environment and save you money, visit the Office of...
Utilizing Daylighting Controls in a Manufacturing Facility
Shrestha, S. S.; Maxwell, G. M.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Opportunities exist to reduce artificial lighting in manufacturing facilities which have skylights and/or fenestration that provide sufficient quantities of daylight to the work space. Using photometric sensors to measure the illuminance...
Andersen, Marilyne
The course focuses on the use and optimization of daylight in buildings and on its complementarity to artificial (electric) lighting, to aim at reducing the building's environmental impact while improving the visual comfort ...
Utilizing Daylighting Controls in a Manufacturing Facility
Shrestha, S. S.; Maxwell, G. M.
solar lighting illuminates energy savings for government facilities. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy McCowan, B., and D. Birleanu, 2005, Daylighting application and effectiveness in industrial facilities. Energy... be considered. The energy gain/loss through the fenestration could be a more important factor in overall building energy use than the energy savings from daylighting. REFERENCES Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), 2007, Hybrid...
Daylighting Application and Effectiveness in Industrial Facilities
McCowan, B.; Birleanu, D.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and indirect glare can be severe. Careful control of daylight, as well as its integration with electrical lighting and lighting controls is the key to lighting that is appropriate, Table 1. Wegman 1994). (Tvis) - Visible transmittance (SHGC) - Solar heat... Performance, 1999. Illuminating Engineering Society (IES), IES Lighting Handbook 1949, '52, '59, '93, '00. Levy and Wegman, Occupational Health; Recognizing and Preventing Work Related Disease, 1994. Miller, David M, ?Daylighting Innovation...
Effect of daylighting on energy consumption and daylight quality in an existing elementary school
Atre, Umesh Vinayak
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
to daylighting, and the overall effect on total energy consumption. Skylights with 1% to 10% glazing surface to floor area and clerestories from 2 ft to 8 ft glazing height were analyzed to formulate balanced daylighting designs that could provide... 3.14 Base case interior view 2 ..................................................................................79 Fig 3.15 Clerestory case (no glazing)..............................................................................80 Fig 3...
Technology reviews: Daylighting optical systems
Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.
1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends.Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.
Daylighting a Green High School Smart Schools Symposium 2013
California at Davis, University of
Daylighting a Green High School Smart Schools Symposium 2013 #12;AMERICAN CANYON HIGH SCHOOL NAPA effective #12;Balanced Daylighting #12;Typical Window and Sunshade configuration Sun Control Glazing Provide exterior sunshades for lower windows Translucent daylighting glazing for upper windows High performance
University of Miami; Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.
2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY Summary Of Daylighting In Schools
on Research by: Heschong Mahone Group Lisa Heschong, Project Director Fair Oaks, California Managed By: NewConocha of Federated Departments, Jim Van Dame of My-Lite Daylighting Systems and Products, Doug Gehring of Celotex, and Lori Johnson of Target. Project Management: Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute; Don Aumann
Daylighting Prediction Software: Comparative Analysis and Application
Estes, J. M. Jr.; Schreppler, S.; Newsom, T.
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to the “real world”? The purpose of this paper is to answer these questions and provide useful information for the design of daylighted areas with the assistance of software-based simulation. A survey was made of the available software programs...
Three approaches to classical thermal field theory
Gozzi, E., E-mail: gozzi@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare - Grignano, 34151 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Penco, R., E-mail: rpenco@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1130 (United States)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Research Highlights: > Classical thermal field theory admits three equivalent path integral formulations. > Classical Feynman rules can be derived for all three formulations. > Quantum Feynman rules reduce to classical ones at high temperatures. > Classical Feynman rules become much simpler when superfields are introduced. - Abstract: In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the closed-time path (CTP) formalism, the thermofield dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.
Daylighting simulation: methods, algorithms, and resources
Carroll, William L.
1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document presents work conducted as part of Subtask C, ''Daylighting Design Tools'', Subgroup C2, ''New Daylight Algorithms'', of the IEA SHC Task 21 and the ECBCS Program Annex 29 ''Daylight in Buildings''. The search for and collection of daylighting analysis methods and algorithms led to two important observations. First, there is a wide range of needs for different types of methods to produce a complete analysis tool. These include: Geometry; Light modeling; Characterization of the natural illumination resource; Materials and components properties, representations; and Usability issues (interfaces, interoperability, representation of analysis results, etc). Second, very advantageously, there have been rapid advances in many basic methods in these areas, due to other forces. They are in part driven by: The commercial computer graphics community (commerce, entertainment); The lighting industry; Architectural rendering and visualization for projects; and Academia: Course materials, research. This has led to a very rich set of information resources that have direct applicability to the small daylighting analysis community. Furthermore, much of this information is in fact available online. Because much of the information about methods and algorithms is now online, an innovative reporting strategy was used: the core formats are electronic, and used to produce a printed form only secondarily. The electronic forms include both online WWW pages and a downloadable .PDF file with the same appearance and content. Both electronic forms include live primary and indirect links to actual information sources on the WWW. In most cases, little additional commentary is provided regarding the information links or citations that are provided. This in turn allows the report to be very concise. The links are expected speak for themselves. The report consists of only about 10+ pages, with about 100+ primary links, but with potentially thousands of indirect links. For purposes of the printed version, a list of the links is explicitly provided. This document exists in HTML form at the URL address: http://eande.lbl.gov/Task21/dlalgorithms.html. An equivalent downloadable PDF version, also with live links, at the URL address: http://eande.lbl.gov/Task21/dlalgorithms.pdf. A printed report can be derived directly from either of the electronic versions by simply printing either of them. In addition to the live links in the electronic forms, all report forms, electronic and paper, also have explicitly listed link addresses so that they can be followed up or referenced manually.
OpenStudio Enhancements for Whole-Building Daylighting, Airflow...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
for Whole-Building Daylighting, Airflow, and Energy Modeling Leveraging Interoperable Building Information Modeling Data - 2014 BTO Peer Review OpenStudio Enhancements for...
CBEI: Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
for Whole-Building Daylighting, Airflow, and Energy Modeling Leveraging Interoperable Building Information Modeling Data - 2014 BTO Peer Review Building Energy Modeling...
Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system
Grobe, Lars
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Singapore’s Zero-Energy Building’s daylight monitoringof California. Singapore’s Zero-Energy Building's daylightchambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These
Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Documentation Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Technical Documentation This report presents the detailed results, data, and analytical...
Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls
Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controlsdaylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, fielddeveloping switchable “smart glazings” for over a decade and
Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Report to Congress Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Report to Congress This report presents the detailed results, data, and analytical...
Tips for Daylighting with Windows
Robinson, Alastair; Selkowitz, Stephen
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing “how-to” practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decision—which typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.
Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Indiana
Kotchen, Matthew J; Grant, Laura E.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Does Extending Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evi- denceWP 179 Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence fromwww.ucei.org Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence
Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort
Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.
2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z
A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.
High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting...
High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting Lead Performer: Creative Light Source,...
Effect of daylighting on energy consumption and daylight quality in an existing elementary school
Atre, Umesh Vinayak
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
in the building??s heating, cooling, and lighting energy consumption due to daylighting, and the overall effect on total energy consumption. Skylights with 1% to 10% glazing surface to floor area and clerestories from 2 ft to 8 ft glazing height were analyzed...
List of Daylighting Incentives | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a gHigh Plains Wind Farm JumpKahului, Hawaii:Lempster Windsource History ViewCompaniesListDaylighting
Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's Daylight Monitoring System
LBNL-3708E Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's Daylight Monitoring System Author(s), L. Grobe; S thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both
Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source
Bornstein, Jonathan G. (Miami, FL); Friedman, Peter S. (Toledo, OH)
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.
Daylighting, dimming, and the electricity crisis in California
Rubinstein, Francis; Neils, Danielle; Colak, Nesrin
2001-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
Dimming controls for electric lighting have been one of the mainstays of the effort to use daylighting to reduce annual lighting energy consumption. The coincidence of daylighting with electric utility peak demand makes daylighting controls an effective strategy for reducing commercial building peak electric loads. During times of energy shortage, there is a greatly increased need to reduce electricity use during peak periods, both to ease the burden on electricity providers and to control the operating costs of buildings. The paper presents a typical commercial building electric demand profile during summer, and shows how daylighting-linked lighting controls and load shedding techniques can reduce lighting at precisely those times when electricity is most expensive. We look at the importance of dimming for increasing the reliability of the electricity grid in California and other states, as well as examine the potential cost-effectiveness of widespread use of daylighting to save energy and reduce monthly electricity bills.
Building Information Modeling (BIM)-Based Daylighting Simulation and Analysis
Kota, S.; Haberl, J.S.; Clayton, M.; Yan, W.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ESL-PA-14-07-03 Building Information Modeling (BIM)-Based Daylighting Simulation and Analysis Authors: Sandeep Kota; Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D.; Mark J. Clayton, Ph.D.; Wei Yan, Ph.D. Corresponding Author: Wei Yan, Ph.D. Telephone: 1 979 8450584.... Email: wyan@tamu.edu Department of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. ESL-PA-14-07-03 Building Information Modeling (BIM)-Based Daylighting Simulation and Analysis Abstract: Daylighting is an important aspect...
Kleindienst, Siân A. (Siân Alexandra)
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Awareness of the benefits of good daylighting has risen in recent years, and the designs of many new buildings take daylighting into consideration. However, the majority of our built environment is older than this recent ...
CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR
Bryan, Harvey J.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
reflection Component or IRC). The total the daylight factor,components as: SC + ERC + IRC THE SKY COMPONENT The skyformula for the average IRC is as: X where T ~ Transmittance
CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR
Bryan, Harvey J.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Reflected Component or IRC). The total for these threeDaylight Factor m SC + ERC + IRC THE SKY COMPONENT The skyThe formula for the average IRC is given as: IRC "" T X W A(
Daylight variability and contrast-driven architectural effect
Rockcastle, Siobhan Francois
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Natural light is a dynamic and ephemeral tool for expressing the quality of architectural space. As a compliment to more traditional avenues of daylighting research that assess performance in terms of quantitative illuminance ...
Interfacing BIM with Building Thermal and Daylighting Modeling
Yan, Wei; Clayton, Mark; Haberl, Jeff; WoonSeong, Jeong; Bun Kim, Jong; Sandeep, Kota; Bermudez, Jose; Dixit, Manish
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
THERMAL AND DAYLIGHTING MODELING Wei Yan, Mark Clayton, Jeff Haberl, WoonSeong Jeong, Jong Bum Kim, Sandeep Kota, Jose Luis Bermudez Alcocer, and Manish Dixit Texas A&M University, College Station, USA ABSTRACT This paper presents our research... modeling; (2) to enhance the coordination and interaction between thermal and daylighting models; (3) to enable more efficient and accurate simulation input, supporting an improved design process informed by simulation; and (4) to enable BIM as a...
Advanced optical daylighting systems: light shelves and light pipes
Beltran, L.O.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.
1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present two perimeter daylighting systems that passively redirect beam sunlight further from the window wall using special optical films, an optimized geometry, and a small glazing aperture. The objectives of these systems are (1) to increase daylight illuminance levels at 4.6-9.1 m (15-30 ft) from the window aperture with minimum solar heat gains and (2) to improve the uniformity of the daylighting luminance gradient across the room under variable solar conditions throughout the year. The designs were developed through a series of computer-assisted ray-tracing studies, laser visualization techniques, and photometric measurements and observations using physical scale models. Bi-directional illuminance measurements in combination with analytical routines were then used to simulate daylight performance for any solar position, and were incorporated into the DOE-2.1E building energy analysis computer program to evaluate energy savings. Results show increased daylight levels and an improved luminance gradient throughout the year compared to conventional daylighting systems.
FREE-SPACE QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY IN DAYLIGHT
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T. [and others
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
An Analysis of Energy Reductions from the Use of Daylighting in Low-Cost Housing
Rungchareonrat, N.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
is to protect the interior from direct sunlight during the cooling season, and deliver indirect light into the building interior to reduce the need for supplemental lighting. The concern about using daylighting is that, while reducing the solar heat gains..., it also reduces the amount of daylight needed to supplement interior lighting. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the effectiveness of daylighting strategies that balance the solar heat gain reduction and daylight utilization and result...
Fernandes, Luis
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled forenergy performance of electrochromic windows. Proceedingssignal for daylight (electrochromic window, no overhang).
Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system
Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen
2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.
Analysis of Daylighting Requirements within ASHRAE Standard 90.1
Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.
2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides support to the ASHRAE/IES/IESNA Standard 90.1(Standard 90.1) Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC 90.1) and its subcommittees. In an effort to provide the ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 with data that will improve the daylighting and fenestration requirements in the Standard, PNNL collaborated with Heschong Mahone Group (HMG), now part of TRC Solutions. Combining EnergyPlus, a whole-building energy simulation software developed by DOE, with Radiance, a highly accurate illumination modeling software (Ward 1994), the daylighting requirements within Standard 90.1 were analyzed in greater detail. The initial scope of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fraction of window area compared to exterior wall area (window-to-wall ratio (WWR)) on energy consumption when daylighting controls are implemented. This scope was expanded to study the impact of fenestration visible transmittance (VT), electric lighting controls and daylighted area on building energy consumption.
Energy and daylight performance of angular selective glazings
Sullivan, R.; Beltran,; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.E.
1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy and daylight performance of anisotropic angular selective glazings. The DOE-2.1E energy simulation program was used to determine the annual cooling, lighting and total electricity use, and peak electric demand. RADIANCE, a lighting simulation program, was used to determine daylight illuminance levels and distribution. We simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Blythe, California. We chose three hypothetical conventional windows for comparison: a single-pane tinted window, a double-pane low-E window, and a double-pane spectrally selective window. Daylighting controls were used. No interior shades were modeled in order to isolate the energy effects of the angular selective glazing. Our results show that the energy performance of the prototype angular selective windows is about the same as conventional windows for a 9.14 m (30 ft) deep south-facing perimeter zone with a large-area window in the hot, sunny climate of Blythe. It is theoretically possible to tune the angular selectivity of the glazing to achieve annual cooling energy reductions of 18%, total electricity use reductions of 15%, and peak electric demand reductions of 11% when compared to a conventional glazing with the same solar-optical properties at normal incidence. Angular selective glazings can provide more uniformly distributed daylight, particularly in the area next to the window, which will result in a more visually comfortable work environment.
Smith, Brooke Ray
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Factors in Environmental Restoration: Strawberry Creek andBaxter Creek. Water Resource Center Archives, University ofNiazi. 2005. Blackberry Creek Daylighting Project, Berkeley:
Control system performance in a modern daylighted office building
Benton, C.; Fountain, M., Selkowitz, S.; Jewell, J.
1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Lockheed Building 157 is one of the United States' largest experiments in contemporary daylighting. Built in 1983, the five story structure houses 3,000 employees and uses daylight for ambient illumination throughout its 56,000-m{sup 2} office interior. A continuously dimmable fluorescent lighting system supplements interior daylight under the control of open-loop ceiling-mounted photosensors. In 1985 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) began a year-long program to measure lighting system performance in the building. Data from this study indicated that architectural features of the building performed admirably, admitting significant daylight to large areas of the open plan interior. Operational savings, however, were limited by inappropriate performance of the control system in many of the building's lighting circuits. LBL recently completed a follow-up investigation of the lighting systems in Building 157 addressing the interaction between daylight and the lighting control system with the goal of improving control system performance. We modified a 1,700-m{sup 2} test zone by relocating the photosensors, attenuating the photosensor control signal, changing the response pattern of the photosensors, and implementing a LBL-developed calibration procedure, Following these modifications, we installed four data-acquisition systems and collected detailed data describing illuminance and lighting power demand during two week periods in the summer, equinox, and winter seasons. This paper presents a comparison of lighting system performance before and after the LBL modifications. Analysis of the data indicates our modifications were successful in maintaining interior illuminance at the target of 350 lux with minimal electric energy consumption. 10 refs., 9 figs.
Effective Field Theory: A Modern Approach to Anomalous Couplings
Celine Degrande; Nicolas Greiner; Wolfgang Kilian; Olivier Mattelaer; Harrison Mebane; Tim Stelzer; Scott Willenbrock; Cen Zhang
2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons.
Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings
Degrande, Céline, E-mail: cdegrand@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Greiner, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Kilian, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Siegen, Fachbereich Physik, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Mattelaer, Olivier [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Cen [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics.
An ignoble approach to large field inflation
Kaloper, Nemanja [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lawrence, Albion [Theory Group, Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS057, PO Box 549110, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Sorbo, Lorenzo, E-mail: kaloper@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: albion@brandeis.edu, E-mail: sorbo@physics.umass.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study an inflationary model developed by Kaloper and Sorbo, in which the inflaton is an axion with a sub-Planckian decay constant, whose potential is generated by mixing with a topological 4-form field strength. This gives a 4d construction of ''axion monodromy inflation{sup :} the axion winds many times over the course of inflation and draws energy from the 4-form. The classical theory is equivalent to chaotic inflation with a quadratic inflaton potential. Such models can produce ''high scale'' inflation driven by energy densities of the order of (10{sup 16}GeV){sup 4}, which produces primordial gravitational waves potentially accessible to CMB polarization experiments. We analyze the possible corrections to this scenario from the standpoint of 4d effective field theory, identifying the physics which potentially suppresses dangerous corrections to the slow-roll potential. This yields a constraint relation between the axion decay constant, the inflaton mass, and the 4-form charge. We show how these models can evade the fundamental constraints which typically make high-scale inflation difficult to realize. Specifically, the moduli coupling to the axion-four-form sector must have masses higher than the inflationary Hubble scale (?<10{sup 14}GeV). There are also constraints from states that become light due to multiple windings of the axion, as happens in explicit string theory constructions of this scenario. Further, such models generally have a quantum-mechanical ''tunneling mode'' in which the axion jumps between windings, which must be suppressed. Finally, we outline possible observational signatures.
GPS System Integration and Field Approaches in Precision Farming
Calgary, University of
GPS System Integration and Field Approaches in Precision Farming G. LACHAPELLE. M. E. CANNON. and H Alberta using differential GPS (DGPS I combined with crop yield monitors and electromagnetic fEM) ground collection, and data organization using a geographic information system (GE). Several field tests were
Pairs Emission in a Uniform Background Field: an Algebraic Approach
Roberto Soldati
2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
A fully algebraic general approach is developed to treat the pairs emission and absorption in the presence of some uniform external background field. In particular, it is shown that the pairs production and annihilation operators, together with the pairs number operator, do actually fulfill the SU(2) functional Lie algebra. As an example of application, the celebrated Schwinger formula is consistently and nicely recovered, within this novel approach, for a Dirac spinor field in the presence of a constant and homogeneous electric field in four spacetime dimensions.
Fernandes, Luis
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Daylight Coefficients, Lighting Research and Technology,America, 1999, The IESNA lighting handbook: reference andcontrol of electric lighting and blinds, Solar Energy, 77(
Plympton, P.; Conway, S.; Epstein, K.
2000-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
Over the next seven years, at least 5,000 new schools will be designed and constructed to meet the needs of American students in kindergarten through grade 12. National efforts are underway to encourage the use of daylighting, energy efficiency, and renewable energy technologies in school designs, which can significantly enhance the learning environment. Recent rigorous statistical studies, involving 21,000 students in three states, reveal that students perform better in daylit classrooms and indicate the health benefits of daylighting. This paper discusses the evidence regarding daylighting and student performance and development, and presents four case studies of schools that have cost effectively implemented daylighting into their buildings.
A hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theories
Denis Bernard; Benjamin Doyon
2015-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theory. We study non-equilibrium steady states in the context of one-dimensional conformal field theory perturbed by the $T\\bar T$ irrelevant operator. By direct quantum computation, we show, to first order in the coupling, that a relativistic hydrodynamic emerges, which is a simple modification of one-dimensional conformal fluids. We show that it describes the steady state and its approach, and we provide the main characteristics of the steady state, which lies between two shock waves. The velocities of these shocks are modified by the perturbation and equal the sound velocities of the asymptotic baths. Pushing further this approach, we are led to conjecture that the approach to the steady state is generically controlled by the power law $t^{-1/2}$, and that the widths of the shocks increase with time according to $t^{1/3}$.
A hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theories
Bernard, Denis
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theory. We study non-equilibrium steady states in the context of one-dimensional conformal field theory perturbed by the $T\\bar T$ irrelevant operator. By direct quantum computation, we show, to first order in the coupling, that a relativistic hydrodynamic emerges, which is a simple modification of one-dimensional conformal fluids. We show that it describes the steady state and its approach, and we provide the main characteristics of the steady state, which lies between two shock waves. The velocities of these shocks are modified by the perturbation and equal the sound velocities of the asymptotic baths. Pushing further this approach, we are led to conjecture that the approach to the steady state is generically controlled by the power law $t^{-1/2}$, and that the widths of the shocks increase with time according to $t^{1/3}$.
Rice, Edward Oren
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
New methods for quantifying daylight are increasingly accessible to designers and planners. While these methods have enabled new building facades to better balance the admission of daylight with the maintenance of thermal ...
Aizenberg, Joanna
in standard office buildings. The development of daylight control systems that maximize the penetration: Daylight control system Dynamic window system Energy-efficiency Transparent louvers a b s t r a c
Towards Embedded Wireless-Networked Intelligent Daylighting Systems for Commercial Buildings
Agogino, Alice M.
Towards Embedded Wireless-Networked Intelligent Daylighting Systems for Commercial Buildings Yao, daylighting systems are not widely used in the commercial office building. Barriers prohibiting adoption) `Smart Dust motes' wireless platforms is explored. Due to their small size, they can be placed directly
Evaluation of Lightshelf Daylighting Systems for Office Buildings in Hot Climates
Abdulmohsen, A.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents part of an on-going research project in the College of Architecture at Texas A&M University. This research investigates how lightshelf daylighting delivery systems can manipulate sunlight and daylight both in terms of their light...
Segmentation Conditional Random Fields (SCRFs): A New Approach for
Carbonell, Jaime
Segmentation Conditional Random Fields (SCRFs): A New Approach for Protein Fold Recognition Yan Liu, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA vanathi@cbmi.pitt.edu Abstract. Protein fold recognition is an important.e. the supersecondary structures or protein folds. There has been significant work on predicting some well-defined types
Form and daylight as a creative medium : Church of John Paul II in South End, Boston
Gruzewski, Jaroslaw
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis is an architectural design project of a Catholic Church dedicated to Pope John Paul II. The main intention of this Thesis is to explore and clearly present daylighting methods and techniques and how important ...
McGuire, Molly E
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An operational algorithm for blind angle control is developed to optimize the daylighting performance of a system of reflective Venetian blinds. Numerical modeling and experiment confirm that independent control of alternating ...
Energy, Shading and Daylighting Analysis for the Austin Bergstrom International Airport Terminal
Holder, L. M. III; Holder, L. M. IV
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Our firm was under contract with the City of Austin, Texas to perform energy analysis and analysis of the daylighting potential within the New Austin Bergstrom International Airport Terminal. Design of the Passenger Terminal Facility for the New...
Question of the Week: How Do You Feel About the Extended Daylight...
in April. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 changed the start and end dates of Daylight Saving Time in order to save energy, and DOE has found that it worked. The savings from...
A PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR
Bryan, H.J.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Reflected Component or IRC). The total for these threeDaylight Factor = SC + ERC + IRC THE SKY COMPONENT The skyfrom ground Overcast Sky The IRC is the ratio between the
A SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING THE EFFECTS OF DAYLIGHT FROM CLEAR SKIES
Bryan, Harvey J.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Reflected Component or IRC). The total for these threeDaylight Factor SC + ERC + IRC The Sky Component: The skycomponent is given as: Average IRC where T Transmittance of
An Empirical Study and Analysis of Daylight Penetration Through a Light Plenum
Hill, G. E.; Rowland, D.; Carlson, K.; Karpack, L.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Lighting accounts for approximately 54% of the annual energy consumption of office buildings, and can effectively be reduced through daylighting. The simplest way to provide day lighting into a typical office space has been to use unilateral...
Daylighting and solar shading performances of an innovative automated reflective louver system
Hashemi, Arman
2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
follows initial investigations into the design and applicability of an automated retrofitted panel thermal shutters which can also act as a sunshade and daylighting system. The system has a patented function which allows each shutter...
Time-varied daylighting performance to enable a goal-driven design process
Kleindienst, Siân A. (Siân Alexandra)
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to the overwhelming number of decisions to be made during early stage design, there is a need for intuitive methods to communicate data so that it is quickly and easily understood by the designer. In daylighting analysis, ...
Crowley, John Stephen
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Daylighting is a powerful design element which can have a dramatic impact on people's perception of space, physical and psychological well-being as well as a building's annual and daily energy requirements. Understanding ...
Experience of light : the use of an inverse method and a genetic algorithm in daylight design
Chutarat, Acharawan
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Integration of daylight availability in time and architectural space is a critical element in achieving optimal comfort and productivity, as well as in minimizing energy consumption. In recent years, there has been an ...
Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress
Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.
2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings compared to the northern regions, a result possibly due to a small, offsetting increase in household air conditioning usage. (4) Changes in national traffic volume and motor gasoline consumption for passenger vehicles in 2007 were determined to be statistically insignificant and therefore, could not be attributed to Extended Daylight Saving Time.
Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting in a Hot and Humid Climate
Arasteh, D.; Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Connell, D.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
(including glazing) was %eld constant at values consistent with ASHRAE 90 standards. Since the thermal conductance of the glazing (single or dou- ble) exceeds the maximum U , as the glass area increases, the conductance 0% the opaque wall is reduced...- ing to a saturation of useful daylight and no sig- nificant further savings in electric lighting energy. This daylight saturation effect begins at effective apertures between 0.10 and 0.25 for typ- ical curtain wall designs in a perimeter zone...
Smith, Brooke Ray
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Lucas. 2006. Islais Creek reinterpreted: An exploration ofwould be triggered? If the creek conveys stormwater runoff,2004. Daylighting Islais Creek: a feasibility study.
Park, Byoung-Chul; Choi, An-Seop; Jeong, Jae-Weon; Lee, Eleanor S.
2010-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
Daylight responsive dimming systems have been used in few buildings to date because they require improvements to improve reliability. The key underlying factor contributing to poor performance is the variability of the ratio of the photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance in accordance with sun position, sky condition, and fenestration condition. Therefore, this paper describes the integrated systems between automated roller shade systems and daylight responsive dimming systems with an improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm, and the relative performance of the integrated systems and single systems. The concept of the improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm for the integrated systems is to predict the varying correlation of photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance according to roller shade height and sky conditions for improvement of the system accuracy. In this study, the performance of the integrated systems with two improved closed-loop proportional control algorithms was compared with that of the current (modified) closed-loop proportional control algorithm. In the results, the average maintenance percentage and the average discrepancies of the target illuminance, as well as the average time under 90percent of target illuminance for the integrated systems significantly improved in comparison with the current closed-loop proportional control algorithm for daylight responsive dimming systems as a single system.
An Oligomer Approach for Advancing the Field of Organic Electronics
Wang, Yue
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
heteroacenes for organic electronics. Chem. Rev. 106, 5028-the Field of Organic Electronics A dissertation submitted inthe Field of Organic Electronics By Yue Wang Doctor of
Inverse Modeling Using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for Personalized Daylight Harvesting
Agogino, Alice M.
: predictive: daylight harvesting: piecewise linear regression: building energy efficiency Abstract: Smart predictive control of integrated smart building systems. In this paper we present a framework for using a WSN-centric smart building control systems. 1 INTRODUCTION According to the U.S. DOE's Energy yearbook in 2010
building peak electric loads. During times of energy shortage, there is a greatly increased need to reduce the operating costs of buildings. The paper presents a typical commercial building electric demand profile during summer, and shows how daylighting-linked lighting controls and load shedding techniques can reduce
DOES DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME SAVE ENERGY? EVIDENCE FROM A NATURAL EXPERIMENT IN INDIANA
Kotchen, Matthew J.
electricity bills. We also estimate social costs of increased pollution emissions between $1.7 to $5.5 million implemented a DST policy, with the aim of reducing demand for electrical lighting to free up more coal to estimate the effect of daylight saving time (DST) on residential electricity consumption. Our main finding
Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting in a Hot and Humid Climate
Arasteh, D.; Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Connell, D.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
lighting energy, lower cooling loads, peak electrical demand, operating costs, chiller sizes, and first costs. Using the building energy simulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C, we first discuss lighting energy savings from day-lighting. The effects...
Evaluation of Lightshelf Daylighting Systems for Office Buildings in Hot Climates
Abdulmohsen, A.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and heat by shading view apertures below the shelf to reduce solar heat gain and glare and by reflecting light deep into the space through the daylight aperture above the shelf. It also investigates how to provide view with good interior lighting in terms...
Electromagnetic field at Finite Temperature: A first order approach
R. Casana; B. M. Pimentel; J. S. Valverde
2007-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we study the electromagnetic field at Finite Temperature via the massless DKP formalism. The constraint analysis is performed and the partition function for the theory is constructed and computed. When it is specialized to the spin 1 sector we obtain the well-known result for the thermodynamic equilibrium of the electromagnetic field.
Dynamo in Helical MHD Turbulence: Quantum Field Theory Approach
M. Hnatic; M. Jurcisin; M. Stehlik
2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
A quantum field model of helical MHD stochastically forced by gaussian hydrodynamic, magnetic and mixed noices is investigated. These helical noises lead to an exponential increase of magnetic fluctuations in the large scale range. Instabilities, which are produced in this process, are eliminated by spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism accompanied by creation of the homogeneous stationary magnetic field.
A Study of the Mean Field Approach to Knapsack Problems
Lunds Universitet,
with linear programming and mean field components is showed to further improve the performance and summations with more than 7 bits (including one sign bit). ffl Linear programming (LP) based on the simplex to multiple knapsacks and generalized assignment problems with Potts mean field equations governing
Ronald Fowler
2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir characterization it was determined that a second polymer-gel treatment could not be justified. The Mississippian reservoir at Dickman Field is much more complex than originally anticipated with numerous reservoir compartments and potential attic oil beneath the irregular Mississippian karst. It appears that remaining oil in place could be best recovered using improved oil recovery techniques such as target infill drilling and horizontal wells.
A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Field Theory
William Sulis
2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
The process algebra has been used successfully to provide a novel formulation of quantum mechanics in which non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) emerges as an effective theory asymptotically. The process algebra is applied here to the formulation of quantum field theory. The resulting QFT is intuitive, free from divergences and eliminates the distinction between particle, field and wave. There is a finite, discrete emergent space-time on which arise emergent entities which transfer information like discrete waves and interact with measurement processes like particles. The need for second quantization is eliminated and the particle and field theories rest on a common foundation, clarifying and simplifying the relationship between the two.
Hyperon-nucleon interactions - a chiral effective field theory approach
Henk Polinder; Johann Haidenbauer; Ulf-G. Meißner
2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
We construct the leading order hyperon-nucleon potential in chiral effective field theory. We show that a good description of the available data is possible and discuss briefly further improvements of this scheme.
an installed lighting power density of 0.89 W/ft2 *. Source peak electric demand reductions were 0.09-0.21 W, Mailstop 90-3111, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Summary Daylight redirecting systems
Pechacek, Christopher S. (Christopher Scott)
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Light in architecture can be studied for its objective or perceptual effects. This thesis describes an objective link between human health and architectural design. Specifically, the link between daylight and human circadian ...
Noncommutative version of Borcherds' approach to quantum field theory
Christian Brouder; Nguyen Viet Dang; Alessandra Frabetti
2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z
Richard Borcherds proposed an elegant geometric version of renormalized perturbative quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, where Lagrangians are sections of a Hopf algebra bundle over a smooth manifold. However, this framework looses its geometric meaning when Borcherds introduces a (graded) commutative normal product. We present a fully geometric version of Borcherds' quantization where the (external) tensor product plays the role of the normal product. We construct a noncommutative many-body Hopf algebra and a module over it which contains all the terms of the perturbative expansion and we quantize it to recover the expectation values of standard quantum field theory when the Hopf algebra fiber is (graded) cocommutative. This construction enables to the second quantize any theory described by a cocommutative Hopf algebra bundle.
Light-cone AdS/CFT-adapted approach to AdS fields/currents, shadows, and conformal fields
R. R. Metsaev
2015-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
Light-cone gauge formulation of fields in AdS space and conformal field theory in flat space adapted for the study of AdS/CFT correspondence is developed. Arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry fields in AdS space and arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space are considered on an equal footing. For the massless and massive fields in AdS and the conformal fields in flat space, simple light-cone gauge actions leading to decoupled equations of motion are found. For the currents and shadows, simple expressions for all 2-point functions are also found. We demonstrate that representation of conformal algebra generators on space of currents, shadows, and conformal fields can be built in terms of spin operators entering the light-cone gauge formulation of AdS fields. This considerably simplifies the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. Light-cone gauge actions for totally symmetric arbitrary spin long conformal fields in flat space are presented. We apply our approach to the study of totally antisymmetric (one-column) and mixed-symmetry (two-column) fields in AdS space and currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space.
Minimizing lighting power density in office rooms equipped with Anidolic Daylighting Systems
Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO-PB), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Electric lighting is responsible for up to one third of an office building's electricity needs. Making daylight more available in office buildings can not only contribute to significant energy savings but also enhance the occupants' performance and wellbeing. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are one type of very effective facade-integrated daylighting systems. All south-facing office rooms within the LESO solar experimental building in Lausanne (Switzerland) are equipped with a given type of ADS. A recent study has shown that these offices' occupants are highly satisfied with their lighting environment. The most energy-efficient south-facing offices have a lighting power density of less than 5W/m{sup 2}. The lighting situation within these ''best practice''-offices has been assessed using the lighting simulation software RELUX Vision. Because this lighting situation is very much appreciated by the occupants, it was used as a starting point for developing even more energy-efficient office lighting designs. Two new lighting designs, leading to lighting power densities of 3.9W/m{sup 2} and 3W/m{sup 2}, respectively, have been suggested and simulated with RELUX Vision. Simulation results have shown that the expected performances of these new systems are comparable to that of the current lighting installation within the ''best practice''-offices or even better. These simulation results have been confirmed during experiments on 20 human subjects in a test office room recently set up within the LESO building. This article gives engineers, architects and light planers valuable information and ideas on how to design energy-efficient and comfortable electric lighting systems in office rooms with abundant access to daylight. (author)
An Analysis of Energy Reductions from the Use of Daylighting in Low-Cost Housing
Rungchareonrat, N.
, 2) illuminance and luminance distribution of clear, partly cloudy and overcast skies, 3) variations in sunlight intensity and direction, 4) effect of local terrain, landscaping and nearby buildings on the available light. The availability... applied daylighting. The case study building was used to represent the typical energy end-use patterns in the single-family residence in hot and humid climates. Illuminance data was measured at different points in the model under actual overcast sky...
Service Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Field Theoretic Approach Vincent Lenders
Lenders, Vincent
Service Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Field Theoretic Approach Vincent Lenders , Martin: {lenders, may, plattner}@tik.ee.ethz.ch Abstract Service discovery in mobile ad hoc networks is challeng
Conformal field theory approach to Fermi liquids and other highly entangled states
Swingle, Brian Gordon
The Fermi surface may be usefully viewed as a collection of (1+1)-dimensional chiral conformal field theories. This approach permits straightforward calculation of many anomalous ground-state properties of the Fermi gas, ...
A mechanical approach to mean field spin models
Giuseppe Genovese; Adriano Barra
2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
Inspired by the bridge pioneered by Guerra among statistical mechanics on lattice and analytical mechanics on 1+1 continuous Euclidean space-time, we built a self-consistent method to solve for the thermodynamics of mean-field models defined on lattice, whose order parameters self average. We show the whole procedure by analyzing in full details the simplest test case, namely the Curie-Weiss model. Further we report some applications also to models whose order parameters do not self-average, by using the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass as a guide.
Problems and Successes in the Numerical Approach to the Conformal Field Equations
Sascha Husa
2002-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
This talk reports on the status of an approach to the numerical study of isolated systems with the conformal field equations. We first describe the algorithms used in a code which has been developed at AEI in the last years, and discuss a milestone result obtained by Huebner. Then we present more recent results as examples to sketch the problems we face in the conformal approach to numerical relativity and outline a possible roadmap toward making this approach a practical tool.
Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiaobing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Changzhou (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Changzhou (China); Chen, Zhigang, E-mail: ziyou1900@gmail.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China) [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, 215009 Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); State Key laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: ? A novel, simple and eco-friendly approach for hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls is presented by using paper as template. ? The biomorphic CeO{sub 2} fibers was composed of nanosheets with bimodal pore-size mesoporous distribution and exhibited high light-harvesting under sunlight irradiation. ? The CeO{sub 2} microfibers biomimicking the natural plant structures have promising application for photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. -- Abstract: Hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls have been fabricated using lens cleaning paper as biotemplates. After sintered at 550 °C in air, the cellulosic fibers of paper were converted into micro-tubes composing of CeO{sub 2} crystallites with grain size about 8 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2} fibers was evaluated by photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue in aqueous solution under daylight irradiation. The characterized results show that the CeO{sub 2} fibers faithfully replicated micro-fibrous structure derived from original template and possessed dramatic enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with bulk CeO{sub 2}. This simple biotemplate method provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly route to obtain high performance photocatalysts.
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
1 A Multistage Stochastic Programming Approach for the Planning of Offshore Oil or Gas Field, Houston, TX 77098 Abstract The planning of offshore oil or gas field infrastructure under uncertainty is addressed in this paper. The main uncertainties considered are in the initial maximum oil or gas flowrate
Time-dependent variational approach to molecules in strong laser fields
Gross, E.K.U.
. Owing to their ultra-short duration, femtosecond pulses allow for the direct observation of chemicalTime-dependent variational approach to molecules in strong laser fields Thomas Kreibich a , Robert in strong laser fields using an ansatz for the wavefunction that explicitly incorporates the electron
Guglielmetti, R.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.
2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper illustrates the challenges of integrating rigorous daylight and electric lighting simulation data with whole-building energy models, and defends the need for such integration to achieve aggressive energy savings. Through a case study example, we examine the ways daylighting -- and daylighting simulation -- drove the design of a large net-zero energy project. We give a detailed review of the daylighting and electric lighting design process for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Research Support Facility (RSF), a 220,000 ft2 net-zero energy project the author worked on as a daylighting consultant. A review of the issues involved in simulating and validating the daylighting performance of the RSF will be detailed, including daylighting simulation, electric lighting control response, and integration of Radiance simulation data into the building energy model. Daylighting was a key strategy in reaching the contractual energy use goals for the RSF project; the building's program, layout, orientation and interior/furniture design were all influenced by the daylighting design, and simulation was critical in ensuring these many design components worked together in an integrated fashion, and would perform as required to meet a very aggressive energy performance goal, as expressed in a target energy use intensity.
The field line map approach for simulations of magnetically confined plasmas
Stegmeir, Andreas; Maj, Omar; Hallatschek, Klaus; Lackner, Karl
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the presented field line map approach the simulation domain of a tokamak is covered with a cylindrical grid, which is Cartesian within poloidal planes. Standard finite-difference methods can be used for the discretisation of perpendicular (w.r.t.~magnetic field lines) operators. The characteristic flute mode property $\\left(k_{\\parallel}\\ll k_{\\perp}\\right)$ of structures is exploited computationally by a grid sparsification in the toroidal direction. A field line following discretisation of parallel operators is then required, which is achieved via a finite difference along magnetic field lines. This includes field line tracing and interpolation or integration. The main emphasis of this paper is on the discretisation of the parallel diffusion operator. Based on the support operator method a scheme is constructed which exhibits only very low numerical perpendicular diffusion. The schemes are implemented in the new code GRILLIX, and extensive benchmarks are presented which show the validity of the approach ...
Maruyama, Tomoyuki [College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa 252-8510 (Japan); Kajino, Toshitaka; Hidaka, Jun; Takiwaki, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yasutake, Nobutoshi [Department of Physics, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino 275-0023 (Japan); Kuroda, Takami [Department of Physics, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Cheoun, Myung-Ki [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul, 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chung-Yeol [General Education Curriculum Center, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, Grant J. [Center of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)
2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the neutrino production cross-section in the proto-neutron-star matter under a strong magnetic field in the relativistic mean-field approach. We introduce a new parameter-set which can reproduce the 1.96 solar mass neutron star. We find that the production process increases emitted neutrinos along the direction parallel to the magnetic field and decrease those along its opposite direction. It means that resultant asymmetry due to the neutrino absorption and scattering process in the magnetic field becomes larger by the addition of the neutrino production process.
J. W. Maluf
2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the coupling of a Dirac spinor field with the gravitational field in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity is consistent. For an arbitrary SO(3,1) connection there are two possibilities for the coupling of the spinor field with the gravitational field. The problems of consistency raised by Y. N. Obukhov and J. G. Pereira in the paper {\\it Metric-affine approach to teleparallel gravity} [gr-qc/0212080] take place only in the framework of one particular coupling. By adopting an alternative coupling the consistency problem disappears.
Audin, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Combining three recently marketed innovations may provide the next revolution in illumination, making many other recent advances eventually obsolete. The first is plasma lighting, pioneered by Fusion Lighting Inc. of Rockville, Maryland, and first commercially applied by Hutchins International Ltd. of Mississauga, Ontario. This microwave-generated light source yields very high-quality light with efficacies at or beyond high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. The source uses no mercury, thus eliminating lamp disposal problems, and has no cathode, thereby providing very long lamp life. Using no phosphors, it also has very short start and re-strike periods, and is dimmable. The second innovation is in the distribution of light. Commercial developments in fiber optics and light guides now provide products that transfer light from a remote point and distribute it like standard light fixtures. Advances in fiber optic communications and applications to decorative lighting have supplied relatively economical systems for mounting and directing light from both electric light sources and the sun. The third advance is a result of efforts to harness daylight. Unlike architectural daylighting that directs sunlight into perimeter areas through glazing, daylight collectors are roof-mounted devices that supply light to interior and underground spaces through hollow columns and open chases. Aided by improvements and cost reductions in sun-tracking (i.e., heliostatic) controls that capture and concentrate sunlight, such collectors offer a source of free light to locations that might otherwise never receive it. When combined together, these three options could offer a centralized building lighting system that pipes lumens to distribution devices replacing many existing lamps and fixtures.
Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff
2002-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
A quantum gate is realized by specific unitary transformations operating on states representing qubits. Considering a quantum system employed as an element in a quantum computing scheme, the task is therefore to enforce the pre-specified unitary transformation. This task is carried out by an external time dependent field. Optimal control theory has been suggested as a method to compute the external field which alters the evolution of the system such that it performs the desire unitary transformation. This study compares two recent implementations of optimal control theory to find the field that induces a quantum gate. The first approach is based on the equation of motion of the unitary transformation. The second approach generalizes the state to state formulation of optimal control theory. This work highlight the formal relation between the two approaches.
Numerical study of chiral plasma instability within the classical statistical field theory approach
Buividovich, P V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on a numerical study of the real-time dynamics of chirally imbalanced lattice Dirac fermions coupled to dynamical electromagnetic field. To this end we use the classical statistical field theory approach, in which the quantum evolution of fermions is simulated exactly, and electromagnetic fields are treated as classical. Motivated by recent experiments on chirally imbalanced Dirac semimetals, we use the Wilson-Dirac lattice Hamiltonian for fermions in order to model the emergent nature of chiral symmetry at low energies. In general, we observe that the backreaction of fermions on the electromagnetic field prevents the system from acquiring large chirality imbalance. In the case of chirality pumping in parallel electric and magnetic fields, electric field is screened by the produced on-shell fermions and the accumulation of chirality is hence stopped. In the case of evolution with initially present chirality imbalance, axial charge tends to decay at the expense of nonzero helicity of electromagnetic ...
Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed
Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew
2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.
Hallagan, W.B.; Lindsey, L.L.; Snyder, M.K.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Detailed scale model studies regarding daylighting aspects of the passive/hybrid solar test building located at Butler Research Center in Grandview, MO are discussed. The product development program is aimed at providing passive/hybrid system building alternatives for commercial, industrial, and community purchasers of Butler's Landmark pre-engineered metal buildings. Occasioned by recognition, early in the project, that daylighting could strongly influence annual energy consumption in buildings of the targetted use types, scale models of several alternative design configurations, including that of the test building in Grandview, were built and tested. The major design alternatives, test results, and conclusions to date are described.
Fregolente, Douglas; Matsas, George E. A.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Pamplona 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cx. Postal 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the possible decay of protons in geodesic circular motion around neutral compact objects. Weak and strong decay rates and the associated emitted powers are calculated using a semiclassical approach. Our results are discussed with respect to distinct ones in the literature, which consider the decay of accelerated protons in electromagnetic fields. A number of consistency checks are presented along the paper.
Potential Field based Approach for Coordinate Exploration with a Multi-Robot Team
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Potential Field based Approach for Coordinate Exploration with a Multi-Robot Team Alessandro environment with a team of mobile robots. The objective is to explore the whole environment as fastest by introducing a leader in the team which has a different control law, unaffected by this problem. Furthermore
Statistical dynamics of classical systems: A self-consistent field approach
Grzetic, Douglas J., E-mail: dgrzetic@uoguelph.ca; Wickham, Robert A., E-mail: rwickham@uoguelph.ca [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Shi, An-Chang, E-mail: shi@mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)
2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a self-consistent field theory for particle dynamics by extremizing the functional integral representation of a microscopic Langevin equation with respect to the collective fields. Although our approach is general, here we formulate it in the context of polymer dynamics to highlight satisfying formal analogies with equilibrium self-consistent field theory. An exact treatment of the dynamics of a single chain in a mean force field emerges naturally via a functional Smoluchowski equation, while the time-dependent monomer density and mean force field are determined self-consistently. As a simple initial demonstration of the theory, leaving an application to polymer dynamics for future work, we examine the dynamics of trapped interacting Brownian particles. For binary particle mixtures, we observe the kinetics of phase separation.
A combined field approach for the two-way coupling problem in the liquid evaporation
Xuefeng Xu
2014-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
During liquid evaporation, the temperature of the liquid determines the saturated vapor pressure above it, which controls the evaporation rate and thus determines the liquid temperature through latent heat. Therefore, the equations for the vapor concentration in the atmosphere and for the temperature in the liquid are coupled and must be solved in an iterative manner. In the present paper, a combined field approach which unifies the coupled fields into one single field and thus makes the iteration unnecessary is proposed. The present work will be useful in scientific and industrial processes involving liquid evaporation and may also have more general applications to coupled field problems in which all the fields have the same governing equation.
Motion of Spin 1/2 Massless Particle in a Curved Spacetime. II. Field Lagrangian Approach
A. T. Muminov
2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
Earlier we obtained quasi-classical equations of motion of spin 1/2 massless particle in a curved spacetime on base of simple Lagrangian model \\cite{al2}. Now we suggest an approach to derive the equations in framework of field theory. Noether theorem formulated in terms of Cartan' formalism of orthonormal frames gives equations for current of spin of the field and tensor of stress-energy. It is shown that under eikonal approximation the above mentioned equations can be reduced to equations for worldline of the particle and equation of spin of the particle along the worldline. This way conformity between corpuscular considerations of spin 1/2 massless particle and approach in framework of spinor field theory in curved spacetime is demonstrated.
Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results
Lee, E.S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Selkowitz, S.E.
2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z
Control system development and lighting energy monitoring of ceramic thin-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale window systems test-bed facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. The new facility consists of three identically configured side-by-side private offices with large-area windows that face due south. In one room, an array of EC windows with a center-of-glass visible transmittance T_v range of 0.05-0.60 was installed. In the two other rooms, unshaded windows with a T_v = 0.50 or 0.15 were used as reference. The same dimmable fluorescent lighting system was used in all three rooms. This study explains the design and commissioning of an integrated EC window-lighting control system, and then illustrates its performance in the test-bed under clear, partly cloudy, and overcast sky conditions during the equinox period. The performance of an early prototype EC window controller is also analyzed. Lighting energy savings data are presented. Daily lighting energy savings were 44-59% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.15 and 8-23% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.50. The integrated window-lighting control system maintained interior illuminance levels to within +/- 10% of the setpoint range of 510-700 lx for 89-99% of the day. Further work is planned to refine the control algorithms and monitor cooling load, visual comfort, and human factor impacts of this emerging technology. (author)
Martins Mogo de Nadal, Betina Gisela
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
case where the light pipe system is placed. The main objectives of this thesis are (a) to examine this daylighting system comparative to the reference case, taking measurements for longer periods than the study at LBNL, as well as to collect detailed...
Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The linearized scalar potential formulation of the magnetostatic field problem is considered. The approach involves a reformulation of the continuous problem as a parametric boundary problem. By the introduction of a spherical interface and the use of spherical harmonics, the infinite boundary condition can also be satisfied in the parametric framework. The reformulated problem is discretized by finite element techniques and a discrete parametric problem is solved by conjugate gradient iteration. This approach decouples the problem in that only standard Neumann type elliptic finite element systems on separate bounded domains need be solved. The boundary conditions at infinity and the interface conditions are satisfied during the boundary parametric iteration.
Relativistic mean field plus exact pairing approach to open shell nuclei
Wei-Chia Chen; J. Piekarewicz; A. Volya
2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z
Background: Pairing correlations play a critical role in determining numerous properties of open-shell nuclei. Traditionally, they are included in a mean-field description of atomic nuclei through the approximate Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer or Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism. Purpose: We propose a new hybrid ''relativistic-mean-field-plus-pairing'' approach in which pairing is treated exactly so the number of particles is conserved. To verify the reliability of the formalism, we apply it to the study of both ground-state properties and isoscalar monopole excitations of the Tin isotopes. Methods: Accurately-calibrated relativistic mean-field models supplemented by an exact treatment of pairing correlations are used to compute ground-state observables along the isotopic chain in Tin. In turn, ground-state densities are used as input to the calculation of giant monopole resonances through a constrained-relativistic approach. Results: We compute a variety of ground-state observables sensitive to pairing correlations as well as the evolution of giant monopole energies along the isotopic chain in Tin. Whereas ground-state properties are consistent with experiment, we find that pairing correlations have a minor effect on the giant monopole energies. Conclusions: A new mean-field-plus-pairing approach is introduced to compute properties of open-shell nuclei. The formalism provides an efficient and powerful alternative to the computation of both ground-state properties and monopole energies of open-shell nuclei. We find ground-state properties to be well reproduced in this approach. However, as many have concluded before us, we find that pairing correlations are unlikely to provide an answer to the question of ''why is Tin so soft?''
Economic analysis of the daylight-linked lighting control system in office buildings
Yang, In-Ho; Nam, Eun-Ji [Department of Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Dongguk University, 26-3, Pil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea)
2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this study is to perform an economic analysis of the daylight-linked automatic on/off lighting control system installed for the purpose of energy savings in office buildings. For this, a building was chosen as a typical example, and the energy cost was calculated by using the daylight and building energy analysis simulation. When the lighting control was utilized, an economic analysis was performed using a payback period that was calculated by comparing the initial cost of installing the lighting control system with the annual energy cost which was reduced thanks to the application of the lighting control. The results showed that the lighting energy consumption, when the lighting control was applied, was reduced by an average of 30.5% compared with the case that there was not lighting control applied. Also, the result for total energy consumption showed that, when lighting control was applied, this was reduced by 8.5% when the glazing ratio was 100%, 8.2% for 80%, and 7.6% for 60% when compared to non-application. The payback period was analyzed in terms of the number of floors in a building; 10 floors, 20 floors, 30 floors, and 40 floors. Hence, the building with 40 floors and glazing ratio 100% resulted in the shortest payback period of 8.8 years, the building with 10 floors and glazing ratio 60% resulted in the longest period of 12.7 years. In other words, the larger the glazing ratio and the number of building floors are, the shorter the payback period is. (author)
Numerical study of chiral plasma instability within the classical statistical field theory approach
P. V. Buividovich; M. V. Ulybyshev
2015-09-24T23:59:59.000Z
We report on a numerical study of the real-time dynamics of chirally imbalanced lattice Dirac fermions coupled to dynamical electromagnetic field. To this end we use the classical statistical field theory approach, in which the quantum evolution of fermions is simulated exactly, and electromagnetic fields are treated as classical. Motivated by recent experiments on chirally imbalanced Dirac semimetals, we use the Wilson-Dirac lattice Hamiltonian for fermions in order to model the emergent nature of chiral symmetry at low energies. In general, we observe that the backreaction of fermions on the electromagnetic field prevents the system from acquiring large chirality imbalance. In the case of chirality pumping in parallel electric and magnetic fields, electric field is screened by the produced on-shell fermions and the accumulation of chirality is hence stopped. In the case of evolution with initially present chirality imbalance, axial charge tends to decay at the expense of nonzero helicity of electromagnetic field. This decay process, however, shows many unexpected features. In particular, nonzero magnetic helicity is generated due to the suppression, rather than enhancement, of the modes of electromagnetic field with suitable circular polarization. As a result, the energy is transferred from electromagnetic field to fermionic degrees of freedom and not vice versa. We also observe only a rather weak transfer of energy to short-wavelength modes with zero helicity and an even weaker transfer to long-wavelength modes. No signatures of inverse cascade or a turbulent behavior are found. Furthermore, we find that the decay process becomes significantly slower upon moderate decrease of the Fermi velocity from unity, which suggests that the chiral plasma instability might be irrelevant for chirally imbalanced Dirac and Weyl semimetals.
Charles, Curtis B
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis addresses the use of daylight in the design of a controlled environment for food production in the Caribbean and other Equatorial climates. An expanding population has put a tremendous burden on the food ...
Alternative Approach to the Provision of the High-field Dipole for FCC-hh
Taylor, Thomas
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes a possible approach to reducing the complexity and cost of the high field dipole magnets. In addition the cooling of the winding could be improved in the proposed design, with a consequent reduction in the shielding requirements. The correction of multipoles is also addressed: this feature may impact on the dynamic range of operation of the magnets. Noting that it would be possible to add a small gradient component to the dipole, it is suggested that a (partially) combined function lattice should be considered. The proposals lead to a brief re-appraisal of how best to apply superconductivity to magnets for large accelerators.
Time-odd triaxial relativistic mean field approach for nuclear magnetic moments
J. M. Yao; H. Chen; J. Meng
2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
The time-odd triaxial relativistic mean field approach is developed and applied to the investigation of the ground-state properties of light odd-mass nuclei near the double-closed shells. The nuclear magnetic moments including the isoscalar and isovector ones are calculated and good agreement with Schmidt values is obtained. Taking $^{17}$F as an example, the splitting of the single particle levels (around $~0.7$ MeV near the Fermi level), the nuclear current, the core polarizations, and the nuclear magnetic potential, i.e., the spatial part of the vector potential, due to the violation of the time reversal invariance are investigated in detail.
The CFL phase and m_s: An effective field theory approach
Thomas Schaefer
2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
We study the phase diagram of dense quark matter with an emphasis on the role of the strange quark mass. Our approach is based on two effective field theories (EFTs). The first is an EFT that describes quark quasi-particles near the Fermi surface. This EFT is valid at energies small compared to the chemical potential. The second is an EFT for the Goldstone modes in the paired phase. We find that in response to a non-zero strange quark mass the CFL phase first undergoes a transition to a kaon condensed phase, and then to a gapless phase with a non-zero Goldstone boson current.
A field-theoretic approach to linear scaling \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics
Richters, Dorothee; Kühne, Thomas D
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a field-theoretic method suitable for linear scaling molecular dynamics simulations using forces from self-consistent electronic structure calculations. It is based on an exact decomposition of the grand canonical potential for independent fermions and does neither rely on the ability to localize the orbitals nor that the Hamilton operator is well-conditioned. Hence, this scheme enables highly accurate all-electron linear scaling calculations even for metallic systems. The inherent energy drift of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, arising from an incomplete convergence of the self-consistent field cycle, is solved by means of a properly modified Langevin equation. The predictive power of this approach is illustrated using the example of liquid methane under extreme conditions.
Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.
Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.
2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.
Alba Field cased-hole horizontal gravel pack: A team approach to design
Alexander, K. [Chevron U.K. Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Winton, S. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Price-Smith, C. [Dowell Schlumberger, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A 700-ft cased-hole horizontal well was gravel packed and completed in the Alba Field, central North Sea. The completion incorporated a number of new technologies adopted for a horizontal cased-hole completion, including both equipment and fluids. The zone was completed in two stages using a horizontal stack-pack approach. Perforation packing was optimized by performing a staged acid prepack with the guns in the hole using a low-density synthetic gravel substitute in a shear thinning carrier fluid. This was a world-first achievement at a cased-hole gravel pack using the stack-pack approach in a horizontal well. A solids-free fluid-loss control material was evaluated and chosen for the high-permeability Alba sands (3 darcies). Extensive lab testing was performed to ensure minimal damage from various fluids. A 30-ft physical model was used to optimize annular pack efficiency. A gravel placement computer simulation was used to design pump rate, sand concentration, and gel loading to optimize annular and perforation-pack efficiency.
SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 A HOLISTIC APPROACH IN REDUCTION OF ENERGY
California at Davis, University of
SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 A HOLISTIC APPROACH IN REDUCTION OF ENERGY LOADS AT HILLVIEW MIDDLE SCHOOL How daylighting and lighting systems can help reduce energy consumption #12;SMART SCHOOLS and Funding Sources · Results and Benefits · Operational Considerations #12;SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013
A new approach to multi-phase field for the solidification of alloys
Jimack, Peter
Mullis Institute of Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT E-mail: p.c.bollada@leeds present, resulting in multi-phase field models. For a topical review of multi-phase field modelling
Varela, Carlos
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
importance. Careful management of daylighting in a building is crucial in minimizing the environmental impact relies on optimization techniques to generate these suggestions. Lightsolve allows the designer solar radiation, amongst others. Only if this integration happens early in the design process can
Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh
2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNL’s Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to validate the building simulation software developed by the US Department of Energy. EnergyPlus is
An Optimization Approach to the Design of Multi-Size Heliostat fields
May 28, 2014 ... Maximizing the efficiency of the plant, i.e., optimizing the energy ... Keywords: solar thermal power; multi-size heliostat field; greedy algorithm.
Magnetic field distribution in the quiet Sun: a simplified model approach
F. Berrilli; D. Del Moro; B. Viticchie
2008-08-03T23:59:59.000Z
We simulate the dynamics and the evolution of quiet Sun magnetic elements to produce a probability density function of the field strengths associated with such elements. The dynamics of the magnetic field are simulated through a numerical model in which magnetic elements are passively driven by an advection field presenting spatio-temporal correlations which mimicks the granulation and the mesogranulation scales observed on the solar surface. The field strength can increase due to an amplification process which takes place where the magnetic elements converge. Starting from a delta-like probability density function centered on B=30 G, we obtain magnetic field strengths up to 2 kG (in absolute value). To derive the statistical properties of the magnetic elements several simulation runs are performed. The model is able to produce kG magnetic fields in a time interval of the order of the granulation time scale. The mean unsigned flux density and the mean magnetic energy density of the synthetic quiet Sun reach respectively 100 G and 350 G in the stationary regime. The derived probability density function of the magnetic field strength decreases rapidly from B=30 G to B=100 G and presents a secondary maximum for B=2 kG. From this result it follows that magnetic fields >700 G dominate the unsigned flux density and magnetic energy density although the probability density function of the field strength presents a maximum for B=30 G.
An Optimization Approach to the Design of Multi-Size Heliostat fields
E. Carrizosa
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
May 28, 2014 ... Maximizing the efficiency of the plant, i.e., optimizing the energy ... Keywords: solar thermal power; multi-size heliostat field; greedy algorithm.
Not Available
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In preliminary evaluations of So-Luminaire's (SI) product in 1985 and 1986, DOE concluded that it warranted further research and evaluation and was worthy of receiving governmental financial and structural support therefor. SI, along with Safeway, had known intuitively that the So-Luminaire systems which had been previously installed in several of their Phoenix-area stores had resulted in a marked reduction in electrical energy consumption. However, a definitive determination of energy savings had been utilized in previous installations. Further, SI and Safeway both hypothesized that the high quality of natural light provided by these systems displayed goods to greater advantage and contributed to an overall increase in store sales, all other factors being held constant. A study to attempt to objectively determine these two presumed benefits of active daylighting in a commercial application was begun.
Not Available
1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
In preliminary evaluations of So-Luminaire`s (SI) product in 1985 and 1986, DOE concluded that it warranted further research and evaluation and was worthy of receiving governmental financial and structural support therefor. SI, along with Safeway, had known intuitively that the So-Luminaire systems which had been previously installed in several of their Phoenix-area stores had resulted in a marked reduction in electrical energy consumption. However, a definitive determination of energy savings had been utilized in previous installations. Further, SI and Safeway both hypothesized that the high quality of natural light provided by these systems displayed goods to greater advantage and contributed to an overall increase in store sales, all other factors being held constant. A study to attempt to objectively determine these two presumed benefits of active daylighting in a commercial application was begun.
Peng Zhou
2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The variational approach usually used in phase field models (PFVA) is applied here to analyse complex irreversible processes such as thermoelectric (TE) effects and thermally driven mass transport (TDMT). Complex irreversible processes arise from the coupling effects between simple irreversible processes. Each simple irreversible process is assiciated with an entropy or energy density function. During complex irreversible processes with multiple fields present, this entropy or energy density function is assumed to be dependent on all independent field variables. Using the total entropy functionals, the TE effects and TDMT are analysed and important kinetic coefficients such as the Seebeck coefficient and the heat of transport are determined with straightforward physical contents. Using the total energy functionals, the linear irreversible processes are analysed with the Onsager approach and the nonlinear irreversible processes with PFVA. It is found both the Onsager's relations and the fluxes defined using PFVA guarantee the satisfaction of the first law of thermodynamics during the process of conversion of energies. To analyze the diffusion process under the influence of elasticity, PFVA is also modified to incorporate the reversible evolution of elastic fields. It is shown energies are conserved via both the irreversible diffusion process and the reversible evolution of the elastic fields. Finally, PFVA is generalized to study nonequilibrium thermodynamics using an extra kinetic contribution to the entropy density function. The analyses can be extended to a nonequilibrium thermodynamic system with multiple physical fields present. Thus, it is believed PFVA has the potential of not only significantly advancing our understanding of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, but also making thermodynamics as a discipline and the study of it truly dynamic.
Ge, Shihui; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiao; Li, Wei; Xi, Li; Li, C. X.
2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Cobalt (Co) nanowire arrays were electrodeposited into the pores of polycarbonate membranes. A magnetic field parallel or perpendicular to the membrane plane was applied during deposition to control the wire growth. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer were employed to investigate the structure as well as the magnetic properties of the nanowire arrays. The results show that the magnetic field applied during deposition strongly influences the growth of Co nanowires, inducing variations in their crystalline structure and magnetic properties. The sample deposited with the field perpendicular to the membrane plane exhibits a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with greatly enhanced coercivity and squareness as a result of the preferred growth of Co grains with the c axis perpendicular to the film plane. In contrast, the deposition in a parallel magnetic field forces Co grains to grow with the c axis parallel to the film plane, resulting in in-plane anisotropy. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Park, Han-Young
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
field-level energy (pressure), which is followed by local update where we match well-by-well performances by calibration of local cell properties. The inclusion of multiscale calibration, integrating production data in coarse grid and successively finer...
An interdisciplinary approach to reservoir management: The Malu Field, West Niger Delta, Nigeria
Patterson, B.A.; Bluhm, C.T. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum, San Ramon, CA (United States); Adokpaye, E.U. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lekki (Nigeria)] [and others
1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Malu Field is 175 kilometers southeast of Lagos, offshore Nigeria. The field was discovered in 1967 and brought on stream in 1971. Peak production reached 31,300 barrels per day in 1972. Twenty-six wells have been drilled in the thirty-six square kilometer size field. In 1990 original-oil-in-place was estimated at 345 million barrels with cumulative production of 109 million barrels and an estimated 40 million barrels of remaining reserves. The Main Field review was initiated in 1994 to resolve structural and production inconsistencies and therefore improve reservoir performance. The tools used include reprocessed three-dimensional seismic, oil chemistry (primarily gas chromatography), and production data. The complexly faulted field is subdivided into seven different fault blocks. Growth faults generally trend northwest to southeast and are downthrown to the west. Twenty-five different hydrocarbon-bearing sands have been identified within the field. These sands are separated into sixty-three different reservoirs by the series of southeast trending growth faults. Most sands are laterally continuous within mapped fault blocks except in east Malu. Cross-fault communication of oils occurs among several of the shallow reservoirs in west Malu allowing wells to deplete unintended horizons. In addition, three of the dual string completions are producing oil only from only the upper sands. The integration of seismic, oil chemistry, and production data allows more efficient management of production by providing accurate structure maps, reserve estimates, drainage pathways, and justification for workovers and future development drilling.
An orbital-free self-consistent field approach for molecular clusters and liquids
Sean W. Derrickson; Eric R. Bittner
2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
We present an ``orbital'' free density functional theory for computing the quantum ground state of atomic clusters and liquids. Our approach combines the Bohm hydrodynamical description of quantum mechanics with an information theoretical approach to determine an optimal quantum density function in terms of density approximates to a statistical sample. The ideas of Bayesian statistical analysis and an expectation-maximization procedure are combined to develop approximations to the quantum density and thus find the approximate quantum force. The quantum force is then combined with a Lennard-Jones force to simulate clusters of Argon atoms and to obtain the ground state configurations and energies. As demonstration of the utility and flexibility of the approach, we compute the lowest energy structures for small rare-glass clusters. Extensions to many atom systems is straightforward.
Koch, Othmar
calculations of electronic structure. When a large number of states is involved, such a description be- comes The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach for the description of correlated few-electron dynamics ionization and electron spectra for the ground and first excited ionic channels are calculated for one
Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Joseph, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Simakov, A. N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The use of the standard approaches for evaluating a neoclassical radial electric field E{sub r}, i.e., the Ampere (or gyro-Poisson) equation, requires accurate calculation of the difference between the gyroaveraged electron and ion particle fluxes (or densities). In the core of a tokamak, the nontrivial difference appears only in high-order corrections to a local Maxwellian distribution due to the intrinsic ambipolarity of particle transport. The evaluation of such high-order corrections may be inconsistent with the accuracy of the standard long wavelength gyrokinetic equation (GKE), thus imposing limitations on the applicability of the standard approaches. However, in the edge of a tokamak, charge-exchange collisions with neutrals and prompt ion orbit losses can drive non-intrinsically ambipolar particle fluxes for which a nontrivial (E{sub r}-dependent) difference between the electron and ion fluxes appears already in a low order and can be accurately predicted by the long wavelength GKE. The parameter regimes, where the radial electric field dynamics in the tokamak edge region is dominated by the non-intrinsically ambipolar processes, thus allowing for the use of the standard approaches, are discussed.
Numerical study of the conductivity of graphene monolayer within the effective field theory approach
P. V. Buividovich; E. V. Luschevskaya; O. V. Pavlovsky; M. I. Polikarpov; M. V. Ulybyshev
2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
We report on the direct numerical measurements of the conductivity of graphene monolayer. Our numerical simulations are performed in the effective lattice field theory with noncompact 3 + 1-dimensional Abelian lattice gauge fields and 2 + 1-dimensional staggered lattice fermions. The conductivity is obtained from the Green-Kubo relations using the Maximum Entropy Method. We find that in a phase with spontaneously broken sublattice symmetry the conductivity rapidly decreases. For the largest value of the coupling constant used in our simulations g = 4.5, the DC conductivity is less than the DC conductivity in the weak-coupling phase (at g < 3.5) by at least three orders of magnitude.
Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of Dirac particles - quantum field theory approach
Pawel Caban; Jakub Rembielinski
2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate correlation function in the Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen type of experiment with massive relativistic Dirac particles in the framework of the quantum field theory formalism. We perform our calculations for states which are physically interesting and transforms covariantly under the full Lorentz group action, i.e. for pseudoscalar and vector state.
A new attitude determination approach using split field of view star camera
Singla, Puneet
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A novel split field of view star tracker is being developed for the EO-3 GIFTS mission (2004). The camera is designed to be autonomously self-calibrating, and capable of a rapid/reliable solution of the lost in space problem as well as recursive...
Current Distribution Models for the Earth's Main Magnetic Field: A Discrete Inverse Theory Approach
Sewards, Terence V
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Current source models for the Earth's main geomagnetic field are calculated employing conventional discrete inverse theory methods. Source structures are spherical surfaces placed at the surface of the Earth's core, and at the surface of the Earth. The data set consists of measurements taken by the MAGSAT satellite in 1979. The resulting current distributions are discussed in relation to dipole and current loop models.
Whitehouse, Kamin
glare and discomfort. An emerging approach is to use electrochromic glass, also called smart Permission. For example, the switching speed of electrochromic win- dows, or the time required to change from transparent
Testing gravity to second post-Newtonian order: a field-theory approach
Thibault Damour; Gilles Esposito-Farese
1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
A new, field-theory-based framework for discussing and interpreting tests of gravity, notably at the second post-Newtonian (2PN) level, is introduced. Contrary to previous frameworks which attempted at parametrizing any conceivable deviation from general relativity, we focus on the best motivated class of models, in which gravity is mediated by a tensor field together with one or several scalar fields. The 2PN approximation of these "tensor-multi-scalar" theories is obtained thanks to a diagrammatic expansion which allows us to compute the Lagrangian describing the motion of N bodies. In contrast with previous studies which had to introduce many phenomenological parameters, we find that the 2PN deviations from general relativity can be fully described by only two new 2PN parameters, epsilon and zeta, beyond the usual (Eddington) 1PN parameters beta and gamma. It follows from the basic tenets of field theory, notably the absence of negative-energy excitations, that (beta-1), epsilon and zeta (as well as any new parameter entering higher post-Newtonian orders) must tend to zero with (gamma-1). It is also found that epsilon and zeta do not enter the 2PN equations of motion of light. Therefore, light-deflection or time-delay experiments cannot probe any theoretically motivated 2PN deviation from general relativity, but they can give a clean access to (gamma-1), which is of greatest significance as it measures the basic coupling strength of matter to the scalar fields. Because of the importance of self-gravity effects in neutron stars, binary-pulsar experiments are found to constitute a unique testing ground for the 2PN structure of gravity. A simplified analysis of four binary pulsars already leads to significant constraints: |epsilon| < 7x10^-2, |zeta| < 6x10^-3.
Effective field theory approach to top-quark decay at next-to-leading order in QCD
Cen Zhang
2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
We present analytical results for top-quark decay processes, in an effective field theory beyond the Standard Model, at next-to-leading order in QCD. We parametrize new physics effects using dimension-six operators, and consider all operators that give rise to non-standard interactions of the top quark. We investigate both the flavor-conserving and flavor-changing decay modes, including their two-body and three-body semi-leptonic final states. The QCD mixing among relevant operators are also taken into account. These results provide all information needed for a complete model-independent study of top-quark decay at next-to-leading order accuracy, paving the way to global analyses for new physics effects in an effective field theory approach.
Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach
Markovich, Tomer; Podgornik, Rudolf
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.
Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach
Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudolf Podgornik
2015-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter per electrolyte, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.
New approach to overcoming formation damage caused by extreme overbalance in mature field
Welch, J.C.; Haymes, R.D. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States)
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
When developing a mature field, operators are often faced with completion operations in depleted zones. Low bottom hole pressures in these zones make completion operations difficult and formation damage becomes a primary concern. The depleted reservoir referred to in this paper was drilled in a filter cake that effectively plugged the wellbore. The low bottom hole pressure in the pay zone precluded the use of an underreamer to remove the damage. Instead, a special jetting tool was designed and implemented to wash away the damaging filter cake before using a gravel pack completion. A laboratory investigation was undertaken to qualify a reservoir drill-in fluid for use with a jetting tool. The specific objective of the laboratory study was to demonstrate the selected drill-in fluid would simultaneously scour away the skin damage left by the drilling fluid, enlarge the wellbore without underreaming, and deposit a new, thin, impermeable, nondamaging filter cake that would remain in place while gravel packing the production zone. Because of very high overburden pressures, the drill-in fluid had to be designed to quickly seal the depleted zones during the jetting process and be easily removed with low production pressures. Specialized return gas permeability tests were conducted to verify the non-damaging character of the drilling fluid. After producing satisfactory laboratory results, the system was tried in the field. The jetting operation was completed, the hole was displaced with brine, and the gravel pack assembly set in the production zone. The production resulting from the jetting operation described in this paper, exceeded the replaced well and is producing gas on par with the best producing wells in the field.
Ho, Tak-San; Wang, Kwanghsi; Chu, Shih-I
1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Floquet-Liouville supermatrix (FLSM) approach is presented for nonperturbative treatment of the time development of the density-matrix operator of atoms and molecules exposed to intense polychromatic fields. By extending ...
The density of states approach for the simulation of finite density quantum field theories
K. Langfeld; B. Lucini; A. Rago; R. Pellegrini; L. Bongiovanni
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Finite density quantum field theories have evaded first principle Monte-Carlo simulations due to the notorious sign-problem. The partition function of such theories appears as the Fourier transform of the generalised density-of-states, which is the probability distribution of the imaginary part of the action. With the advent of Wang-Landau type simulation techniques and recent advances, the density-of-states can be calculated over many hundreds of orders of magnitude. Current research addresses the question whether the achieved precision is high enough to reliably extract the finite density partition function, which is exponentially suppressed with the volume. In my talk, I review the state-of-play for the high precision calculations of the density-of-states as well as the recent progress for obtaining reliable results from highly oscillating integrals. I will review recent progress for the $Z_3$ quantum field theory for which results can be obtained from the simulation of the dual theory, which appears to free of a sign problem.
The density of states approach for the simulation of finite density quantum field theories
Langfeld, K; Rago, A; Pellegrini, R; Bongiovanni, L
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Finite density quantum field theories have evaded first principle Monte-Carlo simulations due to the notorious sign-problem. The partition function of such theories appears as the Fourier transform of the generalised density-of-states, which is the probability distribution of the imaginary part of the action. With the advent of Wang-Landau type simulation techniques and recent advances, the density-of-states can be calculated over many hundreds of orders of magnitude. Current research addresses the question whether the achieved precision is high enough to reliably extract the finite density partition function, which is exponentially suppressed with the volume. In my talk, I review the state-of-play for the high precision calculations of the density-of-states as well as the recent progress for obtaining reliable results from highly oscillating integrals. I will review recent progress for the $Z_3$ quantum field theory for which results can be obtained from the simulation of the dual theory, which appears to fr...
Ho, Tak-San; Chu, Shih-I
1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
-vibrational-rotational state of a fixed total quasi energy E:/J, the exact total quasienergy state wave func tion may be expanded as (24) Again, we have assumed that the system embodies a well-defined quantum number mJ' Substituting Eq. (24) into Eq. (1), and projecting..., 25 Nov 2014 17:02:27 4712 T-S. Ho and S-1. Chu: Nonadiabatic approach for resonant molecular MPA Where [G]= and .... P=2 P=1 P=O P=-1 P=-2 IG+2wl G+wl v=O v=1 (Goo) (Go,) (G,,)-wl j=O j=1 00 0' gvv, gvv' " g ••, G G-wl v=2 (GQ2) (G'2...
A field-theoretical approach to entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations
M. Blasone; F. Dell'Anno; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati
2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z
The phenomena of particle mixing and flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics can be addressed by the point of view of quantum information theory, and described in terms of multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states. In this paper we show that such a description can be extended to the domain of quantum field theory, where we uncover a fine structure of quantum correlations associated with multi-mode, multi-particle entanglement. By means of an entanglement measure based on the linear entropies associated with all the possible bipartitions, we analyze the entanglement in the states of flavor neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. Remarkably, we show that the entanglement is connected with experimentally measurable quantities, i.e. the variances of the lepton numbers and charges.
Two-leg SU(2n) spin ladder: A low-energy effective field theory approach
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lecheminan, P.; Tsvelik, A. M.
2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a field-theory analysis of a model of two SU(2n)-invariant magnetic chains coupled by a generic interaction preserving time reversal and inversion symmetry. Contrary to the SU(2)-invariant case the zero-temperature phase diagram of such two-leg spin ladder does not contain topological phases. Only generalized Valence Bond Solid phases are stabilized when n > 1 with different wave vectors and ground-state degeneracies. In particular, we find a phase which is made of a cluster of 2n spins put in an SU(2n) singlet state. For n = 3, this cluster phase is relevant to ¹?³Yb ultracold atoms, with an emergent SU(6)more »symmetry, loaded in a double-well optical lattice.« less
Dynamics of a spherical particle in an acoustic field: a multiscale approach
Xie, Jin-Han
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A rigid spherical particle in an acoustic wave field oscillates at the wave period but has also a mean motion on a longer time scale. The dynamics of this mean motion is crucial for numerous applications of acoustic microfluidics, including particle manipulation and flow visualisation. It is controlled by four physical effects: acoustic (radiation) pressure, streaming, inertia and viscous drag. In this paper, we carry out a systematic multiscale analysis of the problem in order to assess the relative importance of these effects depending on the parameters of the system that include wave amplitude, wavelength, sound speed, sphere radius, and viscosity. We identify two distinguished regimes characterised by a balance among three of the four effects, and we derive the equations that govern the mean particle motion in each regime. This recovers and organises classical results by King, Gor'kov and Doinikov, clarifies the range of validity of these results, and reveals a new nonlinear dynamical regime. In this regi...
Cooperativity flows and Shear-Bandings: a statistical field theory approach
R. Benzi; M. Sbragaglia; M. Bernaschi; S. Succi; F. Toschi
2015-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
Cooperativity effects have been proposed to explain the non-local rheology in the dynamics of soft jammed systems. Based on the analysis of the double well free-energy model proposed by L. Bocquet, A. Colin \\& A. Ajdari ({\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\\bf 103}, 036001 (2009)), we show that cooperativity effects resulting from the non-local nature of the fluidity (inverse viscosity), are intimately related to the emergence of shear-banding configurations. This connection materializes through the onset of inhomogeneous compact solutions (compactons), wherein the fluidity is confined to finite-support subregions of the flow and strictly zero elsewhere. Compactons coexistence with regions of zero fluidity ("non-flowing vacuum") is shown to be stabilized by the presence of mechanical noise, which ultimately shapes up the equilibrium distribution of the fluidity field, acting as an order parameter for the flow-noflow transitions occurring in the material.
Dynamics of a spherical particle in an acoustic field: A multiscale approach
Xie, Jin-Han, E-mail: J.H.Xie@ed.ac.uk; Vanneste, Jacques [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
A rigid spherical particle in an acoustic wave field oscillates at the wave period but has also a mean motion on a longer time scale. The dynamics of this mean motion is crucial for numerous applications of acoustic microfluidics, including particle manipulation and flow visualisation. It is controlled by four physical effects: acoustic (radiation) pressure, streaming, inertia, and viscous drag. In this paper, we carry out a systematic multiscale analysis of the problem in order to assess the relative importance of these effects depending on the parameters of the system that include wave amplitude, wavelength, sound speed, sphere radius, and viscosity. We identify two distinguished regimes characterised by a balance among three of the four effects, and we derive the equations that govern the mean particle motion in each regime. This recovers and organises classical results by King [“On the acoustic radiation pressure on spheres,” Proc. R. Soc. A 147, 212–240 (1934)], Gor'kov [“On the forces acting on a small particle in an acoustical field in an ideal fluid,” Sov. Phys. 6, 773–775 (1962)], and Doinikov [“Acoustic radiation pressure on a rigid sphere in a viscous fluid,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 447, 447–466 (1994)], clarifies the range of validity of these results, and reveals a new nonlinear dynamical regime. In this regime, the mean motion of the particle remains intimately coupled to that of the surrounding fluid, and while viscosity affects the fluid motion, it plays no part in the acoustic pressure. Simplified equations, valid when only two physical effects control the particle motion, are also derived. They are used to obtain sufficient conditions for the particle to behave as a passive tracer of the Lagrangian-mean fluid motion.
Jet-induced gauge field instabilities in the quark-gluon plasma: A kinetic theory approach
Massimo Mannarelli; Cristina Manuel
2007-07-26T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the properties of the collective modes of a system composed by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma traversed by a relativistic jet of partons. The transport equations obeyed by the components of the plasma and of the jet are studied in the Vlasov approximation. Assuming that the partons in the jet can be described with a tsunami-like distribution function we derive the expressions of the dispersion law of the collective modes. Then the behavior of the unstable gauge modes of the system is analyzed for various values of the velocity of the jet, of the momentum of the collective modes and of the angle between these two quantities. We find that the most unstable modes are those with momentum orthogonal to the velocity of the jet and that these instabilities appear when the velocity of the jet is higher than a threshold value, which depends on the plasma and jet frequencies. The results obtained within the Vlasov approximation are compared with the corresponding results obtained using a chromohydrodynamical approach.The effect we discuss here suggests a possible collective mechanism for the description of the jet quenching phenomena in heavy ion collisions.
Frequency-Selective Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Photonic Crystal Slabs-selective near-field radiative heat transfer between patterned (photonic-crystal) slabs at designable frequencies and separations, exploiting a general numerical approach for computing heat transfer in arbitrary geometries
Son, Sang-Kil; Chu, Shih-I
2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
.07#3;?8#4; 2.92 2.41#3;?3#4; 2.92 1.33#3;?6#4; 2.92 2.01#3;?3#4; 5.00 4.53#3;?20#4; 4.91 3.42#3;?12#4; 5.00 6.62#3;?15#4; 4.93 3.39#3;?10#4; 5.00 1.28#3;?12#4; 4.94 2.07#3;?9#4; 7.02 1.99#3;?28#4; 6.92 1.83#3;?20#4; 7.00 3.10#3;?21#4; 6.93 1.82#3;?16#4; 7.00 4...Many-mode Floquet theoretical approach for coherent control of multiphoton dynamics driven by intense frequency-comb laser fields Sang-Kil Son (???#1;1,* and Shih-I Chu (???#1;1,2,† 1Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas...
Nikolai N. Bogolubov, Jr.; Anatoliy K. Prykarpatsky
2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated and the modeling of the related vacuum medium and charged point particle dynamics by means of devised field theoretic tools are analyzed. The work is devoted to studying the vacuum structure, special relativity, electrodynamics of interacting charged point particles and quantum mechanics, and is a continuation of \\cite{BPT,BRT1}. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulation of some alternative classical electrodynamics models is devised. The Dirac type quantization procedure, based on the canonical Hamiltonian formulation, is developed for some alternative electrodynamics models. Within an approach developed a possibility of the combined description both of electrodynamics and gravity is analyzed.
Daylighting | Department of Energy
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
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Selkowitz, Stephen
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
sho\\l'rooms. Use of solar energy for thermal control insolar applications in buildings has focused on providing thermal energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
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Daylighting | Department of Energy
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Daylighting | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP aCentrotherm PhotovoltaicsDOI-BLM-NV-W030-20??-????-CXDawu Silicon Park Co Ltd Jump to:Day,source
Daylighting | Department of Energy
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
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Matteo Villani
2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
A theoretical scheme, based on a probabilistic generalization of the Hamilton's principle, is elaborated to obtain an unified description of more general dynamical behaviors determined both from a lagrangian function and by mechanisms not contemplated by this function. Within this scheme, quantum mechanics, classical field theory and a quantum theory for scalar fields are discussed. As a by-product of the probabilistic scheme for classical field theory, the equations of the De Donder-Weyl theory for multi-dimensional variational problems are recovered.
A Single Parti cleApproach to Cy clotron Heating in a Non-Unifonn Magneti c Field
Sprott, Julien Clinton
to estimate the heating rate. The approach 1 is similar to that of Kuckes in a recent paper. We begin (10) of Kuckes paper (where w c '= aw c ). Now consider a group of non-interacting particles, all
Cao, Fred, E-mail: fcao@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)] [Department of Medical Physics, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Ramaseshan, Ramani; Corns, Robert; Harrop, Sheryl [Department of Medical Physics, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)] [Department of Medical Physics, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Nuraney, Nimet; Steiner, Peter; Aldridge, Stephanie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Liu, Mitchell; Carolan, Hannah [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Agranovich, Alex; Karvat, Anand [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Traditionally craniospinal irradiation treats the central nervous system using two or three adjacent field sets. We propose a technique using a three-isocenter intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan (jagged-junction IMRT) which overcomes problems associated with field junctions and beam edge matching and improves planning and treatment setup efficiencies with homogenous target dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Treatments for 3 patients with a prescription of 36 Gy in 20 fractions were retrospectively planned with jagged-junction IMRT and compared to conventional treatment plans. Planning target volume (PTV) included the whole brain and spinal canal to the S3 vertebral level. The plan used three field sets, each with a unique isocenter. One field set with seven fields treated the cranium. Two field sets treated the spine, each set using three fields. Fields from adjacent sets were overlapped, and the optimization process smoothly integrated the dose inside the overlapped junction. Results: For jagged-junction IMRT plans vs. conventional technique, the average homogeneity index equaled 0.08 {+-} 0.01 vs. 0.12 {+-} 0.02, respectively, and conformity number equaled 0.79 {+-} 0.01 vs. 0.47 {+-} 0.12, respectively. The 95% isodose surface covered (99.5 {+-} 0.3)% of the PTV vs. (98.1 {+-} 2.0)%, respectively. Both jagged-junction IMRT plans and the conventional plans had good sparing of organs at risk. Conclusions: Jagged-junction IMRT planning provided good dose homogeneity and conformity to the target while maintaining a low dose to organs at risk. Results from jagged-junction IMRT plans were better than or equivalent to those from the conventional technique. Jagged-junction IMRT optimization smoothly distributed dose in the junction between field sets. Because there was no beam matching, this treatment technique is less likely to produce hot or cold spots at the junction, in contrast to conventional techniques. The planning process is also simplified as only one IMRT plan is required for the entire target volume.
Mastrano, Alpha; Melatos, Andrew
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A recipe is presented to construct an analytic, self-consistent model of a non-barotropic neutron star with a poloidal-toroidal field of arbitrary multipole order, whose toroidal component is confined in a torus around the neutral curve inside the star, as in numerical simulations of twisted tori. The recipe takes advantage of magnetic-field-aligned coordinates to ensure continuity of the mass density at the surface of the torus. The density perturbation and ellipticity of such a star are calculated in general and for the special case of a mixed dipole-quadrupole field as a worked example. The calculation generalises previous work restricted to dipolar, poloidal-toroidal and multipolar, poloidal-only configurations. The results are applied, as an example, to magnetars whose observations (e.g., spectral features and pulse modulation) indicate that the internal magnetic fields may be at least one order of magnitude stronger than the external fields, as inferred from their spin downs, and are not purely dipolar.
Levi, Michele [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS-UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan, E-mail: michele.levi@upmc.fr, E-mail: jan.steinhoff@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 potential for an inspiralling binary, that is essential for accuracy to fourth post-Newtonian order, if both components in the binary are spinning rapidly, has been recently derived independently via the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches, using different gauges and variables. Here we show the complete physical equivalence of the two results, thereby we first prove the equivalence of the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order with the inclusion of spins. The main difficulty in the spinning sectors, which also prescribes the manner in which the comparison of the two results is tackled here, is the existence of redundant unphysical spin degrees of freedom, associated with the spin gauge choice of a point within the extended spinning object for its representative worldline. After gauge fixing and eliminating the unphysical degrees of freedom of the spin and its conjugate at the level of the action, we arrive at curved spacetime generalizations of the Newton-Wigner variables in closed form, which can also be used to obtain further Hamiltonians, based on an Effective Field Theory formulation and computation. Finally, we make use of our validated result to provide gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to fourth post-Newtonian order, including all known sectors up to date.
Andrei T. Patrascu
2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
I present here a new method that allows the introduction of a discrete auxiliary symmetry in a theory in such a way that the eigenvalue spectrum of the fermion functional determinant is made up of complex conjugated pairs. The method implies a particular way of introducing and integrating over auxiliary fields related to a set of artificial shift symmetries. Gauge-fixing the artificial continuous shift symmetries in the direct and dual sectors leads to the implementation of direct and dual BRST-type global symmetries and of a symplectic structure over the field space (as prescribed by the Batalin-Vilkovisky method). A procedure similar to Kahler polarization in geometric quantization guarantees the possibility to choose a Kahler structure over the field space. This structure is generated by a special way of performing gauge fixing over the direct and dual sectors. The desired discrete symmetry appears to be induced by the Hodge-* operator. The particular extension of the field space presented here makes the operators of the de-Rham cohomology manifest. These become symmetries in the extended theory. This method implies the identification of the (anti)-BRST and dual-(anti)-BRST operators with the exterior derivative and its dual in the context of the complex de-Rham cohomology.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Benioff, Paul
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices. The frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stagejframe have images in a stagej-1(parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes themore »proposal that points of stagejframe lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames. The resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less
M. Hassan Farshbaf-Shaker; Christian Heinemann
2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we investigate a phase field model for damage processes in two-dimensional viscoelastic media with nonhomogeneous Neumann data describing external boundary forces. In the first part we establish global-in-time existence, uniqueness, a priori estimates and continuous dependence of strong solutions on the data. The main difficulty is caused by the irreversibility as well as boundedness of the phase field variable which results in a doubly constrained PDE system. In the last part we consider an optimal control problem where a cost functional penalizes maximal deviations from prescribed damage profiles. The goal is to minimize the cost functional with respect to exterior forces acting on the boundary which play the role of the control variable in the considered model. To this end, we prove existence of minimizers and study a family of "local" approximations via adapted cost functionals.
M. Hassan Farshbaf-Shaker; Christian Heinemann
2015-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we investigate a phase field model for damage processes in two-dimensional viscoelastic media with nonhomogeneous Neumann data describing external boundary forces. In the first part we establish global-in-time existence, uniqueness, a priori estimates and continuous dependence of strong solutions on the data. The main difficulty is caused by the irreversibility of the phase field variable which results in a constrained PDE system. In the last part we consider an optimal control problem where a cost functional penalizes maximal deviations from prescribed damage profiles. The goal is to minimize the cost functional with respect to exterior forces acting on the boundary which play the role of the control variable in the considered model. To this end, we prove existence of minimizers and study a family of "local" approximations via adapted cost functionals.
Moon, Jordan R.; Hull, Holly R.; Tobkin, Sarah E.; Teramoto, Masaru; Karabulut, Murat; Roberts, Michael D.; Ryan, Eric D.; Kim, So Jung; Dalbo, Vincent J.; Herda, Ashley A.
2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z
-free mass and fat mass can be used to identify minimal nutri- tion requirements and resting energy expenditure [2,3]. Additionally, sports nutrition experts can utilize body composition values to develop specific dietary interven- tions. Validated laboratory... is not in total agreement when comparing HW to the multiple-compartment model in adult women [4,8]. Ultimately, both multiple- compartment models and HW entail greater facility requirements and are more costly compared to more con- venient field methods...
in an agricultural field over a food plot surround- ed by decent cover that was intended for their use in the first. This situation occurs all too often. Your neighboring farmers know exactly how to make corn grow, and for good- bandry practices were responsible for explaining preferential feed- ing patterns by white-tailed deer
Nirmalendu Ganai; Arnab Saha; Surajit Sengupta
2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
Using a phase field crystal model we study the structure and dynamics of a drop of colloidal suspension during evaporation of the solvent. We model an experimental system where contact line pinning of the drop on the substrate is non-existent. Under such carefully controlled conditions, evaporation of the drop produces an ordered or disordered arrangement of the colloidal residue depending on the initial average density of solute and the drying rate. We obtain a non-equilibrium phase boundary showing amorphous and crystalline phases of single component and binary mixtures of colloidal particles in the density- drying rate plane. While single component colloids order in the two dimensional triangular lattice, a symmetric binary mixture of mutually repulsive particles orders in a three sub-lattice order where two of the sub-lattices of the triangular lattice are occupied by the two species of particles with the third sub-lattice vacant.
Ge, Rong-Chun; Hughes, S
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The local-field (LF) problem of a finite-size dipole emitter radiating inside a lossy inhomogeneous structure is a longstanding and challenging quantum optical problem, and now is becoming more important due to rapid advances in solid-state fabrication technologies. Here we introduce a simple and accurate quasi-normal mode (QNM) technique to solve this problem analytically by separating the scattering problem into contributions from the QNM and an image dipole. Using a real-cavity model to describe an artificial atom inside a lossy and dispersive gold nanorod, we show when the contribution of the QNM to LFs will dominate over the homogeneous contribution. We also show how to accurately describe surface scattering for real cavities that are close to the metal interface, and explore regimes when the surface scattering also dominates. Our results offer an intuitive picture of the underlying physics for the LF problem and facilitate the understanding of novel photon sources within lossy structures.
Sereda, Yuriy V.; Ortoleva, Peter J., E-mail: ortoleva@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)
2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
A closed kinetic equation for the single-particle density of a viscous simple liquid is derived using a variational method for the Liouville equation and a coarse-grained mean-field (CGMF) ansatz. The CGMF ansatz is based on the notion that during the characteristic time of deformation a given particle interacts with many others so that it experiences an average interaction. A trial function for the N-particle probability density is constructed using a multiscale perturbation method and the CGMF ansatz is applied to it. The multiscale perturbation scheme is based on the ratio of the average nearest-neighbor atom distance to the total size of the assembly. A constraint on the initial condition is discovered which guarantees that the kinetic equation is mass-conserving and closed in the single-particle density. The kinetic equation has much of the character of the Vlasov equation except that true viscous, and not Landau, damping is accounted for. The theory captures condensation kinetics and takes much of the character of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the weak-gradient short-range force limit.
Daylight metrics and energy savings
Mardaljevic, John
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
section discusses how sustainability and energy-use concernsSustainability and compliance The drive towards sustainable, low-energy
Impact of Extended Daylight Saving
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasma | Department of EnergyBraking System forBiodiesel and PFI n-Butanol |Fuel Economy andEGR on
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a g eWorksVillage of Brewster, OhioLonghui Hydropowercities Home Graham7781'scompoundcspdatasets
Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasma | Department ofEnergy 9 Lehman final| Department ClassifiedNanocomposite Materials
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a gHigh Plains WindInformationNVN-079666NewOlsen Wind FarmPublic Art Generates RenewableLeading
Daylight metrics and energy savings
Mardaljevic, John
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
properties of the space, the exterior context, and interiorand exterior shading devices. In the short term, evaluation of spaces
Natural Daylighting - An Energy Analysis
Jarrell, R. P.
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
tiers of elevators, which afforded met by the codes in both economic and energy savings. Because at the time of the design and con- Of the basic premise of the planning con- ~truction. The following table gives data cept, the two-tower scheme... temperature and ventilation control is provided by induction boxes. These boxes reclaim up to 50 percent of the heat from the lights by inducing warm air from the ceiling plenum to the exterior areas where heat is needed in winter. In the summer...
Daylight metrics and energy savings
Mardaljevic, John
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
illumination values. The luminance of the CIE standardilluminance, radiance and luminance) using sun and skyon the cumu- lative luminance (or radiance) e?ect of (
Daylight metrics and energy savings
Mardaljevic, John
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the time-stamp. The sky luminance distribution is eitherradiance and luminance) using sun and sky conditions thatlative luminance (or radiance) e?ect of (hourly) sky and the
Daylighting Calculation in DOE-2
Winkelmann, F.C
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
8 2.4 Sky LuminanceXBL~829—4589 6. Clear sky luminance distribution as measuredand overcast sky DYL Sky luminance ' y DNSOL I Direct
Daylight metrics and energy savings
Mardaljevic, John
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Mardaljevic and A. Nabil. Electrochromic glazing and facadeoptimiza- tion of electrochromic operations for occupantmodulating materials (e.g. electrochromic glazing), blinds,
Chu, Shih-I
in crossed magnetic and electric fields Xiao-Min Tong and Shih-I Chu Department of Chemistry, University time-dependent study of three- dimensional Rydberg H atoms in crossed magnetic and electric fields magnetic and electric fields has attracted considerable attention in the last several years both
Constructive Quantum Field Theory
Giovanni Gallavotti
2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
A review of the renormalization group approach to the proof of non perturbative ultraviolet stability in scalar field theories in dimension d=2,3.
Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory
Estrada-Jimenez, S. [Licenciaturas en Fisica y en Matematicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas Calle 4a Ote. Nte. 1428, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Monterrey Via del Conocimiento 201, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (PIIT) Autopista nueva al Aeropuerto km 9.5, Lote 1, Manzana 29, cp. 66600 Apodaca Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Obregon, O. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Ramirez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)
2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.
Tong, Xiao-Min; Chu, Shih-I
2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a general time-dependent approach for efficient and accurate treatment of high-resolution spectrocopy and quantum dynamics. The procedure is applied to an ab initio time-dependent study of three-dimensional ...
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
the computation time. Hence, this analytical approach is suitable for optimization process in pre- sizing loop validate the analytical prediction, allowing investigations on several stator-rotor combinations interesting. Also, their robust structure, with a passive rotor and all active parts located in the stator
Salah Menouar; Mustapha Maamache; Jeong Ryeol Choi
2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z
A general treatment of the quantal time-dependent coupled oscillators in presence of the variable magnetic field is presented. The treatment is based on the use of an alternative canonical transformations, time-dependent unitary transformations and the invariant methods. Exact wave functions for Schr\\"{o}dinger equations of this system are constructed.We applied our theory to a particular case and, co,sequently, showed that our results recovers to the perviously known one.
Reverse Engineering Quantum Field Theory
Robert Oeckl
2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
An approach to the foundations of quantum theory is advertised that proceeds by "reverse engineering" quantum field theory. As a concrete instance of this approach, the general boundary formulation of quantum theory is outlined.
Hamiltonian Vector Fields on Multiphase Spaces of Classical Field Theory
Michael Forger; Mário Otávio Salles
2010-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present a classification of hamiltonian vector fields on multisymplectic and polysymplectic fiber bundles closely analogous to the one known for the corresponding dual jet bundles that appear in the multisymplectic and polysymplectic approach to first order classical field theories.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Metering approaches vary depending on facility design and intended purpose (e.g., administrative offices, laboratory, warehouse, etc.). No one approach fits all applications. In fact, different...
Washington Taylor
2006-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
This elementary introduction to string field theory highlights the features and the limitations of this approach to quantum gravity as it is currently understood. String field theory is a formulation of string theory as a field theory in space-time with an infinite number of massive fields. Although existing constructions of string field theory require expanding around a fixed choice of space-time background, the theory is in principle background-independent, in the sense that different backgrounds can be realized as different field configurations in the theory. String field theory is the only string formalism developed so far which, in principle, has the potential to systematically address questions involving multiple asymptotically distinct string backgrounds. Thus, although it is not yet well defined as a quantum theory, string field theory may eventually be helpful for understanding questions related to cosmology in string theory.
Effective Field Theory for Top Quark Physics
Cen Zhang; Scott Willenbrock
2010-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
Physics beyond the standard model can affect top-quark physics indirectly. We describe the effective field theory approach to describing such physics, and contrast it with the vertex-function approach that has been pursued previously. We argue that the effective field theory approach has many fundamental advantages and is also simpler.
Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankShale_Gas.pdfService on the TargetFY12 DOE -NAT IONA L S47.1Departmentand OutreachFactory-BuiltFacades,
Lighting and Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334Department ofEnergy FYIntegratedBerkeley NationalRegulatorytheEnergy Nuclear
Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?
Deen, Sophia 1988-
2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
in real time for a variety of reasons such as an unpredictably hot day or an outage at a power plant. The balancing market operates in real time to balance actual load and generation. Depending upon whether more or less power is needed than the day-ahead... map this model into a market with a day-ahead schedule followed by a balancing auction. We index the costs of generation (at time t) of the N firms in this market by {Cit (q), i = 1, . . . , N}. We take total demand ?Dt (p) = Dt (p)+ ?t to be the sum...
Daylight control system device and method
Paton, John Douglas
2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.
Daylight control system device and method
Paton, John Douglas
2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.
Daylight control system, device and method
Paton, John Douglas
2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.
Fall Back Daylight Savings time is November
Linsley, Braddock K.
: http://www.albany.edu/gogreen/energy-campaign.shtml Sustainability Bulletin Office of Environmental campaign was started. Mary Ellen Mallia, the Director of Environmental Sustainability and Indu, the Energy Energy Campaign 1 Change a light campaign 1 2Farmer's Market Sustainability Council 2 Green Products
Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?
Deen, Sophia 1988-
2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
Highway accidents (includes interstates and US and state highways) NHWY Non-highway accidents (includes farm-to-market, city street, non-trafficway, and all other types of road) NY Accidents involving at least one non-young person; non-young defined...RAND Journal of Economics Vol. 39, No. 1, Spring 2008 pp. 86?114 Understanding strategic bidding in multi-unit auctions: a case study of the Texas electricity spot market Ali Hortac?su? and Steven L. Puller?? We examine the bidding behavior...
Times are in Mountain Daylight Savings Time
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Update on FY 12 NEET projects Lead 8:00 AM 8:15 AM Welcome and Webinar Rules Maloy 8:15 AM 8:20 AM NEET Introduction Lesica 8:20 AM 8:40 AM Radiation tolerance and mechanical...
Times are in Mountain Daylight Savings Time
Modifications for Improved Accident Tolerance of LWR Fuel Heuser 11:30 AM 11:50 AM Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S- LWR) Petrovic 11:50 AM 12:20 PM Discussion...
Advanced fenestration systems for improved daylight performance
Selkowitz, S.; Lee, E.S.
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
technology for dynamic, smart glazings has the potential toSwitchable Glazing: Towards the Development of the Smart
Experimental Evaluation of Innovative Wall Daylighting Systems
Place, J. W.; Howard, T. C.; Paulos, S.; Chung, K.
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
(LBL) has shown that if both beam sunlight and diffuse skylight are effectively used, substantial reductions in lighting electricity consumption can be achieved through very modest glazing areas (2% to 3% of the building floor area) (2..., the results of the LBL study indicate that the energy cost savings per unit of collection aperture can be very high. For the energy cost savings of $0.40 per square foot of floor area per year, the ratio of the floor area to the glazing area...
Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems |
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasma |EfficiencyCR-B-99-02ContactUSG OREGON USGU.S.ATTENDEEES:--G u i d e - - -AdvancedDevelopmentDepartment
Window Daylighting Demo | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasma |Efficiency Â» Searchto IncreaseIntakea.m. - 8:30 a.m. WelcomeEnergy WholePowerApril3
Window Daylighting Demo | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankShale_Gas.pdfService on the Target Host | DepartmentWelcome to theLeadersWindAward |3Turbine 1
Daylighting systems for the Kuwait National Museum
Ahn, Byoungsoo
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
gallery (9:00 AM, Jun 21, Clear Sky) ....................................................................... 64 59 Luminance level in southeast gallery with blinds (9:00 AM, Jun21, Clear Sky...) ........................................................................ 65 60 Luminance level in northeast gallery (7:00 AM, Jun 21, Clear Sky) ....................................................................... 66 61 Luminance level in northeast gallery with blinds...
Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /
Yaghoobian, Neda
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
daylight and passive solar gains, Energ. Buildings. 43 (solar reflectance and cooling energy use: field research results from Florida, Energ.
Kwak, Seung Ki
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The existence of momentum and winding modes of closed string on a torus leads to a natural idea that the field theoretical approach of string theory should involve winding type coordinates as well as the usual space-time ...
New Approaches to Final Cooling
Neuffer, David
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.
Fingerspelling recognition with semi-Markov conditional random fields Taehwan Kim Greg Shakhnarovich
Shakhnarovich, Greg
-Markov conditional random field (SCRF) approach to the unconstrained fingerspelling recog- nition problem. In SCRFs
D-brane effective field theory from string field theory
Washington Taylor
2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
Open string field theory is considered as a tool for deriving the effective action for the massless or tachyonic fields living on D-branes. Some simple calculations are performed in open bosonic string field theory which validate this approach. The level truncation method is used to calculate successive approximations to the quartic terms \\phi^4, (A^\\mu A_\\mu)^2 and [A_\\mu, A_\
Chu, Shih-I; Telnov, Dmitry A.
2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z
We present a time-dependent density-functional-theory approach for the ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) of diatomic molecules N2, O2, and F2 in intense ...
Fermionic fields in the pseudoparticle Marc Wagner
Fermionic fields in the pseudoparticle approach Marc Wagner Institut f¨ur Physik, Humboldt number of localized building blocks (instantons, merons, akyrons, calorons, dyons, ...). Marc Wagner). Marc Wagner, "Fermionic fields in the pseudoparticle approach", August 2, 2007 #12;Basic principle (1
Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
W, respectively. Lighting power density at full power levelssavings and average lighting power density savings for astandard deviation Lighting power density at full power:
Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
use savings were significant in both Areas over the equinox-to-equinox period compared to a non-daylit reference case.collected for only the equinox-to-equinox solar condition (
Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
daily area lighting energy savings (%) sun up day of year BA Daily lighting energy use savings (sun up schedule) forarea lighting energy savings (%) L3 Sun up L4 L5 L6 day of
A. Steffens; C. A. Riofrío; R. Hübener; J. Eisert
2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce the concept of quantum field tomography, the efficient and reliable reconstruction of unknown quantum fields based on data of correlation functions. At the basis of the analysis is the concept of continuous matrix product states, a complete set of variational states grasping states in quantum field theory. We innovate a practical method, making use of and developing tools in estimation theory used in the context of compressed sensing such as Prony methods and matrix pencils, allowing us to faithfully reconstruct quantum field states based on low-order correlation functions. In the absence of a phase reference, we highlight how specific higher order correlation functions can still be predicted. We exemplify the functioning of the approach by reconstructing randomised continuous matrix product states from their correlation data and study the robustness of the reconstruction for different noise models. We also apply the method to data generated by simulations based on continuous matrix product states and using the time-dependent variational principle. The presented approach is expected to open up a new window into experimentally studying continuous quantum systems, such as encountered in experiments with ultra-cold atoms on top of atom chips. By virtue of the analogy with the input-output formalism in quantum optics, it also allows for studying open quantum systems.
Tachyonic field interacting with Scalar (Phantom) Field
Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath
2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this letter, we have considered the universe is filled with the mixture of tachyonic field and scalar or phantom field. If the tachyonic field interacts with scalar or phantom field, the interaction term decays with time and the energy for scalar field is transferred to tachyonic field or the energy for phantom field is transferred to tachyonic field. The tachyonic field and scalar field potentials always decrease, but phantom field potential always increases.
Chu, Shih-I; Tong, Xiao-Min
2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
We present a detailed study of the multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) processes of rare-gas atoms (He, Ne, and Ar) in intense pulsed laser fields by means of a self-interaction-free time-dependent density...
Field-induced confined states in graphene
Moriyama, Satoshi, E-mail: MORIYAMA.Satoshi@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Morita, Yoshifumi [Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Watanabe, Eiichiro; Tsuya, Daiju [Nanotechnology Innovation Station, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)
2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
We report an approach to confine the carriers in single-layer graphene, which leads to quantum devices with field-induced quantum confinement. We demonstrated that the Coulomb-blockade effect evolves under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene device. Our experimental results show that field-induced quantum dots are realized in graphene, and a quantum confinement-deconfinement transition is switched by the magnetic field.
STATE OF CALIFORNIA CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE AND FIELD INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Reference Daylight Area 2 VT 3 For Skylights 4 Effective Aperture 5 General Lighting Power Density (w/ft2 Lighting Power Adjustments Factor 2 PAGE TOTAL Note: Conditioned and Unconditioned Spaces Shall 2010 LIGHTING CONTROLS CREDIT WORKSHEET (Page 2 of 2) LTG-2C Project Name: Date: POWER ADJUSTMENT
Smooth Field Theories and Homotopy Field Theories
Wilder, Alan Cameron
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
1 . . . . . . . . 4 Categories of Field Theories 4.1 Functorto super symmetric field theories. CRM Proceedings and0-dimensional super symmetric field theories. preprint 2008.
Rigorous results in space-space noncommutative quantum field theory
M. N. Mnatsakanova; Yu. S. Vernov
2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z
The axiomatic approach based on Wightman functions is developed in noncommutative quantum field theory. We have proved that the main results of the axiomatic approach remain valid if the noncommutativity affects only the spatial variables.
Campiglia, Andres D. [UCF; Hernandez, Florencio E. [UCF
2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.
Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion
Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J. [Institute for Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion and Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa, Portugal 351.1.21.841.92.43 (Portugal); Department of Physics and Institute for Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion and Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa, Portugal 351.1.21.841.93.22 (Portugal)
2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kinds of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vector fields and electromagnetic fields leads to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configuration in plasma medium.
Compressive light field photography using overcomplete dictionaries and optimized projections
Marwah, Kshitij
Light field photography has gained a significant research interest in the last two decades; today, commercial light field cameras are widely available. Nevertheless, most existing acquisition approaches either multiplex a ...
Iftner, Christophe; Simon, Aude; Korchagina, Kseniia; Rapacioli, Mathias; Spiegelman, Fernand [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques LCPQ/IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse (UPS) and CNRS, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)] [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques LCPQ/IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse (UPS) and CNRS, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)
2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
We propose in the present paper a SCC-DFTB/FF (Self-Consistent-Charge Density Functional based Tight Binding/Force-Field) scheme adapted to the investigation of molecules trapped in rare gas environments. With respect to usual FF descriptions, the model involves the interaction of quantum electrons in a molecule with rare gas atoms in an anisotropic scheme. It includes polarization and dispersion contributions and can be used for both neutral and charged species. Parameters for this model are determined for hydrocarbon-argon complexes and the model is validated for small hydrocarbons. With the future aim of studying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ar matrices, extensive benchmark calculations are performed on (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sup +/0}Ar{sub n} clusters against DFT and CCSD(T) calculations for the smaller sizes, and more generally against other experimental and theoretical data. Results on the structures and energetics (isomer ordering and energy separation, cohesion energy per Ar atom) are presented in detail for n = 1–8, 13, 20, 27, and 30, for both neutrals and cations. We confirm that the clustering of Ar atoms leads to a monotonous decrease of the ionization potential of benzene for n ? 20, in line with previous experimental and FF data.
Full 180u Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields
Chen, Long-Qing
Full 180u Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields J. J. Wang1 *, J. M. Hu1,2 *, J. Ma1 , J. X reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 1806 magnetization reversals with electric fields
Noncommutative Dipole Field Theories
K. Dasgupta; M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari
2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z
Assigning an intrinsic constant dipole moment to any field, we present a new kind of associative star product, the dipole star product, which was first introduced in [hep-th/0008030]. We develop the mathematics necessary to study the corresponding noncommutative dipole field theories. These theories are sensible non-local field theories with no IR/UV mixing. In addition we discuss that the Lorentz symmetry in these theories is ``softly'' broken and in some particular cases the CP (and even CPT) violation in these theories may become observable. We show that a non-trivial dipole extension of N=4, D=4 gauge theories can only be obtained if we break the SU(4) R (and hence super)-symmetry. Such noncommutative dipole extensions, which in the maximal supersymmetric cases are N=2 gauge theories with matter, can be embedded in string theory as the theories on D3-branes probing a smooth Taub-NUT space with three form fluxes turned on or alternatively by probing a space with R-symmetry twists. We show the equivalences between the two approaches and also discuss the M-theory realization.
From operator algebras to superconformal field theory
Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan)
2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We survey operator algebraic approach to (super)conformal field theory. We discuss representation theory, classification results, full and boundary conformal field theories, relations to supervertex operator algebras and Moonshine, connections to subfactor theory of Jones, and certain aspects of noncommutative geometry of Connes.
Invariants for Tendex and Vortex Fields
Kenneth A. Dennison; Thomas W. Baumgarte
2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z
Tendex and vortex fields, defined by the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl curvature tensor, form the basis of a recently developed approach to visualizing spacetime curvature. In analogy to electric and magnetic fields, these fields are coordinate-dependent. However, in a further analogy, we can form invariants from the tendex and vortex fields that are invariant under coordinate transformations, just as certain combinations of the electric and magnetic fields are invariant under coordinate transformations. We derive these invariants, and provide a simple, analytical demonstration for non-spherically symmetric slices of a Schwarzschild spacetime.
Topics in low-dimensional field theory
Crescimanno, M.J.
1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
Conformal field theory is a natural tool for understanding two- dimensional critical systems. This work presents results in the lagrangian approach to conformal field theory. The first sections are chiefly about a particular class of field theories called coset constructions and the last part is an exposition of the connection between two-dimensional conformal theory and a three-dimensional gauge theory whose lagrangian is the Chern-Simons density.
Variational methods for field theories
Ben-Menahem, S.
1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.
Smooth Field Theories and Homotopy Field Theories
Wilder, Alan Cameron
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CHAPTER 3. FIELD THEORIES Definition 3.2.1. A smooth fielda ’top down’ definition of field theories. Taking as ourin the following. Definition A field theory is a symmetric
Internal split field generator
Thundat; Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)
2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.
David L. Field Curriculum vitae (April 2011) 1 Full name: David Luke Field
Barrett, C.H.
radiations, and the importance of polyploidy in adaptation. My research integrates different approaches Curriculum vitae (April 2011) 2 Manuscripts in Preparation Field DL, Pickup M, Barrett SCH (in prep) Sex ratio variation in flowering plants. Field DL, Pickup M, Barrett SCH (in prep) The influence
Reactive facies: An approach for parameterizing field-scale reactive
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,SeparationConnect JournalPentoxide.Conference: Radiative Penguin Decays atmechanismsCapsules
Reactive facies: An approach for parameterizing field-scale reactive
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,SeparationConnect JournalPentoxide.Conference: Radiative Penguin Decays atmechanismsCapsulestransport models
An approach for faster high field magnet technology development
Hafalia, R.R.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
inaugural test of the new Subsea Ie Magnet Test Faci lity.took about 4 hours. Fig. 5. Subsea Ie module being prepared
Noncommutative instantons: a new approach
Albert Schwarz
2001-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss instantons on noncommutative four-dimensional Euclidean space. In commutative case one can consider instantons directly on Euclidean space, then we should restrict ourselves to the gauge fields that are gauge equivalent to the trivial field at infinity. However, technically it is more convenient to work on four-dimensional sphere. We will show that the situation in noncommutative case is quite similar. One can analyze instantons taking as a starting point the algebra of smooth functions vanishing at infinity, but it is convenient to add a unit element to this algebra (this corresponds to a transition to a sphere at the level of topology). Our approach is more rigorous than previous considerations ; it seems that it is also simpler and more transparent. In particular, we obtain the ADHM equations in a very simple way.
Neutron stars in the BPS Skyrme model: mean-field limit vs. full field theory
Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Vazquez, R; Wereszczynski, A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using a solitonic model of nuclear matter, the BPS Skyrme model, we compare neutron stars obtained in the full field theory, where gravitational back reaction is completely taken into account, with calculations in a mean-field approximation using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff approach. In the latter case, a mean-field-theory equation of state is derived from the original BPS field theory. We show that in the full field theory, where the energy density is non-constant even at equilibrium, there is no universal and coordinate independent equation of state of nuclear matter, in contrast to the mean-field approximation. We also study how neutron star properties are modified by going beyond mean field theory, and find that the differences between mean field theory and exact results can be considerable.
A Variational Approach to MR Bias Correction
Willsky, Alan S.
A Variational Approach to MR Bias Correction Ayres Fan Stochastic Systems Group July 17, 2003 With W. Wells, J. Fisher, M. Cetin, S. Haker, R. Mulkern, C. Tempany, A. Willsky #12;Outline 1 inhomogeneity that corrupts magnetic resonance (MR) images. Correcting for the bias field makes both human
A Variational Approach to MR Bias Correction
Willsky, Alan S.
A Variational Approach to MR Bias Correction Ayres Fan, W. Wells, J. Fisher, M. Cetin, S. Haker, A that corrupts magnetic resonance (MR) images. Correcting for the bias field makes both human analysis (e that encourages smoothness in b and piecewise smoothness in f: We generally choose p 1 to help preserve edges D
Field-theoretical treatment of neutrino oscillations
Grimus, Walter; Stockinger, P
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source -- detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes.
Field-theoretical treatment of neutrino oscillations
W. Grimus; S. Mohanty; P. Stockinger
1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source -- detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes.
Field theoretic simulations of polymer nanocomposites
Koski, Jason; Chao, Huikuan; Riggleman, Robert A., E-mail: rrig@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)
2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer field theory has emerged as a powerful tool for describing the equilibrium phase behavior of complex polymer formulations, particularly when one is interested in the thermodynamics of dense polymer melts and solutions where the polymer chains can be accurately described using Gaussian models. However, there are many systems of interest where polymer field theory cannot be applied in such a straightforward manner, such as polymer nanocomposites. Current approaches for incorporating nanoparticles have been restricted to the mean-field level and often require approximations where it is unclear how to improve their accuracy. In this paper, we present a unified framework that enables the description of polymer nanocomposites using a field theoretic approach. This method enables straightforward simulations of the fully fluctuating field theory for polymer formulations containing spherical or anisotropic nanoparticles. We demonstrate our approach captures the correlations between particle positions, present results for spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles, and we explore the effect of the numerical parameters on the performance of our approach.
Process development for a field emission structure
Legg, James Derek
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, thereby decreasing the electric field and the magnitude of electron emission. The ions are created when residual gases become ionized by the extremely high fields and are attracted and accelerated towards the negatively biased cathode. This brings about... are still required to stimulate significant electron emission. An ultrahigh vacuum (typically 10 torr or better) is required by these devices or the problems of adsorption of contaminants and ion sputtering will still exist. An alternative approach...
Computer Stochastics in Scalar Quantum Field Theory
C. B. Lang
1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
This is a series of lectures on Monte Carlo results on the non-perturbative, lattice formulation approach to quantum field theory. Emphasis is put on 4D scalar quantum field theory. I discuss real space renormalization group, fixed point properties and logarithmic corrections, partition function zeroes, the triviality bound on the Higgs mass, finite size effects, Goldstone bosons and chiral perturbation theory, and the determination of scattering phase shifts for some scalar models.
Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting | Department of Energy
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a g e OctoberEnergy FormerSites |BGE'sOctober 29, 2010 |2 OMB ControlNSRC_MOU.pdfNTERA C T S
Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasma | Department of EnergyBrakingDepartment ofProgram Sent:Light-Duty Lean GDIPrinciplesUp Georgiaand
STATE OF CALIFORNIA AUTOMATIC DAYLIGHTING CONTROL ACCEPTANCE DOCUMENT
performance test light meter power measurement, and default look up table of fraction of rated power versus of perjury, under the laws of the State of California, the information provided on this form is true wattmeter or ampmeter measurement LTG3A Page5 & 6 Stepped Switching/ Stepped Dimming functional
Interfacing BIM with Building Thermal and Daylighting Modeling
Yan, Wei; Clayton, Mark; Haberl, Jeff; WoonSeong, Jeong; Bun Kim, Jong; Sandeep, Kota; Bermudez, Jose; Dixit, Manish
) and under continued development. The execution time of Modelica building system models can be comparable with TRNSYS if experimental controls are carefully made (Wetter and Haugstetter 2006). However, with the existing LBNL’s Modelica Buildings library... 600 TOOLS LOADS(KW) DATE HOUR ESP 3.437 4-Jan 5 BLAST 3.940 4-Jan 5 DOE2 4.045 4-Jan 5 SRES/SUN 4.258 4-Jan 2 TRNSYS 3.931 4-Jan 6 LBNL Buildings 4.229 4-Jan 5 PBIM 4.248 4-Jan 5 Table 2 Annual hourly integrated peak cooling loads of Case 600...
CBEI - Enhancing OpenStudio for Airflow and Daylight Modeling
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankShale_Gas.pdfService on the TargetFY12Environmentto WholeII -Langston 1Table o
Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption,
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Department ofFormerCommittee: Notice of Open Meeting and Webinar |ofWater Heaters |ProgramReport to
Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption,
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
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Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services | Department of Energy
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirtA Journey Inside the Complex and PowerfulJosephCenterCenter (LMI-EFRC) - PaulChoices to SaveÂ» Lighting
Lighting and Daylighting Products and Services | Department of Energy
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318Cubic Feet)89312 Investigation Peer Review 2012Principles and Terms Lightingand
Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP aCentrotherm PhotovoltaicsDOI-BLM-NV-W030-20??-????-CXDawu Silicon Park Co Ltd Jump to:Day,
Building Information Modeling (BIM)-Based Daylighting Simulation and Analysis
Kota, S.; Haberl, J.S.; Clayton, M.; Yan, W.
of creating geometry. These limitations are generally a specific method or way of defining geometry. For example in Desktop Radiance in order to create a window in a wall, the window glass has to be modeled as a single surface and the wall surface hosting... was provided to us by the project team. Figure 10 shows the floor plan and 3D views of the house. The main hall of the house has windows on the north wall, which are clear storyclearstory windows (Figure 10B) and the curtain panel windows on the south wall...
What is Daylight: Understanding the Sky as a
Ahmad, Sajjad
· Climate or average weather primarily a function of the sun. · Distribution of land masses affect winds · Introduction · Climate · Solar Geometry · Site Analysis · Orientation and solar radiation · Sun charts. #12;Bioclimatic Design · Psychometric chart Air temperature Humidity Air velocity Mean radiant
CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR
Bryan, Harvey J.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
within a room utilizing sky luminance distribution functionsis a function of the sky luminance, the window transmission,normal. The CIE Standard Sky luminance function is given by
CALCULATING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION WITH A PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCULATOR
Bryan, Harvey J.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
illumination at any sky luminance distribution functionsis a function the sky luminance, the window transmission,4. 2 1 of Luminance Distribution on Clear Skies 1 11 CIE
Two Similarity Measure Approaches to Whole Building Fault Diagnosis
Lin, G.; Claridge, D.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
similarity are defined and the methodology for implementing the proposed whole building fault diagnosis approaches is presented. Cosine similarity and Euclidean distance similarity are applied to two field observed fault test cases, and both the cosine...
An efficient Bayesian approach to history matching and uncertainty assessment
Yuan, Chengwu
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
the posterior probability distribution using Randomized Maximum Likelihood method, an approximate Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms. We apply this approach in a field case from the Goldsmith San Andres Unit (GSAU) in West Texas. In the application, we show...
A model approach to radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield
Haszeldine, Stuart
of the BorrowdaleVolcanic Group (BVG).Nirex plan to site their nuclear waste Repository at 650 m below sea- level, and value in producing a numerical safety target which can be compared to field measurements. APPROACH
Bulk from Bi-locals in Thermo Field CFT
Jevicki, Antal
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Large $N$ dynamics of the $O(N)$ field theory in the Thermo field approach. Concentrating on the singlet bi-local space within the systematic $1/N$ framework of collective field theory we discuss the emergent bulk space-time and construct the associated (Higher spin) fields. We note the presence of `evanescent' modes in this construction and also the mixing of spins at finite temperature.
Bulk from Bi-locals in Thermo Field CFT
Antal Jevicki; Junggi Yoon
2015-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Large $N$ dynamics of the $O(N)$ field theory in the Thermo field approach. Concentrating on the singlet bi-local space within the systematic $1/N$ framework of collective field theory we discuss the emergent bulk space-time and construct the associated (Higher spin) fields. We note the presence of `evanescent' modes in this construction and also the mixing of spins at finite temperature.
External split field generator
Thundat, Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)
2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PV MODULES RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STC RATING AND FIELD PERFORMANCE
Sites, James R.
in the spectral distribution. They depend on average annual daylight temperature, but only very weakly on the temperature distribution. The two key module parameters that control the effective efficiency are series, such as standard test conditions (STC) with one-sun irradiance (1 kW/m 2 , AM1.5 spectrum) and cell temperature (Tj
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Whole-floor effective lighting power density (LPD) for oneto an installed lighting power density considered necessarythat has the maximum Lighting Power Density (LPD) allowed by
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Whole-floor effective lighting power density (LPD) for oneto an installed lighting power density considered necessarythat has the maximum Lighting Power Density (LPD) allowed by
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Building Council (2009). LEED 2009 for New Construction andBuilding Council. (2006). LEED-NC (Leadership in Energy andDesign) Version 2.2. www.usgbc.org/LEED/ U.S. Green Building
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Building Council (2009). LEED 2009 for New Construction andBuilding Council. (2006). LEED-NC (Leadership in Energy andDesign) Version 2.2. www.usgbc.org/LEED/ U.S. Green Building
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the integration of architecture and sustainable engineeringthe integration of architecture and sustainable engineeringArchitecture University of California, Berkeley Professor Charles C. Benton, Chair Commercial office buildings promoted as “sustainable,” “
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the integration of architecture and sustainable engineeringthe integration of architecture and sustainable engineeringArchitecture, UC Berkeley 2011 vi http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7q35m7nq List of figures Figure 1.1 Example “sustainable”
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Characterizing occupant behavior in buildings: Towards aoccupants or how occupant behavior affects the anticipatedEQ credit) compare with occupant behavior and subjective
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Characterizing occupant behavior in buildings: Towards aoccupants or how occupant behavior affects the anticipatedEQ credit) compare with occupant behavior and subjective
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fall Equinox) 128 Figureconducted from the vernal equinox to winter solstice (N = 25near summer solstice, fall equinox, and winter solstice
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fall Equinox) 128 Figureconducted from the vernal equinox to winter solstice (N = 25near summer solstice, fall equinox, and winter solstice
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Society of North America. Luminance ratio limits; ch. 11,UGR) Vertical illuminance Average window luminance Maximumwindow luminance Ratio of average window luminance to
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Society of North America. Luminance ratio limits; ch. 11,UGR) Vertical illuminance Average window luminance Maximumwindow luminance Ratio of average window luminance to
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
facade) and average sky luminance (measured from the back ofsky conditions (January 7, 2007), average window luminancessky conditions) with falsecolor tone mapping (yellow indicates luminance
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
facade) and average sky luminance (measured from the back ofsky conditions (January 7, 2007), average window luminancessky conditions) with falsecolor tone mapping (yellow indicates luminance
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
facade) and average sky luminance (measured from the back ofsky conditions (January 7, 2007), average window luminancessky conditions (August 26, 2006), measured average window luminances
Konis, Kyle Stas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the summer solstice and autumn equinox (June 21 - Sept. 22),of the year after the autumn equinox, performance is shown
Konis, Kyle Stas
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the summer solstice and autumn equinox (June 21 - Sept. 22),of the year after the autumn equinox, performance is shown
High-field instability of a field-induced triplon Bose-Einstein condensate
Rakhimov, Abdulla [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent 100214 (Uzbekistan); Sherman, E. Ya. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Basque Country, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science, Alameda Urquijo 36-5, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Kim, Chul Koo [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study properties of magnetic field-induced Bose-Einstein condensate of triplons as a function of temperature and the field within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach including the anomalous density. We show that the magnetization is continuous across the transition, in agreement with the experiment. In sufficiently strong fields the condensate becomes unstable due to triplon-triplon repulsion. As a result, the system is characterized by two critical magnetic fields: one producing the condensate and the other destroying it. We show that nonparabolic triplon dispersion arising due to the gapped bare spectrum and the crystal structure has a strong influence on the phase diagram.
Strong and weak gravitational field in $R+?^4/R$ gravity
Kh. Saaidi; A. Vajdi; S. W. Rabiei; A. Aghamohammadi; H. Sheikhahmadi
2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a new approach for investigating the weak field limit of vacuum field equations in $f(R)$ gravity and we find the weak field limit of $f(R)=R+\\mu ^4/R$ gravity. Furthermore, we study the strong gravity regime in $R+\\mu^{4}/R$ model of $f(R)$ gravity. We show the existence of strong gravitational field in vacuum for such model. We find out in the limit $\\mu\\rightarrow 0$, the weak field limit and the strong gravitational field can be regarded as a perturbed Schwarzschild metric.
Introduction Classical Field Theory
Baer, Christian
Introduction Classical Field Theory Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory Renormalization Time evolution Conclusions and outlook Locality and Algebraic Structures in Field Theory Klaus Fredenhagen IIÂ¨utsch and Pedro Lauridsen Ribeiro) Klaus Fredenhagen Locality and Algebraic Structures in Field Theory #12
General Covariance in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Romeo Brunetti; Martin Porrmann; Giuseppe Ruzzi
2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
In this review we report on how the problem of general covariance is treated within the algebraic approach to quantum field theory by use of concepts from category theory. Some new results on net cohomology and superselection structure attained in this framework are included.
Renormalization of Noncommutative Quantum Field Theories
Amilcar R. de Queiroz; Rahul Srivastava; Sachindeo Vaidya
2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
We report on a comprehensive analysis of the renormalization of noncommutative \\phi^4 scalar field theories on the Groenewold-Moyal (GM) plane. These scalar field theories are twisted Poincar\\'e invariant. Our main results are that these scalar field theories are renormalizable, free of UV/IR mixing, possess the same fixed points and \\beta-functions for the couplings as their commutative counterparts. We also argue that similar results hold true for any generic noncommutative field theory with polynomial interactions and involving only pure matter fields. A secondary aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive review of different approaches for the computation of the noncommutative S-matrix: noncommutative interaction picture and noncommutative LSZ formalism.
Tetration: an iterative approach
R. Aldrovandi
2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z
A matrix approach to continuous iteration is proposed for general formal series. It leads, in particular, to an order{to{order iteration of the exponential function, and consequently to an algorithmic approach to tetration. Lower{order approximations suggest that tetration may come to be of great interest for the description of involved dynamical systems.
Group field theories generating polyhedral complexes
Johannes Thürigen
2015-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
Group field theories are a generalization of matrix models which provide both a second quantized reformulation of loop quantum gravity as well as generating functions for spin foam models. While states in canonical loop quantum gravity, in the traditional continuum setting, are based on graphs with vertices of arbitrary valence, group field theories have been defined so far in a simplicial setting such that states have support only on graphs of fixed valency. This has led to the question whether group field theory can indeed cover the whole state space of loop quantum gravity. In this contribution based on [1] I present two new classes of group field theories which satisfy this objective: i) a straightforward, but rather formal generalization to multiple fields, one for each valency and ii) a simplicial group field theory which effectively covers the larger state space through a dual weighting, a technique common in matrix and tensor models. To this end I will further discuss in some detail the combinatorial structure of the complexes generated by the group field theory partition function. The new group field theories do not only strengthen the links between the mentioned quantum gravity approaches but, broadening the theory space of group field theories, they might also prove useful in the investigation of renormalizability.
Test Functions Space in Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory
M. Chaichian; M. Mnatsakanova; A. Tureanu; Yu. Vernov
2008-07-26T23:59:59.000Z
It is proven that the $\\star$-product of field operators implies that the space of test functions in the Wightman approach to noncommutative quantum field theory is one of the Gel'fand-Shilov spaces $S^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta test functions smears the noncommutative Wightman functions, which are in this case generalized distributions, sometimes called hyperfunctions. The existence and determination of the class of the test function spaces in NC QFT is important for any rigorous treatment in the Wightman approach.
Optical Approach to Gravitational Redshift
Y. G. Yi
2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
An optical approach begins by interpreting the gravitational redshift resulting to a change in the relative velocity of light due to the medium of propagation in the gravitational field. The discussion continues by pointing out an agreement in structure between the equation for rays in geometrical optics and the geodesic equation of general relativity. From their comparison we learn that the path of rays should be given by the relation $ds^2=n^2(r)dr^2+r^2d\\theta^2$, not by $ds^2=dr^2+r^2d\\theta^2$, in a medium with spherical symmetry of refractive index $n(r)$. The development of an optical analogy suggests introducing $n^2(r)$ in place of $g_{rr}$ as an optical version of the Schwarzschild metric. In form and content, $n^2(r)$ is different from $g_{rr}$. The optical point of view replaces the general-relativity explanations in terms of time and gravitation.
Functional Approach to Electrodynamics of Media
R. Starke; G. A. H. Schober
2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z
In this article, we put forward a new approach to electrodynamics of materials. Based on the identification of induced electromagnetic fields as the microscopic counterparts of polarization and magnetization, we systematically employ the mutual functional dependencies of induced, external and total field quantities. This allows for a unified, relativistic description of the electromagnetic response without assuming the material to be composed of electric or magnetic dipoles. Using this approach, we derive universal (material-independent) relations between electromagnetic response functions such as the dielectric tensor, the magnetic susceptibility and the microscopic conductivity tensor. Our formulae can be reduced to well-known identities in special cases, but more generally include the effects of inhomogeneity, anisotropy, magnetoelectric coupling and relativistic retardation. If combined with the Kubo formalism, they would also lend themselves to the ab initio calculation of all linear electromagnetic response functions.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
OIL & GAS FIELD OUTLINES FROM BUFFERED WELLS The VBA Code below builds oil & gas field boundary outlines (polygons) from buffered wells (points). Input well points layer must be a...
Hull, Chris
The zero modes of closed strings on a torus — the torus coordinates plus dual coordinates conjugate to winding number — parameterize a doubled torus. In closed string field theory, the string field depends on all zero-modes ...
Kaiser, David I.
Particle cosmology is among the hottest of hot topics in physics today. The field investigates the smallest units of matter and their role in determining the shape and fate of the entire universe. In recent years the field ...
Compact approach to fusion power reactors
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) for development into an efficient, compact, copper-coil fusion reactor has been quantified by comprehensive parametric tradeoff studies. These compact systems promise to be competitive in size, power density, and cost to alternative energy sources. Conceptual engineering designs that largely substantiate these promising results have since been completed. This 1000-MWe(net) design is described along with a detailed rationale and physics/technology assessment for the compact approach to fusion.
A Casimir approach to dark energy
Allan Rosencwaig
2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the gravitational self-energy of vacuum quantum field fluctuations using a Casimir approach. We find that the Casimir gravitational self-energy density can account for the measured dark energy density when the SUSY-breaking energy is approximately 5 TeV, in good agreement with current estimates. Furthermore, the Casimir gravitational self-energy appears to provide a quantum mechanism for the well-know geometric relation between the Planck, SUSY and cosmological constant energy scales.
Distributions of Fourier modes of cosmological density fields
Fan, Z.; Bardeen, J.M. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)
1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the probability distributions of Fourier modes of cosmological density fields using the central limit theorem is it applies to weighted integrals of random fields. It is shown that if the cosmological principle holds in a certain sense, i.e., the Universe approaches homogeneity and isotropy sufficiently rapidly on very large scales, the one-point distribution of each Fourier mode of the density field is Gaussian whether or not the density field itself is Gaussian. Therefore, one-point distributions of the power spectrum obtained from observational data or from simulations are not a good test of whether the density field is Gaussian.
Some convolution products in Quantum Field Theory
Herintsitohaina Ratsimbarison
2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
This paper aims to show constructions of scale dependence and interaction on some probabilistic models which may be revelant for renormalization theory in Quantum Field Theory. We begin with a review of the convolution product's use in the Kreimer-Connes formalism of perturbative renormalization. We show that the Wilson effective action can be obtained from a convolution product propriety of regularized Gaussian measures on the space of fields. Then, we propose a natural C*-algebraic framework for scale dependent field theories which may enhance the conceptual approach to renormalization theory. In the same spirit, we introduce a probabilistic construction of interacting theories for simple models and apply it for quantum field theory by defining a partition function in this setting.
Covariant Hamiltonian Field Theory
Jürgen Struckmeier; Andreas Redelbach
2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
A consistent, local coordinate formulation of covariant Hamiltonian field theory is presented. Whereas the covariant canonical field equations are equivalent to the Euler-Lagrange field equations, the covariant canonical transformation theory offers more general means for defining mappings that preserve the form of the field equations than the usual Lagrangian description. It is proved that Poisson brackets, Lagrange brackets, and canonical 2-forms exist that are invariant under canonical transformations of the fields. The technique to derive transformation rules for the fields from generating functions is demonstrated by means of various examples. In particular, it is shown that the infinitesimal canonical transformation furnishes the most general form of Noether's theorem. We furthermore specify the generating function of an infinitesimal space-time step that conforms to the field equations.
Electromagnetic Field Quantization in Time-Dependent Dielectric Media
Xiao-Min Bei; Zhong-Zhu Liu
2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z
We present a Gupta-Bleuler quantization scheme for the electromagnetic field in time-dependent dielectric media. Starting from the Maxwell equations, a generalization of the Lorentz gauge condition adapted to time varying dielectrics is derived. Using this gauge, a Gupta-Bleuler approach to quantize all polarizations of the radiation field and the corresponding constraint condition are introduced. This new approach is different from the quantized electromagnetic field in vacuum in the sense that here the contributions of unphysical photons cannot be thoroughly eliminated, which further lead to a surface charge density. Finally, a discussion of potential experimental tests and possible implication is also made.
Fields of an ultrashort tightly-focused laser pulse
Li, Jian-Xing; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic fields of an ultrashort, tightly focused, laser pulse in vacuum are derived from scalar and vector potentials, using on equal footing two small parameters connected with the waist size of the laser beam and its duration. Compared with fields derived from a complex-source-point approach and a Lax series expansion approach, the derived fields are shown to be well-behaved and accurate even in the subcycle pulse regime. Terms stemming from the scalar potential are shown to be non-negligible and could significantly influence laser-matter interactions, in particular, direct electron acceleration in vacuum by an ultrashort laser pulse.
Ginzburg-Landau Approach to Holographic Superconductivity
Aldo Dector
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We construct a family of minimal phenomenological models for holographic superconductors in d=4+1 AdS spacetime and study the effect of scalar and gauge field fluctuations. By making a Ginzburg-Landau interpretation of the dual field theory, we determine through holographic techniques a phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian and the temperature dependence of physical quantities in the superconducting phase. We obtain insight on the behaviour of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter and whether the systems behaves as a Type I or Type II superconductor. Finally, we apply a constant external magnetic field in a perturbative approach following previous work by D'Hoker and Kraus, and obtain droplet solutions which signal the appearance of the Meissner effect.
BASHIR et al.: GAIT REPRESENTATION USING FLOW FIELDS 1 Gait Representation Using Flow Fields
Gong, Shaogang
the human body configuration (e.g. 2D/3D skeletons) and the model parameters estimated over time encode approaches such as Gait Energy Image (GEI) and Motion Silhouettes Image (MSI) capture only the motion inten unchanged freely in print or electronic forms. #12;2 BASHIR et al.: GAIT REPRESENTATION USING FLOW FIELDS
Gravitational Field of the Early Universe: I.Non-linear Scalar Field as the Source
S. V. Chervon
1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
In this review article we consider three most important sources of the gravitational field of the Early Universe: self-interacting scalar field, chiral field and gauge field. The correspondence between all of them are pointed out. More attention is payed to nonlinear scalar field source of gravity. The progress in finding the exact solutions in inflationary universe is reviewed. The basic idea of `fine turning of the potential' method is discussed and computational background is presented in details. A set of new exact solutions for standard inflationary model and conformally-flat space-times are obtained. Special attention payed to relations between `fine turning of the potential' and Barrow's approaches. As the example of a synthesis of both methods new exact solution is obtained.
The Kurtosis of the Cosmic Shear Field
Masahiro Takada; Bhuvnesh Jain
2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
We study the fourth-order moment of the cosmic shear field using the dark matter halo approach to describe the nonlinear gravitational evolution of structure in the universe. Since the third-order moment of the shear field vanishes because of symmetry, non-Gaussian signatures in its one-point statistics emerge at the fourth-order level. We argue that the shear kurtosis parameter S_4 = /^3 may be more directly applicable to realistic data than the well-studied higher-order statistics of the convergence field, since obtaining the convergence requires a non-local reconstruction from the measured shear field. We compare our halo model predictions for the variance, skewness and kurtosis of lensing fields with ray-tracing simulations of cold dark matter models and find good agreement. The shear kurtosis calculation is made tractable by developing approximations for fast and accurate evaluations of the 8-dimensional integrals needed to obtain the kurtosis. We show that on small scales it is dominated by correlations within halos more massive than 10^14 solar masses. The shear kurtosis is sensitive to the mass density parameter of the universe, Omega, and has relatively weak dependences on other parameters. The approximations we develop for the third- and fourth-order moments allow for accurate halo model predictions for the 3-dimensional mass distribution as well. We demonstrate their accuracy in the small scale regime, below 2 Mpc, where analytical approaches used in the literature so far cease to be accurate.
ENERGY SMART SCHOOLS - APPLIED RESEARCH, FIELD TESTING, AND TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
Kate Burke
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This multi-state collaborative project will coordinate federal, state, and private sector resources and high-priority school-related energy research under a comprehensive initiative that includes tasks that increase adoption of advanced energy efficiency high-performance technologies in both renovation of existing schools and building new ones; educate and inform school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide as to the energy, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improve the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in schools.
Energy conditions and classical scalar fields
S. Bellucci; V. Faraoni
2001-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
Attention has been recently called upon the fact that the weak and null energy conditions and the second law of thermodynamics are violated in wormhole solutions of Einstein's theory with classical, nonminimally coupled, scalar fields as material source. It is shown that the discussion is only meaningful when ambiguities in the definitions of stress-energy tensor and energy density of a nonminimally coupled scalar are resolved. The three possible approaches are discussed with emphasis on the positivity of the respective energy densities and covariant conservation laws. The root of the ambiguities is traced to the energy localization problem for the gravitational field.
Noncommutative Time in Quantum Field Theory
Tapio Salminen; Anca Tureanu
2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze, starting from first principles, the quantization of field theories, in order to find out to which problems a noncommutative time would possibly lead. We examine the problem in the interaction picture (Tomonaga-Schwinger equation), the Heisenberg picture (Yang-Feldman-K\\"all\\'{e}n equation) and the path integral approach. They all indicate inconsistency when time is taken as a noncommutative coordinate. The causality issue appears as the key aspect, while the unitarity problem is subsidiary. These results are consistent with string theory, which does not admit a time-space noncommutative quantum field theory as its low-energy limit, with the exception of light-like noncommutativity.
Schwinger functions in noncommutative quantum field theory
Dorothea Bahns
2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that the $n$-point functions of scalar massive free fields on the noncommutative Minkowski space are distributions which are boundary values of analytic functions. Contrary to what one might expect, this construction does not provide a connection to the popular traditional Euclidean approach to noncommutative field theory (unless the time variable is assumed to commute). Instead, one finds Schwinger functions with twistings involving only momenta that are on the mass-shell. This explains why renormalization in the traditional Euclidean noncommutative framework crudely differs from renormalization in the Minkowskian regime.
A New Approach to The Quantum Mechanics
Yulei Feng
2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we try to give a new approach to the quantum mechanics(QM) on the framework of quantum field theory(QFT). Firstly, we make a detail study on the (non-relativistic) Schr\\"odinger field theory, obtaining the Schr\\"odinger equation as a field equation, after field quantization, the Heisenberg equations for the momentum and position operators of the particles excited from the (Schr\\"odinger) field and the Feynman path integral formula of QM are also obtained. We then give the probability concepts of quantum mechanics in terms of a statistical ensemble, realizing the ensemble(or statistical) interpretation. With these, we make a series of conceptual modifications to the standard quantum mechanics, especially propose a new assumption about the quantum measurement theory which can solve the EPR paradox from the view of the QFT. Besides, a field theoretical description to the double-slit interference experiment is developed, obtaining the required particle number distribution. In the end, we extend all the above concepts to the relativistic case so that the ensemble interpretation is still proper. Two extra topics are added, in the first one, an operable experiment is proposed to distinguish the Copenhagen interpretation from the ensemble one via very different experimental results. While the second topic concerns with the extensions of the concept of coherent state to both the Bosonic and Fermionic field cases, to obtain the corresponding classical fields. And in the concluding section, we make some general comparisons between the standard QM and the one derived from the QFT, from which we claim that the QFT is the fundamental theory.
Field emission electron source
Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.
The Ness field: An integrated field study
Karasek, R.M.; Kean, K.R.; Richards, M.L. (Mobil North Sea Ltd., London (England))
1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Ness oil field, located in UK Block 9/13, was discovered in May 1986 by well 9/13b-28A. The field comprises a high-quality Middle Jurassic reservoir with an average 148-ft oil column trapped in a west-dipping, fault-bounded closure. The oil is substantially undersaturated. The field was brought on production as a subsea satellite development tied back to the Beryl B Platform. Oil was first delivered on August 11, 1987, just over a year from discovery. Initial producing rates from the 9/13B-28A well averaged about 10,000 BOPD. Since this well, another producer and water injector have been completed. Based on the frequent and accurate pressure data available from permanent downhole gauges installed in all three wells of the Ness field, material balance was used to calculate initial oil in place. These calculations gave an oil in place value consistent with recent calculations of 87 {times} 166 STB after less than 3% of the oil-in-place had been produced, compared with 55 {times} 106 STB initially mapped. Pressure monitoring enabled reservoir drive mechanisms to be tracked and a high offtake rate to be maintained by balancing water injection with withdrawals. A reevaluation of the mapped structure was prompted by a revision of the geological model following the 9/13b-38/38Z appraisal wells, together with the discrepancy between the oil in place from mapping and material balance. The seismic data was reinterpreted using the additional well control, and the field remapped. This resulted in a revised volume of 129 {times} 106 STB. Additional insight into the differentiation between oil and water volumes in this low compressibility system and a resolution of the differences between material balance and volumetrics were obtained through a black-oil simulation.
Field Theory on Curved Noncommutative Spacetimes
Alexander Schenkel; Christoph F. Uhlemann
2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study classical scalar field theories on noncommutative curved spacetimes. Following the approach of Wess et al. [Classical Quantum Gravity 22 (2005), 3511 and Classical Quantum Gravity 23 (2006), 1883], we describe noncommutative spacetimes by using (Abelian) Drinfel'd twists and the associated *-products and *-differential geometry. In particular, we allow for position dependent noncommutativity and do not restrict ourselves to the Moyal-Weyl deformation. We construct action functionals for real scalar fields on noncommutative curved spacetimes, and derive the corresponding deformed wave equations. We provide explicit examples of deformed Klein-Gordon operators for noncommutative Minkowski, de Sitter, Schwarzschild and Randall-Sundrum spacetimes, which solve the noncommutative Einstein equations. We study the construction of deformed Green's functions and provide a diagrammatic approach for their perturbative calculation. The leading noncommutative corrections to the Green's functions for our examples are derived.
Lane, Michael
2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.
H. C. Potter
2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge transformations are potential transformations that leave only specific Maxwell fields invariant. To reveal more, I develop Lorenz field equations with full Maxwell form for nongauge, sans gauge function, transformations yielding mixed, superposed retarded and outgoing, potentials. The form invariant Lorenz condition is then a charge conservation equivalent. This allows me to define three transformation classes that screen for Lorenz relevance. The nongauge Lorentz conditions add polarization fields which support emergent, light-like rays that convey energy on charge conserving phase points. These localized rays escape discovery in modern Maxwell fields where the polarizations are suppressed by gauge transformations.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Lane, Michael
Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.
Field emission chemical sensor
Panitz, J.A.
1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.
Collaborative approaches to conservation
McIntyre, B.K. (Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Reznicek, B.W.
1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The willingness to listen and exchange ideas through collaboration can lead to the implementation of cost-effective conservation and other programs. This article describes the approach taken by Massachusetts regulators and Boston Edison to implement effective conservation and load management programs.
Current Approaches Acknowledgements
Auerbach, Scott M.
on developing regulations for agricultural antibiotic use by quantifying biomagnification. Tests regarding, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Amherst, MA 01003 The primary approach to fighting antibiotic resistance is the regulation of sub-therapeutic antibiotic use in agriculture. For example, the antibiotic fluoroquinolone
Selected Issues in Thermal Field Theory
Chihiro Sasaki
2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z
New developments on hot and dense QCD in effective field theories are reviewed. Recent investigations in lattice gauge theories for the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes suggest survival hadrons in restored phase of chiral symmetry. We discuss expected properties of those bound states in a medium using chiral approaches. The role of higher-lying hadrons near chiral symmetry restoration is also argued from the conventional and the holographic point of view.
A tomographic approach to inverse Mie particle characterization from scattered light
Jaffe, Jules
A tomographic approach to inverse Mie particle characterization from scattered light Jules S. Jaffe field of a homogeneous sphere from the observation of its scattered light field is explored. Using Fourier relationship between a component of the internal E-field and the scattered light in a preferred
Plasma-satellite interaction driven magnetic field perturbations
Saeed-ur-Rehman, E-mail: surehman@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Marchand, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Marchand@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We report the first fully kinetic quantitative estimate of magnetic field perturbations caused by the interaction of a spacecraft with space environment. Such perturbations could affect measurements of geophysical magnetic fields made with very sensitive magnetometers on-board satellites. Our approach is illustrated with a calculation of perturbed magnetic fields near the recently launched Swarm satellites. In this case, magnetic field perturbations do not exceed 20 pT, and they are below the sensitivity threshold of the on-board magnetometers. Anticipating future missions in which satellites and instruments would be subject to more intense solar UV radiation, however, it appears that magnetic field perturbations associated with satellite interaction with space environment, might approach or exceed instruments' sensitivity thresholds.
Localization and diffusion in polymer quantum field theory
Michele Arzano; Marco Letizia
2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer quantization is a non-standard approach to quantizing a classical system inspired by background independent approaches to quantum gravity such as loop quantum gravity. When applied to field theory it introduces a characteristic polymer scale at the level of the fields classical configuration space. Compared with models with space-time discreteness or non-commutativity this is an alternative way in which a characteristic scale can be introduced in a field theoretic context. Motivated by this comparison we study here localization and diffusion properties associated with polymer field observables and dispersion relation in order to shed some light on the novel physical features introduced by polymer quantization. While localization processes seems to be only mildly affected by polymer effects, we find that polymer diffusion differs significantly from the "dimensional reduction" picture emerging in other Planck-scale models beyond local quantum field theory.
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory III (Radiation Field)
Murayama, Hitoshi
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory III (Radiation Field) 1 Quantization of Radiation Field was quantized: photons. Now that we have gone through quantization of a classical field (Schr¨odinger field so far), we can proceed to quantize the Maxwell field. The basic idea is pretty much the same, except
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory IV (Radiation Field)
Murayama, Hitoshi
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory IV (Radiation Field) 1 Quantization of Radiation Field was quantized: photons. Now that we have gone through quantization of a classical field (Schr¨odinger field so far), we can proceed to quantize the Maxwell field. The basic idea is pretty much the same, except
Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet
Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University
Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet produces a magnetic field, B Set up a B field two ways: Moving electrically charged particles Current in a wire Intrinsic magnetic field Basic) Opposite magnetic poles attract like magnetic poles repel #12;Like the electric field lines
Peter G. O. Freund
2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
Erik Verlinde's proposal of the emergence of the gravitational force as an entropic force is extended to abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and to matter fields. This suggests a picture with no fundamental forces or forms of matter whatsoever.
Topological quantum field theories
Albert Schwarz
2000-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
Following my plenary lecture on ICMP2000 I review my results concerning two closely related topics: topological quantum field theories and the problem of quantization of gauge theories. I start with old results (first examples of topological quantum field theories were constructed in my papers in late seventies) and I come to some new results, that were not published yet.
Scalar Field Inhomogeneous Cosmologies
A. Feinstein; J. Ibáñez; P. Labraga
1995-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
Some exact solutions for the Einstein field equations corresponding to inhomogeneous $G_2$ cosmologies with an exponential-potential scalar field which generalize solutions obtained previously are considered. Several particular cases are studied and the properties related to generalized inflation and asymptotic behaviour of the models are discussed.
Dynamics of polymers: A mean-field theory
Fredrickson, Glenn H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Orland, Henri [Institut de Physique Théorique, CE-Saclay, CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Institut de Physique Théorique, CE-Saclay, CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
We derive a general mean-field theory of inhomogeneous polymer dynamics; a theory whose form has been speculated and widely applied, but not heretofore derived. Our approach involves a functional integral representation of a Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) type description of the exact many-chain dynamics. A saddle point approximation to the generating functional, involving conditions where the MSR action is stationary with respect to a collective density field ? and a conjugate MSR response field ?, produces the desired dynamical mean-field theory. Besides clarifying the proper structure of mean-field theory out of equilibrium, our results have implications for numerical studies of polymer dynamics involving hybrid particle-field simulation techniques such as the single-chain in mean-field method.
Coadjoint Orbits and Conformal Field Theory
Washington Taylor IV
1993-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis describes a new approach to conformal field theory. This approach combines the method of coadjoint orbits with resolutions and chiral vertex operators to give a construction of the correlation functions of conformal field theories in terms of geometrically defined objects. Explicit formulae are given for representations of Virasoro and affine algebras in terms of a local gauge choice on the line bundle associated with geometric quantization of a given coadjoint orbit; these formulae define a new set of explicit bosonic realizations of these algebras. The coadjoint orbit realizations take the form of dual Verma modules, making it possible to avoid the technical difficulties associated with the two-sided resolutions which arise from Feigin-Fuchs and Wakimoto realizations. Formulae are given for screening and intertwining operators on the coadjoint orbit representations. Chiral vertex operators between Virasoro modules are constructed, and related directly to Virasoro algebra generators in certain cases. From the point of view taken in this thesis, vertex operators have a geometric interpretation as differential operators taking sections of one line bundle to sections of another. A suggestion is made that by connecting this description with recent work deriving field theory actions from coadjoint orbits, a deeper understanding of the geometry of conformal field theory might be achieved.
Gauss-Bonnet holographic superconductors with magnetic field
M. R. Setare; D. Momeni
2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) holographic superconductors in the presence of an external magnetic field. We describe the phenomena away from the probe limit. We derive the critical magnetic field of the GB holographic superconductors with backreaction. Our analytical approach matches the numerical calculations. We calculate the backreaction corrections up to first order of $O(\\kappa^2=8\\pi G)$ to the critical temperature $T_C$ and the critical magnetic field $B_C$ for a GB superconductor. We show that the GB coupling $\\alpha$ makes the condensation weaker but the backreaction corrections $O(\\kappa^2)$ make the critical magnetic field stronger.
Causality and chance in relativistic quantum field theories
Richard Healey
2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z
Bell appealed to the theory of relativity in formulating his principle of local causality. But he maintained that quantum field theories do not conform to that principle, even when their field equations are relativistically covariant and their observable algebras satisfy a relativistically motivated microcausality condition. A pragmatist view of quantum theory and an interventionist approach to causation prompt the reevaluation of local causality and microcausality. Local causality cannot be understood as a reasonable requirement on relativistic quantum field theories: it is unmotivated even if applicable to them. But microcausality emerges as a sufficient condition for the consistent application of a relativistic quantum field theory.
Aspects of locally covariant quantum field theory
Ko Sanders
2008-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis considers various aspects of locally covariant quantum field theory (LCQFT; see Brunetti et al., Commun.Math.Phys. 237 (2003), 31-68), a mathematical framework to describe axiomatic quantum field theories in curved spacetimes. New results include: a philosophical interpretation of certain aspects of this framework in terms of modal logic; a proof that the truncated n-point functions of any Hadamard state of the free real scalar field are smooth, except for n=2; a description of he free Dirac field in a representation independent way, showing that the theory is determined entirely by the relations between the adjoint map, the charge conjugation map and the Dirac operator; a proof that the relative Cauchy evolution of the free Dirac field is related to its stress-energy-momentum tensor in the same way as for the free real scalar field (cf. loc.cit.); several results on the Reeh-Schlieder property in LCQFT, including but not limited to those of our earlier paper; a new and elegant approach to wave front sets of Banach space-valued distributions, which allows easy proofs and extensions of results in the literature.
Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields
Riccardo Schmid; B. Plaster; B. W. Filippone
2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}$He atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}$He samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}$He atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}$He atoms at temperatures below $600,\\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, while the $^{3}$He relaxation times may be important for the \\emph{nEDM} experiment.
Rebscher, D.; May, F.; Oldenburg, C.M.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
THE ALTMARK NATURAL GAS FIELD, GERMANY: MOBILITY CONTROL TOStilleweg 2 D-30655 Hannover Germany average 8 % (Schumachernatural gas reservoir, Germany. Our approach is numerical
Warm inflation with back - reaction: a stochastic approach
Mauricio Bellini
1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
I study a stochastic approach for warm inflation considering back - reaction of the metric with the fluctuations of matter field. This formalism takes into account the local inhomogeneities fo the spacetime in a globally flat Friedmann - Robertson - Walker metric. The stochastic equations for the fluctuations of the matter field and the metric are obtained. Finally, the dynamics for the amplitude of these fluctuations in a power - law expansion for the universe are examined.
Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.
Supersymmetric Yang Mills Fields and Black Holes ; In Ten Dimensional Unified Field Theory
Ajay Patwardhan
2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z
The Ten dimensional Unified field theory has a 4 dimensional Riemannian spacetime and six dimensional Calabi Yau space structure. The supersymmetric Yang Mills fields and black holes are solutions in these theories. The formation of primordial black holes in early universe, the collapse to singularity of stellar black holes, the Hawking evaporation of microscopic black holes in LHC are topics of observational and theoretical interest. The observation of gamma ray bursts and creation of spectrum of particles and radiation of dark and normal matter occur due to primordial and microscopic black holes. The approach to singularity in black hole interior solutions, require the Bogoliubov transforms of SUSY YM fields in black hole geometries; both during formation and in evaporation. The Hawking effect of radiating black holes is applicable for all the fields. Invariants can be defined to give the conditions for these processes.
Cosmology of Bifundamental Fields
Tanmay Vachaspati
2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
If a field theory contains gauged, non-Abelian, bi-fundamental fields i.e. fields that are charged under two separate non-Abelian gauge groups, the transition from a deconfined phase to a hadronic phase may be frustrated. Similar frustration may occur in non-Abelian gauge models containing matter only in higher dimensional representations e.g. models with pure glue, or if ordinary quarks are confined by two flux tubes, as implied in the triangular configuration of baryons within QCD. In a cosmological setting, such models can lead to the formation of a web of confining electric flux tubes that can potentially have observational signatures.
Grant, Martin
Modeling elastic and plastic deformations in nonequilibrium processing using phase field crystals K November 2004) A continuum field theory approach is presented for modeling elastic and plastic deformation the construction of a phase field model for the dynamics of crystal growth that includes elastic and plastic
viii Contents. Three Field Theory. 87—89. 90—95. 96—97. 98—107. 108—114. 115—121. De?nition and examples of ?eld structure 67. Vector spaces, bases ...
Manager, Carlsbad Field Office
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is seeking a highly experienced and motivated executive-minded individual to fill its...
Duble, Richard L.
1995-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
Coaches are often more concerned with injuries, personnel problems and opponents than with the condition of the turf on their playing fields. This publication discusses management strategies, including mowing, fertilizing, watering and renovating...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
please contact Mr. Anthony Stone at (575) 234-7475. flose R. FrManager Carlsbad Field Office Enclosure cc: wenclosure K. Roberts, NMED *ED R. Maestas, NMED ED S. Holmes, NMED ED...
2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
dfield8 Direction Fields. • The routine dfield8 is already loaded on all ITaP machines as standard software. To access MAtlAB from any ITaP machine: Start
Microdosimetry: An interdisciplinary approach
Goodhead, D.T.; O`Neill, P. [eds.] [Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom). Radiation and Genome Stability Unit; Menzel, H.G. [ed.] [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Science, Research and Development
1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The Twelfth Symposium on Microdosimetry was held at Keble College, Oxford, September 29--October 4, 1996. The aim of the meeting was to provide a forum to bring together experts in physics, chemistry, molecular and cell biology and oncogenesis, with a common interest in understanding molecular mechanisms that can be gained from studies of the dependence of radiation effects on radiation quality, to advance the application of microdosimetry to other fields such as medicine, to promote and advance education and training in the field of radiation sciences. These proceedings contain a selection of review articles presented by keynote speakers, complemented by original contributions from participants reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the field. The specific topics have been regrouped into sections to give the reader a more balanced view of that area. The topics are: Track structure and damage simulation; Chemical processes from radiation to DNA; Clustered DNA damage; Chromosome architecture and aberrations; Radiation quality and biological effectiveness; Risk extrapolation and cancer; Microdosimetry applied to radiotherapy; Microdistribution in tissues; Single particle effects; Proportional counter microdosimetry; and Nanodosimetric devices and other detectors. Separate abstracts for selected papers have been indexed for the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation
Wornell, Gregory W.
Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation Anthony Accardi1,2 and Gregory light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of coherent image formation that strikes a balance between the utility of the light field
A Kinetic Theory Approach to Quantum Gravity
B. L. Hu
2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a kinetic theory approach to quantum gravity -- by which we mean a theory of the microscopic structure of spacetime, not a theory obtained by quantizing general relativity. A figurative conception of this program is like building a ladder with two knotted poles: quantum matter field on the right and spacetime on the left. Each rung connecting the corresponding knots represent a distinct level of structure. The lowest rung is hydrodynamics and general relativity; the next rung is semiclassical gravity, with the expectation value of quantum fields acting as source in the semiclassical Einstein equation. We recall how ideas from the statistical mechanics of interacting quantum fields helped us identify the existence of noise in the matter field and its effect on metric fluctuations, leading to the establishment of the third rung: stochastic gravity, described by the Einstein-Langevin equation. Our pathway from stochastic to quantum gravity is via the correlation hierarchy of noise and induced metric fluctuations. Three essential tasks beckon: 1) Deduce the correlations of metric fluctuations from correlation noise in the matter field; 2) Reconstituting quantum coherence -- this is the reverse of decoherence -- from these correlation functions 3) Use the Boltzmann-Langevin equations to identify distinct collective variables depicting recognizable metastable structures in the kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes of quantum matter fields and how they demand of their corresponding spacetime counterparts. This will give us a hierarchy of generalized stochastic equations -- call them the Boltzmann-Einstein hierarchy of quantum gravity -- for each level of spacetime structure, from the macroscopic (general relativity) through the mesoscopic (stochastic gravity) to the microscopic (quantum gravity).
Effects of the local structure dependence of evaporation fields on field evaporation behavior
Yao, Lan; Restrepo, Oscar D; Windl, Wolfgang; Marquis, Emmanuelle A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Accurate three dimensional reconstructions of atomic positions, and full quantification of the information contained in atom probe tomography data relies on understanding the physical processes taking place during field evaporation of atoms from needle-shaped specimens. However, the modeling framework for atom probe tomography has remained qualitative at best. Building on the continuum field models previously developed, we introduce a more physical approach with the selection of evaporation events based on density functional theory calculations. This new model reproduces key features observed experimentally in terms of sequence of evaporation, desorption maps, and depth resolution, and provides insights into the physical limit for spatial resolution.
Active Thermal Extraction of Near-field Thermal Radiation
Ding, Ding
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radiative heat transport between materials supporting surface-phonon polaritons is greatly enhanced when the materials are placed at sub-wavelength separation as a result of the contribution of near-field surface modes. However, the enhancement is limited to small separations due to the evanescent decay of the surface waves. In this work, we propose and numerically demonstrate an active scheme to extract these modes to the far-field. Our approach exploits the monochromatic nature of near-field thermal radiation to drive a transition in a laser gain medium, which, when coupled with external optical pumping, allows the resonant surface mode to be emitted into the far-field. Our study demonstrates a new approach to manipulate thermal radiation that could find applications in thermal management.
Termination of algebraic type systems: the syntactic approach
van Raamsdonk, Femke
Termination of algebraic type systems: the syntactic approach Gilles Barthe and Femke van Raamsdonk applications in proofÂchecking. A natural question in this field concerns the termination or strong normalisation of such systems and is as follows: given a terminating type system T and a terminating rewriting
A Developmental Genetics-Inspired Approach to Robot Sanjeev Kumar
George Mason University
, scalable, and complex technol- ogy capable of adaptation, self-assembly, and self-repair has fuelled renewed interest in using approaches inspired by de- velopmental biology. To meet this need, a new field, called Computational Development (CD), has emerged. Its focus is on adapting processes and mechanisms
A NONLINEAR LEARNING CONTROL APPROACH FOR A CEMENT MILLING PROCESS
Efe, Mehmet Önder
A NONLINEAR LEARNING CONTROL APPROACH FOR A CEMENT MILLING PROCESS 1 OGUZ H. DAGCI, 2 M. ÖNDER EFE, control of a cement milling circuit is studied with time-varying set values, time-varying plant parameters popularity since the field of nonlinear control still does not offer systematized procedures. Cement mill
The Options Approach to Software Prototyping Decisions 1
. The field of real option theory in finance provides a rigorous framework to analyze the optimal exercise; Keywords: Software engineering, economics, prototyping, real options, sequential invest ing, financialThe Options Approach to Software Prototyping Decisions 1 Prasad Chalasani Somesh Jha Kevin Sullivan
Revisiting the gauge fields of strained graphene
Iorio, Alfredo
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We join the on-going debate on the nature of the gauge fields arising when straining graphene, hopefully adding clarity to the debate, especially in view of the use of graphene as a table-top indirect laboratory for high energy physics. We identify two types of gauge fields: the first one arising from a trivial spin-connection of zero Riemann tensor, that gives a pure-gauge Weyl field; the second one originating from peculiar structure of the graphene honeycomb, whose non-triviality is encoded in a special rank-three tensor. The former cannot give a nonzero "pseudo-magnetic field", but the relativistic approach behind it explains non-isotropic, space-dependent Fermi velocity. The latter has, in general, nonzero associated field-strength, and gives an example of a low-energy (continuum limit) relic of a high-energy (lattice) structure, a feature that makes it interesting for explorations of fundamental physics scenarios with similar behaviors. We conclude by briefly pointing to some of those scenarios.
Revisiting the gauge fields of strained graphene
Alfredo Iorio; Pablo Pais
2015-08-04T23:59:59.000Z
We join the on-going debate on the nature of the gauge fields arising when straining graphene, hopefully adding clarity to the debate, especially in view of the use of graphene as a table-top indirect laboratory for high energy physics. We identify two types of gauge fields: the first one arising from a trivial spin-connection of zero Riemann tensor, that gives a pure-gauge Weyl field; the second one originating from peculiar structure of the graphene honeycomb, whose non-triviality is encoded in a special rank-three tensor. The former cannot give a nonzero "pseudo-magnetic field", but the relativistic approach behind it explains non-isotropic, space-dependent Fermi velocity. The latter has, in general, nonzero associated field-strength, and gives an example of a low-energy (continuum limit) relic of a high-energy (lattice) structure, a feature that makes it interesting for explorations of fundamental physics scenarios with similar behaviors. We conclude by briefly pointing to some of those scenarios.
Distortion-free magnetic resonance imaging in the zero-field limit
Kelso, Nathan; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Bouchard, Louis-S.; Demas, Vasiliki; Muck, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John
2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z
MRI is a powerful technique for clinical diagnosis and materials characterization. Images are acquired in a homogeneous static magnetic field much higher than the fields generated across the field of view by the spatially encoding field gradients. Without such a high field, the concomitant components of the field gradient dictated by Maxwell's equations lead to severe distortions that make imaging impossible with conventional MRI encoding. In this paper, we present a distortion-free image of a phantom acquired with a fundamentally different methodology in which the applied static field approaches zero. Our technique involves encoding with pulses of uniform and gradient field, and acquiring the magnetic field signals with a SQUID. The method can be extended to weak ambient fields, potentially enabling imaging in the Earth's field without cancellation coils or shielding. Other potential applications include quantum information processing and fundamental studies of long-range ferromagnetic interactions.
Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.
Biological Effects of Electrical and Magnetic Fields: Is It Real?
Durham, M. O.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Traditional methods have failed to provide a correlation between the fields and biological effects. A model is presented that solves this conflict. The model is a composite energy approach that identifies the classical, thermal electromagnetic interaction... the potential risks and methods of mitigating the risks. FAILURE OF TRADITIONAL METHODS The hazardous impact of electromagnetic fields on biological systems has received considerable discussion in the popular press {1,2,3,4}. However, much...
Boundary String Field Theory of the DDbar System
Kraus, P; Kraus, Per; Larsen, Finn
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop the boundary string field theory approach to tachyon condensation on the DDbar system. Particular attention is paid to the gauge fields, which combine with the tachyons in a natural way. We derive the RR-couplings of the system and express the result in terms of Quillen's superconnection. The result is related to an index theorem, and is thus shown to be exact.
Rydberg Atoms Ionisation by Microwave Field and Electromagnetic Pulses
B. Kaulakys; G. Vilutis
1995-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
A simple theory of the Rydberg atoms ionisation by electromagnetic pulses and microwave field is presented. The analysis is based on the scale transformation which reduces the number of parameters and reveals the functional dependencies of the processes. It is shown that the observed ionisation of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond electromagnetic pulses scale classically. The threshold electric field required to ionise a Rydberg state may be simply evaluated in the photonic basis approach for the quantum dynamics or from the multiphoton ionisation theory.
Continuous Profiling of Magnetotelluric Fields
Verdin, C.T.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
played an auxiliary exploration to approach with the seismicmake seismic methods impractical. In geothermal exploration,
Kristan Jensen
2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z
We initiate a systematic study of `t Hooft anomalies in Galilean field theories, focusing on two questions therein. In the first, we consider the non-relativistic theories obtained from a discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ) of a relativistic theory with flavor or gravitational anomalies. We find that these anomalies survive the DLCQ, becoming mixed flavor/boost or gravitational/boost anomalies. We also classify the pure Weyl anomalies of Schr\\"odinger theories, which are Galilean conformal field theories (CFTs) with $z=2$. There are no pure Weyl anomalies in even spacetime dimension, and the lowest-derivative anomalies in odd dimension are in one-to-one correspondence with those of a relativistic CFT in one dimension higher. These results classify many of the anomalies that arise in the field theories dual to string theory on Schr\\"odinger spacetimes.
Sampayan, S.E.
1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.
Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.
STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND FIELD THEORY
Samuel, S.A.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
York. K. Bardakci, Field Theory for Solitons, II, BerkeleyFart I Applications of Field Theory Methods to StatisticalStatistical Mechanics to Field Theory Chapter IV The Grand
Geerling, C.
1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.
Noncommutative Quantum Field Theories
H. O. Girotti
2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
We start by reviewing the formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics as a constrained system. Then, we address to the problem of field theories defined on a noncommutative space-time manifold. The Moyal product is introduced and the appearance of the UV/IR mechanism is exemplified. The emphasis is on finding and analyzing noncommutative quantum field theories which are renormalizable and free of nonintegrable infrared singularities. In this last connection we give a detailed discussion of the quantization of the noncommutative Wess-Zumino model as well as of its low energy behavior.
Continuous wave approach for simulating Ferromagnetic Resonance in nanosized elements
Wagner, K; Farle, M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a numerical approach to simulate the Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) of micron and nanosized magnetic elements by a micromagnetic finite di?erence method. In addition to a static magnetic field a linearly polarized oscillating magnetic field is utilized to excite and analyze the spin wave excitations observed by Ferromagnetic Resonance in the space- and time-domain. Our continuous wave approach (CW) provides an alternative to the common simulation method, which uses a pulsed excitation of the magnetic system. It directly models conventional FMR-experiments and permits the determination of the real and imaginary part of the complex dynamic susceptibility without the need of post-processing. Furthermore not only the resonance fields, but also linewidths, ellipticity, phase relations and relative intensities of the excited spin wave modes in a spectrum can be determined and compared to experimental data. The magnetic responses can be plotted as a function of spatial dimensions yielding a detailed visual...
Buyukates, Yesim
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
In light of increasing harmful algal blooms and the need to protect human health and aquatic resources, proactive management approaches merit further study. For this purpose I conducted field samplings to characterize ...
Andrei Linde
2015-04-02T23:59:59.000Z
I describe a simple class of $\\alpha$-attractors, generalizing the single-field GL model of inflation in supergravity. The new class of models is defined for $0<\\alpha \\lesssim 1$, providing a good match to the present cosmological data. I also present a generalized version of these models which can describe not only inflation but also dark energy and supersymmetry breaking.
Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Hans Halvorson; Michael Mueger
2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Algebraic quantum field theory provides a general, mathematically precise description of the structure of quantum field theories, and then draws out consequences of this structure by means of various mathematical tools -- the theory of operator algebras, category theory, etc.. Given the rigor and generality of AQFT, it is a particularly apt tool for studying the foundations of QFT. This paper is a survey of AQFT, with an orientation towards foundational topics. In addition to covering the basics of the theory, we discuss issues related to nonlocality, the particle concept, the field concept, and inequivalent representations. We also provide a detailed account of the analysis of superselection rules by S. Doplicher, R. Haag, and J. E. Roberts (DHR); and we give an alternative proof of Doplicher and Roberts' reconstruction of fields and gauge group from the category of physical representations of the observable algebra. The latter is based on unpublished ideas due to Roberts and the abstract duality theorem for symmetric tensor *-categories, a self-contained proof of which is given in the appendix.
Sorghum Ergot - Field Identification
Krausz, Joseph P.
1997-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
stream_source_info pdf_835.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1934 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pdf_835.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Sorghum Ergot Field Identif_ication...
Experimental quantum field theory
Bell, J S
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Presented here, is, in the opinion of the author, the essential minimum of quantum field theory that should be known to cultivated experimental particle physicists. The word experimental describes not only the audience aimed at but also the level of mathematical rigour aspired to. (0 refs).
The coordinate coherent states approach revisited
Miao, Yan-Gang, E-mail: miaoyg@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Shao-Jun, E-mail: sjzhang@mail.nankai.edu.cn
2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
We revisit the coordinate coherent states approach through two different quantization procedures in the quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski plane. The first procedure, which is based on the normal commutation relation between an annihilation and creation operators, deduces that a point mass can be described by a Gaussian function instead of the usual Dirac delta function. However, we argue this specific quantization by adopting the canonical one (based on the canonical commutation relation between a field and its conjugate momentum) and show that a point mass should still be described by the Dirac delta function, which implies that the concept of point particles is still valid when we deal with the noncommutativity by following the coordinate coherent states approach. In order to investigate the dependence on quantization procedures, we apply the two quantization procedures to the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation and find that they give rise to significantly different results. Under the first quantization procedure, the Unruh temperature and Unruh spectrum are not deformed by noncommutativity, but the Hawking temperature is deformed by noncommutativity while the radiation specturm is untack. However, under the second quantization procedure, the Unruh temperature and Hawking temperature are untack but the both spectra are modified by an effective greybody (deformed) factor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggest a canonical quantization in the coordinate coherent states approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prove the validity of the concept of point particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apply the canonical quantization to the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Find no deformations in the Unruh temperature and Hawking temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provide the modified spectra of the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation.
Velas, K. M. [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)] [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States); Milroy, R. D. [Plasma Science and Innovation-Center, William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Innovation-Center, William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure B{sub r}, B{sub ?}, and B{sub z} at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10?kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.
Field/source duality in topological field theories
David Delphenich
2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
The relationship between the sources of physical fields and the fields themselves is investigated with regard to the coupling of topological information between them. A class of field theories that we call topological field theories is defined such that both the field and its source represent de Rham cocycles in varying dimensions over complementary subspaces and the coupling of one to the other is by way of an isomorphism of the those cohomology spaces, which we refer to as field/source duality. The deeper basis for such an isomorphism is investigated and the process is described for various elementary physical examples of topological field theories.
Do Mixed States save Effective Field Theory from BICEP?
Hael Collins; R. Holman; Tereza Vardanyan
2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
The BICEP2 collaboration has for the first time observed the B-mode polarization associated with inflationary gravitational waves. Their result has some discomfiting implications for the validity of an effective theory approach to single-field inflation since it would require an inflaton field excursion larger than the Planck scale. We argue that if the quantum state of the gravitons is a mixed state based on the Bunch-Davies vacuum, then the tensor to scalar ratio r measured by BICEP is different than the quantity that enters the Lyth bound. When this is taken into account, the tension between effective field theory and the BICEP result is alleviated.
Controlling Electromagnetic Fields at Boundaries of Arbitrary Geometries
Teo, Jonathon Yi Han; Molardi, Carlo; Genevet, Patrice
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Rapid developments in the emerging field of stretchable and conformable photonics necessitate analytical expressions for boundary conditions at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries. Here, we introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at such interfaces. Given any object, we can realise coatings to achieve exotic effects like optical illusions and anomalous diffraction behaviour. This approach is relevant to a broad range of applications from conventional refractive optics to the design of the next-generation of wearable optical components. This concept can be generalized to other fields of research where designer interfaces with nontrivial geometries are encountered.
Do Mixed States save Effective Field Theory from BICEP?
Collins, Hael; Vardanyan, Tereza
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The BICEP2 collaboration has for the first time observed the B-mode polarization associated with inflationary gravitational waves. Their result has some discomfiting implications for the validity of an effective theory approach to single-field inflation since it would require an inflaton field excursion larger than the Planck scale. We argue that if the quantum state of the gravitons is a mixed state based on the Bunch-Davies vacuum, then the tensor to scalar ratio r measured by BICEP is different than the quantity that enters the Lyth bound. When this is taken into account, the tension between effective field theory and the BICEP result is alleviated.
Hessian structures, Euler vector fields, and thermodynamics
M. Á. García-Ariza
2015-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, it is shown that the underlying geometric structure of thermodynamics is formed by two elements. The first one is a degenerate Hessian structure distinguished by the fact that its potentials are extensive functions. A suitable coordinate-free definition of the latter is presented, relying on a particular vector field which is proposed to be the second ingredient of the geometric structure of thermodynamics. This vector has the form of an Euler vector in certain coordinate charts that somehow generalize those formed by internal energy or entropy and deformation coordinates in the spaces of equilibrium states of thermodynamic systems. Intensive functions and Legendre transforms are reviewed under this approach.
Perturbative diagrams in string field theory
Washington Taylor
2002-07-13T23:59:59.000Z
A general algorithm is presented which gives a closed-form expression for an arbitrary perturbative diagram of cubic string field theory at any loop order. For any diagram, the resulting expression is given by an integral of a function of several infinite matrices, each built from a finite number of blocks containing the Neumann coefficients of Witten's 3-string vertex. The closed-form expression for any diagram can be approximated by level truncation on oscillator level, giving a computation involving finite size matrices. Some simple tree and loop diagrams are worked out as examples of this approach.
Nonlocal regularisation of noncommutative field theories
T. R. Govindarajan; Seckin Kurkcuoglu; Marco Panero
2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study noncommutative field theories, which are inherently nonlocal, using a Poincar\\'e-invariant regularisation scheme which yields an effective, nonlocal theory for energies below a cut-off scale. After discussing the general features and the peculiar advantages of this regularisation scheme for theories defined in noncommutative spaces, we focus our attention onto the particular case when the noncommutativity parameter is inversely proportional to the square of the cut-off, via a dimensionless parameter $\\eta$. We work out the perturbative corrections at one-loop order for a scalar theory with quartic interactions, where the signature of noncommutativity appears in $\\eta$-dependent terms. The implications of this approach, which avoids the problems related to UV-IR mixing, are discussed from the perspective of the Wilson renormalisation program. Finally, we remark about the generality of the method, arguing that it may lead to phenomenologically relevant predictions, when applied to realistic field theories.
Primordial fluctuations in the warm inflation scenario with a more realistic coarse - grained field
Mauricio Bellini
2000-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
I study a semiclassical approach to warm inflation scenario introduced in previous works. In this work, I define the fluctuations for the matter field by means of a new coarse - grained field with a suppression factor G. This field describes the matter field fluctuations on the now observable scale of the universe. The power spectrum for the fluctuations of the matter field is analyzed in both, de Sitter and power - law expansions for the universe. The constraint for the spectral index gives a constraint for the mass of the matter field in the de Sitter expansion and a constraint for the friction parameter in the power - law expansion for the universe.
Krein Quantization Approach to Hawking Radiation
H. Pejhan; S. Rahbardehghan
2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
A new version of canonical quantization method, in which the Fock space is built over a so-called Krein space, is considered in this paper. In this construction, interestingly, the Fock vacuum is unique. It is actually independent of Bogolubov transformations. Furthermore, no infinite term appears in the calculation of expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor, and in particular, corresponding value to the free field part of the theory on the vacuum state vanishes. Through the method, even in situations where the conventional approach fails, such as the de Sitter minimally coupled massless scalar field and massless spin-2 field, covariant quantization is accessible. Krein construction also has an interesting link to the vacuum energy issue in curved space-time. In this regard, however it seems that, a serious challenge threatens the theory; the risk of destroying black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation. In this paper, by proposing a model to simulate schwarzschild black holes, it is debated that Krein construction does not destroy black holes thermodynamics. More precisely, by applying the accelerated-mirror results to a black hole, it is shown that the hole produces black-body radiation which its temperature exactly coincides with the result obtained by Hawking for black hole radiation.
Diagrammar in classical scalar field theory
Cattaruzza, E., E-mail: Enrico.Cattaruzza@gmail.com [Department of Physics (Miramare Campus), University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare-Grignano 34014, Trieste (Italy); Gozzi, E., E-mail: gozzi@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics (Miramare Campus), University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare-Grignano 34014, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Francisco Neto, A., E-mail: antfrannet@gmail.com [Departamento de Engenharia de Producao, Administracao e Economia, Escola de Minas, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, UFOP, 35400-000 Ouro Preto MG (Brazil)
2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we analyze perturbatively a g{phi}{sup 4}classical field theory with and without temperature. In order to do that, we make use of a path-integral approach developed some time ago for classical theories. It turns out that the diagrams appearing at the classical level are many more than at the quantum level due to the presence of extra auxiliary fields in the classical formalism. We shall show that a universal supersymmetry present in the classical path-integral mentioned above is responsible for the cancelation of various diagrams. The same supersymmetry allows the introduction of super-fields and super-diagrams which considerably simplify the calculations and make the classical perturbative calculations almost 'identical' formally to the quantum ones. Using the super-diagrams technique, we develop the classical perturbation theory up to third order. We conclude the paper with a perturbative check of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. - Highlights: > We provide the Feynman diagrams of perturbation theory for a classical field theory. > We give a super-formalism which links the quantum diagrams to the classical ones. > We check perturbatively the fluctuation-dissipation theorem.
Control of the Lamb shift by a driving field
Yang, Shuai; Zheng, Hang; Hong, Ran; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A unitary transformation approach is used to study the energy level shift of the atom coupled to both a vacuum electromagnetic field and a driving laser. The Lamb shift of the energy levels is shown to depend on the Rabi frequency and the detuning...
BGS School of Field Geology An introduction to Sequence Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy in the field.The course also provides the opportunity to gain experience of clastic sedimentology stratigraphic approaches to the division of rock successions, sedimentology of Cretaceous alluvial to marine siliciclastic rocks, sedimentology of Permian to Cretaceous alluvial, red bed successions, including palaeosols
Computing spectral densities in finite temperature field theory
Jeon, S. (Physics Department FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))
1993-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Convenient Cutkosky-like diagrammatic rules for computing the spectral densities of arbitrary two-point correlation functions in finite temperature field theory are derived. The approach is based on an explicit analytic continuation of imaginary-time Feynman diagrams. The application of this method to the perturbative evaluation of transport coefficients is briefly discussed.
Extremal Fields and Neighboring Optimal Control of Constrained Systems
Harris, Matthew Wade
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
this form, and so this work fills a void in the study of extremal fields and neighboring optimal control of constrained systems. Only first and second-order terms are written down, but the approach is systematic and higher order expressions can be found...
On thermodynamically consistent schemes for phase field equations
Fife, Paul
and at the phase change front. A somewhat different approach of Charach and Zemel [2] combines bal- ance equationsOn thermodynamically consistent schemes for phase field equations C. Charach and P. C. Fife thermodynamics. The principal applications are to the solidification of a pure material and of a binary alloy
None
2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report
Graphene field emission devices
Kumar, S., E-mail: shishirk@gmail.com; Raghavan, S. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Duesberg, G. S. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN) and School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, D2 (Ireland); Pratap, R. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India)
2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ?10?nA ?m{sup ?1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.
Systems biology approach to bioremediation
Chakraborty, R.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
aspects of the systems biology approach (metagenomics withthe use of a number of sytems biology parameters can revealRL, Banfield JF: Systems Biology: functional analysis of
Localized Axion Photon States in a Strong Magnetic Field
E. I. Guendelman
2008-01-04T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the axion field and electromagnetic waves with rapid time dependence, coupled to a strong time independent, asymptotically approaching a constant at infinity "mean" magnetic field, which takes into account the back reaction from the axion field and electromagnetic waves with rapid time dependence in a time averaged way. The direction of the self consistent mean field is orthogonal to the common direction of propagation of the axion and electromagnetic waves with rapid time dependence and parallel to the polarization of these electromagnetic waves. Then, there is an effective U(1) symmetry mixing axions and photons. Using the natural complex variables that this U(1) symmetry suggests we find localized planar soliton solutions. These solutions appear to be stable since they produce a different magnetic flux than the state with only a constant magnetic field, which we take as our "ground state". The solitons also have non trivial U(1) charge defined before, different from the uncharged vacuum.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) | SciTechDatastreamsmplDatastreamsxsacrspeccmaskxpol7, 2013 [Facility News, Feature StoriesField Participants Campaign
Polymer Parametrised Field Theory
Alok Laddha; Madhavan Varadarajan
2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z
Free scalar field theory on 2 dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using LQG type `polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation- annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the `triangulation' dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non- Fock nature of the representation ensures that the algebra of conformal isometries as well as that of spacetime diffeomorphisms are represented in an anomaly free manner. Semiclassical states can be analysed at the gauge invariant level. It is shown that `physical weaves' necessarily underly such states and that such states display semiclassicality with respect to, at most, a countable subset of the (uncountably large) set of observables of type (a). The model thus offers a fertile testing ground for proposed definitions of quantum dynamics as well as semiclassical states in LQG.
Unbalanced field RF electron gun
Hofler, Alicia
2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.
Wei, Wan-Yi
2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
Sphere slamming pressures and corresponding jetting flow fields were studied in an experimental approach. Correlations between sphere impacting forces and jetting flow occurrences were explored. Pressure sensor was used to investigate the slamming...
Wen, Xiao-Gang
The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the ...
Cubillos Gutierrez, Helber
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
One of the prospective ways to increase the oil production is to maximize the oil recovery from mature oil fields. In this study we apply an integrated approach that combines geostatistical reservoir description and reservoir simulation to evaluate...
Reliability of the Optimized Perturbation Theory for scalar fields at finite temperature
Farias, R. L.; Teixeira, D. L. Jr. [Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, 36301-000 Sao Joao del Rei, MG (Brazil); Ramos, R. O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamics of a massless scalar field with a quartic interaction is studied up to third order in the Optimized Perturbation Theory (OPT) method. A comparison with other nonperturbative approaches is performed such that the reliability of OPT is accessed.
Deep Vadose Zone–Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report
Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.
2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.
Open quantum system approach to single-molecule spectroscopy
Adrian A. Budini
2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, single-molecule spectroscopy experiments based on continuous laser excitation are characterized through an open quantum system approach. The evolution of the fluorophore system follows from an effective Hamiltonian microscopic dynamic where its characteristic parameters, i.e., its electric dipole, transition frequency, and Rabi frequency, as well as the quantization of the background electromagnetic field and their mutual interaction, are defined in an extended Hilbert space associated to the different configurational states of the local nano-environment. After tracing out the electromagnetic field and the configurational states, the fluorophore density matrix is written in terms of a Lindblad rate equation. Observables associated to the scattered laser field, like optical spectrum, intensity-intensity correlation, and photon-counting statistics, are obtained from a quantum-electrodynamic calculation also based on the effective microscopic dynamic. In contrast with stochastic models, this approach allows to describe in a unified way both the full quantum nature of the scattered laser field as well as the classical nature of the environment fluctuations. By analyzing different processes such as spectral diffusion, lifetime fluctuations, and light assisted processes, we exemplify the power of the present approach.
Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields; How the Fields Transform
Tomislav Ivezic
2015-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper the proofs are given that the electric and magnetic fields are properly defined vectors on the four-dimensional (4D) spacetime (the 4-vectors in the usual notation) and not the usual 3D fields. Furthermore, the proofs are presented that under the mathematically correct Lorentz transformations (LT), e.g., the electric field vector transforms as any other vector transforms, i.e., again to the electric field vector; there is no mixing with the magnetic field vector B, as in the usual transformations (UT) of the 3D fields. The derivations of the UT from some well-known textbooks are discussed and objected.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy of Interacting Scalar Field and Maxwell Field
Wung-Hong Huang
2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in recent is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields; How the Fields Transform
Ivezic, Tomislav
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper the proofs are given that the electric and magnetic fields are properly defined vectors on the four-dimensional (4D) spacetime (the 4-vectors in the usual notation) and not the usual 3D fields. Furthermore, the proofs are presented that under the mathematically correct Lorentz transformations (LT), e.g., the electric field vector transforms as any other vector transforms, i.e., again to the electric field vector; there is no mixing with the magnetic field vector B, as in the usual transformations (UT) of the 3D fields. The derivations of the UT from some well-known textbooks are discussed and objected.
Thermal excitation of plasmons for near-field thermophotovoltaics
Guo, Yu; Molesky, Sean; Hu, Huan; Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin, E-mail: zjacob@ualberta.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)
2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
The traditional approaches of exciting plasmons consist of either using electrons (e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy) or light (Kretchman and Otto geometry) while more recently plasmons have been excited even by single photons. A different approach: thermal excitation of a plasmon resonance at high temperatures using alternate plasmonic media was proposed by S. Molesky et al. [Opt. Express 21, A96–A110 (2013)]. Here, we show how the long-standing search for a high temperature narrowband near-field emitter for thermophotovoltaics can be fulfilled by thermally exciting plasmons. We also describe a method to control Wein's displacement law in the near-field using high temperature epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. Finally, we show that our work opens up an interesting direction of research for the field of slow light: thermal emission control.
MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS: CRITICAL REVIEW OF MOST RECENT ADVANCES. MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL...
Gabriel S. Denicol; Xu-Guang Huang; Tomoi Koide; Dirk H. Rischke
2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
The transport coefficients of causal relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics are calculated both in a field-theoretical and a kinetic approach. We find that the results from the traditional kinetic calculation by Israel and Stewart are modified. The new expressions for the viscous transport coefficients agree with the results obtained in the field-theoretical approach when the contributions from pair creation and annihilation are neglected.
Classical and Quantum Gravity in 1+1 Dimensions, Part I: A Unifying Approach
T. Kloesch; T. Strobl
1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a concise approach to generalized dilaton theories with and without torsion and coupling to Yang-Mills fields. Transformations on the space of fields are used to trivialize the field equations locally. In this way their solution becomes accessible within a few lines of calculation only. In this first of a series of papers we set the stage for a thorough global investigation of classical and quantum aspects of more or less all available 2D gravity-Yang-Mills models.
Quasi light fields: Extending the light field to coherent radiation
Accardi, Anthony J.
Imaging technologies such as dynamic viewpoint generation are engineered for incoherent radiation using the traditional light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of ...
Office of Legacy Management (LM)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23Tribal EnergyCatalytic Co - PA 40 FUSRAPChupadera? r . . W . L.15, 2010 ThisNational551 - g-- !Field
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirtA Journey InsideMicroBooNEAugust 2013 Tue,2002TI10)2 PrintAMERICA'SCurrent :Data PlotsgovFieldOverview
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirtA JourneygovCampaignsPajaritogovFieldMapping ofAandprofilesNauru Site-InactiveInstruments TWPOverview
Particle decay in Ising field theory with magnetic field
Gesualdo Delfino
2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
The scaling limit of the two-dimensional Ising model in the plane of temperature and magnetic field defines a field theory which provides the simplest illustration of non-trivial phenomena such as spontaneous symmetry breaking and confinement. Here we discuss how Ising field theory also gives the simplest model for particle decay. The decay widths computed in this theory provide the obvious test ground for the numerical methods designed to study unstable particles in quantum field theories discretized on a lattice.
Heliocentric architecture : materializing solar cadences
Wastvedt, Trygve (Trygve Howard)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
There is a long tradition of architecture creating atmospheric, awe-inspiring experiences by shaping and making visible natural light. Another similarly long-established approach to daylighting optimizes lighting conditions ...
A Quantum Approach to Classical Statistical Mechanics
Rolando D. Somma; Cristian D. Batista; Gerardo Ortiz
2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new approach to study the thermodynamic properties of $d$-dimensional classical systems by reducing the problem to the computation of ground state properties of a $d$-dimensional quantum model. This classical-to-quantum mapping allows us to deal with standard optimization methods, such as simulated and quantum annealing, on an equal basis. Consequently, we extend the quantum annealing method to simulate classical systems at finite temperatures. Using the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, we derive the rates to assure convergence to the optimal thermodynamic state. For simulated and quantum annealing, we obtain the asymptotic rates of $T(t) \\approx (p N) /(k_B \\log t)$ and $\\gamma(t) \\approx (Nt)^{-\\bar{c}/N}$, for the temperature and magnetic field, respectively. Other annealing strategies, as well as their potential speed-up, are also discussed.
Sky coverage of orbital detectors. Analytical approach
Diego Casadei
2005-12-28T23:59:59.000Z
Orbital detectors without pointing capability have to keep their field of view axis laying on their orbital plane, to observe the largest sky fraction. A general approach to estimate the exposure of each sky element for such detectors is a valuable tool in the R&D phase of a project, when the detector characteristics are still to be fixed. An analytical method to estimate the sky exposure is developed, which makes only few very reasonable approximations. The formulae obtained with this method are used to compute the histogram of the sky exposure of a hypothetical gamma-ray detector installed on the ISS. The C++ code used in this example is freely available on the http://cern.ch/casadei/software.html web page.
A Phase Field Crystal Model for Colloidal Suspensions with Hydrodynamic Interactions
Praetorius, Simon
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a fully continuous model for colloidal suspensions with hydrodynamic interactions. The Navier Stokes Phase Field Crystal (NS-PFC) model combines ideas of dynamic density functional theory with particulate flow approaches. The proposed dynamical equations are shown to be energy stable. The system is numerically solved using adaptive finite elements. The resulting approach is validated against computational and experimental studies for sedimentation.
Measurement of radiofrequency fields
Leonowich, J.A.
1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.
Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields
Miller, G.
1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.
Field Theory and Standard Model
W. Buchmüller; C. Lüdeling
2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
This is a short introduction to the Standard Model and the underlying concepts of quantum field theory.
Direct drive field actuator motors
Grahn, A.R.
1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.
Diamond-graphite field emitters
Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode of diamond and a conductive carbon, e.g., graphite, is provided.
On the Hamilton approach to the metric GR
Frolov, Alexei M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Basic principles of the Hamilton approach developed for the metric General Relativity (Einstein`s GR) are discussed. In particular, we derive the Hamiltonian of the metric GR in the explicit form. This Hamiltonian is a quadratic function of the momenta $\\pi^{mn}$ conjugate to the spatial components $g_{mn}$ of the metric tensor $g_{\\alpha\\beta}$. The Hamilton approach is used to analyze some problems of metric GR, including the internal structure of propagating gravitational waves and quantization of the metric GR. We also derive the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the free Gravitational field and show that actual gravitational field cannot propagate as pure harmonic oscillations, or harmonic gravitational waves. A number of inequalities useful in the metric GR are derived.
The Langevin Approach: a simple stochastic method for complex phenomena
Reinke, Nico; Medjroubi, Wided; Lind, Pedro G; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a simple stochastic method, so-called Langevin approach, which enables one to extract evolution equations of stochastic variables from a set of measurements. Our method is parameter-free and it is based on the nonlinear Langevin equation. Moreover, it can be applied not only to processes in time, but also to processes in scale, given that the data available shows ergodicity. This chapter introduces the mathematical foundations of the Langevin approach and describes how to implement it numerically. A specific application of the method is presented, namely to a turbulent velocity field measured in the laboratory, retrieving the corresponding energy cascade and comparing with the results from a computational simulation of that experiment. In addition, we describe a physical interpretation bridging between processes in time and in scale. Finally, we describe extensions of the method for time series reconstruction and applications to other fields such as finance, medicine, geophysics and renewable ener...
The quantum character of physical fields. Foundations of field theories
L. I. Petrova
2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
The existing field theories are based on the properties of closed exterior forms, which are invariant ones and correspond to conservation laws for physical fields. Hence, to understand the foundations of field theories and their unity, one has to know how such closed exterior forms are obtained. In the present paper it is shown that closed exterior forms corresponding to field theories are obtained from the equations modelling conservation (balance)laws for material media. It has been developed the evolutionary method that enables one to describe the process of obtaining closed exterior forms. The process of obtaining closed exterior forms discloses the mechanism of evolutionary processes in material media and shows that material media generate, discretely, the physical structures, from which the physical fields are formed. This justifies the quantum character of field theories. On the other hand, this process demonstrates the connection between field theories and the equations for material media and points to the fact that the foundations of field theories must be conditioned by the properties of material media. It is shown that the external and internal symmetries of field theories are conditioned by the degrees of freedom of material media. The classification parameter of physical fields and interactions, that is, the parameter of the unified field theory, is connected with the number of noncommutative balance conservation laws for material media.
Magnetic-field-dosimetry system
Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.
1981-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.
Mean--Field and Nonlinear Dynamics in Many--Body Quantum Systems
V. R. Manfredi; L. Salasnich
1998-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we discuss in detail the nonlinear equations of the mean--field approximation and their connection to the exact many--body Schr\\"odinger equation. Then we analyze the mean--field approach and the nonlinear dynamics of a trapped condensate of weakly--interacting bosons.
Remote control of ion channels and neurons through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles
Ferkey, Denise
Remote control of ion channels and neurons through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles Heng stimulation13 has begun to unravel the neur- onal processing that controls certain animal behaviours4. Here, we show an approach based on radio-frequency magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles to remotely
fractures/faults. A flow-deformation coupled reservoir geomechanical modelling approach has been applied. Coupled 3D geomechanical (deformation and fluid flow) simulations for Valhall field were conducted. Well in flow rate correlations in the field). The coupled 3D geomechanical simulation provides a tool
Fincke, James R.
2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z
Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.
Cosmology and the noncommutative approach to the standard model
Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi [Institute of Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, State College, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States); Department of Physics, King's College, University of London, Strand WC2R 2LS, London (United Kingdom)
2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
We study cosmological consequences of the noncommutative approach to the standard model of particle physics. Neglecting the nonminimal coupling of the Higgs field to the curvature, noncommutative corrections to Einstein's equations are present only for inhomogeneous and anisotropic space-times. Considering the nonminimal coupling however, corrections are obtained even for background cosmologies. Links with dilatonic gravity as well as chameleon cosmology are briefly discussed, and potential experimental consequences are mentioned.
Effects of chiral imbalance and magnetic field on pion superfluidity and color superconductivity
Cao, Gaoqing
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The effects of chiral imbalance and external magnetic field on pion superfluidity and color superconductivity are investigated in extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio models. We take Schwinger approach to treat the interaction between charged pion condensate and magnetic field at finite isospin density and include simultaneously the chiral imbalance and magnetic field at finite baryon density. For the superfluidity, the chiral imbalance and magnetic field lead to catalysis and inverse catalysis effects, respectively. For the superconductivity, the chiral imbalance enhances the critical baryon density, and the magnetic field results in a de Haas--van Alphan oscillation on the phase transition line.
Hans, O.; Voss, K.; Wagner, A.; Gossner, H.; Grunewald, J.; Petzold, H.; Herkel, S.; Pfafferott, J.; Lehmann, D.; Neumann, C.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
led to a set of prominent research results in the fields of e.g. daylighting, passive cooling, energy efficiency and renewable energy use in commercial buildings, user behaviour and user satisfaction. Many of the demonstration projects have reached...
Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation
Klima, Peter Miloslaw
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...
Development of computer controls for a goniophotometer
Burgos, Javier (Javier F.)
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The investigation of innovative window materials for redirecting light and thermal sources is an important component of the field of daylighting. The Heliodome system developed in the Building Technology department is a ...
Unknown
2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
led to a set of prominent research results in the fields of e.g. daylighting, passive cooling, energy efficiency and renewable energy use in commercial buildings, user behaviour and user satisfaction. Many of the demonstration projects have reached...
Design approaches to structural optimization
Tayar, Memduh Ali
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this thesis is to develop design approaches to structural optimization. In the example of three-dimensional grid structures, widely known as 'space frames', possible configurations are explored which ...
Xu, Tengfang; Piette, Mary Ann
2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
The original scope of work was to obtain and analyze existing and emerging data in four states: California, Florida, New York, and Wisconsin. The goal of this data collection was to deliver a baseline database or recommendations for such a database that could possibly contain window and daylighting features and energy performance characteristics of Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school buildings (or those of classrooms when available). In particular, data analyses were performed based upon the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) databases to understand school energy use, features of window glazing, and availability of daylighting in California K-12 schools. The outcomes from this baseline task can be used to assist in establishing a database of school energy performance, assessing applications of existing technologies relevant to window and daylighting design, and identifying future R&D needs. These are in line with the overall project goals as outlined in the proposal. Through the review and analysis of this data, it is clear that there are many compounding factors impacting energy use in K-12 school buildings in the U.S., and that there are various challenges in understanding the impact of K-12 classroom energy use associated with design features of window glazing and skylight. First, the energy data in the existing CEUS databases has, at most, provided the aggregated electricity and/or gas usages for the building establishments that include other school facilities on top of the classroom spaces. Although the percentage of classroom floor area in schools is often available from the databases, there is no additional information that can be used to quantitatively segregate the EUI for classroom spaces. In order to quantify the EUI for classrooms, sub-metering of energy usage by classrooms must be obtained. Second, magnitudes of energy use for electricity lighting are not attainable from the existing databases, nor are the lighting levels contributed by artificial lighting or daylight. It is impossible to reasonably estimate the lighting energy consumption for classroom areas in the sample of schools studied in this project. Third, there are many other compounding factors that may as well influence the overall classroom energy use, e.g., ventilation, insulation, system efficiency, occupancy, control, schedules, and weather. Fourth, although we have examined the school EUI grouped by various factors such as climate zones, window and daylighting design features from the California databases, no statistically significant associations can be identified from the sampled California K-12 schools in the current California CEUS. There are opportunities to expand such analyses by developing and including more powerful CEUS databases in the future. Finally, a list of parameters is recommended for future database development and for use of future investigation in K-12 classroom energy use, window and skylight design, and possible relations between them. Some of the key parameters include: (1) Energy end use data for lighting systems, classrooms, and schools; (2) Building design and operation including features for windows and daylighting; and (3) Other key parameters and information that would be available to investigate overall energy uses, building and systems design, their operation, and services provided.
An Approach to Plantwide Optimization
Nath, R.; Worsham, B. A.; Libby, D. J.
AN APPROACH TO PLANTWIDE OPTIMIZATION RAVI NATH, BILL A WORSHAM, DALE J. LIBBY Union Carbide Corporation Houston, NlSTRACT Optimization of individual processing units as well as the energy systems has become common place in the processing... are obtained when the processing units and the plant energy system are optimized jointly, in which case the 'transfer prices' become superfluous. A MlLP (Mixed Integer Linear Programming) based approach for plant wide optimization is presented...
Interpretation of Stationary States in Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory
Andrei Khrennikov
2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a prequantum classical statistical model in that the role of hidden variables is played by classical (vector) fields. We call this model Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory (PCSFT). The correspondence between classical and quantum quantities is asymptotic, so we call our approach asymptotic dequantization. In this note we pay the main attention to interpretation of so called pure quantum states (wave functions) in PCSFT, especially stationary states. We show, see Theorem 2, that pure states of QM can be considered as labels for Gaussian measures concentrated on one dimensional complex subspaces of phase space that are invariant with respect to the Schr\\"odinger dynamics. ``A quantum system in a stationary state $\\psi$'' in PCSFT is nothing else than a Gaussian ensemble of classical fields (fluctuations of the vacuum field of a very small magnitude) which is not changed in the process of Schr\\"odinger's evolution. We interpret in this way the problem of {\\it stability of hydrogen atom.
An Electrical Spinning Particle In Einstein's Unified Field Theory
S. N. Pandey; B. K. Sinha; Raj Kumar
2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Previous work on exact solutions has been shown that sources need to be appended to the field equation of Einstein's unified field theory in order to achieve physically meaningful results,such sources can be included in a variational formulation by Borchsenius and moffat.The resulting field equations and conservation identities related to the theory that can be used to derive the equations of structure and motion of a pole-dipole particle according to an explicitly covariant approach by Dixon6.In this present paper it is shown that,under certain conditions for the energy tensor of the spinning particle,the equations of structure and motion in an electromagnetic field turn out to be formly identical to those occurring in Einstein-Maxwell theory.
Grimus, Walter; Stockinger, P
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss conceptual aspects of neutrino oscillations with the main emphasis on the field-theoretical approach. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source - detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes. We consider also the question why the canonical neutrino oscillation formula is so robust against corrections and discuss the nature of the oscillating neutrino state emerging in the field-theoretical approach.
W. Grimus; S. Mohanty; P. Stockinger
1999-09-13T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss conceptual aspects of neutrino oscillations with the main emphasis on the field-theoretical approach. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source - detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes. We consider also the question why the canonical neutrino oscillation formula is so robust against corrections and discuss the nature of the oscillating neutrino state emerging in the field-theoretical approach.
An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization
Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel
2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical estimation methods. The intelligent seismic inversion method should help to increase the success of drilling new wells during field development.
Noncommutative Field Theories and Gravity
Victor O. Rivelles
2003-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
We show that after the Seiberg-Witten map is performed the action for noncommutative field theories can be regarded as a coupling to a field dependent gravitational background. This gravitational background depends only on the gauge field. Charged and uncharged fields couple to different backgrounds and we find that uncharged fields couple more strongly than the charged ones. We also show that the background is that of a gravitational plane wave. A massless particle in this background has a velocity which differs from the velocity of light and we find that the deviation is larger in the uncharged case. This shows that noncommutative field theories can be seen as ordinary theories in a gravitational background produced by the gauge field with a charge dependent gravitational coupling.
Dumoulin, Serge O.
of processing in human motion-selective cortex. I N T R O D U C T I O N Neuroimaging experiments localize human by additional experiments. Defining human MT based on stimulus selectivity means that the identificationVisual Field Maps, Population Receptive Field Sizes, and Visual Field Coverage in the Human MT
Linde, Niklas; Chen, Jinsong; Kowalsky, Michael; Finsterle,Stefan; Rubin, Yoram; Hubbard, Susan
2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
With the increasing application of geophysical methods to hydrogeological problems, approaches for obtaining quantitative estimates of hydrogeological parameters using geophysical data are in great demand. A common approach to hydrogeological parameter estimation using geophysical and hydrogeological data is to first invert the geophysical data using a geophysical inversion procedure, and subsequently use the resulting estimates together with available hydrogeological information to estimate a hydrogeological parameter field. This approach does not allow us to constrain the geophysical inversion by hydrogeological data and prior information, and thus decreases our ability to make valid estimates of the hydrogeological parameter field. Furthermore, it is difficult to quantify the uncertainty in the corresponding estimates and to validate the assumptions made. They are developing alternative approaches that allow for the joint inversion of all available hydrological and geophysical data. In this presentation, they consider three studies and draw various conclusions, such as on the potential benefits of estimating the petrophysical relationships within the inversion framework and of constraining the geophysical estimates on geophysical, as well as hydrogeological data.
Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei
Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata- 700 064 (India)
2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.
Lie Groupoids in Classical Field Theory I: Noether's Theorem
Costa, Bruno T; Pêgas, Luiz Henrique P
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the two papers of this series, we initiate the development of a new approach to implementing the concept of symmetry in classical field theory, based on replacing Lie groups/algebras by Lie groupoids/algebroids, which are the appropriate mathematical tools to describe local symmetries when gauge transformations are combined with space-time transformations. Here, we outline the basis of the program and, as a first step, show how to (re)formulate Noether's theorem about the connection between symmetries and conservation laws in this approach.