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Sample records for appalachian fold belt

  1. San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior Paradox - San Juan NW (2) Uinta- Piceance Paradox - San Juan SE (2) Florida Peninsula Appalachian- NY (1) Appalachian...

  2. A Summary of Information on the Behavior of the Yakima Fold Belt as a Structural Entity -- Topical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) that may bear on the question of whether or not the YFB behaves as a single seismotectonic province in which activity along one fold structure is representative of behavior along all other fold structures. This topic has met with a fairly high level of contention in the expert community and has the potential to result in significant impacts on an evaluation of seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. This report defines the relevant alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, it suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  3. A Summary of Coupled, Uncoupled, and Hybrid Tectonic Models for the Yakima Fold Belt--Topical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize the range of opinions and supporting information expressed by the expert community regarding whether a coupled or uncoupled model, or a combination of both, best represents structures in the Yakima Fold Belt. This issue was assessed to have a high level of contention with up to moderate potential for impact on the hazard estimate. This report defines the alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  4. Geometry and evolution of the frontal part of the Magallanes foreland thrust and fold belt (Vicuna Area), Tierra del Fuego, southern Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez-Marron, J.; McClay, K.R. ); Harambour, S.; Rojas, L.; Skarmeta, J. )

    1993-11-01

    The Magallanes foreland thrust and fold belt is a thin-skinned foreland thrust and fold belt of Paleocene to Oligocene age that deforms Upper Jurassic through Tertiary volcanic, volcaniclastic, and siliciclastic strata of the Magallanes basin, southern Andean Cordillera, Chile. This paper is a detailed description and analysis of the geology and structural evolution of the thrust front (Vicuna area of southern Tierra del Fuego). Reflection seismic and well data, together with 1:50,000 scale geological mapping, have been used in the analysis. In the southern part of the Vicuna area, two different thrust systems have been found: an upper imbricate fan that deforms Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, and a younger, lower duplex composed of Cretaceous and probably Upper Jurassic rocks. The imbricate fan is characterized by fault-propagation folding in which listric thrust faults merge downward into a sole thrust that probably is located within the Upper Jurassic stratigraphy. The sole thrust of the upper imbricates forms the roof thrust of the underlying duplex. In the northern part of the Vicuna area, the syntectonic sedimentary wedge of the foredeep consists of Late Cretaceous through Tertiary siliciclastics that have been deformed and uplifted by passive back thrusting at the triangle zone. The structural style in the foreland region shows three main subhorizontal detachment levels located within the sedimentary wedge as a result of the progressive transfer of slip from the thrust belt to the foreland. Minor blind thrusts produce stacked [open quotes]pop up[close quotes] and triangle structures that result in complex geometries in the cores of anticlines. A forward-breaking sequence of thrusting is interpreted. During deformation, the active foredeep wedge migrated at least 10 km northward. Balanced geological cross sections indicate approximately 60% (-30 km) shortening for this part of the Magallanes thrust belt.

  5. Appalachian State | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appalachian State Jump to: navigation, search Name Appalachian State Facility Appalachian State Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service...

  6. Appalachian Power (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 24, 2015 the Virginia State Corporation Commission approved various rate-payer funding energy efficiency programs for residential Appalachian Power customers in Virginia. Appalachian Power...

  7. Appalachian Power Co (Virginia) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Co Place: Virginia Phone Number: 1-800-956-4237 Website: www.appalachianpower.com Twitter: @AppalachianPowe Facebook: https:www.facebook.comAppalachianPower Outage...

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Appalachian State University |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Appalachian State University Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Appalachian State University Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Appalachian State University Appalachian State University recognizes the strategic value of enabling alternative commuting strategies to lower the environmental footprint of its mountain campus. The University's transportation department has installed two charging stations on campus and a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is available to all

  9. Appalachian Advanced Energy Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Appalachian Advanced Energy Association Address: 4 E. Hunter St. Place: Logan, Ohio Zip: 43138 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Phone Number:...

  10. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, William J. (Coraopolis, PA)

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  11. Appalachian Advanced Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4 E Hunter Street Place: Logan, Ohio Zip: 43138 Website: www.ohioaaea.orgAAEAHome.html References: Appalachian Advanced Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  12. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  13. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  14. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  15. Solar Decathlon: Appalachian State Wins People's Choice Award...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lee, right, members of Appalachian States Solar Decathlon team. | Credit: Stefano PalteraU.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon On Friday, Sept. 30, 2011, U.S. ...

  16. AEP Appalachian Power- Non-Residential Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Appalachian Power Commercial and Industrial Standard Program helps non-residential customers implement standard energy efficiency projects through financial incentives to offset project costs....

  17. Origin Basin Destination State STB EIA STB EIA Northern Appalachian...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Delaware W 28.49 W 131.87 21.6% 59 W 100.0% Northern Appalachian Basin Florida W - - - - - - - Northern Appalachian Basin Indiana W 20.35 W 64.82 31.4% 1,715 W 75.9% Northern...

  18. Origin Basin Destination State STB EIA STB EIA Northern Appalachian...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Florida W 38.51 W 140.84 27.3% 134 W 100.0% Northern Appalachian Basin Georgia - W - W W W - W Northern Appalachian Basin Indiana W 16.14 W 63.35 25.5% 1,681 W 88.5% Northern...

  19. Appalachian Power (Electric)- Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Appalachian Power provides financial incentives to its non-residential customers to promote energy efficiency in their facilities. The incentive is designed as a custom program which provides $0.05...

  20. AEP Appalachian Power- Non-Residential Custom Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Appalachian Power Custom C&I program offers custom incentives for some of the more common energy efficiency measures. Program incentives are available under the Custom C&I program to ...

  1. Microsoft Word - APPALACHIAN_STATE_VolumeI-Submissionv2.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 A. Team Qualifications 8 B. Design Goals and Project Context 20 C. Envelope Durability Analysis 27 D. Indoor Air Quality Evaluation 28 E. Space Conditioning Design and Analysis 37 F. Energy Analysis 42 G. Financial Analysis 46 H. Domestic Hot Water, Lighting, and Appliances Analysis 47 I. Construction Documentation 55 J. Industry Partners 1 APPALACHIAN STATE UNIVERSITY WHO WE ARE Appalachian State University's team is composed of undergraduate and graduate students from

  2. Solar Decathlon Team Using Appalachian Mountain History to Model Home of the Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    See how Appalachian State University used traditional mountain life architecture to design their 2011 Solar Decathlon home.

  3. Replace V-Belts with Notched or Synchronous Belt Drives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synchronous belts require minimal maintenance and retensioning, operate in wet and oily ... new installations; the price premium is minimal due to the avoidance of conventional ...

  4. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatcher, Robert D

    2005-11-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our undertaking this project, this system was the least understood in the Appalachian basin. This project, in contrast to many if not most programs undertaken in DOE laboratories, has a major educational component wherein three Ph.D. students have been partially supported by this grant, one M.S. student partially supported, and another M.S. student fully supported by the project. These students will be well prepared for professional careers in the oil and gas industry.

  5. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine—, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon-#12;fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning a timing-belt based hydroEngine —powertrain: 1. Can a belt handle the high torques and power loads demanded by the SLH? (Yes.) 2. Can the SLH blades be mounted to belt with a connection that can withstand the loads encountered in operation? (Yes.) 3. Can the belt, with blade attachments, live through the required cyclic loading? (Yes.) The research adds to the general understanding of sustainable small hydropower systems by using innovative system testing to develop and demonstrate performance of a novel powertrain solution, enabling a new type of hydroelectric turbine to be commercially developed. The technical effectiveness of the methods investigated has been shown to be positive through an extensive design and testing process accommodating many constraints and goals, with a major emphasis on high cycle fatigue life. Economic feasibility of the innovations has been demonstrated through many iterations of design for manufacturability and cost reduction. The project is of benefit to the public because it has helped to develop a solution to a major problem -- despite the large available potential for new low-head hydropower, high capital costs and high levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) continue to be major barriers to project development. The hydroEngine— represents a significant innovation, leveraging novel fluid mechanics and mechanical configuration to allow lower-cost turbine manufacture and development of low head hydropower resources.

  6. SunBelt Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SunBelt Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Logo: SunBelt Biofuels Name: SunBelt Biofuels Place: Soperton, Georgia Zip: 30457 Sector: Biomass Product: Freedom Giant Miscanthus...

  7. LAND USE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS FROM SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN THE APPALACHIANS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LAND USE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS FROM SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN THE APPALACHIANS THE NATURE CONSERVANCY Summary Statement for DOE Quadrennial Energy Review Public Stakeholder Meeting Pittsburgh, PA July 21, 2014 Background The Central Appalachians are a national and global hotspot for forest and freshwater diversity. They have some of the world's best remaining examples of diverse, intact, and connected temperate forests and freshwater streams. Appalachian forests and rivers are also intricately

  8. Folded waveguide coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owens, Thomas L. (Kingston, TN)

    1988-03-01

    A resonant cavity waveguide coupler for ICRH of a magnetically confined plasma. The coupler consists of a series of inter-leaved metallic vanes disposed withn an enclosure analogous to a very wide, simple rectangular waveguide that has been "folded" several times. At the mouth of the coupler, a polarizing plate is provided which has coupling apertures aligned with selected folds of the waveguide through which rf waves are launched with magnetic fields of the waves aligned in parallel with the magnetic fields confining the plasma being heated to provide coupling to the fast magnetosonic wave within the plasma in the frequency usage of from about 50-200 mHz. A shorting plate terminates the back of the cavity at a distance approximately equal to one-half the guide wavelength from the mouth of the coupler to ensure that the electric field of the waves launched through the polarizing plate apertures are small while the magnetic field is near a maximum. Power is fed into the coupler folded cavity by means of an input coaxial line feed arrangement at a point which provides an impedance match between the cavity and the coaxial input line.

  9. APPALACHIAN STATE UNIVERSITY MOUNTAIN LAUREL HOME Project Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APPALACHIAN STATE UNIVERSITY MOUNTAIN LAUREL HOME Project Summary Our design process started with an exciting partnership with Dan Ryan Homes, a national production homebuilder with regional headquarters in Raleigh. We wanted to design a single family residence that would not only be sustainable and zero-ready, but livable and marketable as well. Our goal was to find a balance between these three directions. Relevance of Project to the Goals of the Competition We want to inspire a progressive

  10. Replace V-Belts with Notched or Synchronous Belt Drives | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy V-Belts with Notched or Synchronous Belt Drives Replace V-Belts with Notched or Synchronous Belt Drives Belt drives provide flexibility in the positioning of the motor relative to the load. Pulleys (sheaves) of varying diameters allow the speed of the driven equipment to be increased or decreased relative to the motor speed. A properly designed belt power-transmission system offers high efficiency and low noise, requires no lubrication, and presents low maintenance requirements.

  11. Belt Vision Inspection System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mine personnel can review live or historical images several times a day with minimal effort and take action before belt splices fail. The Belt Vision system helps eliminate costly ...

  12. Protein folding in the ER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

  13. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57?eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  14. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodson, S.A. (JHU)

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - APPALACHIAN_STATE_Presentation 4 27 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APPALACHIAN STATE UNIVERSITY 19 April 2015 2 The App State Team Jake Smith Chris Schoonover A.J. Smith Josh Brooks Chase Ambler Brad Painting Harrison Sytz Chelsea Davis Kaitlyn ...

  16. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-8-2015 Appalachian Basin Isotopes_7...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H, 13 C, 18 O, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra Isotope Concentrations in the Appalachian Basin: A ... Suggested Citation: Mordensky, S.; Schubert, B.; Verba, C.; Hakala, A. 2 H, 13 C, 18 O, ...

  17. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  18. Fast events in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, W.; Callender, R.; Causgrove, T.; Dyer, R.; Williams, S.

    1996-04-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop a molecular understanding of how proteins achieve their native three-dimensional (folded) structures. This requires the identification and characterization of intermediates in the protein folding process on all relevant timescales, from picoseconds to seconds. The short timescale events in protein folding have been entirely unknown. Prior to this work, state-of-the-art experimental approaches were limited to milliseconds or longer, when much of the folding process is already over. The gap between theory and experiment is enormous: current theoretical and computational methods cannot realistically model folding processes with lifetimes longer than one nanosecond. This unique approach to employ laser pump-probe techniques that combine novel methods of laser flash photolysis with time-resolved vibrational spectroscopic probes of protein transients. In this scheme, a short (picosecond to nanosecond) laser photolysis pulse was used to produce an instantaneous pH or temperature jump, thereby initiating a protein folding or unfolding reaction. Structure-specific, time-resolved vibrational probes were then used to identify and characterize protein folding intermediates.

  19. Forest stand development patterns in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copenheaver, C.A.; Matthews, J.M.; Showalter, J.M.; Auch, W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Composition of southern Appalachian forests are influenced by disturbance and topography. This study examined six stands in southwestern Virginia. Within each stand, a 0.3-ha plot was established, and all trees and saplings were measured and aged. Burned stands had lower densities of saplings and small trees, but appeared to have greater Quercus regeneration. Ice damage from the 1994 ice storm was most evident in Pinus strobus saplings. A stand on old coal-mine slag appeared to be experiencing a slower rate of succession than other sites. A variety of stand development patterns were observed, but one common pattern was that oak-hickory overstories had different species in their understory, which may indicate future changes in species composition.

  20. CD-2: Orogenic Belt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    basin or orogenic mountain belt. Significant crustal subsidence (up to several kilometers) occurs in sedimentary sequences. This subsidence is due to the weight of the...

  1. Corn Belt Power Cooperative Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corn Belt Power Cooperative is a generation and transmission electric cooperative that provides power to nine distribution rural electric cooperatives and one municipal electric cooperative. These...

  2. Characterization of protein folding intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded in its linear sequence of amino acids. Studies of protein folding are aimed at understanding the nature of this code which translates one-dimensional information to three-dimensions. It is now well-established that protein folding intermediates exist and can be populated significantly under some conditions. A method to characterize kinetic folding intermediates is described. The method takes advantage of the decrease in exchange rates between amide protons (i.e., peptide backbone NH) and solvent water protons, when the amide proton is involved in structure. The feasibility of using amide proton exchange to pulse-label proteins during folding has been demonstrated using (/sup 3/H)-H/sub 2/O. The results with ribonuclease A (RNase A) support a framework model for folding, in which the secondary structure of a protein is formed before tertiary structure changes are complete. Extension of these studies using NMR should permit characterization of early secondary structure folding frameworks.

  3. Picture of the Week: Bulging Van Allen Belts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bulging Van Allen Belts February 25, 2016 Bulging Van Allen Belts Learn about the Van Allen Belts and how new findings from NASA's Van Allen Probes could impact how we protect technology in space. To watch the video: click below

  4. Study finds surprising variability in shape of Van Allen Belts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study finds surprising variability in shape of Van Allen Belts Study finds surprising variability in shape of Van Allen Belts Understanding the shape and size of the belts, which shrink and swell in response to magnetic storms coming from the sun, is crucial for protecting our technology in space. February 23, 2016 1. The traditional idea of the radiation belts includes a larger, more dynamic outer belt and a smaller, more stable inner belt with an empty slot region separating the two. However,

  5. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  6. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  7. SciTech Connect: "protein folding"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    protein folding" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "protein folding" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data:...

  8. CNS donations help lower-income Appalachian families | Y-12 National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Complex CNS donations help ... CNS donations help lower-income Appalachian families Posted: December 21, 2015 - 1:44pm Y-12 Historian and ADFAC board member Ray Smith (left) and Y-12 Site Manager Bill Tindal present Annie Cacheiro, ADFAC executive director, a donation from CNS. A year ago, the Aid to Distressed Families of Appalachian Counties', or ADFAC's, School Supply Program was able to serve a record breaking 2,808 children, providing necessary school supplies to students in 29

  9. A new picture of the Van Allen Belts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A new picture of the Van Allen Belts A new picture of the Van Allen Belts A study conducted by Los Alamos and the New Mexico Consortium reveals that the shape of the Van Allen Belts is actually quite different than previously believed. January 21, 2016 van allen belts During geomagnetic storms, the empty region between the two belts can fill in completely with lower-energy electrons. Traditionally, scientists thought this slot region filled in only during the most extreme geomagnetic storms

  10. Picture of the Week: Bulging Van Allen Belts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Bulging Van Allen Belts Learn about the Van Allen Belts and how new findings from NASA's Van Allen Probes could impact how we protect technology in space. February 25, 2016 Bulging Van Allen Belts Watch the video on YouTube. Bulging Van Allen Belts Learn about the Van Allen Belts and how new findings from NASA's Van Allen Probes could impact how we protect technology in space

  11. Los Alamos provides HOPE for radiation belt storm probes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HOPE for radiation belt storm probes Los Alamos provides HOPE for radiation belt storm probes The HOPE analyzer is one of a suite of instruments that was successfully launched as part of the Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission. August 30, 2012 Artist's rendering showing two spacecraft representing the not-yet-designed Radiation Belt Storm Probes that will study the sun and its effects on Earth. PHOTO CREDIT: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Artist's rendering showing two

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - APPALACHIAN_STATE_Presentation 4 27 2015 lower quality pics.pptx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mountain Laurel Home Race-to-Zero Design Competition Lena Burkett, Chase Ambler, and Brad Painting Jeff Tiller, Faculty Advisor Department of Sustainable Technology and the Built Environment APPALACHIAN STATE UNIVERSITY 19 April 2015 2 The App State Team Jake Smith Chris Schoonover A.J. Smith Josh Brooks Chase Ambler Brad Painting Harrison Sytz Chelsea Davis Kaitlyn Morgan Pedro Franco Josh Smith Jeff Tiller Brenton Faircloth David Leonard Marshall Dressler Lena Burkett Kenny High Chase Edge

  13. Protein Vivisection Reveals Elusive Intermediates in Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

    2010-05-25

    Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here, we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu {yields} Glu{sup -}) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We applied this strategy to ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the {beta}5-strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high-energy states.

  14. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  15. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1996-06-11

    Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

  16. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  17. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  18. New compounds will help coal operators comply with BELT standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-15

    US coal producers will soon have a new set of conveyor belting standards, which are currently proposed as a rulemaking by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), to bring higher levels of resistance to propagation of fire by a secondary source. The new test being put into effect is known as a Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT). The article, submitted by Fenner Dunlop, discusses the company's testing procedures and the development of conveyors to comply with regulations. 2 photos.

  19. Mysterious electron stash found hidden among Van Allen belts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Van Allen radiation belts Mysterious electron stash found hidden among Van Allen belts The belts are a pair of donut shaped zones of charged particles that surround Earth and occupy the inner region of our planet's Magnetosphere. March 1, 2013 This NASA rendering depicts Earth's Van Allen radiation belts and the path of the Van Allen Probe spacecraft, which were launched in August 2012. Data from the spacecraft have confirmed a never-before-seen phenomenon-a long-lived zone of high-energy

  20. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly ...

  1. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

    1986-04-03

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  2. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  3. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins' heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas' liquid fuels needs.

  4. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins` heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas` liquid fuels needs.

  5. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  6. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J.

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  7. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rober Jacobi

    2006-05-31

    During this reporting period, Fortuna retrieved the first oriented horizontal core from the Trenton/Black River in the northern Appalachian Basin. The core came from central New York State, the ''hottest'' play in the Appalachian Basin. A complete well log suite was also collected in the horizontal hole, including an FMI log. After reassembling the core sections, and orienting the core, we analyzed the whole core before it was cut for full-diameter core analyses (e.g., permeability) and before the core was split, in order that we did not miss any features that may be lost during cutting. We recognized and mapped along the core 43 stylolites, 99 veins and several large partially filled vugs. Kinematic indicators suggest multiple phases of strike-slip motion. Master-abutting relationships at intersections (primarily determined from which feature ''cuts'' which other feature) show three stages of stylolite growth: sub horizontal, nearly vertical, and steeply dipping. These development stages reflect vertical loading, tectonic horizontal loading, and finally oblique loading. Hydrothermal dolomite veins cut and are cut by all three stages of the stylolites. A set of horizontal veins indicates vertical unloading. Analyses of the core will continue, as well as the well logs.

  8. Alleghanian development of the Goat Rock fault zone, southernmost Appalachians: Temporal compatibility with the master decollement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steltenpohl, M.G. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Goldberg, S.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Hanley, T.B. (Columbus College, GA (United States)); Kunk, M.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The Goat Rock and associated Bartletts Ferry fault zones, which mark the eastern margin of the Pine Mountain Grenville basement massif, are controversial due to the suggestion that they are rare exposed segments of the late Paleozoic southern Appalachian master decollement. The controversy in part stems from reported middle Paleozoic (Acadian) radiometric dates postulated as the time of movement along these fault zones. Ultramylonite samples from the type area at Goat Rock Dam yield a 287 [plus minus] 15 Ma Rb-Sr isochron interpreted as the time of Sr isotopic rehomgenization during mylonitization. This date is corroborated by Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mineral ages on hornblende (297-288 Ma) and muscovite (285-278 Ma) from neomineralized and dynamically recrystallized rocks within and straddling the fault zone. These Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian dates indicate the time of right-slip movement (Alleghenian) along the Goat Rock fault zone, which is compatible with the timing suggested by COCORP for thrusting along the southern Appalachian master decollement.

  9. ENHANCING RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN BY IDENTIFYING TECHNICAL BARRIER AND PREFERRED PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald R. McDowell; Khashayar Aminian; Katharine L. Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Ed. Hohn; Douglas G. Patchen

    2003-09-01

    The Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project, a two-year study sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), had three primary objectives: (1) the identification of problems, problematic issues, potential solutions and preferred practices related to oil production; (2) the creation of an Appalachian Regional Council to oversee and continue this investigation beyond the end of the project; and (3) the dissemination of investigative results to the widest possible audience, primarily by means of an interactive website. Investigation and identification of oil production problems and preferred management practices began with a Problem Identification Workshop in January of 2002. Three general issues were selected by participants for discussion: Data Management; Reservoir Engineering; and Drilling Practices. At the same meeting, the concept of the creation of an oversight organization to evaluate and disseminated preferred management practices (PMP's) after the end of the project was put forth and volunteers were solicited. In-depth interviews were arranged with oil producers to gain more insight into problems and potential solutions. Project members encountered considerable reticence on the part of interviewees when it came to revealing company-specific production problems or company-specific solutions. This was the case even though interviewees were assured that all responses would be held in confidence. Nevertheless, the following production issues were identified and ranked in order of decreasing importance: Water production including brine disposal; Management of production and business data; Oil field power costs; Paraffin accumulation; Production practices including cementing. An number of secondary issues were also noted: Problems associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Waterflooding; Reservoir characterization; Employee availability, training, and safety; and Sale and Purchase problems. One item was mentioned both in interviews and in the Workshop, as, perhaps, the key issue related to oil production in the Appalachian region - the price of a barrel of oil. Project members sought solutions to production problems from a number of sources. In general, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) website, both regional and national, proved to be a fertile source of information. Technical issues included water production, paraffin accumulation, production practices, EOR and waterflooding were addressed in a number of SPE papers. Articles on reservoir characterization were found in both the AAPG Bulletin and in SPE papers. Project members extracted topical and keyword information from pertinent articles and websites and combined them in a database that was placed on the PUMP website. Because of difficulties finding potential members with the qualifications, interests, and flexibility of schedule to allow a long-term commitment, it was decided to implement the PMP Regional Council as a subcommittee of the Producer Advisory Group (PAG) sponsored by Appalachian Region PTTC. The advantages of this decision are that the PAG is in already in existence as a volunteer group interested in problem identification and implementation of solutions and that PAG members are unpaid, so no outside funds will be required to sustain the group. The PUMP website became active in October of 2002. The site is designed to evolve; as new information becomes available, it can be readily added to the site or the site can be modified to accommodate it. The site is interactive allowing users to search within the PUMP site, within the Appalachian Region PTTC site, or within the whole internet through the input of user-supplied key words for information on oil production problems and solutions. Since its inception in the Fall of 2002, the PUMP site has experienced a growing number of users of increasingly diverse nature and from an increasing geographic area. This indicates that the site is reaching its target audience in the Appalachian region and beyond. Following up on a commitment to technology transfer, a tota

  10. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  11. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  12. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  13. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  14. Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Tao; Yoon, ChangKyu; Jin, Qianru; Li, Mingen; Liu, Zewen; Gracias, David H.

    2015-05-18

    In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.

  15. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.

    1995-08-08

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.

  16. Solvent-induced forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-08-23

    The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

  17. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, Robert M. (Glastonbury, CT); Wright, David D. (Vershire, VT)

    1995-01-01

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal focii coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell.

  18. Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using Amino Acid Sequences Title: Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using ...

  19. Fragmentation of habitats used by neotropical migratory birds in Southern Appalachians and the neotropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, S.M.; Dale, V.H.; Offerman, H.L. |

    1993-12-31

    Recent declines in North American breeding populations have sparked great concern over the effects of habitat fragmentation. Neotropical migrant birds use and are influenced by two biomes during a single life span. Yet assessment of the relative importance of changes in tropical wintering areas versus temperate breeding areas is complicated by regional variation in rates and extent of habitat change. Landscape-level measurements of forest fragmentation derived from remotely-sensed data provide a means to compare the patterns of habitat modification on the wintering and breeding grounds of migrant birds. This study quantifies patterns of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and tropical Amazon and relates these patterns to the resource needs of neotropical migrant birds. Study sites were selected from remotely-sensed images to represent a range of forest fragmentation (highly fragmented landscape to continuous forest).

  20. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 7, 2016 Title: Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient

  1. Gulf Coast-East Coast magnetic anomaly I: Root of the main crustal decollement for the Appalachian-Ouachita orogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D.J. (Total Minatome Corporation, Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The Gulf Coast-East Coast magnetic anomaly extends for at least 4000 km from south-central Texas to offshore Newfoundland as one of the longest continuous tectonic features in North America and a major crustal element of the entire North Atlantic-Gulf Coast region. Analysis of 28 profiles spaced at 100km intervals and four computed models demonstrate that the anomaly may be explained by a thick zone of mafic and ultramafic rocks averaging 13-15 km in depth. The trend of the anomaly closely follows the trend of main Appalachian features: in the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, the anomaly is as far south of the Ouachita front as it is east of the western limit of deformation through the central Appalachians. Because the anomaly continues across well-known continental crust in northern Florida and onshore Texas, it cannot plausibly be ascribed to an edge effect at the boundary of oceanic with continental crustal compositions. The northwest-verging, deep-crustal events discovered in COCORP data from the Ouachitas and Appalachians suggest an analogy with the main suture of the Himalayan orogen in the Tibetan Plateau. In this paper the anomaly is identified with the late Paleozoic Alleghenian megasuture, in which the northwest-verging crustal-detachment surfaces ultimately root.

  2. Microsoft Word - RNA_folding_Herschlag.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 2003 Exploring the Folding Landscape of a Structured RNA by SAXS Rick Russell, Ian S. Millett, Sebastian Doniach and Daniel Herschlag Stanford University One goal of genome projects is to systematically identify genes (1,2). The best current knowledge indicates that humans carry approximately 35000 genes. This number is an estimate that varies from expert to expert and range up to 100,000 (3-5). To anyone who has taken an elementary biology class, this ambiguity must seem strange. How hard

  3. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steel, Alan

    1987-04-07

    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through 90.degree. during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  4. Folding and association of a homotetrameric protein complex in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Folding and association of a homotetrameric protein complex in an all-atom Go model Title: Folding and association of a homotetrameric protein complex in an all-atom Go model ...

  5. Early Proterozoic transcontinental orogenic belts in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Schmus, W.R. . Dept. of Geology); Bickford, M.E. . Dept. of Geology); Condie, K.C. . Dept. Geoscience)

    1993-02-01

    It has been recognized for many years that Early Proterozoic orogenic rocks in the western US range from 1.8 to 1.6 Ga, with a general distribution such that 1.8 to 1.7 Ga rocks underlie Colorado, northern Arizona, and northern New Mexico and 1.7 to 1.6 Ga rocks underlie southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Recent U-Pb geochronologic and Sm-Nd isotopic studies by a variety of research groups have refined crustal history in the western region and have extended knowledge eastward into the buried midcontinent basement. As a result, the authors propose that 1.8 Ga to 1.6 Ga crust of the US by divided into two distinct, but overlapping, orogenic belts: a 1.8 to 1.7 Ga Inner Accretionary Belt and a 1.7 to 1.6 Ga Outer Tectonic Belt. The Inner Accretionary Belt (IAB) comprises rock suites with compositions and isotopic signatures compatible with origin as juvenile crustal terranes formed as oceanic or off-shore and related terranes that were accreted to southern Laurentia between 1.8 and 1.6 Ga. The IAB includes the Yavapai Province of Arizona, Early Proterozoic basement of Colorado and southern Wyoming, and the basement of Nebraska. The Mojave Province of California may be part of this belt, although it also includes components derived from older Proterozoic or Archean crust. Extension of the IAB eastward from Nebraska is uncertain at present, although coeval rocks that may be eastern manifestations of this 1.8 to 1.7 Ga orogenesis occur in Wisconsin (1.76 Ga granite-rhyolite suite), Ontario (Killarney granite), Labrador (Makkovic Province) and southern Greenland (Ketilidian orogen). The Outer Tectonic Belt (OTB) comprises rock suites which have compositions, structures, and isotopic signature compatible with origin in continental margin tectonic settings between 1.7 and 1.6 Ga.

  6. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a

  7. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  8. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Final report, October 10, 1994--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R.H.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium is a group comprised of representatives from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, that was formed to pursue research in areas related to the treatment and processing of fine coal. Each member performed research in their respective areas of expertise and the report contained herein encompasses the results that were obtained for the three major tasks that the Consortium undertook from October, 1994 through March, 1997. In the first task, conducted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute, novel methods (both mechanical and chemical) for dewatering fine coal were examined. In the second task, the Center for Applied Energy Research examined novel approaches for destabilization of [highly stable] flotation froths. And in the third task, West Virginia University developed physical and mathematical models for fine coal spirals. The Final Report is written in three distinctive chapters, each reflecting the individual member`s task report. Recommendations for further research in those areas investigated, as well as new lines of pursuit, are suggested.

  9. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  10. Dotiki saves money and time with power tool and belt fasteners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bargo, K.

    2009-11-15

    The use of a Hilti power tool to improve belt splice installations to minimise downtime is described. 3 photos.

  11. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of low-cost prototype hardware, acquisition of infrared thermal data, and initial design of a Smart-Camera based system.

  12. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of an improved LED lightbar, fabrication of a line-scan sensor head for the Smart-Camera based prototype, and development of prototype vulcanized splice detection algorithms.

  13. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-8-2015 Appalachian Basin Isotopes_7.28.15 FINAL.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H, 13 C, 18 O, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra Isotope Concentrations in the Appalachian Basin: A Review 28 July 2015 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-8-2015 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

  14. Accordian-folded boot shield for flexible swivel connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoh, Joseph C. (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A flexible swivel boot connector for connecting a first boot shield section to a second boot shield section, both first and second boot sections having openings therethrough, the second boot section having at least two adjacent accordian folds at the end having the opening, the second boot section being positioned through the opening of the first boot section such that a first of the accordian folds is within the first boot section and a second of the accordian folds is outside of the first boot, includes first and second annular discs, the first disc being positioned within and across the first accordian fold, the second disc being positioned within and across the second accordian fold, such that the first boot section is moveably and rigidly connected between the first and second accordian folds of the second boot section.

  15. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab,

  16. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab,

  17. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab,

  18. Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kinetics (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics We have developed and characterized a mixer to study the reaction kinetics of protein folding on a microsecond timescale. The mixer uses hydrodynamic focusing of pressure-driven flow in a microfluidic channel to reduce diffusion times as first

  19. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab,

  20. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  1. MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY Kane, A; Hertzog, D; Baumgartel, P; Lengefeld, J; Horsley,...

  2. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these...

  3. MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE...

  4. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  5. Effective Conveyer Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David LaRose

    2006-11-14

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from May 15, 2006 to November 14, 2006. Progress during this period includes significant advances in development of a Smart Camera based prototype system for on-site mechanical splice detection, and continued deployment of both the mechanical splice detection system and the vulcanized splice detection system in area coal mines.

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that the cost per ton to sequester carbon ranges from $6.54 on site index 80 land at a 12.5% ARR to $36.68 on site index 40 land at an ARR of 0.5%. Results also indicate that the amount of carbon stored during one rotation ranges between 38 tons per acre on site index 40 land to 58 tons per acre on site index 80 land. The profitability of afforestation on these AML sites in West Virginia increases as the market price for carbon increases from $0 to $100 per ton.

  7. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1994-12-27

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figures.

  8. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  9. Folding associated with extensional faulting: Sheep Range detachment, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guth, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sheep Range detachment is a major Miocene extensional fault system of the Great Basin. Its major faults have a scoop shape, with straight, N-S traces extending 15-30 km and then abruptly turning to strike E-W. Tertiary deformation involved simultaneous normal faulting, sedimentation, landsliding, and strike-slip faulting. Folds occur in two settings: landslide blocks and drag along major faults. Folds occur in landslide blocks and beneath them. Most folds within landslide blocks are tight anticlines, with limbs dipping 40-60 degrees. Brecciation of the folds and landslide blocks suggests brittle deformation. Near Quijinump Canyon in the Sheep Range, at least three landslide blocks (up to 500 by 1500 m) slid into a small Tertiary basin. Tertiary limestone beneath the Paleozoic blocks was isoclinally folded. Westward dips reveal drag folds along major normal faults, as regional dips are consistently to the east. The Chowderhead anticline is the largest drag fold, along an extensional fault that offsets Ordovician units 8 km. East-dipping Ordovician and Silurian rocks in the Desert Range form the hanging wall. East-dipping Cambrian and Ordovician units in the East Desert Range form the foot wall and east limb of the anticline. Caught along the fault plane, the anticline's west-dipping west limb contains mostly Cambrian units.

  10. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Meng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Huaiqiu, E-mail: hqzhu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yao, Xin-Qiu [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biophysics, Kyoto University, Sakyo Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); She, Zhen-Su, E-mail: she@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-01-29

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  11. Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Tri-Fold |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Tri-Fold Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Tri-Fold OSDBU has created a downloadable, print-on-demand tri-fold PDF that introduces the office, its role in the Department of Energy and its goals for supporting small business nationwide. This document includes information on "rules of engagement," the Department of Energy's business model, the Mentor-Protégé program, the DOE Annual

  12. DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, ?, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and ?-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of ? and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.

  13. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Chris Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; James Drahovzal; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; John Bocan; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-10-01

    The ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' has reached the mid-point in a two-year research effort to produce a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 exploration and production companies and 6 research team members, including four state geological surveys, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks and one administrative and technology transfer task are being conducted basin-wide by research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined at least once. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 10 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York and Pennsylvania. In addition, three surfaces in that area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. In the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia portion of the study area, a velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Fifteen formation tops have been identified on seismic in that area. Preliminary conclusions based on the available seismic data do not support the extension of the Rome Trough into New York state. Members of the stratigraphy task team measured, described and photographed numerous cores from throughout the basin, and tied these data back to their network of geophysical log cross sections. Geophysical logs were scanned in raster files for use in detailed well examination and construction of cross sections. Logs on these cross sections that are only in raster format are being converted to vector format for final cross section displays. The petrology team measured and sampled one classic outcrop in Pennsylvania and ten cores in four states. More than 600 thin sections were prepared from samples in those four states. A seven-step procedure is being used to analyze all thin sections, leading to an interpretation of the sequence of diagenetic events and development of porosity in the reservoir. Nearly 1000 stable isotope geochemistry samples have been collected from cores in four of the five states in the study area. More than 400 of these samples will be analyzed for fluid inclusion and/or strontium isotope analyses, as well. Gas samples have been collected from 21 wells in four states and analyzed for chemical content and isotope analyses of carbon and hydrogen. Because natural gases vary in chemical and isotope composition as a function of their formation and migration history, crossplots of these values can be very revealing. Gas from the Homer field in Kentucky indicates compartmentalization and at least two different sources. Gas from the York field in Ohio also came from at least two discrete compartments. Gas from the Cottontree field in West Virginia is very dry, probably generated from post-mature source rocks. Isotope reversals may be indicative of cracking of residual oil. Gas from Glodes Corners Road field in New York also is post-mature, dry gas, and again isotope reversals may indicate cracking of residual oil in the reservoir. Noble gases are predominantly of crustal origin, but a minor helium component was derived from the mantle. The project web server continues to evolve as the project progresses. The user/password authenticated website has 18 industry partner users and 20 research team users. Software has been installed to track website use. Two meetings of the research team were held to review the status of the project and prepare reports to be given to the full consortium. A meeting of the full consortium--industry partners and researchers--was very successful. However, the ultimate product of the research could be improved if industry members were more forthcoming with proprietary data.

  14. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Katharine Lee Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Hohn; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; James A. Drahovzal; Christopher D. Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski

    2005-04-01

    The Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Research Consortium has made significant progress toward their goal of producing a geologic play book for the Trenton-Black River gas play. The final product will include a resource assessment model of Trenton-Black River reservoirs; possible fairways within which to concentrate further studies and seismic programs; and a model for the origin of Trenton-Black River hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 15 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. In addition, three surfaces for the area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. A 16-layer velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Considerable progress was made in fault trend delineation and seismic-stratigraphic correlation within the project area. Isopach maps and a network of gamma-ray cross sections supplemented with core descriptions allowed researchers to more clearly define the architecture of the basin during Middle and Late Ordovician time, the control of basin architecture on carbonate and shale deposition and eventually, the location of reservoirs in Trenton Limestone and Black River Group carbonates. The basin architecture itself may be structurally controlled, and this fault-related structural control along platform margins influenced the formation of hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in original limestone facies deposited in high energy environments. This resulted in productive trends along the northwest margin of the Trenton platform in Ohio. The continuation of this platform margin into New York should provide further areas with good exploration potential. The focus of the petrographic study shifted from cataloging a broad spectrum of carbonate rocks that occur in the Trenton-Black River interval to delineation of regional limestone diagenesis in the basin. A consistent basin-wide pattern of marine and burial diagenesis that resulted in relatively low porosity and permeability in the subtidal facies of these rocks has been documented across the study area. Six diagenetic stages have been recognized: four marine diagenesis stages and two burial diagenesis stages. This dominance of extensive marine and burial diagenesis yielded rocks with low reservoir potential, with the exception of fractured limestone and dolostone reservoirs. Commercial amounts of porosity, permeability and petroleum accumulation appear to be restricted to areas where secondary porosity developed in association with hydrothermal fluid flow along faults and fractures related to basement tectonics. A broad range of geochemical and fluid inclusion analyses have aided in a better understanding of the origin of the dolomites in the Trenton and Black River Groups over the study area. The results of these analyses support a hydrothermal origin for all of the various dolomite types found to date. The fluid inclusion data suggest that all of the dolomite types analyzed formed from hot saline brines. The dolomite is enriched in iron and manganese, which supports a subsurface origin for the dolomitizing brine. Strontium isotope data suggest that the fluids passed through basement rocks or immature siliciclastic rocks prior to forming the dolomites. All of these data suggest a hot, subsurface origin for the dolomites. The project database continued to be redesigned, developed and deployed. Production data are being reformatted for standard relational database management system requirements. Use of the project intranet by industry partners essentially doubled during the reporting period.

  15. UFO (UnFold Operator) computer program abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F.

    1982-11-01

    UFO (UnFold Operator) is an interactive user-oriented computer program designed to solve a wide range of problems commonly encountered in physical measurements. This document provides a summary of the capabilities of version 3A of UFO.

  16. Determining the role of hydration forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hura, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Soper, A.K. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility] [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility; Pertsemlidis, A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry] [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Head-Gordon, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    One of the primary issues in protein folding is determining what forces drive folding and eventually stabilize the native state. A delicate balance exists between electrostatic forces such as hydrogen bonding and salt bridges, and the hydrophobic effect, which are present for both intramolecular protein interactions and intermolecular contributions with the surrounding aqueous environment. This article describes a combined experimental, theoretical, and computational effort to show how the complexity of aqueous hydration can influence the structure, folding and aggregation, and stability of model protein systems. The unification of the theoretical and experimental work is the development or discovery of effective amino acid interactions that implicitly include the effects of aqueous solvent. The authors show that consideration of the full range of complexity of aqueous hydration forces such as many-body effects, long-ranged character of aqueous solvation, and the assumptions made about the degree of protein hydrophobicity can directly impact the observed structure, folding, and stability of model protein systems.

  17. Nonlinear vs. linear biasing in Trp-cage folding simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiwok, Vojt?ch Oborsk, Pavel; Krlov, Blanka; Pazrikov, Jana

    2015-03-21

    Biased simulations have great potential for the study of slow processes, including protein folding. Atomic motions in molecules are nonlinear, which suggests that simulations with enhanced sampling of collective motions traced by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods may perform better than linear ones. In this study, we compare an unbiased folding simulation of the Trp-cage miniprotein with metadynamics simulations using both linear (principle component analysis) and nonlinear (Isomap) low dimensional embeddings as collective variables. Folding of the mini-protein was successfully simulated in 200?ns simulation with linear biasing and non-linear motion biasing. The folded state was correctly predicted as the free energy minimum in both simulations. We found that the advantage of linear motion biasing is that it can sample a larger conformational space, whereas the advantage of nonlinear motion biasing lies in slightly better resolution of the resulting free energy surface. In terms of sampling efficiency, both methods are comparable.

  18. Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Amino Acid Sequences (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using Amino Acid Sequences Title: Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using Amino Acid Sequences Authors: Adhikari, Aashish N. ; Freed, Karl F. ; Sosnick, Tobin R. Publication Date: 2013-07-11 OSTI Identifier: 1103786 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume:

  19. Energy Landscapes: From Protein Folding to Molecular Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    36th Annual Conference Energy Landscapes: From Protein Folding to Molecular Assembly WHEN: May 09, 2016 8:00 AM - May 12, 2016 5:00 PM WHERE: Hilton Santa Fe Historic Plaza Santa Fe, NM CONTACT: Angel Garcia (505) 665-3883 CATEGORY: Community Science TYPE: Conference INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Nanoscale molecular assembly is very common in biology and in nanotechnology. Simple examples of self-assembly are the folding of proteins from a disorder polymer, the assembly of lipid

  20. Structural proteomics of minimal organisms: conservation ofprotein fold

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    usage and evolutionary implications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structural proteomics of minimal organisms: conservation ofprotein fold usage and evolutionary implications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural proteomics of minimal organisms: conservation ofprotein fold usage and evolutionary implications Background: Determining the complete repertoire of proteinstructures for all soluble, globular proteins in a single organism hasbeen one of the major goals of

  1. MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY (Conference) | SciTech Connect MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and optimize microfluidic mixers to investigate the kinetics of protein

  2. First ultraviolet reflectance measurements of several Kuiper Belt objects, Kuiper Belt object satellites, and new ultraviolet measurements of A Centaur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, S. A.; Schindhelm, E.; Cunningham, N. J.

    2014-05-01

    We observed the 2600-3200 (hereafter, mid-UV) reflectance of two Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), two KBO satellites, and a Centaur, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Other than measurements of the Pluto system, these constitute the first UV measurements obtained of KBOs, and KBO satellites, and new HST UV measurements of the Centaur 2060 Chiron. We find significant differences among these objects, constrain the sizes and densities of Haumea's satellites, and report the detection of a possible spectral absorption band in Haumea's spectrum near 3050 . Comparisons of these objects to previously published UV reflectance measurements of Pluto and Charon are also made here.

  3. Intermediates and the folding of proteins L and G

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-07-01

    We use a minimalist protein model, in combination with a sequence design strategy, to determine differences in primary structure for proteins L and G that are responsible for the two proteins folding through distinctly different folding mechanisms. We find that the folding of proteins L and G are consistent with a nucleation-condensation mechanism, each of which is described as helix-assisted {beta}-1 and {beta}-2 hairpin formation, respectively. We determine that the model for protein G exhibits an early intermediate that precedes the rate-limiting barrier of folding and which draws together misaligned secondary structure elements that are stabilized by hydrophobic core contacts involving the third {beta}-strand, and presages the later transition state in which the correct strand alignment of these same secondary structure elements is restored. Finally the validity of the targeted intermediate ensemble for protein G was analyzed by fitting the kinetic data to a two-step first order reversible reaction, proving that protein G folding involves an on-pathway early intermediate, and should be populated and therefore observable by experiment.

  4. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q. -G.; Zhou, X. -Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y. -X.; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. So, our results demonstrate that the ULF waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.

  5. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q. -G.; Zhou, X. -Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y. -X.; Gao, Zhonglei; et al

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. So, our results demonstrate that the ULFmore » waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.« less

  6. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain; Stuart Loewenstein; Edward DeRidder; Bruce Hart

    2007-03-31

    For two consecutive years, 2004 and 2005, the largest natural gas well (in terms of gas flow/day) drilled onshore USA targeted the Ordovician Trenton/Black River (T/BR) play in the Appalachian Basin of New York State (NYS). Yet, little data were available concerning the characteristics of the play, or how to recognize and track T/BR prospects across the region. Traditional exploration techniques for entry into a hot play were of limited use here, since existing deep well logs and public domain seismic were almost non-existent. To help mitigate this problem, this research project was conceived with two objectives: (1) to demonstrate that integrative traditional and innovative techniques could be used as a cost-effective reconnaissance exploration methodology in this, and other, areas where existing data in targeted fracture-play horizons are almost non-existent, and (2) determine critical characteristics of the T/BR fields. The research region between Seneca and Cayuga lakes (in the Finger Lakes of NYS) is on strike and east of the discovery fields, and the southern boundary of the field area is about 8 km north of more recently discovered T/BR fields. Phase I, completed in 2004, consisted of integrating detailed outcrop fracture analyses with detailed soil gas analyses, lineaments, stratigraphy, seismic reflection data, well log data, and aeromagnetics. In the Seneca Lake region, Landsat lineaments (EarthSat, 1997) were coincident with fracture intensification domains (FIDs) and minor faults observed in outcrop and inferred from stratigraphy. Soil gas anomalies corresponded to ENE-trending lineaments and FIDs. N- and ENE-trending lineaments were parallel to aeromagnetic anomalies, whereas E-trending lineaments crossed aeromagnetic trends. 2-D seismic reflection data confirmed that the E-trending lineaments and FIDs occur where shallow level Alleghanian salt-cored thrust-faulted anticlines occur. In contrast, the ENE-trending FIDs and lineaments occur where Iapetan rift faults have been episodically reactivated, and a few of these faults extend through the entire stratigraphic section. The ENE-trending faults and N-striking transfer zones controlled the development of the T/BR grabens. In both the Seneca Lake and Cayuga Lake regions, we found more FIDs than Landsat lineaments, both in terms of individual FIDs and trends of FIDs. Our fused Landsat/ASTER image provided more lineaments, but the structural framework inferred from these lineaments is incomplete even for the fused image. Individual lineaments may not predict surface FIDs (within 500m). However, an individual lineament that has been groundtruthed by outcrop FIDs can be used as a proxy for the trend of intense fracturing. Aeromagnetics and seismic reflection data across the discovery fields west of Keuka Lake demonstrate that the fields terminate on the east against northerly-striking faults that extend from Precambrian basement to, in some cases, the surface; the fields terminate in the west at N- and NW-striking faults. Seismic and well log data show that the fields must be compartmentalized, since different parts of the same field show different histories of development. T/BR fields south of the research area also terminate (on the east) against northerly-trending lineaments which we suggest mark faults. Phase II, completed in 2006, consisted of collection and analysis of an oriented, horizontal core retrieved from one of the T/BR fields in a graben south of the field area. The field is located along ENE-trending EarthSat (1997) lineaments, similar to that hypothesized for the study area. The horizontal core shows much evidence for reactivation along the ENE-trending faults, with multiple events of vein development and both horizontal and vertical stylolite growth. Horizontal veins that post- and pre-date other vein sets indicate that at least two orogenic phases (separated by unloading) affected vein development. Many of the veins and releasing bend features (rhombochasms) are consistent with strike-slip motion (oblique) along ENE-striking faults as a result

  7. Collective aspects of protein folding illustrated by a toy model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillinger, F.H. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)] [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Head-Gordon, T. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A simple toy model for polypeptides serves as a testbed to illuminate some nonlocal, or collective, aspects of protein folding phenomena. The model is two dimensional and has only two amino acids, but involves a continuous range of backbone bend angles. Global potential energy minima and their folding structures have been determined for leading members of two special and contrasting polypeptide sequences, center doped and Fibonacci, named descriptively for their primary structures. The results display the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking, elastic strain, and substantial conformational variation for specific embedded amino acid strings. We conclude that collective variables generated by the primary amino acid structure may be required for fully effective protein folding predictors, including those based on neural networks.

  8. Heteropolymer freezing and design: Towards physical models of protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pande, Vijay S. [Chemistry Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5080 (United States)] [Chemistry Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5080 (United States); Grosberg, Alexander Yu. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Tanaka, Toyoichi [Department of Physics and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Protein folding has become one of the most actively studied problems in modern molecular biophysics. Approaches to the problem combine ideas from the physics of disordered systems, polymer physics, and molecular biology. Much can be learned from the statistical properties of model heteropolymers, the chain molecules having different monomers in irregular sequences. Even in highly evolved proteins, there is a strong random element in the sequences, which gives rise to a statistical ensemble of sequences for a given folded shape. Simple analytic models give rise to phase transitions between random, glassy, and folded states, depending on the temperature T and the design temperature T{sup des} of the ensemble of sequences. Besides considering the analytic results obtainable in a random-energy model and in the Flory mean-field model of polymers, the article reports on confirming numerical simulations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper

    2008-12-31

    To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600 digital photos in 1-foot intervals from 11 cores, and approximately 260 references for these plays. A primary objective of the research was to make data and information available free to producers through an on-line data delivery model designed for public access on the Internet. The web-based application that was developed utilizes ESRI's ArcIMS GIS software to deliver both well-based and play-based data that are searchable through user-originated queries, and allows interactive regional geographic and geologic mapping that is play-based. System tools help users develop their customized spatial queries. A link also has been provided to the West Virginia Geological Survey's 'pipeline' system for accessing all available well-specific data for more than 140,000 wells in West Virginia. However, only well-specific queries by API number are permitted at this time. The comprehensive project web site (http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/atg) resides on West Virginia Geological Survey's servers and links are provided from the Pennsylvania Geological Survey and Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium web sites.

  10. MAIN-BELT COMET P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Kaluna, Heather M.; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Micheli, Marco; Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Kleyna, Jan; Veres, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Ansdell, Megan; Elliott, Garrett T.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Meech, Karen J.; Riesen, Timm E.; Sonnett, Sarah; Novakovic, Bojan; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; and others

    2013-07-01

    We present initial results from observations and numerical analyses aimed at characterizing the main-belt comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS). Optical monitoring observations were made between 2012 October and 2013 February using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, the Keck I telescope, the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, Faulkes Telescope South, the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. The object's intrinsic brightness approximately doubles from the time of its discovery in early October until mid-November and then decreases by {approx}60% between late December and early February, similar to photometric behavior exhibited by several other main-belt comets and unlike that exhibited by disrupted asteroid (596) Scheila. We also used Keck to conduct spectroscopic searches for CN emission as well as absorption at 0.7 {mu}m that could indicate the presence of hydrated minerals, finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q{sub CN} < 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} mol s{sup -1}, from which we infer a water production rate of Q{sub H{sub 2O}}<5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} mol s{sup -1}, and no evidence of the presence of hydrated minerals. Numerical simulations indicate that P/2012 T1 is largely dynamically stable for >100 Myr and is unlikely to be a recently implanted interloper from the outer solar system, while a search for potential asteroid family associations reveals that it is dynamically linked to the {approx}155 Myr old Lixiaohua asteroid family.

  11. Folding model description of reactions with exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.; Hassanain, M. A.; Mokhtar, S. R.; Zaki, M. A.; Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M.; Farid, M. El-Azab

    2012-08-15

    Microscopic folding calculations based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclearmatter densities of the interacting nuclei have been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering cross section at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The extracted reaction cross sections are also considered.

  12. Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region - article no. W04407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrari, J.R.; Lookingbill, T.R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P.A.; Eshleman, K.N.

    2009-04-15

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km{sup 2} watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  13. Discovering The Folding Rules That Proteins Obey FY08 LDRD Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Discovering The Folding Rules That Proteins Obey FY08 LDRD Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovering The Folding Rules That Proteins ...

  14. Invariant patterns in crystal lattices: Implications for protein folding algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HART,WILLIAM E.; ISTRAIL,SORIN

    2000-06-01

    Crystal lattices are infinite periodic graphs that occur naturally in a variety of geometries and which are of fundamental importance in polymer science. Discrete models of protein folding use crystal lattices to define the space of protein conformations. Because various crystal lattices provide discretizations of the same physical phenomenon, it is reasonable to expect that there will exist invariants across lattices related to fundamental properties of the protein folding process. This paper considers whether performance-guaranteed approximability is such an invariant for HP lattice models. The authors define a master approximation algorithm that has provable performance guarantees provided that a specific sublattice exists within a given lattice. They describe a broad class of crystal lattices that are approximable, which further suggests that approximability is a general property of HP lattice models.

  15. Invariant patterns in crystal lattices: Implications for protein folding algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, W.E.; Istrail, S.

    1995-12-11

    Crystal lattices are infinite periodic graphs that occur naturally in a variety of geometries and which are of fundamental importance in polymer science. Discrete models of protein folding use crystal lattices to define the space of protein conformations. Because various crystal lattices provide discretizations of the same physical phenomenon, it is reasonable to expect that there will exist ``invariants`` across lattices that define fundamental properties of protein folding process; an invariant defines a property that transcends particular lattice formulations. This paper identifies two classes of invariants, defined in terms of sublattices that are related to the design of algorithms for the structure prediction problem. The first class of invariants is, used to define a master approximation algorithm for which provable performance guarantees exist. This algorithm can be applied to generalizations of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic model that have lattices other than the cubic lattice, including most of the crystal lattices commonly used in protein folding lattice models. The second class of invariants applies to a related lattice model. Using these invariants, we show that for this model the structure prediction problem is intractable across a variety of three-dimensional lattices. It`` turns out that these two classes of invariants are respectively sublattices of the two- and three-dimensional square lattice. As the square lattices are the standard lattices used in empirical protein folding` studies, our results provide a rigorous confirmation of the ability of these lattices to provide insight into biological phenomenon. Our results are the first in the literature that identify algorithmic paradigms for the protein structure prediction problem which transcend particular lattice formulations.

  16. Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben A. Abagyan

    2000-06-01

    The main scientific contribution of the project ''Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem'' submitted in 1996 and funded by the Department of Energy in 1997 is the formulation and development of the idea of the multilink recognition method for identification of functional and structural homologues of newly discovered genes. This idea became very popular after they first announced it and used it in prediction of the threading targets for the CASP2 competition (Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction).

  17. Modified Microbes Tolerate 50-Fold More Organic Acid - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Modified Microbes Tolerate 50-Fold More Organic Acid Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Production of industrial chemicals has long relied on petroleum-based starting material. As reserves of fossil carbon dwindle, a new approach is looking to microorganisms and their ability to convert renewable sources into valuable chemicals. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently targeted several 'building block' chemicals

  18. Grenville foreland thrust belt hidden beneath the eastern US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Grenville foreland thrust structures are observed beneath the eastern US midcontinent on COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) line OH-1 and a short seismic line in southwest Ohio. These structures represent the first evidence for a significant Grenville foreland thrust belt preserved in eastern North America. On the COCORP lines, the structures include a thrust ramp anticline and an associated asymmetric syncline. The Grenville front tectonic zone appears to truncate these foreland structures, indicating a later, second phase expressed as a deeply penetrating, out-of-sequence thrust zone associated with the main uplift of the Grenville province on the east. A short, shallow seismic line in southwestern Ohio reveals an east-dipping sequence of prominently layered rocks that may lie above a footwall ramp to a deeper Grenville thrust fault. A drill hole into the less reflective top of this dipping sequence encountered unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks like those increasingly reported from other drill holes in southwestern Ohio and adjacent states. Although possibly part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift, these clastic sedimentary rocks may instead preserve evidence of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin in eastern North America. Alternatively these Precambrian sedimentary rocks together with an underlying, but yet undrilled, strongly layered sequence may correlate with similarly layered rocks observed on COCORP and industrial seismic lines within the Middle Proterozoic granite-rhyolite province to the west in Indiana and Illinois and indicate that unmetamorphosed sedimentary material is an important constituent of the granite-rhyolite province. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Dynamical implantation of objects in the Kuiper Belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brasil, P. I. O.

    2014-09-01

    Several models have been suggested in the past to describe the dynamical formation of hot Kuiper Belt objects (hereafter Hot Classicals or HCs for short). Here, we discuss a dynamical mechanism that allows orbits to evolve from the primordial planetesimal disk at ? 35 AU to reach the orbital region now occupied by HCs. We performed three different sets of numerical simulations to illustrate this mechanism. Two of these simulations were based on modern theories for the early evolution of the solar system (the Nice and jumping-Jupiter models). The third simulation was performed with the purpose of increasing the resolution at 41-46 AU. The common aspect of these simulations is that Neptune scatters planetesimals from ? 35 AU to >40 AU and then undergoes a long phase of slow residual migration. Our results show that to reach an HC orbit, a scattered planetesimal needs to be captured in a mean motion resonance (MMR) with Neptune where the perihelion distance rises due to the Kozai resonance (which occurs in MMRs even for moderate inclinations). Finally, while Neptune is still migrating, the planetesimal is released from the MMR on a stable HC orbit. We show that the orbital distribution of HCs expected from this process provides a reasonable match to observations. The capture efficiency and the mass deposited into the HC region appears to be sensitive to the maximum eccentricity reached by Neptune during the planetary instability phase. Additional work will be needed to resolve this dependency in detail.

  20. Directed evolution methods for improving polypeptide folding and solubility and superfolder fluorescent proteins generated thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-09-18

    The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.

  1. COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    August, Tyler M.; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2013-06-15

    The size distribution of the asteroid belt is examined with 16956 main belt asteroids detected in data taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in two filters (g' and r'). The cumulative H (absolute magnitude) distribution is examined in both filters, and both match well to simple power laws down to H = 17, with slopes in rough agreement with those reported the literature. This implies that disruptive collisions between asteroids are gravitationally dominated down to at least this size, and probably sub-kilometer scales. The slopes of these distributions appear shallower in the outer belt than the inner belt, and the g' distributions appear slightly steeper than the r'. The slope shallowing in the outer belt may reflect a real compositional difference: the inner asteroid belt has been suggested to consist mostly of stony and/or metallic S-type asteroids, whereas carbonaceous C-types are thought to be more prevalent further from the Sun. No waves are seen in the size distribution above H = 15. Since waves are expected to be produced at the transition from gravitationally-dominated to internal strength-dominated collisions, their absence here may imply that the transition occurs at sub-kilometer scales, much smaller than the H = 17 (diameter {approx} 1.6 km) cutoff of this study.

  2. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2001-06-30

    In the structure task, the authors completed reducing the data they had collected from a N-S transect on the east side of Seneca Lake. They have calculated the fracture frequency for all the fracture sets at each site, and constructed modified rose diagrams that summarize the fracture attributes at each site. These data indicate a N-striking fault near the southeastern shore of Seneca Lake, and also indicate NE and ENE-trending FIDs and faults north of Valois. The orientation and existence of the ENE-striking FIDs and faults are thought to be guided by faults in the Precambrian basement. These basement faults apparently were sufficiently reactivated to cause faulting in the Paleozoic section. Other faults are thrust ramps above the Silurian salt section that were controlled by a far-field Alleghanian stress field. Structure contour maps and isopach maps have been revised based on additional well log analyses. Except for the Glodes Corners Field, the well spacing generally is insufficient to definitely identify faults. However, relatively sharp elevational changes east of Keuka Lake support the contention that faults occur along the east side of Keuka Lake. Outcrop stratigraphy along the east side of Seneca Lake indicates that faults and gentle folds can be inferred from some exposures along Seneca Lake, but the lensing nature of the individual sandstones can preclude long-distance definite correlations and structure identification. Soil gas data collected during the 2000 field season was reduced and displayed in the previous semiannual report. The seismic data that Quest licensed has been reprocessed. Several grabens observed in the Trenton reflector are consistent with surface structure, soil gas, and aeromagnetic anomalies. In this report they display an interpreted seismic line that crosses the Glodes Corners and Muck Farms fields. The final report from the subcontractor concerning the completed aeromagnetic survey is included. Prominent magnetic anomalies suggest that faults in the Precambrian basement are located beneath regions where grabens in the Trenton are located. The trend and location of these faults based on aeromagnetics agrees with the location based on FIDs. These data indicate that integration of aeromagnetic and topographic lineaments, surface structure, soil gas with seismic and well logs allows them to extrapolate Trenton-Black River trends away from confirmatory seismic lines.

  3. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2002-01-30

    In the structure task, we completed reducing the data we had collected from a N-S transect on the east of Seneca Lake. We have calculated the fracture frequency for all the fracture sets at each site, and constructed modified rose diagrams that summarize the fracture attributes at each site. These data indicate a N-striking fault near the southeastern shore of Seneca Lake, and also indicate NE and ENE-trending FIDs and faults north of Valois. The orientation and existence of the ENE-striking FIDs and faults are thought to be guided by faults in the Precambrian basement; these basement faults apparently were sufficiently reactivated to cause faulting in the Paleozoic section. Other faults are thrust ramps above the Silurian salt section that were controlled by a far-field Alleghanian stress field. Structure contour maps and isopach maps have been revised based on additional well log analyses. Except for the Glodes Corners Field, the well spacing generally is insufficient to definitively identify faults. However, relatively sharp elevational changes east of Keuka Lake support the contention that faults occur along the east side of Keuka Lake. Outcrop stratigraphy along the east side of Seneca Lake indicates that faults and gentle folds can be inferred from the some exposures along Seneca Lake, but the lensing nature of the individual sandstones can preclude long-distance definitive correlations and structure identification. Soil gas data collected during the 2000 field season was reduced and displayed in the previous semiannual report. The seismic data that Quest licensed has been reprocessed. Several grabens observed in the Trenton reflector are consistent with surface structure, soil gas, and aeromagnetic anomalies. In this report we display an interpreted seismic line that crosses the Glodes Corners and Muck Farm fields. The final report from the subcontractor concerning the completed aeromagnetic survey is included. Prominent magnetic anomalies suggest that faults in the Precambrian basement are located beneath regions where grabens in the Trenton are located. The trend and location of these faults based on aeromagnetics agrees with the location based on FIDs. These data indicate that integration of aeromagnetic and topographic lineaments, surface structure, soil gas with seismic and well logs allows us to extrapolate Trenton-Black River trends away from confirmatory seismic lines.

  4. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  5. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Computational studies of proteins have significantly improved our understanding of protein folding. These studies are normally carried out using chains in isolation. However, in many systems of practical interest, proteins fold in the presence of other molecules. To obtain insight into folding in such situations, we compare the

  6. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Computational studies of proteins have significantly improved our understanding of protein folding. These studies are normally carried out using chains in isolation. However, in many systems of practical interest, proteins fold in the presence of other molecules. To obtain insight into folding in such situations, we compare the

  7. Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzog, D E; Santiago, J G; Bakajin, O

    2005-02-10

    We have developed and characterized a mixer to study the reaction kinetics of protein folding on a microsecond timescale. The mixer uses hydrodynamic focusing of pressure-driven flow in a microfluidic channel to reduce diffusion times as first demonstrated by Knight et al.[1]. Features of the mixer include 1 {micro}s mixing times, sample consumptions of order 1 nl/s, loading sample volumes on the order of microliters, and the ability to manufacture in fused silica for compatibility with most spectroscopic methods.

  8. Folding and Function of Proteorhodopsins in Photoenergy Transducing Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spudich, John L

    2012-08-10

    The overall research objectives are to develop proteorhodopsin (PR) proteins as a model system for {alpha}?-helical membrane protein insertion and folding, and to advance understanding of the diversity and mechanisms of PRs, a large family of photoenergy transducers (~4000 identified) abundant in the worlds oceans. Specific aims are: (1) To develop a highefficiency genetic selection procedure for light-driven proton-pumping in E. coli cells. Such a procedure would provide a positive selection method for proper folding and function of PRs in the E. coli membrane. (2) Characterize flash-induced absorption changes and photocurrents in PR variants in organisms from various environments, and their expression level and function when expressed in E. coli. Subaims are to: (a) elucidate the relationship of the transport mechanism to mechanisms of other microbial rhodopsins, some of which like PRs function as ion transporters and some of which use light energy to activate signaling pathways (sensory rhodopsins); and (b) identify important residues and chemical events in light-driven proton transport by PRs. In addition to their importance to the energy of the biosphere PRs have attracted interest for their potential for use in making photoenergy-transducing membranes for bioengineering applications.

  9. A vault ribonucleoprotein particle exhibiting 39-fold dihedral symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Koji; Tanaka, Hideaki; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Yoshimura, Masato; Yamashita, Eiki; Iwasaki, Kenji; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2008-05-01

    A vault from rat liver was crystallized in space group C2. Rotational symmetry searches indicated that the particle has 39-fold dihedral symmetry. Vault is a 12.9 MDa ribonucleoprotein particle with a barrel-like shape, two protruding caps and an invaginated waist structure that is highly conserved in a wide variety of eukaryotes. Multimerization of the major vault protein (MVP) is sufficient to assemble the entire exterior shell of the barrel-shaped vault particle. Multiple copies of two additional proteins, vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) and telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1), as well as a small vault RNA (vRNA), are also associated with vault. Here, the crystallization of vault particles is reported. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 708.0, b = 385.0, c = 602.9 Å, β = 124.8°. Rotational symmetry searches based on the R factor and correlation coefficient from noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) averaging indicated that the particle has 39-fold dihedral symmetry.

  10. Origin of Entropy Convergence in Hydrophobic Hydration and Protein Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garde, S.; Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E.; Paulaitis, M.E.; Pratt, L.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); [Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); [Department of Chemical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    1996-12-01

    An information theory model of hydrophobic effects is used to construct a molecular explanation why hydrophobic solvation entropies of protein unfolding measured by high sensitivity calorimetry converge to zero at a common convergence temperature. The entropy convergence follows directly from the weak temperature dependence of occupancy fluctuations {l_angle}{delta}{ital n}{sup 2}{r_angle} for molecular-scale volumes in water. The macroscopic expression of the contrasting entropic behavior of water relative to common organic solvents is the {ital relative} temperature insensitivity of the water isothermal compressibility compared to hydrocarbon liquids. The information theory model used provides a quantitative description of small molecule hydration and, in addition, predicts that the value of the entropy at convergence is slightly {ital negative}. Interpretations of entropic contributions to protein folding should account for this result. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.

  12. Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KineticsFinal Report Cover Page (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding KineticsFinal Report Cover Page We designed and fabricated mixing devices that will help us elucidate the mechanisms of protein folding through measurements of folding reaction rates. These devices can be

  13. Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    KineticsFinal Report Cover Page (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding KineticsFinal Report Cover Page We designed and fabricated mixing devices that will help us elucidate the mechanisms of protein folding through measurements of folding reaction rates. These

  14. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Cellmer, Troy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; FREE ENERGY; MELTING; PROTEINS; THERMODYNAMICS; TOPOLOGY protein folding protein...

  15. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Loto'aniu, T. M.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Claudepierre, S. G.; et al

    2015-09-09

    Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August–September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13–22more » September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.« less

  16. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Loto'aniu, T. M.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-09-09

    Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in AugustSeptember 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 1322 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.

  17. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2003-05-31

    This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be west-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and RDH for conodont alteration index determination to better define regional P-T conditions. Efforts are being made to calibrate and standardize geophysical log correlation, seismic reflection data, and Ordovician lithologic signatures to better resolve subsurface stratigraphy and structure beneath the poorly explored Plateau in Tennessee and southern Kentucky. We held a successful workshop on Ordovician rocks geophysical log correlation August 7, 2003 that was cosponsored by the Appalachian PTTC, the Kentucky and Tennessee geological surveys, the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association, and small independents. Detailed field structural and stratigraphic mapping of a transect across part of the Ordovician clastic wedge in Tennessee was begun in January 2003 to assist in 3-D reconstruction of part of the southern Appalachian basin and better assess the nature of a major potential source rock assemblage. (3) Laying the groundwork through (1) and (2) to understand reservoir architecture, the petroleum systems, ancient fluid migration, and conduct 3-D analysis of the southern Appalachian basin.

  18. Method for determining molten metal pool level in twin-belt continuous casting machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Timothy D. (Colchester, VT); Daniel, Sabah S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dykes, Charles D. (Milton, VT)

    1989-03-21

    A method for determining level of molten metal in the input of a continuous metal casting machine having at least one endless, flexible, revolving casting belt with a surface which engages the molten metal to be cast and a reverse, cooled surface along which is directed high velocity liquid coolant includes the steps of predetermining the desired range of positions of the molten metal pool and positioning at least seven heat-sensing transducers in bearing contact with the moving reverse belt surface and spaced in upstream-downstream relationship relative to belt travel spanning the desired pool levels. A predetermined temperature threshold is set, somewhat above coolant temperature and the output signals of the transducer sensors are scanned regarding their output signals indicative of temperatures of the moving reverse belt surface. Position of the molten pool is determined using temperature interpolation between any successive pair of upstream-downstream spaced sensors, which follows confirmation that two succeeding downstream sensors are at temperature levels exceeding threshold temperature. The method accordingly provides high resolution for determining pool position, and verifies the determined position by utilizing full-strength signals from two succeeding downstream sensors. In addition, dual sensors are used at each position spanning the desired range of molten metal pool levels to provide redundancy, wherein only the higher temperature of each pair of sensors at a station is utilized.

  19. Contact order revisited: Influence of protein size on the folding rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivankov, Dmitry N.; Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O.; Alm, Eric; Plaxco, Kevin W.; Baker, David; Finkelstein, Alexei V.

    2003-05-28

    Guided by the recent success of empirical model predicting the folding rates of small two-state folding proteins from the relative contact order (CO) of their native structures, by a theoretical model of protein folding that predicts that logarithm of the folding rate decreases with the protein chain length L as L2/3, and by the finding that the folding rates of multistate folding proteins strongly correlate with their sizes and have very bad correlation with CO, we reexamined the dependence of folding rate on CO and L in attempt to find a structural parameter that determines folding rates for the totality of proteins. We show that the Abs{sub CO} = CO x L, is able to predict rather accurately folding rates for both two-state and multistate folding proteins, as well as short peptides, and that this Abs{sub CO} scales with the protein chain length as L0.70 {+-} 0.07 for the totality of studied single-domain proteins and peptides.

  20. Energy barriers, cooperativity, and hidden intermediates in the folding of small proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai Yawen [Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Building 37, Room 6114E, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)]. E-mail: yawen@helix.nih.gov

    2006-02-17

    Current theoretical views of the folding process of small proteins (<{approx}100 amino acids) postulate that the landscape of potential mean force (PMF) for the formation of the native state has a funnel shape and that the free energy barrier to folding arises from the chain configurational entropy only. However, recent theoretical studies on the formation of hydrophobic clusters with explicit water suggest that a barrier should exist on the PMF of folding, consistent with the fact that protein folding generally involves a large positive activation enthalpy at room temperature. In addition, high-resolution structural studies of the hidden partially unfolded intermediates have revealed the existence of non-native interactions, suggesting that the correction of the non-native interactions during folding should also lead to barriers on PMF. To explore the effect of a PMF barrier on the folding behavior of proteins, we modified Zwanzig's model for protein folding with an uphill landscape of PMF for the formation of transition states. We found that the modified model for short peptide segments can satisfy the thermodynamic and kinetic criteria for an apparently two-state folding. Since the Levinthal paradox can be solved by a stepwise folding of short peptide segments, a landscape of PMF with a locally uphill search for the transition state and cooperative stabilization of folding intermediates/native state is able to explain the available experimental results for small proteins. We speculate that the existence of cooperative hidden folding intermediates in small proteins could be the consequence of the highly specific structures of the native state, which are selected by evolution to perform specific functions and fold in a biologically meaningful time scale.

  1. Systematic characterization of protein folding pathways using diffusion maps: Application to Trp-cage miniprotein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang Beom; Dsilva, Carmeline J.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2015-02-28

    Understanding the mechanisms by which proteins fold from disordered amino-acid chains to spatially ordered structures remains an area of active inquiry. Molecular simulations can provide atomistic details of the folding dynamics which complement experimental findings. Conventional order parameters, such as root-mean-square deviation and radius of gyration, provide structural information but fail to capture the underlying dynamics of the protein folding process. It is therefore advantageous to adopt a method that can systematically analyze simulation data to extract relevant structural as well as dynamical information. The nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique known as diffusion maps automatically embeds the high-dimensional folding trajectories in a lower-dimensional space from which one can more easily visualize folding pathways, assuming the data lie approximately on a lower-dimensional manifold. The eigenvectors that parametrize the low-dimensional space, furthermore, are determined systematically, rather than chosen heuristically, as is done with phenomenological order parameters. We demonstrate that diffusion maps can effectively characterize the folding process of a Trp-cage miniprotein. By embedding molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of Trp-cage folding in diffusion maps space, we identify two folding pathways and intermediate structures that are consistent with the previous studies, demonstrating that this technique can be employed as an effective way of analyzing and constructing protein folding pathways from molecular simulations.

  2. MitoNEET is a Uniquely Folded Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MitoNEET is a Uniquely Folded Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Stabilized by Diabetes Drugs The rise in obesity in the United States parallels a dramatic increase in...

  3. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earths atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values. Improved technology and/or knowledge of reforestation practices in these situations may provide opportunities to reduce the costs of converting many of these sites as research continues into these practices. It also appears that in many cases substantial payments, non-revenue values, or carbon values are required to reach profitability under the present circumstances. It is unclear when, or in what form, markets will develop to support any of these add-on values to supplement commercial forestry revenues. However, as these markets do develop, they will only enhance the viability of forestry on reclaimed mined lands, although as we demonstrate in our analysis of carbon payments, the form of the revenue source may itself influence management, potentially mitigating some of the benefits of reforestation. For a representative mined-land resource base, reforestation of mined lands with mixed pine-hardwood species would result in an average estimated C accumulation in forms that can be harvested for use as wood products or are likely to remain in the soil C pool at ~250 Mg C ha{sup -1} over a 60 year period following reforestation. The additionality of this potential C sequestration was estimated considering data in scientific literature that defines C accumulation in mined-land grasslands over the long term. Given assumptions detailed in the text, these lands have the potential to sequester ~180 Mg C ha{sup -1}, a total of 53.5 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, over 60 years, an average of ~900,000 Mg C / yr, an amount equivalent to about 0.04% of projected US C emissions at the midpoint of a 60-year period (circa 2040) following assumed reforestation. Although potential sequestration quantities are not great relative to potential national needs should an energy-related C emissions offset requirement be developed at some future date, these lands are available and unused for other economically valued purposes and many possess soil and site properties that are well-suited to reforestation. Should such reforestation occur, it would also produce ancillary benefits by providing env

  4. THE NUCLEUS OF MAIN-BELT COMET 259P/GARRADD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Hsieh, Henry H. E-mail: emaclenn@utk.edu

    2012-10-10

    We present observations of the main-belt comet 259P/Garradd, previously known as P/2008 R1 (Garradd), obtained in 2011 and 2012 using the Gemini North Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii and the SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachon in Chile, with the goal of computing the object's phase function and nucleus size. We find an absolute magnitude of H{sub R} = 19.71 {+-} 0.05 mag and slope parameter of G{sub R} = -0.08 {+-} 0.05 for the inactive nucleus, corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of r{sub e} = 0.30 {+-} 0.02 km, assuming an R-band albedo of p{sub R} = 0.05. We also revisit observations reported for 259P while it was active in 2008 to quantify the dust mass loss and compare the object with other known main-belt comets.

  5. A SOUTHERN SKY AND GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY FOR BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Udalski, Andrzej; Kubiak, Marcin; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Poleski, Radoslaw; Soszynski, Igor; Szymanski, Michal K.; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2011-10-15

    About 2500 deg{sup 2} of sky south of declination -25{sup 0} and/or near the Galactic Plane were surveyed for bright outer solar system objects. This survey is one of the first large-scale southern sky and Galactic Plane surveys to detect dwarf planets and other bright Kuiper Belt Objects in the trans-Neptunian region. The survey was able to obtain a limiting R-band magnitude of 21.6. In all, 18 outer solar system objects were detected, including Pluto which was detected near the Galactic center using optimal image subtraction techniques to remove the high stellar density background. Fourteen of the detections were previously unknown trans-Neptunian objects, demonstrating that the southern sky had not been well searched to date for bright outer solar system objects. Assuming moderate albedos, several of the new discoveries from this survey could be in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus could be considered dwarf planets. Combining this survey with previous surveys from the northern hemisphere suggests that the Kuiper Belt is nearly complete to around 21st magnitude in the R band. All the main dynamical classes in the Kuiper Belt are occupied by at least one dwarf-planet-sized object. The 3:2 Neptune resonance, which is the innermost well-populated Neptune resonance, has several large objects while the main outer Neptune resonances such as the 5:3, 7:4, 2:1, and 5:2 do not appear to have any large objects. This indicates that the outer resonances are either significantly depleted in objects relative to the 3:2 resonance or have a significantly different assortment of objects than the 3:2 resonance. For the largest objects (H < 4.5 mag), the scattered disk population appears to have a few times more objects than the main Kuiper Belt (MKB) population, while the Sedna population could be several times more than that of the MKB.

  6. From: Hope Albright To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: Block Grain Belt

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hope Albright To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: Block Grain Belt Date: Monday, September 22, 2014 11:52:07 AM I am opposed to the establishment of National Interest Energy Transmission Corridors (NIETC's) for the following reasons. First, the easements place an undo burden on landowners on and near the transmission lines. The compensation cannot begin to cover the all of the losses, tangible and intangible that landowners would suffer. Second, I believe that condemning private property for

  7. From: Kathy Mikels To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: STOP CLEAN LINE, BLOCK GRAIN BELT

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Kathy Mikels To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: STOP CLEAN LINE, BLOCK GRAIN BELT Date: Monday, September 22, 2014 1:33:53 PM I am opposed to the establishment of National Interest Energy Transmission Corridors (NIETC's) for the following reasons. First, the easements place an undo burden on landowners on and near the transmission lines. The compensation cannot begin to cover the all of the losses, tangible and intangible that landowners would suffer. Second, I believe that condemning

  8. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outermore » radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.« less

  9. Near-infrared spectra of high-albedo outer main-belt asteroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Shirahata, Mai; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Okamura, Natsuko; Hasegawa, Sunao

    2015-02-01

    Most outer main-belt asteroids have low albedos because of their carbonaceouslike bodies. However, infrared satellite surveys have revealed that some asteroids have high albedos, which may suggest the presence of unusual surface minerals for those primitive objects. We present new near-infrared (1.12.5 ?m) spectra of four outer main-belt asteroids with albedos ? 0.1. The C-complex asteroids (555) Norma and (2542) Calpurnia are featureless and have (50%60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroids (701) Oriola (which is a C-complex asteroid) and (2670) Chuvashia (a D/T-type or M-type asteroid) show possible broad absorption bands (1.52.1 ?m). The feature can be reproduced by either Mg-rich amorphous pyroxene (with 50%60% and 80%95% Mg, respectively) or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), which might be responsible for the high albedos. No absorption features of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 ?m) are detected in the objects. We discuss the origin of high albedo components in the outer main-belt asteroids and their physical relations to comets.

  10. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  11. Side chain and backbone contributions of Phe508 to CFTR folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Machius, Mischa; Thomas, Philip J. (U. of Texas-SMED)

    2010-12-07

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an integral membrane protein, cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common CF-causing mutant, deletion of Phe508, fails to properly fold. To elucidate the role Phe508 plays in the folding of CFTR, missense mutations at this position were generated. Only one missense mutation had a pronounced effect on the stability and folding of the isolated domain in vitro. In contrast, many substitutions, including those of charged and bulky residues, disrupted folding of full-length CFTR in cells. Structures of two mutant nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) reveal only local alterations of the surface near position 508. These results suggest that the peptide backbone plays a role in the proper folding of the domain, whereas the side chain plays a role in defining a surface of NBD1 that potentially interacts with other domains during the maturation of intact CFTR.

  12. 2007 TY430: A COLD CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT TYPE BINARY IN THE PLUTINO POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Ragozzine, Darin; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2012-03-15

    Kuiper Belt object 2007 TY430 is the first wide, equal-sized, binary known in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune. The two components have a maximum separation of about 1 arcsec and are on average less than 0.1 mag different in apparent magnitude with identical ultra-red colors (g - i = 1.49 {+-} 0.01 mag). Using nearly monthly observations of 2007 TY430 from 2007 to 2011, the orbit of the mutual components was found to have a period of 961.2 {+-} 4.6 days with a semi-major axis of 21000 {+-} 160 km and eccentricity of 0.1529 {+-} 0.0028. The inclination with respect to the ecliptic is 15.68 {+-} 0.22 deg and extensive observations have allowed the mirror orbit to be eliminated as a possibility. The total mass for the binary system was found to be 7.90 {+-} 0.21 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} kg. Equal-sized, wide binaries and ultra-red colors are common in the low-inclination 'cold' classical part of the Kuiper Belt and likely formed through some sort of three-body interactions within a much denser Kuiper Belt. To date 2007 TY430 is the only ultra-red, equal-sized binary known outside of the classical Kuiper Belt population. Numerical simulations suggest 2007 TY430 is moderately unstable in the outer part of the 3:2 resonance and thus 2007 TY430 is likely an escaped 'cold' classical object that later got trapped in the 3:2 resonance. Similar to the known equal-sized, wide binaries in the cold classical population, the binary 2007 TY430 requires a high albedo and very low density structure to obtain the total mass found for the pair. For a realistic minimum density of 0.5 g cm{sup -3} the albedo of 2007 TY430 would be greater than 0.17. For reasonable densities, the radii of either component should be less than 60 km, and thus the relatively low eccentricity of the binary is interesting since no tides should be operating on the bodies at their large distances from each other. The low prograde inclination of the binary also makes it unlikely that the Kozai mechanism could have altered the orbit, making the 2007 TY430 binary orbit likely one of the few relatively unaltered primordial binary orbits known. Under some binary formation models, the low-inclination prograde orbit of the 2007 TY430 binary indicates formation within a relatively high velocity regime in the Kuiper Belt.

  13. THE COLOR DIFFERENCES OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS IN RESONANCE WITH NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2012-12-01

    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S {approx}> 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination 'cold' classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S {approx} 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S {approx} 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component, the objects likely had a significantly different origin than the ultra-red-dominated cold components of the cold classical belt and 5:3 and 7:4 resonances.

  14. A Survey of lamba Repressor Fragments from Two-State to to Downhill Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, F.; Gao, Y; Gruebele, M

    2010-01-01

    We survey the two-state to downhill folding transition by examining 20 {lambda}{sub 6-85}* mutants that cover a wide range of stabilities and folding rates. We investigated four new {lambda}{sub 6-85}* mutants designed to fold especially rapidly. Two were engineered using the core remodeling of Lim and Sauer, and two were engineered using Ferreiro et al.'s frustratometer. These proteins have probe-dependent melting temperatures as high as 80 C and exhibit a fast molecular phase with the characteristic temperature dependence of the amplitude expected for downhill folding. The survey reveals a correlation between melting temperature and downhill folding previously observed for the {beta}-sheet protein WW domain. A simple model explains this correlation and predicts the melting temperature at which downhill folding becomes possible. An X-ray crystal structure with a 1.64-{angstrom} resolution of a fast-folding mutant fragment shows regions of enhanced rigidity compared to the full wild-type protein.

  15. Time Resolved Collapse of a Folding Protein Observed with Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollack, L.; Tate, M. W.; Finnefrock, A. C.; Kalidas, C.; Trotter, S.; Darnton, N. C.; Lurio, L.; Austin, R. H.; Batt, C. A.; Gruner, S. M. (and others)

    2001-05-21

    High-intensity, ''pink'' beam from an undulator was used in conjunction with microfabricated rapid-fluid mixing devices to monitor the early events in protein folding with time resolved small angle x-ray scattering. This Letter describes recent work on the protein bovine {beta} -lactoglobulin where collapse from an expanded to a compact set of states was directly observed on the millisecond time scale. The role of chain collapse, one of the initial stages of protein folding, is not currently understood. The characterization of transient, compact states is vital in assessing the validity of theories and models of the folding process.

  16. A Route to Scale up DNA Origami Using DNA Tiles as Folding Staples

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Route to Scale up DNA Origami Using DNA Tiles as Folding Staples Authors: Zhao, Z., Yan, H., and Liu, Y. Title: A Route to Scale up DNA Origami Using DNA Tiles as Folding Staples Source: Angewandte Chemie International Edition Year: 2010 Volume: 49 Pages: 1414-1417 ABSTRACT: A new strategy is presented to scale up DNA origami using multi-helical DNA tiles as folding staples. Atomic force microscopy images (see picture) demonstrate the two-dimensional structures formed by using this strategy.

  17. Crystallographic Structure of SurA, a Molecular Chaperone that Facilitates Folding of Outer Membrane Porins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitto, E.

    2002-01-01

    The SurA protein facilitates correct folding of outer membrane proteins in gram-negative bacteria. The sequence of Escherichia coli SurA presents four segments, two of which are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases); the crystal structure reveals an asymmetric dumbbell, in which the amino-terminal, carboxy-terminal, and first PPIase segments of the sequence form a core structural module, and the second PPIase segment is a satellite domain tethered approximately 30 A from this module. The core module, which is implicated in membrane protein folding, has a novel fold that includes an extended crevice. Crystal contacts show that peptides bind within the crevice, suggesting a model for chaperone activity whereby segments of polypeptide may be repetitively sequestered and released during the membrane protein-folding process.

  18. Crystal Structures of RMI1 and RMI2, Two OB-Fold Regulatory Subunits...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Crystal Structures of RMI1 and RMI2, Two OB-Fold Regulatory Subunits of the BLM Complex Mutations in BLM, a RecQ-like helicase, are linked to the autosomal recessive cancer-...

  19. Analyses of Candida Cdc13 Orthologues Revealed a Novel OB Fold Dimer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Arrangement, Dimerization-Assisted DNA Binding, and Substantial Structural Differences between Cdc13 and RPA70 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Analyses of Candida Cdc13 Orthologues Revealed a Novel OB Fold Dimer Arrangement, Dimerization-Assisted DNA Binding, and Substantial Structural Differences between Cdc13 and RPA70 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analyses of Candida Cdc13 Orthologues Revealed a Novel OB Fold Dimer Arrangement, Dimerization-Assisted DNA Binding, and

  20. Discovering The Folding Rules That Proteins Obey FY08 LDRD Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Discovering The Folding Rules That Proteins Obey FY08 LDRD Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovering The Folding Rules That Proteins Obey FY08 LDRD Final Report Authors: Bakajin, O Publication Date: 2009-02-26 OSTI Identifier: 1126773 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-410921 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA

  1. Folding and association of a homotetrameric protein complex in an all-atom

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Go model (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Folding and association of a homotetrameric protein complex in an all-atom Go model Title: Folding and association of a homotetrameric protein complex in an all-atom Go model Authors: Berhanu, W. M. ; Jiang, P. ; Hansmann, U. H. E. Publication Date: 2013-01-11 OSTI Identifier: 1101879 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review E Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1539-3755

  2. New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phosphonate Biosynthetic Enzyme FrbF (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphonate Biosynthetic Enzyme FrbF Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphonate Biosynthetic Enzyme FrbF The enzyme FrbF from Streptomyces rubellomurinus has attracted significant attention due to its role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial phosphonate FR-900098. The

  3. New Horizons Science Photos from NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOE provided the power supply for NASA's New Horizons Mission, a mission to the Pluto and Charon, a double-planet system, and the Kuiper Belt. There are 61 science photos posted on the New Horizons website, along with mission photos, spacecraft images, launch photos, posters and renderings that are both scientific and artistic. Dates range from June of 2006 to February of 2008. The images can be searched by keywords, by date, or by subject topic. They can also be browsed as an entire list. Each image has a detailed description.

  4. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  5. RNA Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Rick Russell, Ian S. Millett, Sebastian Doniach and Daniel Herschlag Stanford University One goal of genome projects is to systematically identify genes (1,2). The best current knowledge indicates that humans carry approximately 35000 genes. This number is an estimate that varies from expert to expert and range up to 100,000 (3-5). To anyone who has taken an elementary biology class, this ambiguity must seem strange. How hard can it be to count genes? After all, don't cells translate genes

  6. Folding chair

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornell, Howell N. (Miami, FL)

    1985-08-20

    A foldable chair of the lawn chair type has ground-engaging front and rear legs, attached to and carrying a back frame and seat frame, the back frame and seat frame being pivotally attached to a spreader rod which extends beyond the back and seat frames to bear against one of the leg members when the chair is unfolded. A contact pad mounted on the extending portion of the spreader rod is formed as an externally-contoured bushing fit over the spreader rod and adapted to engage the leg member to restrict side-to-side movement of the spreader rod, with respect to the leg member, when the chair is unfolded.

  7. Precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding: From time series correlation analysis to atomistic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P. J.; Lai, S. K., E-mail: sklai@coll.phy.ncu.edu.tw [Complex Liquids Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli 320 Taiwan (China); Molecular Science and Technology Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Cheong, S. A. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-28

    Folded conformations of proteins in thermodynamically stable states have long lifetimes. Before it folds into a stable conformation, or after unfolding from a stable conformation, the protein will generally stray from one random conformation to another leading thus to rapid fluctuations. Brief structural changes therefore occur before folding and unfolding events. These short-lived movements are easily overlooked in studies of folding/unfolding for they represent momentary excursions of the protein to explore conformations in the neighborhood of the stable conformation. The present study looks for precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding within these rapid fluctuations through a combination of three techniques: (1) ultrafast shape recognition, (2) time series segmentation, and (3) time series correlation analysis. The first procedure measures the differences between statistical distance distributions of atoms in different conformations by calculating shape similarity indices from molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. The second procedure is used to discover the times at which the protein makes transitions from one conformation to another. Finally, we employ the third technique to exploit spatial fingerprints of the stable conformations; this procedure is to map out the sequences of changes preceding the actual folding and unfolding events, since strongly correlated atoms in different conformations are different due to bond and steric constraints. The aforementioned high-frequency fluctuations are therefore characterized by distinct correlational and structural changes that are associated with rate-limiting precursors that translate into brief segments. Guided by these technical procedures, we choose a model system, a fragment of the protein transthyretin, for identifying in this system not only the precursory signatures of transitions associated with ? helix and ? hairpin, but also the important role played by weaker correlations in such protein folding dynamics.

  8. Microsecond acquisition of heterogeneous structure in the folding of a TIM barrel protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ying; Kondrashkina, Elena; Kayatekin, Can; Matthews, C. Robert; Bilsel, Osman (NWU); (UMASS, Amherst)

    2008-09-29

    The earliest kinetic folding events for ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrels reflect the appearance of off-pathway intermediates. Continuous-flow microchannel mixing methods interfaced to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), circular dichroism (CD), time-resolved Foerster resonant energy transfer (trFRET), and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (trFLAN) have been used to directly monitor global and specific dimensional properties of the partially folded state in the microsecond time range for a representative ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrel protein. Within 150 {micro}s, the {alpha}-subunit of Trp synthase ({alpha}TS) experiences a global collapse and the partial formation of secondary structure. The time resolution of the folding reaction was enhanced with trFRET and trFLAN to show that, within 30 {micro}s, a distinct and autonomous partially collapsed structure has already formed in the N-terminal and central regions but not in the C-terminal region. A distance distribution analysis of the trFRET data confirmed the presence of a heterogeneous ensemble that persists for several hundreds of microseconds. Ready access to locally folded, stable substructures may be a hallmark of repeat-module proteins and the source of early kinetic traps in these very common motifs. Their folding free-energy landscapes should be elaborated to capture this source of frustration.

  9. Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bichler, L. [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. E., Toronto, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ravindran, C., E-mail: rravindr@ryerson.ca [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. E., Toronto, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the {alpha}-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al{sub 2}RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

  10. Parallel continuation-based global optimization for molecular conformation and protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, T.F.; Wu, Z. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the authors` recent work on developing parallel algorithms and software for solving the global minimization problem for molecular conformation, especially protein folding. Global minimization problems are difficult to solve when the objective functions have many local minimizers, such as the energy functions for protein folding. In their approach, to avoid directly minimizing a ``difficult`` function, a special integral transformation is introduced to transform the function into a class of gradually deformed, but ``smoother`` or ``easier`` functions. An optimization procedure is then applied to the new functions successively, to trace their solutions back to the original function. The method can be applied to a large class of nonlinear partially separable functions including energy functions for molecular conformation and protein folding. Mathematical theory for the method, as a special continuation approach to global optimization, is established. Algorithms with different solution tracing strategies are developed. Different levels of parallelism are exploited for the implementation of the algorithms on massively parallel architectures.

  11. Femtosecond spectroscopy probes the folding quality of antibody fragments expressed as GFP fusions in the cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didier, P. [Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR 7175, 74, route du Rhin, 67412 Illkirch (France); Weiss, E.; Sibler, A.-P. [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, UMR 7175, Boulevard Sebastien Brant, F-67412 Illkirch (France); Philibert, P.; Martineau, P. [Centre de recherche en cancerologie de Montpellier, UMR 5160, Val d'Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Bigot, J.-Y. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Guidoni, L. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Batiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)], E-mail: luca.guidoni@univ-paris-diderot.fr

    2008-02-22

    Time-resolved femtosecond spectroscopy can improve the application of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) as protein-folding reporters. The study of ultrafast excited-state dynamics (ESD) of GFP fused to single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody fragments, allowed us to define and measure an empirical parameter that only depends on the folding quality (FQ) of the fusion. This method has been applied to the analysis of genetic fusions expressed in the bacterial cytoplasm and allowed us to distinguish folded and thus functional antibody fragments (high FQ) with respect to misfolded antibody fragments. Moreover, these findings were strongly correlated to the behavior of the same scFvs expressed in animal cells. This method is based on the sensitivity of the ESD to the modifications in the tertiary structure of the GFP induced by the aggregation state of the fusion partner. This approach may be applicable to the study of the FQ of polypeptides over-expressed under reducing conditions.

  12. Geometry of wrapped M5-branes in Calabi-Yau 2-folds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayyazuddin, Ansar; Husain, Tasneem Zehra; Pappa, Ioanna

    2006-06-15

    We study the geometry of M5-branes wrapping a 2-cycle which is special Lagrangian with respect to a specific complex structure in a Calabi-Yau 2-fold. Using methods recently applied to the 3-fold case, we are again able to find a characterization of the geometry, in terms of a nonintegrable almost complex structure and a (2,0) form. This time, however, due to the hyper-Kaehler nature of the underlying 2-fold, we also have the freedom of choosing a different almost complex structure with respect to which the wrapped 2-cycle is holomorphic. We show that this latter almost complex structure is integrable. We then relate our geometry to previously found geometries of M5-branes wrapping holomorphic cycles and go further to prove some previously unknown results for M5-branes on holomorphic cycles.

  13. The earliest events in protein folding: Helix dynamics in proteins and model peptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.B.; Williams, S.; Woodruff, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The earliest events in protein folding are critically important in determining the folding pathway, but have proved difficult to study by conventional approaches. We have developed new rapid initiation methods and structure-specific probes to interrogate the earliest events of protein folding. Our focus is the pathways. Folding or unfolding reactions are initiated on a fast timescale (10 ns) using a laser induced temperature jump (15 C) and probed with time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. We obtained the kinetics of the helix-coil transition for a model 21-residue peptide. The observed rate constant k{sub obs} = k{sub f} + k{sub u} for reversible kinetics; from the observed rate (6 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and the equilibrium constant favoring folding of 7.5 at 27 C, we calculate a folding lifetime of 180 ns and an unfolding lifetime of 1.4 {mu}s. The {open_quotes}molten globule{close_quotes} form of apomyoglobin (horse, pH*3, 0.15M NaCl) shows similar kinetics for helix that is unconstrained by tertiary structure (helix with an unusually low Amide I frequency, near 1633 cm{sup -1}). In {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} apomyoglobin (horse, pH*5.3, 10 mM NaCl) two very different rates (45 ns and 70 {mu}s) are observed and we infer that a third occurs on a timescales inaccessible to our experiment (> 1 ms). We suggest that the slower processes are due to helix formation that is rate-limited by the formation of tertiary structure.

  14. Protein-folding via divide-and-conquer optimization (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Protein-folding via divide-and-conquer optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein-folding via divide-and-conquer optimization Authors: Oliva, Ricardo ; Crivelli, Silvia ; Meza, Juan Publication Date: 2004-07-11 OSTI Identifier: 882903 Report Number(s): LBNL--55869 R&D Project: 365969; BnR: YN0100000 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: SIAM Conference on the Life Sciences, Portland,OR, July 11-14,

  15. Deducing the Energetic Cost of Protein Folding in Zinc Finger Proteins Using Designed Metallopeptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddi,A.; Guzman, T.; Breece, r.; Tierney, D.; Gibney, B.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc finger transcription factors represent the largest single class of metalloproteins in the human genome. Binding of Zn(II) to their canonical Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 sites results in metal-induced protein folding events required to achieve their proper structure for biological activity. The thermodynamic contribution of Zn(II) in each of these coordination spheres toward protein folding is poorly understood because of the coupled nature of the metal-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Using an unstructured peptide scaffold, GGG, we have employed fluorimetry, potentiometry, and calorimetry to determine the thermodynamics of Zn(II) binding to the Cys4, Cys3His1, and Cys2His2 ligand sets with minimal interference from protein folding effects. The data show that Zn(II) complexation is entropy driven and modulated by proton release. The formation constants for Zn(II)-GGG with a Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 site are 5.6 x 1016, 1.5 x 1015, or 2.5 x 1013 M-1, respectively. Thus, the Zn(II)-Cys4, Zn(II)-Cys3His1, and Zn(II)-Cys2His2 interactions can provide up to 22.8, 20.7, and 18.3 kcal/mol, respectively, in driving force for protein stabilization, folding, and/or assembly at pH values above the ligand pKa values. While the contributions from the three coordination motifs differ by 4.5 kcal/mol in Zn(II) affinity at pH 9.0, they are equivalent at physiological pH, ?G = -16.8 kcal/mol or a Ka = 2.0 x 1012 M-1. Calorimetric data show that this is due to proton-based enthalpy-entropy compensation between the favorable entropic term from proton release and the unfavorable enthalpic term due to thiol deprotonation. Since protein folding effects have been minimized in the GGG scaffold, these peptides possess nearly the tightest Zn(II) affinities possible for their coordination motifs. The Zn(II) affinities in each coordination motif are compared between the GGG scaffold and natural zinc finger proteins to determine the free energy required to fold the latter. Several proteins have identical Zn(II) affinities to GGG. That is, little, if any, of their Zn(II) binding energy is required to fold the protein, whereas some have affinities weakened by up to 5.7 kcal/mol; i.e., the Zn(II) binding energy is being used to fold the protein.

  16. Protein-folding via divide-and-conquer optimization (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Protein-folding via divide-and-conquer optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein-folding via divide-and-conquer optimization Authors: Oliva, Ricardo ; Crivelli, Silvia ; Meza, Juan Publication Date: 2004-07-11 OSTI Identifier: 882903 Report Number(s): LBNL--55869 R&D Project: 365969; BnR: YN0100000 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: SIAM Conference on the Life Sciences, Portland,OR, July 11-14,

  17. Crystal Structures of RMI1 and RMI2, Two OB-Fold Regulatory Subunits of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BLM Complex (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Crystal Structures of RMI1 and RMI2, Two OB-Fold Regulatory Subunits of the BLM Complex Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal Structures of RMI1 and RMI2, Two OB-Fold Regulatory Subunits of the BLM Complex Mutations in BLM, a RecQ-like helicase, are linked to the autosomal recessive cancer-prone disorder Bloom's syndrome. BLM associates with topoisomerase (Topo) III{alpha}, RMI1, and

  18. The Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in northwestern Montana and northern Idaho from COCORP and industry seismic reflection data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoos, T.R.; Potter, C.J.; Thigpen, J.L.; Brown, L.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-06-01

    COCORP and petroleum industry seismic reflection profiles in northwestern Montana reveal the structure of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt. The Front Ranges consist of thick thrust sheets containing Precambrian Belt Supergroup and Paleozoic miogeoclinal shelf rocks above a thin remnant of Paleozoic rocks and gently westward-dipping North American basement. Interpretation of the seismic data and results from a recent petroleum exploration well suggest that 15-22 km of Precambrian Belt Supergroup sedimentary rocks are present in several thrust plates beneath the eastern Purcell anticlinorium. Previous hypotheses of a large mass of Paleozoic miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks or slices of crystalline basement located beneath the eastern Purcell anticlinorium do not appear to be supported by the data. The easternmost occurrence of allochthonous basement is interpreted to be in the western part of the anticlinorium near the Montana-Idaho border. Comparison of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in northwestern Montana and southern Canada suggest that a change in the deep structure of the Purcell anticlinorium occurs along strike. The anticlinorium in southern Canada has been interpreted as a hanging-wall anticline that was thrust over the western edge of thick Proterozoic North American basement, whereas in northwestern Montana the anticlinorium appears to consist of a complex series of thrust sheets above highly attenuated North American basement.

  19. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  20. Non-diffusive resonant acceleration of electrons in the radiation belts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Agapitov, O. V.; Rolland, G.

    2012-12-15

    We describe a mechanism of resonant electron acceleration by oblique high-amplitude whistler waves under conditions typical for the Earth radiation belts. We use statistics of spacecraft observations of whistlers in the Earth radiation belts to obtain the dependence of the angle {theta} between the wave-normal and the background magnetic field on magnetic latitude {lambda}. According to this statistics, the angle {theta} already approaches the resonance cone at {lambda}{approx}15 Degree-Sign and remains close to it up to {lambda}{approx}30 Degree-Sign -40 Degree-Sign on the dayside. The parallel component of the electrostatic field of whistler waves often increases around {lambda}{approx}15 Degree-Sign up to one hundred of mV/m. We show that due to this increase of the electric field, the whistler waves can trap electrons into the potential well via wave particle resonant interaction corresponding to Landau resonance. Trapped electrons then move with the wave to higher latitudes where they escape from the resonance. Strong acceleration is favored by adiabatic invariance along the increasing magnetic field, which continuously transfers the parallel energy gained to perpendicular energy, allowing resonance to be reached and maintained. The concomitant increase of the wave phase velocity allows for even stronger relative acceleration at low energy <50keV. Each trapping-escape event of electrons of {approx}10keV to 100 keV results in an energy gain of up to 100 keV in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the Earth dipole. For electrons with initial energy below 100 keV, such rapid acceleration should hasten their drop into the loss-cone and their precipitation into the atmosphere. We discuss the role of the considered mechanism in the eventual formation of a trapped distribution of relativistic electrons for initial energies larger than 100 keV and in microbursts precipitations of lower energy particles.

  1. Microscopic Description of the Exotic Nuclei Reactions by Using Folding model Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.; Hassanain, M. A.; Mokhtar, S. R.; El-Azab Farid, M.; Zaki, M. A.; Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M.

    2011-10-27

    A microscopic folding approach based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear matter densities of the interacting nuclei has been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering reaction at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The corresponding reaction cross sections are also considered.

  2. Long range correlations and folding angle with applications to ?-helical proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krokhotin, Andrey, E-mail: Andrei.Krokhotine@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Nicolis, Stam, E-mail: Stam.Nicolis@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fdration Denis Poisson, Universit de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)] [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fdration Denis Poisson, Universit de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fdration Denis Poisson, Universit de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-03-07

    The conformational complexity of chain-like macromolecules such as proteins and other linear polymers is much larger than that of point-like atoms and molecules. Unlike particles, chains can bend, twist, and even become knotted. Thus chains might also display a much richer phase structure. Unfortunately, it is not very easy to characterize the phase of a long chain. Essentially, the only known attribute is the radius of gyration. The way how it changes when the degree of polymerization becomes different, and how it evolves when the ambient temperature and solvent properties change, is commonly used to disclose the phase. But in any finite length chain there are corrections to scaling that complicate the detailed analysis of the phase structure. Here we introduce a quantity that we call the folding angle to identify and scrutinize the phase structure, as a complement to the radius of gyration. We argue for a mean-field level relationship between the folding angle and the scaling exponent in the radius of gyration. We then estimate the value of the folding angle in the case of crystallographic ?-helical protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. We also show how the experimental value of the folding angle can be obtained computationally, using a semiclassical Born-Oppenheimer description of ?-helical chiral chains.

  3. Isolation, folding and structural investigations of the amino acid transporter OEP16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Da Qun; Zook, James; Klewer, Douglas A.; Nieman, Ronald A.; Soll, J.; Fromme, Petra

    2011-12-01

    Membrane proteins compose more than 30% of all proteins in the living cell. However, many membrane proteins have low abundance in the cell and cannot be isolated from natural sources in concentrations suitable for structure analysis. The overexpression, reconstitution, and stabilization of membrane proteins are complex and remain a formidable challenge in membrane protein characterization. Here we describe a novel, in vitro folding procedure for a cation-selective channel protein, the outer envelope membrane protein 16 (OEP16) of pea chloroplast, overexpressed in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies. The protein is purified and then folded with detergent on a Ni-NTA affinity column. Final concentrations of reconstituted OEP16 of up to 24 mg/ml have been achieved, which provides samples that are sufficient for structural studies by NMR and crystallography. Reconstitution of OEP16 in detergent micelles was monitored by circular dichroism, fluorescence, and NMR spectroscopy. Tryptophan fluorescence spectra of heterologous expressed OEP16 in micelles are similar to spectra of functionally active OEP16 in liposomes, which indicates folding of the membrane protein in detergent micelles. CD spectroscopy studies demonstrate a folded protein consisting primarily of a-helices. 15N-HSQC NMR spectra also provide evidence for a folded protein. We present here a convenient, effective and quantitative method to screen large numbers of conditions for optimal protein stability by using microdialysis chambers in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy. Recent collection of multidimensional NMR data at 500, 600 and 800 MHz demonstrated that the protein is suitable for structure determination by NMR and stable for weeks during data collection.

  4. Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliezer, D.

    1994-06-01

    Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein`s amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate.

  5. High-resolution structure of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilski, Miroslaw [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Kazmierczyk, Maciej; Krzywda, Szymon [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Zbransk, Helena [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Cooper, Seth; Popovi?, Zoran [University of Washington, Box 352350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Khatib, Firas; DiMaio, Frank; Thompson, James; Baker, David [University of Washington, Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pichov, Iva [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-11-01

    The crystal structure of MasonPfizer monkey virus protease folded as a monomer has been solved by molecular replacement using a model generated by players of the online game Foldit. The structure shows at high resolution the details of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer which can guide rational design of protease dimerization inhibitors as retroviral drugs. MasonPfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), a D-type retrovirus assembling in the cytoplasm, causes simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus monkeys. Its pepsin-like aspartic protease (retropepsin) is an integral part of the expressed retroviral polyproteins. As in all retroviral life cycles, release and dimerization of the protease (PR) is strictly required for polyprotein processing and virion maturation. Biophysical and NMR studies have indicated that in the absence of substrates or inhibitors M-PMV PR should fold into a stable monomer, but the crystal structure of this protein could not be solved by molecular replacement despite countless attempts. Ultimately, a solution was obtained in mr-rosetta using a model constructed by players of the online protein-folding game Foldit. The structure indeed shows a monomeric protein, with the N- and C-termini completely disordered. On the other hand, the flap loop, which normally gates access to the active site of homodimeric retropepsins, is clearly traceable in the electron density. The flap has an unusual curled shape and a different orientation from both the open and closed states known from dimeric retropepsins. The overall fold of the protein follows the retropepsin canon, but the C{sup ?} deviations are large and the active-site DTG loop (here NTG) deviates up to 2.7 from the standard conformation. This structure of a monomeric retropepsin determined at high resolution (1.6 ) provides important extra information for the design of dimerization inhibitors that might be developed as drugs for the treatment of retroviral infections, including AIDS.

  6. Single-Molecule Dynamics Reveals Cooperative Binding-Folding in Protein Recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jin; Lu, Qiang N.; Lu, H PETER.

    2006-07-01

    The study of associations between two biomolecules is the key to understand molecular recognition and function. Molecular function is often thought to be determined by the underlying structures. Here, combining single molecule study of protein binding with an energy landscape inspired microscopic model, we found strong evidences that bio-molecular recognition is determined by flexibilities in addition to structures. Our model is based on coarse grained molecular dynamics performed on the residue level with the energy function biased towards the native binding structure (Go model). With our model, the underlying free energy landscape of the binding can be explored. Two distinct conformational states as free energy minimum, one with partially folding of CBD and significant binding of CBD to CDC42, and another with native folding of CBD and native binding of CBD to CDC42, are clearly seen. This shows the binding process proceeds with significant interface binding of CBD with CDC42 first without complete folding of CBD. Finally binding and folding are coupled with each other cooperatively to reach the native binding state. The single molecule experimental finding of the dynamic fluctuations between the loosely bound and closely bound conformational states can be identified with theoretically calculated free energy minimum and quantitatively explained in our model as a result of binding associated with large conformational changes. Theoretical predictions have identified certain key residues for binding which are consistent with mutational experiments. The combined study provides a test ground for fundamental mechanisms as well as insights into design and further explorations on biomolecular recognition with large conformational changes.

  7. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Major Classification: Biological Sciences

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Major Classification: Biological Sciences Minor Classification: Biophysics Authors: Troy Cellmer 1 , Dusan Bratko 1,2 , John M. Prausnitz 1,3 , and Harvey Blanch 1,* 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 2 Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 3 Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 * corresponding author Tel:

  8. In the OSTI Collections: Determining How Proteins Fold | OSTI, US Dept of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Determining How Proteins Fold Article Acknowledgement: Dr. William N. Watson, Physicist DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information Investigations Focused on Direct Experiments Investigations Focused on Computation References Research Organizations Reports available through OSTI's SciTech Connect Additional References Proteins are the materials in living cells whose primary structures are specified by the cell's DNA. These primary

  9. Hundred-Fold Improvement in Temperature Mapping Reveals the Stresses Inside

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tiny Transistors | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Hundred-Fold Improvement in Temperature Mapping Reveals the Stresses Inside Tiny Transistors Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F:

  10. Wang-Landau sampling of the interplay between surface adsorption and folding of HP lattice proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying Wai [ORNL] [ORNL; Wuest, Thomas [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland] [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01

    Generic features associated with the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are reviewed within the framework of the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model. The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of various HP protein sequences interacting with attractive surfaces have been studied using extensive Wang-Landau sampling with different types of surfaces, each of which attracts either: all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. Consequently, different types of folding behavior occur for varied surface strengths. Analysis of the combined patterns of various structural observables, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of interaction contacts, together with the specific heat, leads to the identification of fundamental categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also inferred a connection between the transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratios of the surface attractive strengths to the intra-chain attraction among H monomers. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for different HP sequences interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of the chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.

  11. Structural Analysis of Protein Folding by the Long-Chain Archaeal Chaperone FKBP26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E Martinez-Hackert; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    In the cell, protein folding is mediated by folding catalysts and chaperones. The two functions are often linked, especially when the catalytic module forms part of a multidomain protein, as in Methanococcus jannaschii peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase FKBP26. Here, we show that FKBP26 chaperone activity requires both a 50-residue insertion in the catalytic FKBP domain, also called 'Insert-in-Flap' or IF domain, and an 80-residue C-terminal domain. We determined FKBP26 structures from four crystal forms and analyzed chaperone domains in light of their ability to mediate protein-protein interactions. FKBP26 is a crescent-shaped homodimer. We reason that folding proteins are bound inside the large crescent cleft, thus enabling their access to inward-facing peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase catalytic sites and ipsilateral chaperone domain surfaces. As these chaperone surfaces participate extensively in crystal lattice contacts, we speculate that the observed lattice contacts reflect a proclivity for protein associations and represent substrate interactions by FKBP26 chaperone domains. Finally, we find that FKBP26 is an exceptionally flexible molecule, suggesting a mechanism for nonspecific substrate recognition.

  12. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's Outer Van Allen belt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.; Elkington, S. R.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M. K.; et al

    2013-02-28

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts are thought to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is comprised predominantly of mega-electron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. Thus, the spatially separated inner zone is comprised of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations revealmore » an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (E > 2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for over four weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.« less

  13. Gold deposits in the late Archaean Nzega-Igunga greenstone belt, central plateau of tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feiss, P.G.; Siyomana, S.

    1985-01-01

    2.2 m oz of gold have been produced, since 1935, from late Archaean (2480-2740 Ma) greenstone belts of the Central Plateau, Tanzania. North and east of Nzega (4/sup 0/12'S, 3/sup 0/11'E), 18% of the exposed basement, mainly Dodoman schists and granites, consists of metavolcanics and metasediments of the Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. Four styles of mineralization are observed. 1. Stratabound quartz-gold veins with minor sulfides. Host rocks are quartz porphyry, banded iron formation (BIF), magnetite quartzite, and dense, cherty jasperite at the Sekenke and Canuck mines. The Canuck veins are on strike from BIF's in quartz-eye porphyry of the Igusule Hills. 2. Stratabound, disseminated gold in coarse-grained, crowded feldspar porphyry with lithic fragments and minor pyrite. At Bulangamilwa, the porphyry is conformable with Nyanzian-aged submarine (.) greenstone, volcanic sediment, felsic volcanics, and sericite phyllite. The deposits are on strike with BIF of the Wella Hills, which contains massive sulfide with up to 15% Pb+Zn. 3. Disseminated gold in quartz-albite metasomes in Nyanzian greenstones. At Kirondatal, alteration is associated with alaskites and feldspar porphyry dikes traceable several hundred meters into post-Dodoman diorite porphyry. Gold is with pyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, minor chalcopyrite, and sphalerite as well as tourmalinite and silica-cemented breccias. 4. Basal Kavirondian placers in metaconglomerates containing cobbles and boulders of Dodoman and Nyanzian rocks several hundred meters up-section from the stratabound, disseminated mineralization at Bulangamilwa.

  14. Twin-belt continuous caster with containment and cooling of the exiting cast product for enabling high-speed casting of molten-center product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dykes, Charles D. (303 Shore Rd., Milton, VT); Daniel, Sabah S. (303 Shore Rd., Pittsburgh, PA); Wood, J. F. Barry (303 Shore Rd., Burlington, VT 05401)

    1990-02-20

    In continuously casting molten metal into cast product by a twin-belt machine, it is desirable to achieve dramatic increases in speed (linear feet per minute) at which cast product exits the machine, particularly in installations where steel cast product is intended to feed a downstream regular rolling mill (as distinct from a planetary mill) operating in tandem with the twin-belt caster. Such high-speed casting produces product with a relatively thin shell and molten interior, and the shell tends to bulge outwardly due to metallostatic head pressure of the molten center. A number of cooperative features enable high-speed, twin-belt casting: (1) Each casting belt is slidably supported adjacent to the caster exit pulley for bulge control and enhanced cooling of cast product. (2) Lateral skew steering of each belt provides an effective increase in moving mold length plus a continuity of heat transfer not obtained with prior art belt steering apparatus. (3) The exiting slab is contained and supported downstream from the casting machine to prevent bulging of the shell of the cast product, and (4) spray cooling is incorporated in the exit containment apparatus for secondary cooling of cast product.

  15. Temperature and length scale dependence of hydrophobic effects and their possible implications for protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, David M.; Chandler, David

    2000-04-01

    The Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory of hydrophobicity [J. Phys. Chem. 103, 4570 (1999)] is applied to treat the temperature dependence of hydrophobic solvation in water. The application illustrates how the temperature dependence for hydrophobic surfaces extending less than 1nm differs significantly from that for surfaces extending more than 1nm. The latter is the result of water depletion, a collective effect, that appears at length scales of 1nm and larger. Due to the contrasting behaviors at small and large length scales, hydrophobicity by itself can explain the variable behavior of protein folding.

  16. Protein folding and non-conventional drug design: a primer for nuclear structure physicists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broglia, R.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Tiana, G.; Provasi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-02-27

    Some of the paradigms emerging from the study of the phenomena of phase transitions in finite many-body systems, like e.g. the atomic nucleus can be used at profit to solve the protein folding problem within the framework of simple (although not oversimplified) models. From this solution a paradigm emerges for the design of non-conventional drugs, which inhibit enzymatic action without inducing resistance (mutations). The application of these concepts to the design of an inhibitor to the HIV-protease central in the life cycle of the HIV virus is discussed.

  17. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN-BELT COMET 176P/LINEAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Ishiguro, Masateru; Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David E-mail: p.lacerda@qub.ac.uk E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu

    2011-07-15

    We present a physical characterization of comet 176P/LINEAR, the third discovered member of the new class of main-belt comets, which exhibit cometary activity but are dynamically indistinguishable from main-belt asteroids. Observations show the object exhibiting a fan-shaped tail for at least one month in late 2005, but then becoming inactive in early 2006. During this active period, we measure broadband colors of B - V = 0.63 {+-} 0.02, V - R = 0.35 {+-} 0.02, and R - I = 0.31 {+-} 0.04. Using data from when the object was observed to be inactive, we derive best-fit IAU phase function parameters of H = 15.10 {+-} 0.05 mag and G = 0.15 {+-} 0.10, and best-fit linear phase function parameters of m(1, 1, 0) = 15.35 {+-} 0.05 mag and {beta} = 0.038 {+-} 0.005 mag deg{sup -1}. From this baseline phase function, we find that 176P exhibits a mean photometric excess of {approx}30% during its active period, implying an approximate total coma dust mass of M{sub d} {approx} (7.2 {+-} 3.6) x 10{sup 4} kg. From inactive data obtained in early 2007, we find a rotation period of P{sub rot} = 22.23 {+-} 0.01 hr and a peak-to-trough photometric range of {Delta}m {approx} 0.7 mag. Phasing our photometric data from 176P's 2005 active period to this rotation period, we find that the nucleus exhibits a significantly smaller photometric range than in 2007 that cannot be accounted for by coma damping effects, and as such, are attributed by us to viewing geometry effects. A detailed analysis of these geometric effects showed that 176P is likely to be a highly elongated object with an axis ratio of 1.8 < b/a < 2.1, an orbital obliquity of {epsilon} {approx} 60{sup 0}, and a solstice position at a true anomaly of {nu}{sub o} = 20{sup 0} {+-} 20{sup 0}. Numerical modeling of 176P's dust emission found that its activity can only be reproduced by asymmetric dust emission, such as a cometary jet. We find plausible fits to our observations using models assuming {approx}10 {mu}m dust particles continuously emitted over the period during which 176P was observed to be active, and a jet direction of 180{sup 0} {approx}< {alpha}{sub jet} {approx}< 120{sup 0} and {delta}{sub jet} {approx} -60{sup 0}. We do not find good fits to our observations using models of impulsive dust emission, i.e., what would be expected if 176P's activity was an ejecta cloud resulting from an impact into non-volatile asteroid regolith. Since for a rotating body, the time-averaged direction of a non-equatorial jet is equivalent to the direction of the nearest rotation pole, we find an equivalent orbital obliquity of 50{sup 0} {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 75{sup 0}, consistent with the results of our light curve analysis. Furthermore, the results of both our light curve analysis and dust modeling analysis are consistent with the seasonal heating hypothesis used to explain the modulation of 176P's activity. Additional observations are highly encouraged to further characterize 176P's active behavior as the object approaches perihelion on 2011 July 1.

  18. Will new horizons see dust clumps in the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitense, Christian; Krivov, Alexander V.; Lhne, Torsten

    2014-06-01

    Debris disks are thought to be sculptured by neighboring planets. The same is true for the Edgeworth-Kuiper debris disk, yet no direct observational evidence for signatures of giant planets in the Kuiper Belt dust distribution has been found so far. Here we model the dust distribution in the outer solar system to reproduce the dust impact rates onto the dust detector on board the New Horizons spacecraft measured so far and to predict the rates during the Neptune orbit traverse. To this end, we take a realistic distribution of trans-Neptunian objects to launch a sufficient number of dust grains of different sizes and follow their orbits by including radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag, as well as the perturbations of four giant planets. In a subsequent statistical analysis, we calculate number densities and lifetimes of the dust grains in order to simulate a collisional cascade. In contrast to the previous work, our model not only considers collisional elimination of particles but also includes production of finer debris. We find that particles captured in the 3:2 resonance with Neptune build clumps that are not removed by collisions, because the depleting effect of collisions is counteracted by production of smaller fragments. Our model successfully reproduces the dust impact rates measured by New Horizons out to ?23 AU and predicts an increase of the impact rate of about a factor of two or three around the Neptune orbit crossing. This result is robust with respect to the variation of the vaguely known number of dust-producing scattered disk objects, collisional outcomes, and the dust properties.

  19. Hubble space telescope investigation of main-belt comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewitt, David; Ishiguro, Masateru; Weaver, Harold; Agarwal, Jessica; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Steven

    2014-05-01

    We report new observations of the prototype main-belt comet (active asteroid) 133P/Elst-Pizarro taken at high angular resolution using the Hubble Space Telescope. The object has three main components: (1) a point-like nucleus; (2) a long, narrow antisolar dust tail; and (3) a short, sunward anti-tail. There is no resolved coma. The nucleus has a mean absolute magnitude H{sub V} = 15.70 0.10 and a light curve range ?V = 0.42 mag, the latter corresponding to projected dimensions 3.6 5.4 km (axis ratio 1.5:1) at the previously measured geometric albedo of 0.05 0.02. We explored a range of continuous and impulsive emission models to simultaneously fit the measured surface brightness profile, width, and position angle of the antisolar tail. Preferred fits invoke protracted emission, over a period of 150 days or less, of dust grains following a differential power-law size distribution with index 3.25 ?q ? 3.5 and with a wide range of sizes. Ultra-low surface brightness dust projected in the sunward direction is a remnant from emission activity occurring in previous orbits, and consists of the largest (?cm-sized) particles. Ejection velocities of one-micron-sized particles are comparable to the ?1.8 m s{sup 1} gravitational escape speed of the nucleus, while larger particles are released at speeds less than the gravitational escape velocity. The observations are consistent with, but do not prove, a hybrid hypothesis in which mass loss is driven by gas drag from the sublimation of near-surface water ice, but escape is aided by centripetal acceleration from the rotation of the elongated nucleus. No plausible alternative hypothesis has been identified.

  20. Crustal structure of mountain belts and basins: Industry and academic collaboration at Cornell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allmendinger, R.; Barazangi, M.; Brown, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations of the large-scale structure and evolution of key basins and orogenic belts around the world are the focal point of academic-industry interaction at Cornell. Ongoing and new initiatives with significant industry involvement include: Project INDEPTH (Interdisciplinary Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas), a multinational effort to delineate deep structure across the type example of active continent-continent collision. 300 km of deep reflection profiling was collected across the Himalaya: and southern Tibet Plateau in 1992 and 1994. CAP (Cornell Andes Project), a long-standing interdisciplinary effort to understand the structure and evolution of the Andes, with a focus on Argentina, Chile and Bolivia. A deep reflection profile is tentatively planned for 1997. Intra-plate Orogeny in the Middle East and North Africa is the focus of multidisciplinary regional syntheses of existing seismic reflection and other databases in Syria (Palmyrides)and Morocco (Atlas), with an emphasis on reactivation and inversion tectonics. Project URSEIS (Urals Reflection Seismic Experiment and Integrated Studies) is a collaboration with EUROPROBE to collect 500 km of vibroseis and dynamite deep reflection profiling across the southern Urals in 1995. Project CRATON, an element in COCORP`s systematic exploration of the continental US, is a nascent multi-disciplinary effort to understand the buried craton of the central US and the basins built upon it. Global Basins Research Network (GBRN) is a diversified observational and computational effort to image and model the movement of pore fluids in detail and on a regional scale for a producing oil structure in the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Trigger loop folding determines transcription rate of Escherichia colis RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mejia, Yara X.; Nudler, Evgeny; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-12-31

    Two components of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) catalytic center, the bridge helix and the trigger loop (TL), have been linked with changes in elongation rate and pausing. Here, single molecule experiments with the WT and two TL-tip mutants of the Escherichia coli enzyme reveal that tip mutations modulate RNAPs pause-free velocity, identifying TL conformational changes as one of two rate-determining steps in elongation. Consistent with this observation, we find a direct correlation between helix propensity of the modified amino acid and pause-free velocity. Moreover, nucleotide analogs affect transcription rate, suggesting that their binding energy also influences TL folding. A kinetic model in which elongation occurs in two steps, TL folding on nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding followed by NTP incorporation/pyrophosphate release, quantitatively accounts for these results. The TL plays no role in pause recovery remaining unfolded during a pause. The model suggests a finely tuned mechanism that balances transcription speed and fidelity.

  2. Trigger loop folding determines transcription rate of Escherichia coli’s RNA polymerase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mejia, Yara X.; Nudler, Evgeny; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-12-31

    Two components of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) catalytic center, the bridge helix and the trigger loop (TL), have been linked with changes in elongation rate and pausing. Here, single molecule experiments with the WT and two TL-tip mutants of the Escherichia coli enzyme reveal that tip mutations modulate RNAP’s pause-free velocity, identifying TL conformational changes as one of two rate-determining steps in elongation. Consistent with this observation, we find a direct correlation between helix propensity of the modified amino acid and pause-free velocity. Moreover, nucleotide analogs affect transcription rate, suggesting that their binding energy also influences TL folding. A kineticmore » model in which elongation occurs in two steps, TL folding on nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding followed by NTP incorporation/pyrophosphate release, quantitatively accounts for these results. The TL plays no role in pause recovery remaining unfolded during a pause. The model suggests a finely tuned mechanism that balances transcription speed and fidelity.« less

  3. Protein Folding Dynamics Detected By Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Small-Angle Scattering Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Satoshi [RIKEN Harima Institute, SPring-8 Center, Laboratory for Biometal Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University Suita Osaka 565-0871/CREST, JST (Japan)

    2007-03-30

    The polypeptide collapse is an essential dynamics in protein folding. To understand the mechanism of the collapse, in situ observation of folding by various probes is necessary. The changes in secondary and tertiary structures in the folding process of globular proteins, whose chain lengths are less than 300 polypeptides, were observed by circular dichrosim and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. On the other hand, those in protein compactness could be only detected by using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray small-angle scattering technique. The observed dynamics for several proteins with different topologies suggested a common folding mechanism termed 'collapse and search' dynamics, in which the polypeptide collapse precedes the formation of the native contact formation. In 'collapse and search' dynamics, the most outstanding feature lied in the compactness of the initial intermediates. The collapsed intermediates demonstrated the scaling relationship between radius of gyration (Rg) and chain length with a scaling exponent of 0.35 {+-} 0.11, which is close to the value (1/3) predicted by mechano-statistical theory for the collapsed globules of polymers in poor solvent. Thus, it was suggested that the initial collapse is caused by the coil-globule transition of polymers. Since the collapse is essential to the folding of larger proteins, further investigations on the collapse likely lead to an important insight into the protein folding phenomena.

  4. Improvements in Mixing Time and Mixing Uniformity in Devices Designed for Studies of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Shuhuai [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Using a microfluidic laminar flow mixer designed for studies of protein folding kinetics, we demonstrate a mixing time of 1 +/- 1 micros with sample consumption on the order of femtomoles. We recognize two limitations of previously proposed designs: (1) size and shape of the mixing region, which limits mixing uniformity and (2) the formation of Dean vortices at high flow rates, which limits the mixing time. We address these limitations by using a narrow shape-optimized nozzle and by reducing the bend of the side channel streamlines. The final design, which combines both of these features, achieves the best performance. We quantified the mixing performance of the different designs by numerical simulation of coupled Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations and experiments using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer (FRET)-labeled DNA.

  5. Solvent Electrostriction-Driven Peptide Folding Revealed by Quasi Gaussian Entropy Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noe, F [University of Heidelberg; Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; DiNola, Alfredo [University of Rome; Amadei, Andrea [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy

    2008-08-01

    A quantitative understanding of the complex relationship between microscopic structure and the thermodynamics driving peptide and protein folding is a major goal of biophysical chemistry. Here, we present a methodology comprising the use of an extended quasi-Gaussian entropy theory parametrized using molecular dynamics simulation that provides a complete description of the thermodynamics of peptide conformational states. The strategy is applied to analyze the conformational thermodynamics of MR121-GSGSW, a peptide well characterized in experimental studies. The results demonstrate that the extended state of the peptide possesses the lowest partial molar entropy. The origin of this entropy decrease is found to be in the increase of the density and orientational order of the hydration water molecules around the peptide, induced by the 'unfolding'. While such a reduction of the configurational entropy is usually associated with the hydrophobic effect, it is here found to be mainly due to the interaction of the solute charges with the solvent, that is, electrostriction.

  6. Solvent Electrostriction Driven Peptide Folding revealed by Quasi-Gaussian Entropy Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noe, F [University of Heidelberg; Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; DiNola, Alfredo [University of Rome; Amadei, Andrea [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy

    2008-06-01

    A quantitative understanding of the complex relationship between microscopic structure and the thermodynamics driving peptide and protein folding is a major goal of biophysical chemistry. Here, we present a methodology comprising the use of an extended quasi-Gaussian entropy theory parametrized using molecular dynamics simulation that provides a complete description of the thermodynamics of peptide conformational states. The strategy is applied to analyze the conformational thermodynamics of MR121-GSGSW, a peptide well characterized in experimental studies. The results demonstrate that the extended state of the peptide possesses the lowest partial molar entropy. The origin of this entropy decrease is found to be in the increase of the density and orientational order of the hydration water molecules around the peptide, induced by the 'unfolding'. While such a reduction of the configurational entropy is usually associated with the hydrophobic effect, it is here found to be mainly due to the interaction of the solute charges with the solvent, that is, electrostriction.

  7. Promiscuous Substrate Recognition in Folding and Assembly Activities of the Trigger Factor Chaperone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Hackert, E.; Hendrickson, W

    2009-01-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is a molecular chaperone that binds to bacterial ribosomes where it contacts emerging nascent chains, but TF is also abundant free in the cytosol where its activity is less well characterized. In vitro studies show that TF promotes protein refolding. We find here that ribosome-free TF stably associates with and rescues from misfolding a large repertoire of full-length proteins. We identify over 170 members of this cytosolic Escherichia coli TF substrate proteome, including ribosomal protein S7. We analyzed the biochemical properties of a TF:S7 complex from Thermotoga maritima and determined its crystal structure. Thereby, we obtained an atomic-level picture of a promiscuous chaperone in complex with a physiological substrate protein. The structure of the complex reveals the molecular basis of substrate recognition by TF, indicates how TF could accelerate protein folding, and suggests a role for TF in the biogenesis of protein complexes.

  8. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Influence of fold and fracture development on reservoir behavior of the Lisburne Group of northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen: Michael T. Whalen; Paul Atkinson; Joseph Brinton; Thang Bui; Margarete Jadamec; Alexandre Karpov; John Lorenz; Michelle M. McGee; T.M. Parris; Ryan Shackleton

    2004-07-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is folded and thrust faulted where it is exposed throughout the Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. Symmetrical detachment folds characterize the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range. In contrast, Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hangingwall anticlines and footwall synclines. The Continental Divide thrust front separates these different structural styles in the Lisburne and also marks the southern boundary of the northeastern Brooks Range. Field studies were conducted for this project during 1999 to 2001 in various locations in the northeastern Brooks Range and in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, immediately south of the Continental Divide thrust front. Results are summarized below for the four main subject areas of the study.

  10. The role of hydrogen bonds in protein folding and protein association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-02-07

    The contribution of a pair of functional groups that can form either intermolecular or intramolecular hydrogen bonds to the total standard free energy of the process of protein folding or protein association is examined. It is found that this contribution can be quite large, either positive or negative, depending on the particular process and on the solvent density. This is in contrast to the common belief that the hydrogen-bond energies tend to be compensated in these processes. For the binding process, in which the two functional groups are completely removed from the aqueous environment, the contribution of such a pair of functional groups to {Delta}G can be as high as +6.4 kcal/mol. This is the main reason why hydrophobic rather than hydrophilic surfaces tend to attach to each other. In contrast, when the two functional groups are only partially removed from the aqueous environment, as in the case of the formation of {alpha}-helix, their contribution to {Delta}G can be negative and of the order of about 1 kcal/mol.

  11. Discriminating trpzip2 and trpzip4 peptides folding landscape using the two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Zhuang, Wei, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China); Yang, Lijiang, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-07

    We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two ?-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GB{sup OBC} implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.

  12. Energy and Mass Dependences of the Parameters of the Semimicroscopic Folding Model for Alpha Particles at Low and Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuterbekov, K.A.; Zholdybayev, T.K.; Kukhtina, I.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.

    2005-06-01

    The energy and mass dependences of the parameters of the semimicroscopic alpha-particle potential are investigated for the first time in the region of low and intermediate energies. Within the semimicroscopic folding model, both elastic and inelastic differential and total cross sections for reactions on various nuclei are well described by using global parameters obtained in this study.

  13. The crystal structure of a partial mouse Notch-1 ankyrin domain: Repeats 4 through 7 preserve an ankyrin fold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubman, Olga Y.; Kopan, Raphael; Waksman, Gabriel; Korolev, Sergey (Birbeck); (St. Louis-MED); (WU-MED)

    2010-07-20

    Folding and stability of proteins containing ankyrin repeats (ARs) is of great interest because they mediate numerous protein-protein interactions involved in a wide range of regulatory cellular processes. Notch, an ankyrin domain containing protein, signals by converting a transcriptional repression complex into an activation complex. The Notch ANK domain is essential for Notch function and contains seven ARs. Here, we present the 2.2 {angstrom} crystal structure of ARs 4-7 from mouse Notch 1 (m1ANK). These C-terminal repeats were resistant to degradation during crystallization, and their secondary and tertiary structures are maintained in the absence of repeats 1-3. The crystallized fragment adopts a typical ankyrin fold including the poorly conserved seventh AR, as seen in the Drosophila Notch ANK domain (dANK). The structural preservation and stability of the C-terminal repeats shed a new light onto the mechanism of hetero-oligomeric assembly during Notch-mediated transcriptional activation.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT COMET P/2013 R3 FROM ITS BREAKUP EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Snchez, Diego Paul; Gabriel, Travis; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-07-01

    Jewitt etal. recently reported that main belt comet P/2013 R3 experienced a breakup, probably due to rotational disruption, with its components separating on mutually hyperbolic orbits. We propose a technique for constraining physical properties of the proto-body, especially the initial spin period and cohesive strength, as a function of the body's estimated size and density. The breakup conditions are developed by combining mutual orbit dynamics of the smaller components and the failure condition of the proto-body. Given a proto-body with a bulk density ranging from 1000kgm{sup 3} to 1500kgm{sup 3} (a typical range of the bulk density of C-type asteroids), we obtain possible values of the cohesive strength (40-210Pa) and the initial spin state (0.48-1.9hr). From this result, we conclude that although the proto-body could have been a rubble pile, it was likely spinning beyond its gravitational binding limit and would have needed cohesive strength to hold itself together. Additional observations of P/2013 R3 will enable stronger constraints on this event, and the present technique will be able to give more precise estimates of its internal structure.

  15. Lattice and off-lattice side chain models of protein folding: Linear time structure prediction better than 86% of optimal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, W.E.; Istrail, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Algorithms and Discrete Mathematics Dept.

    1996-08-09

    This paper considers the protein structure prediction problem for lattice and off-lattice protein folding models that explicitly represent side chains. Lattice models of proteins have proven extremely useful tools for reasoning about protein folding in unrestricted continuous space through analogy. This paper provides the first illustration of how rigorous algorithmic analyses of lattice models can lead to rigorous algorithmic analyses of off-lattice models. The authors consider two side chain models: a lattice model that generalizes the HP model (Dill 85) to explicitly represent side chains on the cubic lattice, and a new off-lattice model, the HP Tangent Spheres Side Chain model (HP-TSSC), that generalizes this model further by representing the backbone and side chains of proteins with tangent spheres. They describe algorithms for both of these models with mathematically guaranteed error bounds. In particular, the authors describe a linear time performance guaranteed approximation algorithm for the HP side chain model that constructs conformations whose energy is better than 865 of optimal in a face centered cubic lattice, and they demonstrate how this provides a 70% performance guarantee for the HP-TSSC model. This is the first algorithm in the literature for off-lattice protein structure prediction that has a rigorous performance guarantee. The analysis of the HP-TSSC model builds off of the work of Dancik and Hannenhalli who have developed a 16/30 approximation algorithm for the HP model on the hexagonal close packed lattice. Further, the analysis provides a mathematical methodology for transferring performance guarantees on lattices to off-lattice models. These results partially answer the open question of Karplus et al. concerning the complexity of protein folding models that include side chains.

  16. Assessment of substrate-stabilizing factors for DnaK on the folding of aggregation-prone proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Kisun; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Byung Hee [Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyoung Sim [Protheon Incorporated, Yonsei Engineering Research Center B120E, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyun-Hwan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, and Center for Diagnostic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Il [Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seongilchoi@daum.net; Seong, Baik L. [Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Protheon Incorporated, Yonsei Engineering Research Center B120E, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: blseong@yonsei.ac.kr

    2008-08-15

    Hydrophobic interactions between molecular chaperones and their nonnative substrates have been believed to be mainly responsible for both substrate recognition and stabilization against aggregation. However, the hydrophobic contact area between DnaK and its substrate proteins is very limited and other factors of DnaK for the substrate stabilization could not be excluded. Here, we covalently fused DnaK to the N-termini of aggregation-prone proteins in vivo. In the context of a fusion protein, DnaK has the ability to efficiently solubilize its linked proteins. The point mutation of the residue of DnaK critical for the substrate recognition and the deletion of the C-terminal substrate-binding domain did not have significant effect on the solubilizing ability of DnaK. The results imply that other factors of DnaK, distinct from the hydrophobic shielding of folding intermediates, also contributes to stabilization of its noncovalently bound substrates against aggregation. Elucidation of the nature of these factors would further enhance our understanding of the substrate stabilization of DnaK for expedited protein folding.

  17. Laser-induced temperature jump/time-resolved infrared study of the fast events in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Williams, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Callender, H.; Gilmanshin, R. [CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Laser-induced temperature jump followed by time-resolved infrared probe of reaction dynamics are used to study the temporal evolution of polypeptide structure during protein folding and unfolding. Reactions are initiated in times of 50 ps or longer by T-jumps of 10`s of degrees, obtained by laser excitation of water overtone absorbances. Observation of the Amide I transient absorbances reveal melting lifetimes of helices unconstrained by tertiary structure to be ca. 160 ns in a model 21-peptide and ca. 30 ns in {open_quotes}molten globule{close_quotes} apomyoglobin. No other processes are observed in these systems over the timescale 50 ps to 2 ms. Equilibrium data suggest the corresponding helix formation lifetimes to be ca. 16 and 1 ns, respectively. In {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} apomyoglobin two helix melting lifetimes are observed and we infer that a third occurs on a timescale inaccessible to our experiment (> 1 ms). The shorter observed lifetime, as in the molten globule, is ca. 30 ns. The longer lifetime is ca. 70 {mu}s. We suggest that the slower process is helix melting that is rate-limited by the unfolding of tertiary structure. Equilibrium data suggest a lifetime of ca. 1 {mu}s for the development of these tertiary folds.

  18. ON THE EFFECT OF GIANT PLANETS ON THE SCATTERING OF PARENT BODIES OF IRON METEORITE FROM THE TERRESTRIAL PLANET REGION INTO THE ASTEROID BELT: A CONCEPT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Scott, Edward R. D.

    2012-04-20

    In their model for the origin of the parent bodies of iron meteorites, Bottke et al. proposed differentiated planetesimals, formed in 1-2 AU during the first 1.5 Myr, as the parent bodies, and suggested that these objects and their fragments were scattered into the asteroid belt as a result of interactions with planetary embryos. Although viable, this model does not include the effect of a giant planet that might have existed or been growing in the outer regions. We present the results of a concept study where we have examined the effect of a planetary body in the orbit of Jupiter on the early scattering of planetesimals from the terrestrial region into the asteroid belt. We integrated the orbits of a large battery of planetesimals in a disk of planetary embryos and studied their evolutions for different values of the mass of the planet. Results indicate that when the mass of the planet is smaller than 10 M{sub Circled-Plus }, its effects on the interactions among planetesimals and planetary embryos are negligible. However, when the planet mass is between 10 and 50 M{sub Circled-Plus }, simulations point to a transitional regime with {approx}50 M{sub Circled-Plus} being the value for which the perturbing effect of the planet can no longer be ignored. Simulations also show that further increase of the mass of the planet strongly reduces the efficiency of the scattering of planetesimals from the terrestrial planet region into the asteroid belt. We present the results of our simulations and discuss their possible implications for the time of giant planet formation.

  19. Binding-induced folding of prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein on the mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase targets substrates for degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Li, H.; Darwin, K. H.

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

  20. Binding-induced Folding of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein on the Mycobacterium Proteasomal ATPase Targets Substrates for Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T Wang; K Heran Darwin; H Li

    2011-12-31

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

  1. Appalachian Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 733 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  2. Appalachian recapitalization: United Coal comes full circle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    The article recounts the recent history of the United Coal Co. which exited from the coal business between 1992 and 1997 and has recently returned. More coal reserves have been added by its four companies Sapphire Coal, Carter Roag Coal, Pocahontas Coal and Wellmore, bringing the grand total to 222.6 Mtons. United Coal's developments and investment strategy are discussed. The company headquarters are in Bristol, Va., USA. 1 tab., 7 photos.

  3. Appalachian Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1,982 20,801 6,092 556 7,469 7 7,464 82,766 44,667 2008-06 4,039 44,033 38,537 1,783 18,403 6,082 462 5,979 8 6,284 68,415 44,627 2008-05 3,367 35,348 38,466 1,632 16,744 6,081...

  4. THE HERSCHEL AND JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEYS: CONSTRAINING DUST PROPERTIES IN THE PERSEUS B1 CLUMP WITH PACS, SPIRE, AND SCUBA-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Fallscheer, C.; Matthews, B.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D.; Andre, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Koenyves, V.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Friesen, R.; Greaves, J.; Collaboration: JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Survey teams; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 {mu}m with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find {beta} Almost-Equal-To 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower {beta} values ({beta} {approx}> 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that {beta} and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of {approx}2 for {beta} and by {approx}40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of {approx}< 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted {beta} = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  5. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2014-07-07

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energyalong with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5?k{sub B}T higher than the value at the global minimum.

  6. 'Let the phage do the work': Using the phage P22 coat protein structures as a framework to understand its folding and assembly mutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teschke, Carolyn M., E-mail: Teschke@uconn.ed [Departments of Molecular and Cell Biology, and Chemistry, 91 N. Eagleville Rd., U-3125, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3125 (United States); Parent, Kristin N. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2010-06-05

    The amino acid sequence of viral capsid proteins contains information about their folding, structure and self-assembly processes. While some viruses assemble from small preformed oligomers of coat proteins, other viruses such as phage P22 and herpesvirus assemble from monomeric proteins (Fuller and King, 1980). The subunit assembly process is strictly controlled through protein:protein interactions such that icosahedral structures are formed with specific symmetries, rather than aberrant structures. dsDNA viruses commonly assemble by first forming a precursor capsid that serves as a DNA packaging machine. DNA packaging is accompanied by a conformational transition of the small precursor procapsid into a larger capsid for isometric viruses. Here we highlight the pseudo-atomic structures of phage P22 coat protein and rationalize several decades of data about P22 coat protein folding, assembly and maturation generated from a combination of genetics and biochemistry.

  7. Impact of the [delta]F508 Mutation in First Nucleotide-binding Domain of Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator on Domain Folding and Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Hal A.; Zhao, Xun; Wang, Chi; Sauder, J. Michael; Rooney, Isabelle; Noland, Brian W.; Lorimer, Don; Kearins, Margaret C.; Conners, Kris; Condon, Brad; Maloney, Peter C.; Guggino, William B.; Hunt, John F.; Emtage, Spencer (SG); (Columbia); (JHU)

    2010-07-19

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), commonly the deletion of residue Phe-508 (DeltaF508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which results in a severe reduction in the population of functional channels at the epithelial cell surface. Previous studies employing incomplete NBD1 domains have attributed this to aberrant folding of DeltaF508 NBD1. We report structural and biophysical studies on complete human NBD1 domains, which fail to demonstrate significant changes of in vitro stability or folding kinetics in the presence or absence of the DeltaF508 mutation. Crystal structures show minimal changes in protein conformation but substantial changes in local surface topography at the site of the mutation, which is located in the region of NBD1 believed to interact with the first membrane spanning domain of CFTR. These results raise the possibility that the primary effect of DeltaF508 is a disruption of proper interdomain interactions at this site in CFTR rather than interference with the folding of NBD1. Interestingly, increases in the stability of NBD1 constructs are observed upon introduction of second-site mutations that suppress the trafficking defect caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, suggesting that these suppressors might function indirectly by improving the folding efficiency of NBD1 in the context of the full-length protein. The human NBD1 structures also solidify the understanding of CFTR regulation by showing that its two protein segments that can be phosphorylated both adopt multiple conformations that modulate access to the ATPase active site and functional interdomain interfaces.

  8. Probing the folded state and mechanical unfolding pathways of T4 lysozyme using all-atom and coarse-grained molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Wenjun Glenn, Paul

    2015-01-21

    The Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme (T4L) is a prototype modular protein comprised of an N-terminal and a C-domain domain, which was extensively studied to understand the folding/unfolding mechanism of modular proteins. To offer detailed structural and dynamic insights to the folded-state stability and the mechanical unfolding behaviors of T4L, we have performed extensive equilibrium and steered molecular dynamics simulations of both the wild-type (WT) and a circular permutation (CP) variant of T4L using all-atom and coarse-grained force fields. Our all-atom and coarse-grained simulations of the folded state have consistently found greater stability of the C-domain than the N-domain in isolation, which is in agreement with past thermostatic studies of T4L. While the all-atom simulation cannot fully explain the mechanical unfolding behaviors of the WT and the CP variant observed in an optical tweezers study, the coarse-grained simulations based on the Go model or a modified elastic network model (mENM) are in qualitative agreement with the experimental finding of greater unfolding cooperativity in the WT than the CP variant. Interestingly, the two coarse-grained models predict different structural mechanisms for the observed change in cooperativity between the WT and the CP variantwhile the Go model predicts minor modification of the unfolding pathways by circular permutation (i.e., preserving the general order that the N-domain unfolds before the C-domain), the mENM predicts a dramatic change in unfolding pathways (e.g., different order of N/C-domain unfolding in the WT and the CP variant). Based on our simulations, we have analyzed the limitations of and the key differences between these models and offered testable predictions for future experiments to resolve the structural mechanism for cooperative folding/unfolding of T4L.

  9. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycHYopH chaperoneeffector complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vujanac, Milos; Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The structure of a SycHYopH chaperoneeffector complex from Yersinia reveals the bacterial state of a protein that adopts different folds in the host and pathogen environments. Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycHYopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-called ?-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the ?-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the ?-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed.

  10. Investigation of the reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f): Folding angular distributions of fission fragments and gamma-ray multiplicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusanov, A. Ya. Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Chubarian, G. G.

    2007-10-15

    Correlations between folding angular distributions of fission fragments and the gamma-ray multiplicity are studied for {sup 18}O + {sup 208}Pb interactions at energies of the beam of {sup 18}O ions in the range E{sub lab} = 78-198.5 MeV. The probabilities are determined for complete-and incomplete-fusion processes inevitably followed by the fission of nuclei formed in these processes. It is found that the probability of incomplete fusion followed by fission increases with increasing energy of bombarding ions. It is shown that, for the incomplete-fusion process, folding angular distributions of fission fragments have a two-component structure. The width of folding angular distributions (FWHM) for complete fusion grows linearly with increasing energy of {sup 18}O ions. The multiplicity of gamma rays from fission fragments as a function of the linear-momentum transfer behaves differently for different energies of projectile ions. This circumstance is explained here by the distinction between the average angular momenta of participant nuclei in the fusion and fission channels, which is due to the difference in the probabilities of fission in the cases where different numbers of nucleons are captured by the target nucleus.

  11. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF KUIPER BELT SURFACE ICES: TERNARY N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-CO MIXTURES AS A CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kaiser, R. I.

    2012-10-10

    The space weathering of icy Kuiper Belt Objects was investigated in this case study by exposing methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon monoxide (CO) doped nitrogen (N{sub 2}) ices at 10 K to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons. Online and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the radiation-induced chemical processing of these ices. Along with isocyanic acid (HNCO), the products could be mainly derived from those formed in irradiated binary ices of the N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} and CO-CH{sub 4} systems: nitrogen-bearing products were found in the form of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen isocyanide (HNC), diazomethane (CH{sub 2}N{sub 2}), and its radical fragment (HCN{sub 2}); oxygen-bearing products were of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO), formyl radical (HCO), and formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO). As in the pure ices, the methyl radical (CH{sub 3}) and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were also detected, as were carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the azide radical (N{sub 3}). Based on the temporal evolution of the newly formed products, kinetic reaction schemes were then developed to fit the temporal profiles of the newly formed species, resulting in numerical sets of rate constants. The current study highlights important constraints on the preferential formation of isocyanic acid (HNCO) over hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen isocyanide (HNC), thus guiding the astrobiological and chemical evolution of those distant bodies.

  12. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yiming; Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci; Lu Canzhong

    2008-12-15

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  13. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-04-14

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient values, however, the many-body correlation plays significant roles in the β-sheet formation and argument of relative stabilities of very similar structures of a protein. These results are argued in detail with respect to the four physically insightful constituents and the two factors mentioned above. The relevance to the absence or presence of hydrogen-bonding properties in the solvent is also discussed in detail.

  14. Crystal structures of the F and pSLT plasmid TraJ N-terminal regions reveal similar homodimeric PAS folds with functional interchangeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Ruiying; Adkins, Joshua N.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Glover, Mark

    2014-09-16

    In the F-family of conjugative plasmids, TraJ is an essential transcriptional activator of the tra operon that encodes most of the proteins required for conjugation. Here we report for the first time the X-ray crystal structures of the TraJ N-terminal regions from the prototypic F plasmid (TraJF11-130) and from the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSLT (TraJpSLT 1-128). Both proteins form similar homodimeric Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) fold structures. Mutational analysis reveals that the observed dimeric interface is critical for TraJF transcriptional activation, indicating that dimerization of TraJ is required for its in vivo function. An artificial ligand (oxidized dithiothreitol) occupies a cavity in the TraJF dimer interface, while a smaller cavity in corresponding region of the TraJpSLT structure lacks a ligand. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-electron ionization analysis of dithiothreitol-free TraJF suggests indole may be the natural TraJ ligand; however, disruption of the indole biosynthetic pathway does not affect TraJF function. Heterologous PAS domains from pSLT and R100 TraJ can functionally replace the TraJF PAS domain, suggesting that TraJ allelic specificity is mediated by the region C-terminal to the PAS domain.

  15. Exploration of multi-fold symmetry element-loaded superconducting radio frequency structure for reliable acceleration of low- & medium-beta ion species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Shichun; Geng, Rongli

    2015-09-01

    Reliable acceleration of low- to medium-beta proton or heavy ion species is needed for future high current superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerators. Due to the high-Q nature of an SRF resonator, it is sensitive to many factors such as electron loading (from either the accelerated beam or from parasitic field emitted electrons), mechanical vibration, and liquid helium bath pressure fluctuation etc. To increase the stability against those factors, a mechanically strong and stable RF structure is desirable. Guided by this consideration, multi-fold symmetry element-loaded SRF structures (MFSEL), cylindrical tanks with multiple (n>=3) rod-shaped radial elements, are being explored. The top goal of its optimization is to improve mechanical stability. A natural consequence of this structure is a lowered ratio of the peak surface electromagnetic field to the acceleration gradient as compared to the traditional spoke cavity. A disadvantage of this new structure is an increased size for a fixed resonant frequency and optimal beta. This paper describes the optimization of the electro-magnetic (EM) design and preliminary mechanical analysis for such structures.

  16. Exploiting parameter space in MOFs: a 20-fold enhancement of phosphate-ester hydrolysis with UiO-66-NH 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Katz, Michael J.; Moon, Su-Young; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Beyzavi, M. Hassan; Stephenson, Casey J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-02-24

    The hydrolysis of nerve agents is of primary concern due to the severe toxicity of these agents. Using a MOF-based catalyst (UiO-66), we have previously demonstrated that the hydrolysis can occur with relatively fast half-lives of 50 minutes. However, these rates are still prohibitively slow to be efficiently utilized for some practical applications (e.g., decontamination wipes used to clean exposed clothing/skin/vehicles). We thus turned our attention to derivatives of UiO-66 in order to probe the importance of functional groups on the hydrolysis rate. Three UiO-66 derivatives were explored; UiO-66-NO2 and UiO-66-(OH)2 showed little to no change in hydrolysis rate. However,more » UiO-66-NH2 showed a 20 fold increase in hydrolysis rate over the parent UiO-66 MOF. Half-lives of 1 minute were observed with this MOF. In order to probe the role of the amino moiety, we turned our attention to UiO-67, UiO-67-NMe2 and UiO-67-NH2. In these MOFs, the amino moiety is in close proximity to the zirconium node. We observed that UiO-67-NH2 is a faster catalyst than UiO-67 and UiO-67-NMe2. We conclude that the role of the amino moiety is to act as a proton-transfer agent during the catalytic cycle and not to hydrogen bond or to form a phosphorane intermediate.« less

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  18. Appalachian Power Co (West Virginia) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    16,852 292,636 65,166 26,044 668,683 2,440 76,489 1,506,453 440,542 2008-02 37,005 607,454 373,082 16,900 289,006 65,070 26,146 652,684 2,447 80,051 1,549,144 440,599 2008-01...

  19. Appalachian Power Co (West Virginia) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    20,286 341,611 65,256 29,505 682,188 2,451 82,168 1,489,050 438,960 2008-06 26,853 403,428 371,335 19,210 332,786 65,126 27,454 697,302 2,445 73,517 1,433,516 438,906 2008-05...

  20. Corn Belt Power Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes This article is a stub. You...

  1. UFO (UnFold Operator) user guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F. ); Marking, T.R. )

    1991-06-01

    UFO is a collection of interactive utility programs for estimating unknown functions of one variable using a wide-ranging class of information as input, for miscellaneous data-analysis applications, for performing feasibility studies, and for supplementing our other software. Inverse problems, which include spectral unfolds, inverse heat-transfer problems, time-domain deconvolution, and unusual or difficult curve-fit problems, are classes of applications for which UFO is well suited. Extensive use of B-splines and (X,Y)-datasets is made to represent functions. The (X,Y)-dataset representation is unique in that it is not restricted to equally-spaced data. This feature is used, for example, in a table-generating algorithm that evaluates a function to a user-specified interpolation accuracy while minimizing the number of points stored in the corresponding dataset. UFO offers a variety of miscellaneous data-analysis options such as plotting, comparing, transforming, scaling, integrating; and adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing functions together. These options are often needed as intermediate steps in analyzing and solving difficult inverse problems, but they also find frequent use in other applications. Statistical options are available to calculate goodness-of-fit to measurements, specify error bands on solutions, give confidence limits on calculated quantities, and to point out the statistical consequences of operations such as smoothing. UFO is designed to do feasibility studies on a variety of engineering measurements. It is also tailored to supplement our Test Analysis and Design codes, SRAD Test-Data Archive software, and Digital Signal Analysis routines.

  2. Property:Incentive/ImplSector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency Programs (Texas) + Utility + AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) + Utility + AEP Appalachian Power - Residential Energy...

  3. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2004-07-08

    The primary goal was to enter Phase 2 by analyzing geophysical logs and sidewall cores from a verification well drilled into the Trenton/Black River section along lineaments. However, the well has not yet been drilled; Phase 2 has therefore not been accomplished. Secondary goals in Phase I were also completed for the last reporting period. Thus, no new data were collected for this reporting period, and only soil gas surveys were reanalyzed and re-displayed in the region of the Trenton/Black River wells. The soil gas profiles in the region of the Trenton/Black River wells show that individual large-magnitude soil gas anomalies (spikes) are rarely wider than 50 m. Even clusters of soil gas spikes are only on the order of 200-250 m wide. Thus, widely-spaced sampling will not necessarily represent the actual number and location of soil gas seeps. The narrowness of the anomalies suggests that the seeps result from single fractures or narrow fracture intensification domains (FIDs). Many of the lineaments from EarthSat (1997) and straight stream segments coincide (or are very close to) soil gas spikes, but we collected many more soil gas spikes than lineaments. Among some of the soil gas box surveys, a possible ENE-trend of spikes can be discerned. This ENE-striking trend is, however, about 10{sup o} away from a nearby Earthsat (1997) trend. These data continue to demonstrate that integration of aeromagnetic and remote sensing lineaments, surface structure, soil gas and seismic allows us to extrapolate Trenton-Black River trends away from confirmatory seismic lines.

  4. INNOVATAIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2002-06-30

    In the structure task, for this reporting period, the authors also edited and revised the map that displays the modified rose diagrams for the data they collected and reduced along the east side of Seneca Lake. They also revised the N-S transect that displays the frequency of ENE-striking fractures, and constructed a new N-S transect that shows the frequency of E-striking fractures. This transect compliments the earlier transect they constructed for fracture frequency of ENE-striking fractures. Significantly, the fracture frequency transect for E-W fractures shows a spike in fracture frequency in the region of the E-striking Firtree anticline that is observed on seismic reflection sections. The ENE fracture set does not exhibit an unusually high fracture frequency in this area. In contrast, the fracture frequency of the ENE-striking set is anomalously high in the region of the Trenton/Black River grabens. They have nearly completed reducing the data they collected from a NNW-SSE transect on the west side of Cayuga Lake and they have constructed modified rose diagrams for most sites. Structure contour maps and isopach maps have been revised based on additional well log analyses. Except for the Glodes Corners Field, the well spacing generally remains insufficient to identify faults or their precise locations. However, relatively sharp elevational changes east of Keuka Lake support the contention that faults occur along the east side of Keuka Lake. Similarly, a single well east of Seneca Lake shows that the Trenton there is low compared to distant wells, based on an assumed regional slope. This same area is where one of the Trenton grabens occurs. They have completed the interpretation of the reprocessed data that Quest licensed and had reprocessed. Several grabens observed in the Trenton and Black River reflectors are consistent with surface structure, soil gas, and aeromagnetic anomalies. In this report they display all four interpreted seismic lines. These data indicate that integration of aeromagnetic and topographic lineaments, surface structure, soil gas with seismic and well logs allows them to extrapolate Trenton-Black River trends away from confirmatory seismic lines.

  5. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2001-02-28

    In the structure task, we completed a N-S transect east of Seneca Lake that indicated a N-striking fault near the southeastern shore of Seneca Lake, and also indicated NE and ENE-trending FIDs and faults north of Valois. The orientation and existence of the NE-striking FIDs and faults are thought to be controlled by basement faults, rather than thrust ramps above the Salina salt controlled only by a far-field Alleghanian stress field. Structure contour maps based on well log analyses have been constructed but not interpreted. Soil gas data displayed a number of ethane-charged soil gas ''spikes'' on a N-S transect from Ovid south to near Valois. The soil gas team found a larger number of spikes in the northern half of the survey, suggesting more open fractures (and faults) in the northern half of the survey. Seismic data has been purchased and reprocessed. Several grabens observed in the Trenton reflector are consistent with surface structure, soil gas, and aeromagnetic anomalies. The aeromagnetic survey is completed and the data is processed. Prominent magnetic anomalies suggest that faults in the Precambrian basement are located beneath regions where grabens in the Trenton are located.

  6. Corn Belt Energy Coop- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A signed application and installation invoice must be received by Wabash Valley Power within 60 days of the installation completion date. View the program web site listed above and the Power Move...

  7. Geologic Setting of the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt: Implications...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the power production scheme at CHS is given. As another approach to the question of sustainability, thisdissertation explores the ways in which external benefits of...

  8. Modeling of the radiation belt megnetosphere in decisional timeframes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koller, Josef; Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H.W.

    2013-04-23

    Systems and methods for calculating L* in the magnetosphere with essentially the same accuracy as with a physics based model at many times the speed by developing a surrogate trained to be a surrogate for the physics-based model. The trained model can then beneficially process input data falling within the training range of the surrogate model. The surrogate model can be a feedforward neural network and the physics-based model can be the TSK03 model. Operatively, the surrogate model can use parameters on which the physics-based model was based, and/or spatial data for the location where L* is to be calculated. Surrogate models should be provided for each of a plurality of pitch angles. Accordingly, a surrogate model having a closed drift shell can be used from the plurality of models. The feedforward neural network can have a plurality of input-layer units, there being at least one input-layer unit for each physics-based model parameter, a plurality of hidden layer units and at least one output unit for the value of L*.

  9. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    genetic code embodied by the nucleotide sequences in DNA and collected in the form of genes is well known. Biological macromolecules like proteins comprise strings of amino acids...

  10. UFO (UnFold Operator) default data format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F. ); Marking, T.R. )

    1991-05-01

    The default format for the storage of x,y data for use with the UFO code is described. The format assumes that the data stored in a file is a matrix of values; two columns of this matrix are selected to define a function of the form y = f(x). This format is specifically designed to allow for easy importation of data obtained from other sources, or easy entry of data using a text editor, with a minimum of reformatting. This format is flexible and extensible through the use of inline directives stored in the optional header of the file. A special extension of the format implements encoded data which significantly reduces the storage required as compared wth the unencoded form. UFO supports several extensions to the file specification that implement execute-time operations, such as, transformation of the x and/or y values, selection of specific columns of the matrix for association with the x and y values, input of data directly from other formats (e.g., DAMP and PFF), and a simple type of library-structured file format. Several examples of the use of the format are given.

  11. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    incorrect or "misfolding" of proteins has been linked to many diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and some forms of cancer. So far, however, a complete...

  12. MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Baumgartel, P ; Lengefeld, J ; Horsley, D ; Schuler, B ; Bakajin, O Publication Date: 2006-03-20 OSTI Identifier: 928522 Report Number(s): UCRL-PROC-220084 TRN: US0803280 DOE...

  13. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

    2008-07-25

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  14. Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    None USDOE United States 2013-07-01 English Journal Article Journal Name: Physical Review Letters; Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 2 Medium: X OSTI ID: 1103786, Legacy ID:...

  15. Method of identifying hairpin DNA probes by partial fold analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Strohsahl, Christopher M.

    2008-10-28

    Methods of identifying molecular beacons in which a secondary structure prediction algorithm is employed to identify oligonucleotide sequences within a target gene having the requisite hairpin structure. Isolated oligonucleotides, molecular beacons prepared from those oligonucleotides, and their use are also disclosed.

  16. Method of identifying hairpin DNA probes by partial fold analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Benjamin L. (Penfield, NY); Strohsahl, Christopher M. (Saugerties, NY)

    2009-10-06

    Method of identifying molecular beacons in which a secondary structure prediction algorithm is employed to identify oligonucleotide sequences within a target gene having the requisite hairpin structure. Isolated oligonucleotides, molecular beacons prepared from those oligonucleotides, and their use are also disclosed.

  17. Tank 19F Folding Crawler Final Evaluation, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, T.

    2000-10-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to removing millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste from 51 underground waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary radioactive waste constituents are strontium, plutonium,and cesium. It is recognized that the continued storage of this waste is a risk to the public, workers, and the environment. SRS was the first site in the DOE complex to have emptied and operationally closed a high-level radioactive waste tank. The task of emptying and closing the rest of the tanks will be completed by FY28.

  18. DOE Science Showcase - Protein Folding | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are believed to cause some neurodegenerative diseases such as alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, huntington's and parkinson's diseases and cancer. ...

  19. VERIFI code optimization yields three-fold increase in engine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greg Cunningham at (630) 252-8232 or media@anl.gov. Connect Find an Argonne expert by subject. Follow Argonne on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. For inquiries on...

  20. Brochure (8 1/2 x 11, landscape, 2-fold)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    kind found. You should also determine whether any administrative or disciplinary action needs to be taken against the individuals who created HWE/ harassment. In doing so, you should consult the Department's Table of Penalties, your EEO Manager or OHCM EMRB. What if the inquiry indicates that there is no harassment or hostile work environment. Do I still need to do anything? You should reaffirm your commitment to nondiscrimination and harassment in the workplace with your employees. You should

  1. Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  2. Folding and association of a homotetrameric protein complex in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  3. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lid. A Molecular Origami Machine The genetic code embodied by the nucleotide sequences in DNA and collected in the form of genes is well known. Biological macromolecules like...

  4. Brochure (8 1/2 x 11, landscape, 2-fold)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of Civil Rights, NA-1.2 PO Box 5400 Albuquerque, NM 87185 Phone: (505) 845-5517 Toll Free: (800) 825-5256 (enter 845-5517 at voice prompt) TTY: (866) 872-1011 Fax: (505)...

  5. Basin Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.0323 0.0284 W - W W - - - Northern Appalachian Basin Florida 0.0146 W W W W 0.0223 W W W W W Northern Appalachian Basin Illinois W W - - - - - - - - - Northern Appalachian...

  6. Basin Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    43 0.0294 W - W W - - - Northern Appalachian Basin Florida 0.0161 W W W W 0.0216 W W W W W Northern Appalachian Basin Illinois W W - - - - - - - - - Northern Appalachian Basin...

  7. Property:Incentive/ContEmail | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Texas) + rwtevebaugh@aep.com + AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) + aeprebates@goodcents.com + AEP Appalachian Power -...

  8. West Virginia/Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program Yes AEP Appalachian Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

  9. Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conservation Law Foundation, Appalachian Mountain Club, and Society for the Protection of ... PP-371 Northern Pass: Comments from Conservation Law Foundation, Appalachian Mountain ...

  10. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  11. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Relative to carbon value, our analysis this quarter shows that although short-rotation hardwood management on reclaimed surface mined lands may have higher LEVs than traditional long-rotation hardwood management, it is only profitable in a limited set of circumstances.

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  13. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these sites, we developed a cost-effective method for partitioning total soil carbon to pedogenic carbon and geogenic carbon in mine soils. We are in the process of evaluating the accuracy and precision of the proposed carbon partitioning technique for which we are designing an experiment with carefully constructed mine soil samples. In a second effort, as part of a mined land reforestation project for carbon sequestration in southwestern Virginia we implemented the first phase of the carbon monitoring protocol that was recently delivered to DOE.

  14. Solimoes megashear: Intraplate tectonics in northwestern Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caputo, M.V. )

    1991-03-01

    A belt of deformation in the Solimoes basin of northwestern Brazil extends east-northeast from near the Peruvian border for about 1300 km. The belt is characterized by the en echelon arrangement of folds and faults interpreted as the result of right-slip displacements in a transpressive regime. The structures were formed during Late Jurassic time, probably due to collision of South America with allochthonous terranes as the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean began. The Iquitos arch near the western end of the megashear separates the Solimoes basin from Subandean basins. The development of the Iquitos arch is interpreted to be related to orogenic loading along western South America by the Andean mountain belt. In Brazil, folds and faults associated with the Solimoes megashear hold hydrocarbons within Paleozoic strata, and 15 gas and oil fields have so far been discovered.

  15. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2014-06-11

    Magnetic and gravity data, collected in south-central Washington near the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt (YFTB) are used to model upper crustal structure, the extent of the late Columbia River Basalt flow named the Ice Harbor member, the vertical conduits (dikes) that the Ice Harbor erupted from, and whether the dikes are offset or affected by faulting on the Wallula Fault zone.

  16. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  17. Method and apparatus for setting precise nozzle/belt and nozzle/edge dam block gaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carmichael, Robert J. (Colchester, VT); Dykes, Charles D. (Milton, VT); Woodrow, Ronald (Saltsburgh, PA)

    1989-05-16

    A pair of guide pins are mounted on sideplate extensions of the caster and mating roller pairs are mounted on the nozzle assembly. The nozzle is advanced toward the caster so that the roller pairs engage the guide pins. Both guide pins are remotely adjustable in the vertical direction by hydraulic cylinders acting through eccentrics. This moves the nozzle vertically. The guide pin on the inboard side of the caster is similarly horizontally adjustable. The nozzle roller pair which engage the inboard guide pin are flanged so that the nozzle moves horizontally with the inboard guide pin.

  18. Seismic signatures of the Lodgepole fractured reservoir in Utah-Wyoming overthrust belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parra, J.; Collier, H.; Angstman, B.

    1997-08-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based upon the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. We present the feasibility of using seismic measurement techniques to map the fracture zones between wells spaced 2400 ft at depths of about 1000 ft. For this purpose we constructed computer models (which include azimuthal anisotropy) using Lodgepole reservoir parameters to predict seismic signatures recorded at the borehole scale, crosswell scale, and 3 D seismic scale. We have integrated well logs with existing 2D surfaces seismic to produce petrophysical and geological cross sections to determine the reservoir parameters and geometry for the computer models. In particular, the model responses are used to evaluate if surface seismic and crosswell seismic measurements can capture the anisotropy due to vertical fractures. Preliminary results suggested that seismic waves transmitted between two wells will propagate in carbonate fracture reservoirs, and the signal can be received above the noise level at the distance of 2400 ft. In addition, the large velocities contrast between the main fracture zone and the underlying unfractured Boundary Ridge Member, suggested that borehole reflection imaging may be appropriate to map and fracture zone thickness variation and fracture distributions in the reservoir.

  19. How to Achieve a Four-Fold Productivity Increase at Fenton Hill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rate of 340 gpm and at a production temperature of 204C (400F). Author Donald W. Brown Conference GRC Annual Meeting; Salt Lake City, Utah; 19941002 Published Geothermal...

  20. Analyses of Candida Cdc13 Orthologues Revealed a Novel OB Fold...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1186936 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Molecular and Cellular Biology; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: (1) ; 01, 2012 Research ...

  1. New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FrbF The enzyme FrbF from Streptomyces rubellomurinus has attracted significant attention due to its role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial phosphonate FR-900098. The ...

  2. Protein folding of the H0P model: A parallel Wang-Landau study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Guangjie; Wuest, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple modication to the hydrophobic-polar (HP) protein model, by introducing a new type of monomer, "0", with intermediate hydrophobicity of some amino acids between H and P. With the replica-exchange Wang-Landau sampling method, we investigate some widely studied HP sequences as well as their H0P counterparts and observe that the H0P sequences exhibit dramatically reduced ground state degeneracy and more signicant transition signals at low temperature for some thermodynamic properties, such as the specific heat.

  3. Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krokhotin, Andrey, E-mail: Andrei.Krokhotine@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Liwo, Adam, E-mail: adam@chem.univ.gda.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Maisuradze, Gia G., E-mail: gm56@cornell.edu; Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fdration Denis Poisson, Universit de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours, France and Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-01-14

    The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrdinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a C{sup ?}-trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-?-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed ?-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full ?-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the C{sup ?} backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chainside chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual kinks are reflected as clear peaks in the principal modes of the analyzed trajectory of protein A, the shapes of which resemble the directional derivatives of the kinks along the chain. These observations suggest that the kinks of the DNLS equation determine the functionally important motions of proteins.

  4. VERIFI code optimization yields three-fold increase in engine simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    speed | Argonne National Laboratory Using high-performance computer-generated models, VERIFI researchers demonstrated that in gasoline compression ignition, varying the start of injection (SOI) timing produces significant differences in the reactivity of the the fuel mixture, delaying ignition. Such high-resolution modeling was made possible by optimizing the CONVERGE for parallel read/write processes. (Click image to view larger.) Using high-performance computer-generated models, VERIFI

  5. Discovering The Folding Rules That Proteins Obey FY08 LDRD Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bakajin, O Publication Date: 2009-02-26 OSTI Identifier: 1126773 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-410921 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org:...

  6. Tri-fold- Agencies Assisting with EEOICPA and the Former worker Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agencies Assisting with EEOICPA and the Former Worker Program The Joint Outreach Task Group (JOTG) includes representatives from DOE, Department of Labor (DOL), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Offices of the Ombudsman for DOL and NIOSH, and the DOE-funded FWP projects. The JOTG was established in 2009 under the premise that agencies/programs with common goals can work together by combining resources and coordinating outreach efforts. Each involved agency has a different mission, but the missions are complementary. By working together, the agencies are better able to serve the DOE workforce. The JOTG focuses on educating the former workers on the programs and resources available to them.

  7. Tag: employees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    46all en CNS donations help lower-income Appalachian families http:www.y12.doe.govcommunitycns-donations-help-lower-income-appalachian-families

  8. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape

  9. A Summary of Fault Recurrence and Strain Rates in the Vicinity of the Hanford Site--Topical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to fault recurrence and strain rates within the Yakima Fold Belt. Strain rates have met with contention in the expert community and may have a significant potential for impact on the seismic hazard estimate at the Hanford Site. This report identifies the alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, suggests some prospective approaches to reducing uncertainties about earthquake recurrence rates for the Yakima Fold Belt.

  10. Hanford_FinalReport_20140130

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    209054 - Hanford PSHA Seismicity Analysis - Felix Waldhauser - Final Report - 1/31/14 3:37 PM 1 Final Report Project Name: Hanford Site-Wide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA): High-Resolution Seismicity Analysis of the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt Region, Washington Contract Number: Battelle - 209054 Prepared by: Dr. Felix Waldhauser 423 W 120 th Street, Apt 88 New York, NY 10027 Tel: 212 678 4804 Email: felixw@ldeo.columbia.edu Prepared for: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  11. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region.

  12. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Samal, M. R.; Pirogov, L.

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 ?m H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ?34' 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pcmatching well with the extent of radio emissionwith a peak density of 650 pc{sup 2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass126 M {sub ?} and 71 M {sub ?} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger protostellar sources along the filaments. The IRS 5 H II region displays indications of swept-up material that has possibly led to the formation of protostars.

  13. Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern Pass:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comments from Conservation Law Foundation, Appalachian Mountain Club, and Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests | Department of Energy Conservation Law Foundation, Appalachian Mountain Club, and Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern Pass: Comments from Conservation Law Foundation, Appalachian Mountain Club, and Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests Application from Northern Pass to

  14. Grand Ridge II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner Invenergy Developer Invenergy Energy Purchaser AEP-Appalachian Power Location La Salle County IL Coordinates 41.15496, -88.750234 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Grand Ridge III Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner Invenergy Developer Invenergy Energy Purchaser AEP-Appalachian Power Location La Salle County IL Coordinates 41.15496, -88.750234 Show Map Loading map......

  16. EERE PowerPoint 97-2004 Template: Green Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis -- Appalachian Basin Teresa Jordan Cornell University Play Fairway Analysis Project Officer: Holly Thomas Total Project Funding: 453,228 May 12, 2015 This presentation...

  17. history | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    newly created laboratories and pilot plants. 1954 - The Appalachian Experiment ... wind, geothermal, fuel cells, and small hydroelectric facilities. 2005 - The Albany ...

  18. File:EIA-Appalach3-eastPA-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description Appalachian Basin, Eastern Pennsylvania By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F....

  19. File:EIA-Appalach7-TN-KY-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appalachian Basin, Kentucky and Tennessee By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F....

  20. Camp Grove Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner OEG (Orion Energy Group) Developer OEG (Orion Energy Group) Energy Purchaser AEP-Appalachian...

  1. West Virginia Residential Energy Code Field Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Appalachian Residential Consortium for Energy Efficiency (ARCEE), WV Partner: Marshall University’s Center for Business and Energy Research—Huntington, WV

  2. Ohio's 18th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advanced Energy Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's 18th congressional district Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Appalachian Advanced Energy Association Blight-to-Bright...

  3. Slide 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Appalachian Shale Cracker Enterprise (ASCENT), a subsidiary of the Odebrecht Organization, is exploring the development of a new multi-billion dollar industrial complex in...

  4. File:EIA-shaleusa5.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Play, Appalachian Basin Sources Energy Information Administration Related Technologies Natural Gas Creation Date 2010-03-17 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region...

  5. Property:GreenButtonPlannedCompliant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property. (previous 25) (next 25) A AEP Generating Company + true + Ameren Energy Marketing + true + Appalachian Power Co + true + Atlantic City Electric Co + true + B Barton...

  6. Category:Green Button Utility Companies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generating Company AEP Texas Central Company AEP Texas North Company Ameren Energy Marketing Ameren Illinois Company Appalachian Power Co Atlantic City Electric Co Austin Energy...

  7. FELDA W SUNOCO F ELDA SEMINOLE SUNNILAND BEAR ISLAND CORKSCREW

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 1 - 10 MMCF 10 - 100 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary South Florida Peninsula Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

  8. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one location varies. Fracturing started in the southwest deep in the stratigraphic section during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, moving northeastward and upsection as the Colville basin filled from the west. Active fracturing is occurring today in the northeastern parts of the Colville basin, north of the northeastern Brooks thrust front. Across northern Alaska, the early deep basin fractures were probably synchronous with hydrocarbon generation. Initially, these early fractures would have been good migration pathways, but would have been destroyed where subsequently overridden by the advancing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. However, at these locations younger fracture sets related to folding and thrusting could have enhanced reservoir permeability and/or served as vertical migration pathways to overlying structural traps.

  9. BIG RU N INDIANA LAKESHORE RUN E LUMBER CIT Y WARSAW JOHNST

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF >100,000 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, Eastern PA (Panel 3 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

  10. BIG RU N INDIANA LAKESHORE RUN E LUMBER CIT Y WARSAW JOHNST

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    No 2001 Liquids Reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, Eastern PA (Panel 3 of 7) Oil and Gas ...

  11. BIG SANDY IDA ONEID A WILL IAM SBU RG BU RNIN G SPRIN GS WIN

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, TN-KY (Panel 7 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

  12. BIG SANDY IDA ONEID A WILL IAM SBU RG BU RNIN G SPRIN GS WIN

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    100.1 - 1,000 MBOE 1,000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, TN-KY (Panel 7 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE

  13. Webster Co. Kanawha Co. Cabell C

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, Southern OH (Panel 4 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

  14. Webster Co. Kanawha Co. Cabell C

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 liquids reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, Southern OH (Panel 4 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  15. Basin Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    10.68 12.03 13.69 14.71 16.11 19.72 20.69 9.1 4.9 Northern Appalachian Basin Massachusetts W W - - - - - - - - - Northern Appalachian Basin Michigan 6.74 8.16 W 8.10 W W...

  16. Basin Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11.34 12.43 13.69 14.25 15.17 18.16 18.85 6.5 3.8 Northern Appalachian Basin Massachusetts W W - - - - - - - - - Northern Appalachian Basin Michigan 7.43 8.85 W 8.37 W W...

  17. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  18. Lawrence Co. Scioto Co. Greenup Co. Jack

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100 .1- 1,000 MBOE 1,000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, WV-VA (Panel 6 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE

  19. Lawrence Co. Scioto Co. Greenup Co. Jack

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100 .1- 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, WV-VA (Panel 6 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

  20. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 Liiquids Reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1000 Mbbl 1000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a N Y P A N Y U S A Appalachian Basin, NY Area (Panel 1 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  1. Dual specificity and novel structural folding of yeast phosphodiesterase-1 for hydrolysis of second messengers cyclic adenosine and guanosine 3',5'-Monophosphate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Cui, Wenjun; Huang, Manna; Robinson, Howard; Wan, Yiqian; Wang, Yousheng; Ke, Hengming

    2014-08-05

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) decompose second messengers cAMP and cGMP that play critical roles in many physiological processes. PDE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant yPDE1 has a KM of 110 μM and a kcat of 16.9 s⁻¹ for cAMP and a KM of 105 μM and a kcat of 11.8 s₅⁻¹ for cGMP. Thus, the specificity constant (kcat/KMcAMP)/(kcat/KMcGMP) of 1.4 indicates a dual specificity of yPDE1 for hydrolysis of both cAMP and cGMP. The crystal structures of unliganded yPDE1 and its complex with GMP at 1.31 Å resolution reveal a new structural foldingmore » that is different from those of human PDEs but is partially similar to that of some other metalloenzymes such as metallo-β-lactamase. In spite of their different structures and divalent metals, yPDE1 and human PDEs may share a common mechanism for hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP.« less

  2. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 liquids reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a U S A OH PA MI NY Lake Erie Lake St. Claire Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Basin Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Appalachian 3354 79,141 9,550,156 1,670,834 2001 Proved Reserves for Entire Applachian Basin WV Appalachian Basin, OH-PA (Panel 2 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  3. Webster Co. Kanawha Co. Cabell C

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1,000 MBOE 1,000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary Appalachian Basin, Southern OH (Panel 4 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE Reserve Class Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Basin Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Appalachian 3354 79,141 9,550,156 1,670,834 2001 Proved Reserves for Entire Applachian Basin OH WV The mapped oil and gas field

  4. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho Abstract Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a...

  5. CX-011027: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/11/2013 Location(s): Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. CX-011025: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/11/2013 Location(s): Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  7. CX-011026: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 09/11/2013 Location(s): Alabama Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. Microsoft Word - Cover Page - Exhibit 7

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appalachian Trail Tract 164-03 Jahoda CE SILVIO O. CONTE NATIONAL FISH AND WILDLIFE ... Horne Brook WMA Devils Slide State Forest Gray Fish & WMA Frizzell Crawford Notch State ...

  9. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in more Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ...

  10. File:EIA-Appalach1-NY-BOE.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search File File history File usage Appalachian Basin, New York Area Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full...

  11. File:EIA-Appalach1-NY-LIQ.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search File File history File usage Appalachian Basin, New York Area Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels....

  12. File:EIA-Appalach1-NY-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search File File history File usage Appalachian Basin, New York Area Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full...

  13. North Carolina Residential Energy Code Field Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Appalachian State University – Boone, NCPartners: North Carolina Energy Efficiency Alliance – Boone, NCDOE Total Funding: $774,723Cost Share: $89,301Project Term: 2014 – 2017Funding...

  14. Training Center Gets People Work, Teaches New Skills

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corporation for Ohio Appalachian Development, a nonprofit organization comprised of 17 community action agencies involved in weatherization, has been awarded Recovery Act funds to help train weatherization providers and create jobs across Ohio.

  15. CX-010606: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of Subsurface Brine Disposal Framework in the Northern Appalachian Basin CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 07/25/2013 Location(s): Kentucky Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 382 8 390 2,072 157 116 2,345 EthaneEthylene 10...

  17. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 331 -18 313 2,398 -147 -220 2,031 EthaneEthylene...

  18. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Refinery and Blender Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, 2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND,...

  19. Basin Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Estimated rail transportation rates for coal, basin to state, EIA data Basin Destination State 2008 2009 2010 2008-2010 2009-2010 Northern Appalachian Basin Delaware 26.24 - W...

  20. Basin Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3. Estimated rail transportation rates for coal, basin to state, EIA data Basin Destination State 2008 2009 2010 2008-2010 2009-2010 Northern Appalachian Basin Delaware 28.49 - W...

  1. SREL Reprint #3115

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) populations in central Appalachian wetlands K.E. Francl1, T.C. Glenn2,3, S.B. Castleberry4, and W.M. Ford5 1Department of...

  2. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Ap

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (3) annual (6) Australia (7) barge (3) Canada (1) CAPP (Central Appalachian Coal) (9) China (8) CO2 (carbon dioxide) (4) coke (2) Colombia (1) Congressional & other requests (13)...

  3. Distributed Wind Energy Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join instructor Brent Summerville for a fun and interactive workshop at Appalachian State University's Small Wind Research and Demonstration Site. Learn about a variety of distributed wind energy...

  4. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1000 MBOE 1000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a N Y P A N Y U S A Appalachian Basin, NY Area (Panel 1 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE

  5. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a U S A OH PA MI NY Lake Erie Lake St. Claire Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Basin Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Appalachian 3354 79,141 9,550,156 1,670,834 2001 Proved Reserves for Entire Applachian Basin WV Appalachian Basin, OH-PA (Panel 2 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By

  6. Oil and gas occurrences vs. geodynamic evolution in the southern Apennines (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casero, P. ); Roure, F.; Vially, R. ); Sarp, A.R.

    1990-05-01

    The present architecture of the southern Apennines results from the Neogene continental subduction of the Apulia margin (part of North Africa margin). An allochthonous complex is formed by the low-angle, large-scale, east-vergent tectonic stack of Triassic to upper Miocene (Messinian) units. The rocks represent both a shelf carbonate domain (Apennine platform) and a deep marine domain (Lagonegro-Molise basin). They are emplaced as a nappe during uppermost Miocene (Messinian) to lowermost Pliocene. They are transported to the northeast onto the flexed inner part of the Apulia platform (Mesozoic to late Miocene shelf carbonate series). During the middle-upper Pliocene, the inner Apulia carbonate margin (intermediate platform) was thrust against the outer Apulia domain (overthrust belt). Pliocene-Quaternary syntectonic clastic series were deposited in the flexural basin developed to the east of the Apenninic, allochthon outer ramp and also in piggyback basins carried on top of the allochthon. Oil occurrences are confined to the top of the platform carbonates. Discoveries have been made in (1) compressional structures of the overthrust belt (outer margin of the inner Apulian Platform), (2) late-stage compressive folds in the outer slope of the foredeep, and (3) slightly inverted structures of the foreland margin. Gas accumulations at the top of platform limestones occur only in antithetic fault block traps or in slightly inverted structures of the foreland. The most important and frequent biogenic accumulations are in clastic rocks of the foredeep, beneath and to the east of the frontal ramp of the allochthon.

  7. Linear tractor dry coal extrusion pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.

    2011-10-18

    A pump for transporting particulate material includes an inlet, an outlet, a passageway, a first and second load beam, a first and second scraper seal, and a first and second drive assembly. The inlet introduces the particulate material into the passageway and the outlet expels the particulate material from the passageway. The passageway is defined by a first belt assembly and a second belt assembly that are opposed to each other. The first and second load beams are positioned within the first belt assembly and the second belt assembly, respectively. The first scraper seal and a second scraper seal are positioned proximate the passageway and the outlet. The first drive assembly is positioned within an interior section of the first belt assembly and drives the first belt assembly and the second drive assembly is positioned within an interior section of the second belt assembly and drives the second belt assembly.

  8. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    belt We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for...

  9. Linear tractor dry coal extrusion pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M. (Northridge, CA); Matthews, David R. (Simi Valley, CA)

    2008-06-17

    A pump for transporting particulate material includes an inlet, an outlet, a passageway, a first and second load beam, a first and second scraper seal, and a first and second drive assembly. The inlet introduces the particulate material into the passageway and the outlet expels the particulate material from the passageway. The passageway is defined by a first belt assembly and a second belt assembly that are opposed to each other. The first and second load beams are positioned within the first belt assembly and the second belt assembly, respectively. The first scraper seal and a second scraper seal are positioned proximate the passageway and the outlet. The first drive assembly is positioned within an interior section of the first belt assembly and drives the first belt assembly and the second drive assembly is positioned within an interior section of the second belt assembly and drives the second belt assembly.

  10. DOE-0346

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Body Belt (safety belt): A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for ... forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for ...

  11. Los Humeros Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (0) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Chignautla, Puebla, Mexico Exploration Region: Transmexican Volcanic Belt GEA Development Phase:...

  12. BLACKLEAF CANYON TWO MEDICINE CREEK POTSHOT PROSPECT GLACIER E

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves Basin Outline WY UT ID CO MT WA OR NV CANADA INDEX MAP ID Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Montana Thrust Belt 1 1 0 1 Basin 2001 Reserve Summary for Montana Thrust Belt Fields CANADA USA Montana Thrust Belt Oil & Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

  13. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... A major N.C. Manufacturer Tested 2-17 Months (yr 1985) .052KWH (.13 EP) 2700 HoursYear 15 HP COGGED BELT 10.67 STANDARD BELT 3.33 PREMIUM BELT 7.34 BRAND A 4.4% BRAND B ...

  14. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  15. CX-011049: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin... CX(s) Applied: B3.1, B5.3, B5.5, B5.13 Date: 09/09/2013 Location(s): Tennessee Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 14,825 298 15,123 33,928 1,840 2,446 38,214...

  17. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Total Net Input 16,465 108 16,573 10,405 2,208 1,923 14,536 Pentanes Plus...

  18. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Natural Gas Liquids 359 5,914 6,273 26,874 4,786 77,174 108,834 Pentanes...

  19. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Refining Districts, 2005 East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 2.5 0.9 2.4 4.2 1.2 0.9 3.1 Finished Motor...

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Total Net Input 17,809 97 17,906 9,452 1,740 1,790 12,982 Pentanes Plus 0...

  1. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Natural Gas Liquids 44 526 570 1,615 417 5,414 7,446 Pentanes Plus 5 89 94...

  2. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Total Net Input 199,173 1,285 200,458 117,409 24,041 20,032 161,482...

  3. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    December 2005 East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 0.7 -0.6 0.6 3.5 -1.1 -1.0 1.9 Finished Motor Gasoline a 50.3...

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2005 (Thousand Barrels) East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Natural Gas Liquids 0 508 508 2,142 393 6,367 8,902 Pentanes Plus 0 90 90...

  5. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    September 2005 East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total IN, IL, KY MN, WI, ND, SD OK, KS, MO Total Liquefied Refinery Gases 0.7 0.3 0.7 2.9 1.3 0.5 2.2 Finished Motor Gasoline a 47.9...

  6. Gilmer Co. Rock

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1,000 MBOE 1,000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary ...

  7. Gilmer Co. Rock

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary ...

  8. Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Hydrogen

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,351 6,405 6,834 6,276 6,172 6,399 2009-2015 PADD 1 132 134 117 119 128 125 2009-2015 East Coast 106 112 96 99 103 100 2009-2015 Appalachian No. 1 26 22 21 20 25 25 2009-2015 PADD...

  9. Geothermal regime and thermal history of the Llanos Basin, Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R.; Ramon, J.C.; Villegas, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Llanos basin is a siliciclastic foreland sub-Andean sedimentary basin located in Columbia between the Cordillera Oriental and the Guyana Precambrian shield. Data on bottom-hole temperature, lithology, porosity, and vitrinite reflectance from all 318 wells drilled in the central and southern parts of the basin were used to analyze its geothermal regime and thermal history. Average geothermal gradients in the Llanos basin decrease generally with depth and westward toward the fold and thrust belt. The geothermal regime is controlled by a moderate, generally westward-decreasing basement heat flow, by depositional and compaction factors, and, in places, by advection by formation waters. Compaction leads to increased thermal conductivity with depth, whereas westward downdip flow in deep sandstone formations may exert a cooling effect in the central-western part of the basin. Vitrinite reflectance variation with depth shows a major discontinuity at the pre-Cretaceous unconformity. Areally, vitrinite reflectance increases southwestward in Paleozoic strata and northwestward in post-Paleozoic strata. These patterns indicate that the thermal history of the basin probably includes three thermal events that led to peaks in oil generation: a Paleozoic event in the southwest, a failed Cretaceous rifting event in the west, and an early Tertiary back-arc event in the west. Rapid cooling since the last thermal event is possibly caused by subhorizontal subduction of cold oceanic lithospheric plate.

  10. Van Allen probes pinpoint driver of speeding electrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Van Allen probes pinpoint driver of speeding electrons Van Allen probes pinpoint driver of speeding electrons Los Alamos researchers believe they have solved a lingering mystery about how electrons within Earth's radiation belt can suddenly become energetic enough to kill orbiting satellites. July 25, 2013 Artist's rendering of mechanism within Van Allen radiation belts An artist's rendering of a mechanism within the Van Allen radiation belts that can accelerate electrons to satellite-killing

  11. BLACKLEAF CANYON TWO MEDICINE CREEK POTSHOT PROSPECT GLACIER E

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 Reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE Basin Outline WY UT ID CO MT WA OR NV CANADA INDEX MAP ID Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Montana Thrust Belt 1 1 0 1 Basin 2001 Reserve Summary for Montana Thrust Belt Fields CANADA USA Montana Thrust Belt Oil & Gas Fields By 2001 BOE

  12. BLACKLEAF CANYON TWO MEDICINE CREEK POTSHOT PROSPECT GLACIER E

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 liquids reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl Basin Outline WY UT ID CO MT WA OR NV CANADA INDEX MAP ID Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Montana Thrust Belt 1 1 0 1 Basin 2001 Reserve Summary for Montana Thrust Belt Fields CANADA USA Montana Thrust Belt Oil & Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  13. Earth's Magnetosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mysterious electron stash found hidden among Van Allen belts March 1, 2013 Instruments detect never-before-seen phenomenon in Earth's Magnetosphere LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 1, 2013-U.S. researchers, including a trio from Los Alamos National Laboratory, have witnessed the mysterious appearance of a relatively long-lived zone of high-energy electrons stored between Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. The surprising findings, discovered by NASA's Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt

  14. Uranium Leasing Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    » Uranium Leasing Program Uranium Leasing Program Abandoned Mine Reclamation, Uravan Mineral Belt, Colorado Abandoned Mine Reclamation, Uravan Mineral Belt, Colorado LM currently manages the Uranium Leasing Program and continues to administer 31 lease tracts, all located within the Uravan Mineral Belt in southwestern Colorado. Twenty-nine of these lease tracts are actively held under lease and two tracts have been placed in inactive status indefinitely. Administrative duties include ongoing

  15. Building Efficiency Technologies by Tomorrow's Engineers and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Exchangers, AL - Advanced Renewable Energy - Emrgy Hydro - Atlanta, GA - Fox Theater - Atlanta, GA - Atlanta BeltLine - Atlanta, GA - Ford - Atlanta, GA - SawHorse - ...

  16. File:EIA-MTB-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applicationpdf) Description Montana Thrust Belt By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F....

  17. File:EIA-WTB-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applicationpdf) Description Wyoming Thrust Belt By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F....

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: M Street Homes, Houston...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    powered by a small efficient natural gas generator that produces electricity with photovoltaic and battery backup. The generator's belt also mechanically drives the compressor...

  19. summer school flyer.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The summer school includes a wide range of topics such as: * Ring current and radiation belts * Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling * Solar wind dynamics * Spacecraft charging *...

  20. Improved Manufacturing Processes Save Company One Billion Dollars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the filling machines, which then inject empty bottles with the detergent. Conveyor belts whisk the full bottles to capping machines and then to labelers, cartoners, and the...

  1. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected

  2. TRU TeamWorks - a biweekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP security officers with Santa Fe Protective Services (SFPS) Inc. will soon add guns to their security belts. Many employees remember the early days at WIPP when security...

  3. Los Azufres Geothermal Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volcanic Belt Plant Information Facility Type Single Flash, Binary, Back Pressure Energy Purchaser Comisin Federal de Electricidad Commercial Online Date 1982 Power Plant...

  4. Los Azufres II Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transmexican Volcanic Belt Plant Information Facility Type Single Flash Developer Alstom Energy Purchaser Comisin Federal de Electricidad Commercial Online Date 2003 Power Plant...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Latest News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Array (Nomination) * MESA Project Sandia Green Building Awards Sandia Corporate Lean Six Sigma Awards 2008 * Champion of the Year - Dale L. Hetherington * Black Belt of...

  6. Why Is Nevada in Hot Water? Structural Controls and Tectonic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Walker Lane, diffusing that motion into the Basin-Range. Abundant geothermal fields cluster in several northeasttrending belts in the northern Great Basin (e.g. Humboldt...

  7. Vibrant Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    installs and commissions PV systems for businesses and home. With hundreds of installations under our belt, our designers and installers are among the best in the business....

  8. A Natural History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected it in 1955 for its new headquarters. ... tree swallows, great blue herons, green herons, belted kingfishers, and eastern kingbirds. ...

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The Arctic plays a major role in global climate change and has considerable influence on the middle latitude belt. The Arctic affects the...

  10. B

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    B l a c k H i l l s R e g io n Northern Anthracite Field S o u t h e r n A n t h r a c i t e F i e l d E. Middle Anthracite F ield Rhode Island Meta-Anthrac ite Terling ua Coal Field Coos Bay Coal Field Turtle Montain Coal Field North Central Coal Region San Juan Basin G u l f C o a s t C o a l R e g i o n Ft. Union Coal Re gion (Willist on Basin) Northern Appalachian Ba sin Powder Rive r Ba sin Uinta Basin Cheroke e P la tform Ce nt ra l Appalachian Ba sin Gr ea te r Gr ee n Ri ve r Ba si n T e

  11. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  12. Texas-Louisiana- Mississippi Salt Basin Greater Green River Basin

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas-Louisiana- Mississippi Salt Basin Greater Green River Basin W. Gulf Coast Basin Appalachian Basin Wind River Basin Eastern Shelf NW Shelf Abo Sussex-Shannon Muddy J Mesaverde- Lance-Lewis Medina/Clinton-Tuscarora Bradford-Venango-Elk Berea-Murrysville Piceance Basin Bossier Williston Basin Ft Worth Basin Davis Bighorn Basin Judith River- Eagle Permian Basin Anadarko Basin Denver Basin San Juan Basin North-Central Montana Area Uinta Basin Austin Chalk Codell-Niobrara Penn-Perm Carbonate

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Prices Figure DataIn 2010, most domestic coal prices continued to increase, rising for the seventh consecutive year. Spot coal prices declined sharply at the end of 2008 and early 2009. While there has been a steady increase in North and Central Appalachian coal spot prices ever since, these prices have recovered about half their drops from peak 2008 levels, and other coal spot prices have increased only slightly from recent bottoms. As contracts expire and are renegotiated, the prevailing

  14. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed

  15. stenchikov-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test of Midlatitude Cumulus Ensembles and Diurnal Cycle of Advection, Temperature, and Moisture Simulated by Regional and Global Models with ARM Data G. Stenchikov and A. Robock Department of Environmental Sciences Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey E. H. Berbery and W. Chen Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland S. Gray Appalachian Trail Formerly at Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Introduction It is well known

  16. STILE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STILE Solar Decathlon STILE The aroma of Italian cooking will waft from STILE, the West Virginia University and University of Roma Tor Vergata entry in the 2015 Solar Decathlon, during team dinners that capture the spirit of this cross-cultural partnership. STILE (the Italian spelling of "style") stands for Sustainable Technologies Integrated in a Learning Experience and draws upon Appalachian roots and centuries-old Roman tradition. The transatlantic team has designed a compact house

  17. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Virginia Electric & Power Co","Investor-owned",74469354,28802062,39078780,6393908,194604 2,"Appalachian Power Co","Investor-owned",15783445,6297314,4011928,5474203,0 3,"Rappahannock Electric

  18. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Appalachian Power Co","Investor-owned",14186224,5616869,3650678,4918677,0 2,"Monongahela Power Co","Investor-owned",10812645,3604310,2752010,4452343,3982 3,"The Potomac Edison

  19. Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated

  20. 2015 Race to Zero Competition Grand Winner and Grand Winner Finalist Team

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Submissions | Department of Energy Grand Winner and Grand Winner Finalist Team Submissions 2015 Race to Zero Competition Grand Winner and Grand Winner Finalist Team Submissions Read the team submissions for the Grand Winner and Grand Winner Finalist teams from the 2015 Race to Zero Student Design Competition below. Learn more about the results of the 2015 competition. PDF icon Grand Winner: Opti-MN, University of Minnesota PDF icon Grand Winner Finalist: Team App, Appalachian State

  1. 2015 Race to Zero Competition Teams | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Race to Zero Competition Teams 2015 Race to Zero Competition Teams In the 2015 Race to Zero Student Design Competition, 33 teams from 27 schools across the United States and Canada competed. Below are the list of teams. View the sponsorship page to see a list of 2015 sponsors. Algonquin College Appalachian State University Auburn University (2) California State University, Fresno Carnegie Mellon University Georgia Institute of Technology Holland College Humboldt State University Illinois

  2. 2015 Race to Zero Competition Winner Team Summaries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Winner Team Summaries 2015 Race to Zero Competition Winner Team Summaries Read the team summaries for the 2015 Race to Zero Student Design Competition below. View the 2015 results page for more information. PDF icon Grand Winner: Opti-MN, University of Minnesota PDF icon Grand Winner Finalist: Team App, Appalachian State University PDF icon Grand Winner Finalist: Three Rivers Design, Carnegie Mellon University PDF icon Grand Winner Finalist: Penn College Williamsport, Pennsylvania College of

  3. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  4. The Mississippian Leadville Limestone Exploration Play, Utah and Colorado-Exploration Techniques and Studies for Independents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2008-09-30

    The Mississippian (late Kinderhookian to early Meramecian) Leadville Limestone is a shallow, open-marine, carbonate-shelf deposit. The Leadville has produced over 53 million barrels (8.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil/condensate from seven fields in the Paradox fold and fault belt of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. The environmentally sensitive, 7500-square-mile (19,400 km{sup 2}) area that makes up the fold and fault belt is relatively unexplored. Only independent producers operate and continue to hunt for Leadville oil targets in the region. The overall goal of this study is to assist these independents by (1) developing and demonstrating techniques and exploration methods never tried on the Leadville Limestone, (2) targeting areas for exploration, (3) increasing deliverability from new and old Leadville fields through detailed reservoir characterization, (4) reducing exploration costs and risk especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and (5) adding new oil discoveries and reserves. The final results will hopefully reduce exploration costs and risks, especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and add new oil discoveries and reserves. The study consists of three sections: (1) description of lithofacies and diagenetic history of the Leadville at Lisbon field, San Juan County, Utah, (2) methodology and results of a surface geochemical survey conducted over the Lisbon and Lightning Draw Southeast fields (and areas in between) and identification of oil-prone areas using epifluorescence in well cuttings from regional wells, and (3) determination of regional lithofacies, description of modern and outcrop depositional analogs, and estimation of potential oil migration directions (evaluating the middle Paleozoic hydrodynamic pressure regime and water chemistry). Leadville lithofacies at Libon field include open marine (crinoidal banks or shoals and Waulsortian-type buildups), oolitic and peloid shoals, and middle shelf. Rock units with open-marine and restricted-marine facies constitute a significant reservoir potential, having both effective porosity and permeability when dissolution of skeletal grains, followed by dolomitization, has occurred. Two major types of diagenetic dolomite are observed in the Leadville Limestone at Lisbon field: (1) tight 'early' dolomite consisting of very fine grained (<5 {micro}m), interlocking crystals that faithfully preserve depositional fabrics; and (2) porous, coarser (>100-250 {micro}m), rhombic and saddle crystals that discordantly replace limestone and earlier very fine grained dolomite. Predating or concomitant with late dolomite formation are pervasive leaching episodes that produced vugs and extensive microporosity. Most reservoir rocks within Lisbon field appear to be associated with the second, late type of dolomitization and associated leaching events. Other diagenetic products include pyrobitumen, syntaxial cement, sulfide minerals, anhydrite cement and replacement, and late macrocalcite. Fracturing (solution enlarged) and brecciation (autobrecciation) caused by hydrofracturing are widespread within Lisbon field. Sediment-filled cavities, related to karstification of the exposed Leadville, are present in the upper third of the formation. Pyrobitumen and sulfide minerals appear to coat most crystal faces of the rhombic and saddle dolomites. The fluid inclusion and mineral relationships suggest the following sequence of events: (1) dolomite precipitation, (2) anhydrite deposition, (3) anhydrite dissolution and quartz precipitation, (4) dolomite dissolution and late calcite precipitation, (5) trapping of a mobile oil phase, and (6) formation of bitumen. Fluid inclusions in calcite and dolomite display variable liquid to vapor ratios suggesting reequilibration at elevated temperatures (50 C). Fluid salinities exceed 10 weight percent NaCl equivalent. Low ice melting temperatures of quartz- and calcite-hosted inclusions suggest chemically complex Ca-Mg-bearing brines associated with evaporite deposits were responsible for mineral deposition. The overall conclusion from th

  5. Structure and time of deformation in the central Pancake Range, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, W.J.; Grow, J.A. )

    1993-04-01

    In east-central Nevada, the Portuguese Mountain area of the central Pancake Range directly west of Railroad Valley contains mapped thrust' faults that form part of the basis of the central Nevada thrust-belt oil play. The authors have mapped and field checked the structure of this area to determine if thrust-style hydrocarbon traps are likely. In this region, previously mapped thrusts have been found to be (1) normal faults, dipping more than 60[degree], (2) landslide masses of both Oligocene igneous rocks and Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and (3) low-angle attenuation faults that omit rather than duplicate stratigraphic section. Locally, the first two types (mapped Portuguese Mountain thrust') involve Oligocene igneous rocks and are therefore younger. The third is represented by a low-angle detachment system northeast of Portuguese Mountain that was first differentially eroded and then overlapped by thin limestone-clast conglomerate and red clays (terra rosa) of the Sheep Pass( ) Formation and overlying volcanic rocks. The possible Sheep Pass correlation would imply that the detachment system is Paleogene or older. Farther north, near McClure Spring, a similar terra rosa and subjacent thin limestone-clast conglomerate sequence is underlain paraconformably by gray claystone containing dinosaur bone fragments, similar to the type Newark Canyon Formation (Cretaceous) to the north. Sheep Pass( ) terra rosa of the upper part of this sequence rest with profound unconformity (nearly 90[degree]) on mid-Pennsylvanian limestone of the east limb of the McClure Spring syncline, a major recumbent syncline cored by Permian to Triassic( ) synorogenic conglomerates. These rocks contain outcrop-scale synorogenic angular unconformities of as much as 15[degree] suggesting that folding began in Permian time. These preliminary results suggest that contractional deformation of the McClure Spring syncline may be pre-Sevier and possibly of Permian-Triassic age.

  6. Flow of formation waters in the cretaceous-miocene succession of the Llanos basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villegas, M.E.; Ramon, J.C.; Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R.

    1994-12-01

    This study presents the hydrogeological characteristics and flow of formation waters in the post-Paleozoic succession of the Llanos basin, a mainly siliciclastic foreland sub-Andean sedimentary basin located in Columbia between the Cordillera Oriental and the Guyanan Precambrian shield. The porosity of the sandy formations is generally high, in the range of 16-20% on average, with a trend of decreasing values with depth. Permeabilities are also relatively high, in the 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 3} md range. THe salinity (total dissolved solids) of formation waters is generally low, in the 10,000-20,000 mg/L range, suggesting that at least some strata in the basin have been flushed by metoeoric water. The shaly units in the sedimentary succession are weak aquitards in the eastern and southern parts of the basin, but are strong in the central-western part. The pressure in the basin is close to or slightly subdepth, particularly in the central-western area. The flow of formation waters in the upper units is driven mainly by topography from highs in the southwest to lows in the northeast. Local systems from the foothills and from local topographic highs in the east feed into this flow system. The flow of formation waters in the lower units is driven by topography only in the southern, eastern, and northern parts of the basin. In the central-western part, the flow is downdip toward the thrust-fold belt, driven probably by pore-space rebound induced by erosional unloading, which also is the cause of underpressuring. Hydrocarbons generated in the Cretaceous organic-rich, shaly Gacheta Formation probably have migrated updip and to the north-northeast, driven by buoyancy and entrained by the topography-driven flow of formation waters in Cretaceous-Oligocene strata in the central-western part of the basin could have created conditions for hydrodynamic entrapment of hydrocarbons.

  7. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi/sup 2/ (5180 km/sup 2/) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process.

  8. Method and apparatus for scientific analysis under low temperature vacuum conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jones, Bradley T. (Gainesville, FL)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for scientific analysis of a sample under low temperature vacuum conditions uses a vacuum chamber with a conveyor belt disposed therein. One end of the conveyor belt is a cool end in thermal contact with the cold stage of a refrigerator, whereas the other end of the conveyor belt is a warm end spaced from the refrigerator. A septum allows injection of a sample into the vacuum chamber on top of the conveyor belt for spectroscopic or other analysis. The sample freezes on the conveyor belt at the cold end. One or more windows in the vacuum chamber housing allow spectroscopic analysis of the sample. Following the spectroscopic analysis, the conveyor belt may be moved such that the sample moves toward the warm end of the conveyor belt where upon it evaporates, thereby cleaning the conveyor belt. Instead of injecting the sample by way of a septum and use of a syringe and needle, the present device may be used in series with capillary-column gas chromatography or micro-bore high performance liquid chromatography.

  9. Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies of Protein Folding KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding ...

  10. The crystal structure of choline kinase reveals a eukaryotic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reveals a eukaryotic protein kinase fold Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The crystal structure of choline kinase reveals a eukaryotic protein kinase fold Choline ...

  11. Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics We have ...

  12. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus Print A central dogma of molecular biology is that a protein's sequence dictates its fold, and the fold dictates its function....

  13. Bend me, shape me, any way you want me: Scientists curve nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VIDEO Hexagonal Ordering of Nanoparticles This highly magnified image of a folded gold nanoparticle scroll shows that even though researchers can fold the membrane, the internal...

  14. Multi-port valve assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1986-01-01

    A multi-port fluid valve apparatus is used to control the flow of fluids through a plurality of valves and includes a web, which preferably is a stainless steel endless belt. The belt has an aperture therethrough and is progressed, under motor drive and control, so that its aperture is moved from one valve mechanism to another. Each of the valve mechanisms comprises a pair of valve blocks which are held in fluid-tight relationship against the belt. Each valve block consists of a block having a bore through which the fluid flows, a first seal surrounding the bore and a second seal surrounding the first seal, with the distance between the first and second seals being greater than the size of the belt aperture. In order to open a valve, the motor progresses the belt aperture to where it is aligned with the two bores of a pair of valve blocks, such alignment permitting a flow of the fluid through the valve. The valve is closed by movement of the belt aperture and its replacement, within the pair of valve blocks, by a solid portion of the belt.

  15. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gall, Robert L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  16. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  17. Geothermal Studies Scholarship Recipients | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through his research, Brink-Roby attempts to answer questions about the origin of these fluids, where fluid flow occurred within the mountain belt, and how long fluid conduits ...

  18. CX-007857: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development and Endurance Testing of SLH Timing Belt Powertrain in Hydraulic Laboratory Environment CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 01/26/2012 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  19. PRB Coal Users' Group enjoys growing interest in its concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahm, R.

    2008-07-15

    A review is given of some of the topics discussed at the PRB Coal Users' Group annual meeting, including combustion dusts and a new session on conveyor belts. 7 figs.

  20. The Surprising Appearance of Nanotubular Fullerene D5h(1)-C90

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and physical properties of a distinctly cylindrical fullerene. The armchair-style belts that are found at the waist of D5h(1)-C90 are a unique feature of this particular...

  1. Waveguide gas laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zedong, C.

    1982-05-01

    Waveguide gas lasers are described. Transmission loss of hollow tube light waveguides, coupling loss, the calculation of output power, and the width of the oscillation belt are discussed. The structure of a waveguide CO/sub 2/ laser is described.

  2. Hancock County Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (44 MW); rest purchased by Corn Belt Cooperative and Cedar Falls Location Hancock County IA Coordinates 43.066524, -93.70481 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingse...

  3. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), and distant Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) hold a wealth of information about the primordial conditions that led to the formation of our Solar System. ...

  4. CX-004406: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ArmorBelt Single Point Gas Lift System for Stripper WellsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 11/08/2010Location(s): Chickasha, OklahomaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-012236: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    TechBelt Energy Innovation Center CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.18 Date: 06/27/2014 Location(s): Ohio Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  6. Bulk materials handling equipment roundup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-07-15

    The article reports recent product developments in belt conveyors. Flexco Steel Lancing Co. (Flexco) has a range of light, portable maintenance tools and offers training modules on procedures for belt conveyor maintenance on its website www.flexcosafe.com. Siemens recently fitted a 19 km long conveyor belt drive system at a Texan aluminium plant with five 556-kW Simovent Masterdrive VC drives. Voith recently launched the TPKL-T turbo coupling for users who want an alignment-free drive solution. Belt cleaners newly on the market include the RemaClean SGB brush and ASGCO Manufacturing's Razor-Back with Spray bar. Continental Conveyor has introduced a new line of dead-shaft pulleys offering increased bearing protection. 6 photos.

  7. CX-004405: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ArmorBelt Single Point Gas Lift System for Stripper WellsCX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11Date: 11/08/2010Location(s): Hastings, MinnesotaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-004404: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ArmorBelt Single Point Gas Lift System for Stripper WellsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 11/08/2010Location(s): Cadillac, MichiganOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    customers of Corn Belt Energy can receive rebates for geothermal, air-source, and dual fuel heat pumps, as well as electric and heat pump water heaters. To qualify for a...

  10. Presentation title: This can be up to 2 lines

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Year of Annual Energy Outlook Unproved Alaska (1) Unproved L48 ... 2,303 Denver Niobrara 1,444 599 Greater Green River 103 Montana Thrust Belt 602 652 ...

  11. The Surprising Appearance of Nanotubular Fullerene D5h(1)-C90

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The armchair-style belts that are found at the waist of D5h(1)-C90 are a unique feature of this particular fullerene, but are the fundamental building block of carbon nanotubes. ...

  12. WCAP-10574

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 0 Radiation surveys 0 Evaluation of body badge data Body badges were normally worn between the waist and shoulders, near the most radiosensitive organs, but never on the belt. ...

  13. Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of about -196 mgal over the alluvium-covered graben areas. The gravity high over the Raft River Mountains apparently corresponds with the Raft River Mountains anticline. A belt...

  14. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  15. TABLE15.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5. Natural Gas Plant Net Production and Stocks of Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining PAD District I PAD District II Commodity East Appalachian Minn., Wis., Okla., Kans., Coast No. 1 Total Ind., Ill., Ky. N. Dak., S. Dak. Mo. Total Net Production Net Production Stocks Stocks Districts, (Thousand Barrels) PAD District III PAD Dist. PAD Dist. Commodity IV V Texas La. Texas Gulf Gulf N. La., New U.S. Inland Coast Coast Ark. Mexico Total Rocky Mt. West Coast Total January 1998 Natural Gas Liquids

  16. GPFA-AB_Phase1ReservoirTask2DataUpload

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-10-22

    This submission to the Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) node of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) in support of Phase 1 Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin. The files included in this zip file contain all data pertinent to the methods and results of this tasks output, which is a cohesive multi-state map of all known potential geothermal reservoirs in our region, ranked by their potential favorability. Favorability is quantified using a new metric, Reservoir Productivity Index, as explained in the Reservoirs Methodology Memo (included in zip file). Shapefile and images of the Reservoir Productivity and Reservoir Uncertainty are included as well.

  17. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production Figure DataU.S. coal production increased slightly in 2010 by 1.0 percent to a level of 1,085.3 million short tons (Figure 1 and (Table 1), 10.4 million short tons more than the 2009 production total. Exclusive of refuse production, the Interior and Western Regions had increases in their production levels in 2010 of 7.4 percent and 1.1 percent respectively, while the Appalachian Region had a decrease of 2.1 percent (Figure 2 and (Table 2). The increase in Interior production was

  18. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 By Key State By Region West and East of the Mississippi By Mining Method By Rank 102 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Source: Table 4.8. 119 104 61 32 29 27 23 16 12 12 9 Montana Illinois Wyo- West Ken- Penn- Ohio Colo- Texas New Indiana 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Billion Short Tons 230 156 98 Western Interior Appalachian 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Billion Short Tons ming Virginia tucky sylvania rado Mexico 257

  19. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian .............................................. 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama ................................................... .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern

  20. Table 4. U.S. shale gas plays: natural gas production and proved reserves, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. shale gas plays: natural gas production and proved reserves, 2013-14" ,,,,,2013,,2014," ","Change","2014-2013" "Basin",,"Shale Play",,"State(s)","Production","Reserves","Production","Reserves","Production"," Reserves" "Appalachian",,"Marcellus*",,"PA,WV",3.6,62.4,4.9,84.5,1.3,22.1 "Fort

  1. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond Shake Rattle and Roll! The Science of Earthquakes by Kate Bannan on Thu, Aug 25, 2011 A rare, powerful 5.8-magnitude earthquake shook the East Coast United States on August 23. Damage was light, but millions of people were surprised and unnerved by the event. The earthquake occurred near Mineral, Virginia, about 100 miles southwest of Washington, DC. It was a shallow earthquake, and shaking was recorded all along the Appalachians,

  2. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG Final Technical Report Reporting Period Start Date Reporting Period End Date Report issued October 01, 2000 March 31, 2013 February 5, 2016 Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40978 Submitted by: Appalachian-Pacific Coal Mine Methane Power Company 5053 Glenbrook Terrace NW Washington, DC 20016-2602 1 DISCLAIMER: "This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor

  3. B&W Y-12 donates $2,500 to local Girl Scouts summer camp program | Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Security Complex local Girl Scouts summer camp program Posted: June 27, 2013 - 3:39pm OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Booth Kammann, (center, left in photo) CEO of the Girl Scout Council of the Southern Appalachians, accepts a donation of $2,500 from Nancy Johnson, B&W Y-12's vice president of Business Services and Performance Assurance, which will help fund the summer program at Camp Tanasi, located near Andersonville on Norris Lake. Joining Kammann and Johnson are (from left in photo)

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Coal Supply EIA estimates that U.S. coal production for February 2016 was 54 million short tons (MMst), a 4 MMst (7%) decrease from the previous month and 18 MMst less than in February 2015. Forecast coal production is expected to decrease by 111 MMst (12%) in 2016, which would be the largest annual percentage decline since 1958. In 2016, forecast Appalachian and Western region production declines by 9% and 17%, respectively, and Interior region production falls by 4%. Total coal production

  5. Coos Bay Field Gulf Coast Coal Region Williston Basin Illinois

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coos Bay Field Gulf Coast Coal Region Williston Basin Illinois Basin Forest City Basin Northern Appalachian Basin Powder River Basin Uinta Basin Cherokee Platform San Juan Basin C e n t r a l A p p a l a c h i a n B a s i n Michigan Basin Greater Green River Basin Black Warrior Basin North Central Coal Region Arkoma Basin Denver Basin Southwestern Coal Region Piceance Basin Big Horn Basin Wind River Basin Raton Basin Black Mesa Basin Terlingua Field Kaiparowits Basin Deep River Basin SW Colorado

  6. Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Natural Gas Liquids

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 6,491 6,324 6,877 6,774 5,691 4,837 1993-2015 PADD 1 260 192 186 222 215 218 1993-2015 East Coast 4 4 7 7 1993-2015 Appalachian No. 1 260 192 182 218 208 211 1993-2015

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 December 2015 Table 35. Percent Yield of Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, December 2015 Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 1.5 -1.8 1.2 1.7 -1.9 -0.9 0.6 Finished Motor Gasoline 1 ......................................... 50.7 38.5 49.8 54.8

  8. King Coal vs. Reclamation: federal regulation of mountaintop removal mining in Appalachia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, C.E.; Duffy, R.J.

    2009-10-15

    This research focuses on the regulatory politics of mountaintop removal mining for coal within the Appalachian states of West Virginia and Kentucky. Based on Administrative Presidency concepts suggesting that chief executives seek more control and influence over agency program decisions, this article analyzes President George W. Bush's efforts to promote the development of coal resources within these states despite statutory constraints posed by federal environmental laws. The analysis demonstrates that President Bush effectively achieved his energy production goals by combining the use of discretionary authority with staff controls, executive orders, and regulatory initiatives to lessen industry compliance costs with environmental regulatory requirements.

  9. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"John E Amos","Coal","Appalachian Power Co",2900 2,"FirstEnergy Harrison Power Station","Coal","Allegheny Energy Supply Co LLC",1954 3,"Mt Storm","Coal","Virginia Electric & Power Co",1640 4,"Mitchell (WV)","Coal","Kentucky Power

  10. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.PDF Table 23. Percent Yield of Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 2014 Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 2.7 -0.8 2.4 2.4 -1.5 0.2 1.3 Finished Motor Gasoline 1 ......................................... 46.8 40.4 46.2 54.0 51.6 49.3 52.5

  11. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent Yield of Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, 2014 Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Liquefied Refinery Gases ......................................... 3.7 0.9 3.5 4.5 1.0 1.7 3.4 Finished Motor Gasoline 1 ......................................... 46.9 35.9 46.1 51.2 49.7 48.2 50.3 Finished Aviation

  12. U.S. Refinery Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. PADD 1 East Coast Appalachian No. 1 PADD 2 Ind., Ill. and Ky. Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. Okla., Kans., Mo. PADD 3 Texas Inland Texas Gulf Coast La. Gulf Coast N. La., Ark New Mexico PADD 4 PADD 5 Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum

  13. DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia February 11, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team of regional partners has begun injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin to determine the feasibility of CO2 storage in unmineable coal seams and the potential for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The results of the study will be vital in

  14. Acid mine drainage: Balancing environmental protection and mining realities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgill, B.J. Jr.; Poland, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    A major environmental concern leading to the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) was the degradation of streams and waterways from discharges of acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from coal mining operations. Although SMCRA and its regulatory scheme contains specific provisions addressing the drainage of acidic water from mine sites, as do various other agencies statutes and regulations, AMD from active and abandoned mines remains a major environmental problem in the Appalachian region. The formation of acidic water during coal mining operations is pervasive and some believe impossible to prevent.

  15. What Do You Think About Solar Decathlon? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Decathlon 2011 ran from Sept. 23 - Oct. 2, and the event was a great success! This week we highlighted a story from the Solar Decathlon News Blog, which announced Appalachian State University as the winner of the People's Choice award. Drew gave us a thoughtful recap of the event and reminded us why DOE sponsors this bi-annual event: Because the results can transform the world by using today's renewable technology to build the houses of tomorrow. Did you get a chance to see the houses, or

  16. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Allen probes pinpoint driver of speeding electrons July 25, 2013 Research team solves decades-old mystery that threatens satellites LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 25, 2013 - Researchers believe they have solved a lingering mystery about how electrons within Earth's radiation belt can suddenly become energetic enough to kill orbiting satellites. Thanks to data gathered from an intrepid pair of NASA probes roaming the harsh space environment within the Van Allen radiation belts, scientists have identified

  17. DREAM tool increases space weather predictions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DREAM tool increases space weather predictions DREAM tool increases space weather predictions Model addresses radiation hazards of the space environment on space systems. April 13, 2012 Scientists studying Earth's radiation belts have a new modeling tool called Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM). Scientists studying Earth's radiation belts have a new modeling tool called Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM). DREAM is a modeling tool that improves the

  18. Engineering and Characterization of a Superfolder Green Fluorescent Protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedelacq,J.; Cabantous, S.; Tran, T.; Terwilliger, T.; Waldo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Existing variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) often misfold when expressed as fusions with other proteins. We have generated a robustly folded version of GFP, called 'superfolder' GFP, that folds well even when fused to poorly folded polypeptides. Compared to 'folding reporter' GFP, a folding-enhanced GFP containing the 'cycle-3' mutations and the 'enhanced GFP' mutations F64L and S65T, superfolder GFP shows improved tolerance of circular permutation, greater resistance to chemical denaturants and improved folding kinetics. The fluorescence of Escherichia coli cells expressing each of eighteen proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum as fusions with superfolder GFP was proportional to total protein expression. In contrast, fluorescence of folding reporter GFP fusion proteins was strongly correlated with the productive folding yield of the passenger protein. X-ray crystallographic structural analyses helped explain the enhanced folding of superfolder GFP relative to folding reporter GFP.

  19. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  20. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loehle, C.; Iltis, H.

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  1. Possible flexural mechanisms for origins of extensive, ooid-rich, carbonate environments, middle and early late Mississippian, east-central United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettensohn, F.R. )

    1989-08-01

    During the earliest Mississippian, much of east-central US was a deep-water black-shale basin formed due to subsidence accompanying Acadian tectonism; by the middle Mississippian, this basin had been transformed into a very shallow epeiric sea characterized by ooid-rich carbonates. This transformation probably occurred in two parts due to flexural mechanisms accompanying the end of the Acadian orogeny and the beginning of the Ouachita orogeny. In the eastern part of the basin, with the end of active Acadian deformational loading, lithospheric relaxation caused uplift and eastward migration of the Acadian peripheral bulge from near the Cincinnati arch into the Appalachian basin. By the middle Meramecian, this uplift and a concomitant infilling of the basin with post-orogenic clastics created an extensive shallow-water platform conducive to ooid deposition well into the Appalachian basin. In western parts of the cratonic black-shale basin, from the western flanks of the Cincinnati arch to the eastern flanks of the Transcontinental arch, any infilling with postorogenic Acadian clastics was minor. However, by the Kinderhook-Osage transition, apparent collision and subduction leading to the Ouachita orogeny had begun, and with the inception of collision, the entire foreland as far north as the Illinois basin was upwarped by the cratonward (north and northeast) migration of the accompany peripheral bulge. As a result, by the early Meramecian, shallow-water conditions favorable for oolitic-carbonate deposition prevailed throughout the area.

  2. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functions of Ebola Virus Print Friday, 13 June 2014 10:25 A central dogma of molecular biology is that a protein's sequence dictates its fold, and the fold dictates its function....

  3. Brochure, Understanding UCNI- August 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tri-fold brochure outlining what UCNI is and the guidelines on identifying, marking and protecting UCNI.

  4. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Harvey INORGANIC ORGANIC PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FREE ENERGY MELTING PROTEINS THERMODYNAMICS TOPOLOGY protein folding protein aggregation...

  5. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; FREE ENERGY; MELTING; PROTEINS; THERMODYNAMICS; TOPOLOGY protein folding protein...

  6. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D. (Pleasanton, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  7. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  8. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  9. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  10. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-06-15

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two baseline models are developed for single and multiple caverns, respectively. Different parameters that affect damage propagation and deformation of salt cavern, such as cavern pressure, operating conditions, cavern height/diameter ratio, overburden stiffness and roof thickness are analyzed and the respective results summarized. For multiple horizontal caverns numerical models are developed to determine the cavern interaction and the minimum safe center to center distance. A step by step methodology for operators to assess critical cavern design parameters for thin bedded salt formations is also presented.

  11. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surprising variability in shape of Van Allen Belts February 23, 2016 Findings could impact how we protect technology in space LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Feb. 23, 2016-The shape of the two electron swarms 600 miles to more than 25,000 miles from the Earth's surface, known as the Van Allen Belts, could be quite different than has been believed for decades, according to a new study of data from NASA's Van Allen Probes that was released Friday in the Journal of Geophysical Research. "The shape of the

  12. Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strongin, O.

    1980-09-30

    As an extension of its efforts in the development of the geopressured resources of the Gulf Coast, the Division of Geothermal Energy of the US Department of Energy is interested in determining the extent and characteristics of geopressured occurrences in areas outside the Gulf Coast. The work undertaken involved a literature search of available information documenting such occurrences. Geopressured reservoirs have been reported from various types of sedimentary lithologies representing virtually all geologic ages and in a host of geologic environments, many of which are unlike those of the Gulf Coast. These include many Rocky Mountain basins (Green River, Big Horn, Powder River, Wind River, Uinta, Piceance, Denver, San Juan), Mid-Continent basins (Delaware, Anadorko, Interior Salt, Williston, Appalachian), California basins (Sacramento, San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura, Coast Ranges), Alaskan onshore and offshore basins, Pacific Coast offshore basins, and other isolated occurrences, both onshore and offshore.

  13. Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komar, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

  14. Energy and Water Development Appropriation Bill, 1985. Report submitted by the Committee on Appropriations U. S. Senate, to the Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, June 5, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Committee report on H.R. 5653 includes suggested amendments and information on the recommended changes in energy and water development appropriations for fiscal year 1985. Title I of the bill supplies funds for civilian projects of the Army Corps of Engineers; Title II, for reclamation projects of the Department of the Interior; Title III, for DOE defense, research, regulatory, geothermal, nuclear waste, power marketing, and uranium supply and enrichment activities; and Title IV, for independent agencies, including the Appalachian Regional Commission, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The committee's recommendation of nearly $15.4 billion is $99.6 million below the budget estimates. The report covers information gathered during 17 hearing sessions, and represents a unanimous recommmendation by the committee.

  15. Comparison of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms on Eastern and Western US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Howard, B

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption capacity of coal is important for planning the CO2 sequestration efforts. In this work, we investigated sorption and swelling behavior of several Eastern and Western US coal samples from the Central Appalachian Basin and from San Juan Basin. The CO2 sorption isotherms have been completed at 55°C for as received and dried samples. The role of mineral components in coal, the coal swelling, the effects of temperature and moisture, and the error propagation have been analyzed. Changes in void volume due to dewatering and other factors such as temporary caging of carbon dioxide molecules in coal matrix were identified among the main factors affecting accuracy of the carbon dioxide sorption isotherms. The (helium) void volume in the sample cells was measured before and after the sorption isotherm experiments and was used to build the volume-corrected data plots.

  16. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.

  17. Basin Play State(s) Production Reserves Williston Bakken ND, MT, SD

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    tight oil plays: production and proved reserves, 2013-14 million barrels 2013 2013 Basin Play State(s) Production Reserves Williston Bakken ND, MT, SD 270 4,844 387 5,972 1,128 Western Gulf Eagle Ford TX 351 4,177 497 5,172 995 Permian Bone Spring, Wolfcamp NM, TX 21 335 53 722 387 Denver-Julesberg Niobrara CO, KS, NE, WY 2 17 42 512 495 Appalachian Marcellus* PA, WV 7 89 13 232 143 Fort Worth Barnett TX 9 58 9 47 -11 Sub-total 660 9,520 1,001 12,657 3,137 Other tight oil 41 523 56 708 185 U.S.

  18. VENTURA BASIN LOS ANGELES BASIN CENTRAL COASTAL BASIN W Y T

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    VENTURA BASIN LOS ANGELES BASIN CENTRAL COASTAL BASIN W Y T H R U S T B E L T U I N T A - P I C E A N C E B A S I N GR EA TE R GR EE N RIV ER BA SIN PARADOX BASIN RATON BASIN SAN JUAN BASIN ARKOMA BASIN ANADARKO BASIN EAST TEXAS BASIN FT WORTH BASIN LOUISIANA-MISSISSIPPIA SALT BASINS APPALACHIAN BASIN WESTERN GULF PROVINCE GULF COAST OFFSHORE BASIN WIND RIVER BASIN POWDER RIVER BASIN PERMIAN BASIN DENVER BASIN SAN JOAQUIN BAS IN WILLISTON BASIN 4 5 3 1 8 7 9 2 59 54 61 89 78 80 83 88 57 62 98 76

  19. Refinery Net Input of Motor Gasoline Blending Components (Net)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -208,235 -208,752 -200,399 -197,538 -207,199 -222,768 2005-2015 PADD 1 -16,013 -15,615 -14,721 -15,397 -16,716 -17,346 2005-2015 East Coast -16,073 -15,613 -14,764 -15,424 -16,708 -17,396 2005-2015 Appalachian No. 1 60 -2 43 27 -8 50 2005-2015 PADD 2 -49,433 -47,203 -45,883 -44,387 -51,509 -55,037 2005-2015 Ind., Ill. and Ky. -32,488 -29,386 -30,133 -29,898 -34,929 -36,182 2005-2015 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. -5,852 -6,117 -4,932 -4,948 -6,264 -7,150 2005-2015 Okla., Kans., Mo. -11,093

  20. Refinery Net Input of Renewable Diesel Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    662 633 670 564 582 488 2009-2015 PADD 1 23 20 23 15 89 9 2010-2015 East Coast 80 2014-2015 Appalachian No. 1 23 20 23 15 9 9 2010-2015 PADD 2 143 139 139 114 94 109 2009-2015 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 87 86 92 75 72 88 2011-2015 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 40 41 35 24 17 13 2009-2015 Okla., Kans., Mo. 16 12 12 15 5 8 2011-2015 PADD 3 297 256 290 253 224 170 2011-2015 Texas Inland 68 67 68 61 57 28 2011-2015 Texas Gulf Coast 9 13 11 14 12 12 2012-2015 La. Gulf Coast 182 140 151 134 121 111 2012-2015