National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for aos optical particle

  1. An optical investigation of air particle flows. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Denise R

    This thesis is a fundamental study of air-particle flow fields where the experimental parameters are characteristics of coal-fired electricity generating stations. The optical flow field measurement technique Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV...

  2. AO -Adaptive Optics The currently operational AO, -called "AO-76" was installed on the NST in 2010. AO-76 incorporates a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in 2010. AO-76 incorporates a 97 actuator deformable mirror (DM), a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor in Summer 2013 with regular operation in Summer 2014. NST-AOs AO-76 AO-308 MCAO Wavefront sensor Shack-Hartmann WFS with 76 subapertures Shack-Hartmann WFS with 308 subapertures Two Shack-Hartmann WFSs for narrow

  3. Symplectic Maps and Chromatic Optics in Particle Accelerators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Symplectic Maps and Chromatic Optics in Particle Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Symplectic Maps and Chromatic Optics in Particle Accelerators You are...

  4. Symplectic Maps and Chromatic Optics in Particle Accelerators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Symplectic Maps and Chromatic Optics in Particle Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Symplectic Maps and Chromatic Optics in Particle Accelerators Authors: Cai,...

  5. Design considerations of the AO module for the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design considerations of the AO module for the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 B. Optical Design Service, 8 S. Bella Vista Drive, Tucson optics system E. Jamesa , C. Boyera , R. A. Buchroederb , B.L. Ellerbroeka , M. Huntena a Gemini

  6. Particle-Hole Optical Model: Fantasy or Reality?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. H. Urin

    2010-05-13

    An attempt to formulate the optical model of particle-hole-type excitations (including giant resonances) is undertaken. The model is based on the Bethe--Goldstone equation for the particle-hole Green function. This equation involves a specific energy-dependent particle-hole interaction that is due to virtual excitation of many-quasiparticle configurations and responsible for the spreading effect. After energy averaging, this interaction involves an imaginary part. The analogy between the single-quasiparticle and particle-hole optical models is outlined.

  7. Optically active biological particle distinguishing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Kupperman, Robert H. (Washington, DC)

    1989-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to organic particle sorting and identification. High frequency pulses of circularly polarized light, alternating between left and right, intersect a fast moving stream of organic particles. Circular intensity differential scattering and linear intensity differential scattering are monitored to uniquely identify a variety of organic particles.

  8. Optical double-slit particle measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, D.A.; Wang, J.C.F.; Hencken, K.R.

    1982-03-25

    A method for in situ measurement of particle size is described. The size information is obtained by scanning an image of the particle across a double-slit mask and observing the transmitted light. This method is useful when the particle size of primary interest is 3..mu..m and larger. The technique is well suited to applications in which the particles are non-spherical and have unknown refractive index. It is particularly well suited to high temperature environments in which the particle incandescence provides the light source.

  9. Optical double-slit particle measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Freemont, CA); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method for in situ measurement of particle size is described. The size information is obtained by scanning an image of the particle across a double-slit mask and observing the transmitted light. This method is useful when the particle size of primary interest is 3 .mu.m and larger. The technique is well suited to applications in which the particles are non-spherical and have unknown refractive index. It is particularly well suited to high temperature environments in which the particle incandescence provides the light source.

  10. Optics of spin-1 particles from gravity-induced phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Papini; G. Scarpetta; A. Feoli; G. Lambiase

    2007-11-19

    The Maxwell and Maxwell-de Rham equations can be solved exactly to first order in an external gravitational field. The gravitational background induces phases in the wave functions of spin-1 particles. These phases yield the optics of the particles without requiring any thin lens approximation.

  11. Alpha-particle optical potential proofs at astrophysically relevant energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Avrigeanu; V. Avrigeanu

    2008-11-01

    $(\\alpha,\\gamma)$ and $(\\alpha$,n) reaction cross sections recently measured close to the reaction thresholds are rather well described by a previously developed regional optical potential. Thus, particular features of the $\\alpha$-particle optical potential at energies below the Coulomb barrier, besides parameters describing $\\alpha$-particle elastic scattering at higher energies are confirmed. Additional limitations of similar statistical model calculations for minor reaction channels are shown to be most likely due to an overlooked process or critical values of statistical model parameters around closed nuclear shells.

  12. Search for Millicharged Particles Using Optically Levitated Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David C. Moore; Alexander D. Rider; Giorgio Gratta

    2014-12-16

    We report results from a search for stable particles with charge > $10^{-5}$ e in bulk matter using levitated dielectric microspheres in high vacuum. No evidence for such particles was found in a total sample of 1.4 ng, providing an upper limit on the abundance per nucleon of 2.5 x $10^{-14}$ at the 95% confidence level for the material tested. These results provide the first direct search for single particles with charge < 0.1 e bound in macroscopic quantities of matter and demonstrate the ability to perform sensitive force measurements using optically levitated microspheres in vacuum.

  13. Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

  14. Chamber for the optical manipulation of microscopic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, Tudor N. (Los Alamos, NM); Upham, Bryan D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A particle control chamber enables experiments to be carried out on biological cells and the like using a laser system to trap and manipulate the particles. A manipulation chamber provides a plurality of inlet and outlet ports for the particles and for fluids used to control or to contact the particles. A central manipulation area is optically accessible by the laser and includes first enlarged volumes for containing a selected number of particles for experimentation. A number of first enlarged volumes are connected by flow channels through second enlarged volumes. The second enlarged volumes act as bubble valves for controlling the interconnections between the first enlarged volumes. Electrode surfaces may be applied above the first enlarged volumes to enable experimentation using the application of electric fields within the first enlarged volumes. A variety of chemical and environmental conditions may be established within individual first enlarged volumes to enable experimental conditions for small scale cellular interactions.

  15. Discharge source with gas curtain for protecting optics from particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2004-03-30

    A gas curtain device is employed to deflect debris that is generated by an extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation discharge source such as an electric discharge plasma source. The gas curtain device projects a stream of gas over the path of the radiation to deflect debris particles into a direction that is different from that of the path of the radiation. The gas curtain can be employed to prevent debris accumulation on the optics used in photolithography.

  16. Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: particle Grace Chang,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Grace C.

    Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: particle effects Grace Chang,1, * Andrew Barnard October 2007 An optical dataset was collected on a mooring in the Santa Barbara Channel. Radiative optical properties and the slope of the particle size distribution ( ) were strongly related

  17. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-22-1-95

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dust particle size measurements R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, and B. D. Hinds Applied Optics, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 95-102 (1983) doi:10.1364AO.22.000095 View Full Text:...

  19. Particle swarm optimization-based approach for optical finite impulse response filter design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    and high efficiency. The design procedure is discussed. A typical example of a green/magenta filter usedParticle swarm optimization-based approach for optical finite impulse response filter design Ying method for the design of an optical finite impulse response FIR filter by employing a particle swarm

  20. Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria with Resonant Optical demonstrate a novel optical trapping scheme that allows us to hold living Escherichia coli bacteria bacteria are trapped simultaneously with their orientation fixed by the asymmetry of the antennas

  1. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  2. Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: Solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: Solution by a new physical-geometric optics: Light scattering Geometric optics Physical optics Hexagonal ice crystal a b s t r a c t A new physical-geometric optics hybrid (PGOH) method is developed to compute the scattering and absorption properties of ice

  3. The distribution and optical response of particles on the continental shelf and their relationship to cross-isopycnal mixing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakey, Joshua C.

    1999-01-01

    The relationships of optics, particles, and hydrography to shelf mixing processes were analyzed on a mid-continental shelf south of New England. The objectives were to characterize the types, sizes and sources of particles ...

  4. Internal Space-time Symmetries of Particles derivable from Periodic Systems in Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. S. Kim

    2010-09-26

    While modern optics is largely a physics of harmonic oscillators and two-by-two matrices, it is possible to learn about some hidden properties of the two-by-two matrix from optical systems. Since two-by-two matrices can be divided into three conjugate classes depending on their traces, optical systems force us to establish continuity from one class to another. It is noted that those three classes are equivalent to three different branches of Wigner's little groups dictating the internal space-time symmetries massive, massless, and imaginary-mass particles. It is shown that the periodic systems in optics can also be described by have the same class-based matrix algebra. The optical system allow us to make continuous, but not analytic, transitions from massiv to massless, and massless to imaginary-mass cases.

  5. Apparatus for preventing particle deposition from process streams on optical access windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Ronald G. (Fredericksburg, VA); Grimm, Ulrich (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01

    An electrostatic precipitator is disposed inside and around the periphery of the window of a viewing port communicating with a housing through which a particle-laden gas stream is being passed. The precipitator includes a pair of electrodes around the periphery of the window, spaced apart and connected to a unidirectional voltage source. Application of high voltage from the source to the electrodes causes air molecules in the gas stream to become ionized, attaching to solid particles and causing them to be deposited on a collector electrode. This prevents the particles from being deposited on the window and keeps the window clean for viewing and making optical measurements.

  6. Optical and Physical Properties from Primary On-Road Vehicle Particle Emissions And Their Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Optical and Physical Properties from Primary On-Road Vehicle Particle Emissions between light duty gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks. Cross-section emission factors for optical size distributions and optical properties were insensitive to increases in relative humidity to values

  7. Synthesis and optical properties of quantum-size metal sulfide particles in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nedeljkovic, J.M.; Patel, R.C.; Kaufman, P.; Joyce-Pruden, C.; O'Leary, N. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States))

    1993-04-01

    During the past decade, small-particle' research has become quite popular in various fields of chemistry and physics. The recognition of quantum-size effects in very small colloidal particles has led to renewed interest in this area. Small particles' are clusters of atoms or molecules ranging in size from 1 nm to almost 10 nm or having agglomeration numbers from 10 up to a few hundred. In other words, small particles fall in size between single atoms or molecules and bulk materials. The agglomeration number specifies the number of individual atoms or molecules in a given cluster. The research in this area is interdisciplinary, and it links colloidal science and molecular chemistry. The symbiosis of these two areas of research has revealed some intriguing characteristics of small particles. This experiment illustrates the following: simple colloidal techniques for the preparation of two different types of quantum-size metal sulfide particles; the blue shift of the measured optical absorption spectra when the particle size is decreased in the quantum-size regime; and use of a simple quantum mechanical model to calculate the particle size from the absorption onset measured for CdS.

  8. Simulation and measurement of the fractional particle number in one-dimensional optical lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan-Wei Zhang; Feng Mei; Zheng-Yuan Xue; Shi-Liang Zhu; Z. D. Wang

    2015-06-26

    We propose a scheme to mimic and directly measure the fractional particle number in a generalized Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with ultracold fermions in one-dimensional optical lattices. We show that the fractional particle number in this model can be simulated in the momentum-time parameter space in terms of Berry curvature without a spatial domain wall. In this simulation, a hopping modulation is adiabatically tuned to form a kink-type configuration and the induced current plays the role of an analogous soliton distributing in the time domain, such that the mimicked fractional particle number is expressed by the particle transport. Two feasible experimental setups of optical lattices for realizing the required Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and time-varying hopping modulation are presented. We also show practical methods for measuring the particle transport in the proposed cold atom systems by numerically calculating the shift of the Wannier center and the center of mass of an atomic cloud.

  9. MOSE: a feasibility study for optical turbulence forecasts with the Meso-Nh mesoscale model to support AO facilities at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masciadri, E; 10.1117/12.925924

    2012-01-01

    We present very encouraging preliminary results obtained in the context of the MOSE project, an on-going study aiming at investigating the feasibility of the forecast of the optical turbulence and meteorological parameters (in the free atmosphere as well as in the boundary and surface layer) at Cerro Paranal (site of the Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), both in Chile. The study employs the Meso-Nh atmospheric mesoscale model and aims at supplying a tool for optical turbulence forecasts to support the scheduling of the scientific programs and the use of AO facilities at the VLT and the E-ELT. In this study we take advantage of the huge amount of measurements performed so far at Paranal and Armazones by ESO and the TMT consortium in the context of the site selection for the E-ELT and the TMT to constraint/validate the model. A detailed analysis of the model performances in reproducing the atmospheric parameters (T, V, p, H, ...) near the g...

  10. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafrir, Shai N.; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Skarlinski, Michael; Wang, Mimi; Miao, Chunlin; Salzman, Sivan; Chartier, Taylor; Mici, Joni; Lambropoulos, John C.; Shen Rui; Yang Hong; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was {approx}50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. ''Free'' nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.

  11. Long-range behavior of the optical potential for the elastic scattering of charged composite particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. O. Alt; A. M. Mukhamedzhanov

    1995-03-20

    The asymptotic behavior of the optical potential, describing elastic scattering of a charged particle $\\alpha$ off a bound state of two charged, or one charged and one neutral, particles at small momentum transfer $\\Delta_{\\alpha}$ or equivalently at large intercluster distance $\\rho_{\\alpha}$, is investigated within the framework of the exact three-body theory. For the three-charged-particle Green function that occurs in the exact expression for the optical potential, a recently derived expression, which is appropriate for the asymptotic region under consideration, is used. We find that for arbitrary values of the energy parameter the non-static part of the optical potential behaves for $\\Delta_{\\alpha} \\rightarrow 0$ as $C_{1}\\Delta_{\\alpha} + o\\,(\\Delta_{\\alpha})$. From this we derive for the Fourier transform of its on-shell restriction for $\\rho_{\\alpha} \\rightarrow \\infty$ the behavior $-a/2\\rho_{\\alpha}^4 + o\\,(1/\\rho_{\\alpha}^4)$, i.e., dipole or quadrupole terms do not occur in the coordinate-space asymptotics. This result corroborates the standard one, which is obtained by perturbative methods. The general, energy-dependent expression for the dynamic polarisability $C_{1}$ is derived; on the energy shell it reduces to the conventional polarisability $a$ which is independent of the energy. We emphasize that the present derivation is {\\em non-perturbative}, i.e., it does not make use of adiabatic or similar approximations, and is valid for energies {\\em below as well as above the three-body dissociation threshold}.

  12. Nucleon-nucleus optical potential in the particle-hole approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Barbieri; B. K. Jennings

    2005-01-27

    Feshbach's projection formalism in the particle-hole model space leads to a microscopic description of scattering in terms of the many-body self-energy. To investigate the feasibility of this approach, an optical potential for O-16 is constructed starting from two previous calculations of the self-energy for this nucleus. The results reproduce the background phase shifts for positive parity waves and the resonances beyond the mean field. The latter can be computed microscopically for energies of astrophysical interest using Green's function theory.

  13. Introduo aos Algoritmos Randomizados

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreira, Carlos Gustavo

    Introdução aos Algoritmos Randomizados #12;#12;Publicações Matemáticas Introdução aos Algoritmos Mikhalkin · Introdução aos Algoritmos Randomizados - Celina de Figueiredo, Guilherme da Fonseca, Manoel do curso "Introdu¸c~ao aos Algoritmos Randomizados" ´e apresentar a pesquisadores e estudantes da

  14. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

  15. Collective scattering and oscillation modes of optically bound point particles trapped in a single mode waveguide field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzmann, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Collective coherent scattering of laser light induces strong light forces between polarizable point particles. These dipole forces are strongly enhanced in magnitude and distance within the field of an optical waveguide so that at low temperature the particles self-order in strongly bound regular patterns. The stationary configurations typically exhibit super-radiant scattering with strong particle and light confinement. Here we study collective excitations of such self-consistent crystalline particle-light structures as function of particle number and pump strength. Multiple scattering and absorption modify the collective particle-field eigenfrequencies and create eigenmodes of surprisingly complex nature. For larger arrays this often leads to dynamical instabilities and disintegration of the structures even if additional damping is present.

  16. Application of the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method in the simulation of the optical properties of dielectric particles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Guanglin

    2012-07-16

    A Discontinuous Galerkin Time Domain method (DGTD), using a fourth order Runge-Kutta time-stepping of Maxwell's equations, was applied to the simulation of the optical properties of dielectric particles in two-dimensional (2-D) geometry. As examples...

  17. Magellan Adaptive Optics first-light observations of the exoplanet beta Pic b. II. 3-5 micron direct imaging with MagAO+Clio, and the empirical bolometric luminosity of a self-luminous giant planet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morzinski, Katie M; Skemer, Andy J; Close, Laird M; Hinz, Phil M; Rodigas, T J; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Bailey, Vanessa P; Follette, Katherine B; Kopon, Derek; Weinberger, Alycia J; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Young giant exoplanets are a unique laboratory for understanding cool, low-gravity atmospheres. A quintessential example is the massive extrasolar planet $\\beta$ Pic b, which is 9 AU from and embedded in the debris disk of the young nearby A6V star $\\beta$ Pictoris. We observed the system with first light of the Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) system. In Paper I we presented the first CCD detection of this planet with MagAO+VisAO. Here we present four MagAO+Clio images of $\\beta$ Pic b at 3.1 $\\mu$m, 3.3 $\\mu$m, $L^\\prime$, and $M^\\prime$, including the first observation in the fundamental CH$_4$ band. To remove systematic errors from the spectral energy distribution (SED), we re-calibrate the literature photometry and combine it with our own data, for a total of 22 independent measurements at 16 passbands from 0.99--4.8 $\\mu$m. Atmosphere models demonstrate the planet is cloudy but are degenerate in effective temperature and radius. The measured SED now covers $>$80\\% of the planet's energy, so we approach ...

  18. Developing new optical imaging techniques for single particle and molecule tracking in live cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei

    2010-12-15

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a far-field as well as wide-field optical imaging technique. Since it is non-invasive and requires no sample staining, DIC microscopy is suitable for tracking the motion of target molecules in live cells without interfering their functions. In addition, high numerical aperture objectives and condensers can be used in DIC microscopy. The depth of focus of DIC is shallow, which gives DIC much better optical sectioning ability than those of phase contrast and dark field microscopies. In this work, DIC was utilized to study dynamic biological processes including endocytosis and intracellular transport in live cells. The suitability of DIC microscopy for single particle tracking in live cells was first demonstrated by using DIC to monitor the entire endocytosis process of one mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) into a live mammalian cell. By taking advantage of the optical sectioning ability of DIC, we recorded the depth profile of the MSN during the endocytosis process. The shape change around the nanoparticle due to the formation of a vesicle was also captured. DIC microscopy was further modified that the sample can be illuminated and imaged at two wavelengths simultaneously. By using the new technique, noble metal nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were selectively imaged. Among all the examined metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles in rod shapes were found to be especially useful. Due to their anisotropic optical properties, gold nanorods showed as diffraction-limited spots with disproportionate bright and dark parts that are strongly dependent on their orientation in the 3D space. Gold nanorods were developed as orientation nanoprobes and were successfully used to report the self-rotation of gliding microtubules on kinesin coated substrates. Gold nanorods were further used to study the rotational motions of cargoes during the endocytosis and intracellular transport processes in live mammalian cells. New rotational information was obtained: (1) during endocytosis, cargoes lost their rotation freedom at the late stage of internalization; (2) cargoes performed train-like motion when they were transported along the microtubule network by motor proteins inside live cells; (3) During the pause stage of fast axonal transport, cargoes were still bound to the microtubule tracks by motor proteins. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is another non-invasive and far-field optical imaging technique. Because of its near-field illumination mechanism, TIRFM has better axial resolution than epi-fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. In this work, an auto-calibrated, prism type, angle-scanning TIRFM instrument was built. The incident angle can range from subcritical angles to nearly 90{sup o}, with an angle interval less than 0.2{sup o}. The angle precision of the new instrument was demonstrated through the finding of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle of metal film coated glass slide. The new instrument improved significantly the precision in determining the axial position. As a result, the best obtained axial resolution was {approx} 8 nm, which is better than current existing instruments similar in function. The instrument was further modified to function as a pseudo TIRF microscope. The illumination depth can be controlled by changing the incident angle of the excitation laser beam or adjusting the horizontal position of the illumination laser spot on the prism top surface. With the new technique, i.e., variable-illumination-depth pseudo TIRF microscopy, the whole cell body from bottom to top was scanned.

  19. Complementary optical-potential analysis of alpha-particle elastic scattering and induced reactions at low energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Avrigeanu; A. C. Obreja; F. L. Roman; V. Avrigeanu; W. von Oertzen

    2008-08-05

    A previously derived semi-microscopic analysis based on the Double Folding Model, for alpha-particle elastic scattering on A~100 nuclei at energies below 32 MeV, is extended to medium mass A ~ 50-120 nuclei and energies from ~13 to 50 MeV. The energy-dependent phenomenological imaginary part for this semi-microscopic optical model potential was obtained including the dispersive correction to the microscopic real potential, and used within a concurrent phenomenological analysis of the same data basis. A regional parameter set for low-energy alpha-particles entirely based on elastic-scattering data analysis was also obtained for nuclei within the above-mentioned mass and energy ranges. Then, an ultimate assessment of (alpha,gamma), (alpha,n) and (alpha,p) reaction cross sections concerned target nuclei from 45Sc to 118Sn and incident energies below ~12 MeV. The former diffuseness of the real part of optical potential as well as the surface imaginary-potential depth have been found responsible for the actual difficulties in the description of these data, and modified in order to obtain an optical potential which describe equally well both the low energy elastic-scattering and induced-reaction data of alpha-particles.

  20. Spin-exchange optically pumped polarized {sup 3}He target for low-energy charged particle scattering experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katabuchi, T.; Buscemi, S.; Cesaratto, J.M.; Clegg, T.B.; Daniels, T.V.; Fassler, M.; Neufeld, R.B.; Kadlecek, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Amersham Health, 2500 Meridian Parkway, Suite 150, Durham, North Carolina 27713 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    We have constructed, tested, and calibrated a polarized {sup 3}He target system which facilitates p-{sup 3}He elastic scattering at proton energies as low as 2 MeV. This system consists of a target cell placed in a uniform B field inside a scattering chamber and an external optical pumping station utilizing Rb spin exchange. Computer-controlled valves allow polarized {sup 3}He gas to be transferred quickly between the optical pumping station and the spherical Pyrex target cell, which has Kapton film covering apertures for the passing beam and the scattering particles. The magnetic field required to maintain {sup 3}He polarization in the target cell is created with a compact, shielded sine-theta coil. Target gas polarimetry is accomplished using nuclear magnetic resonance and calibrated using the known analyzing power of {alpha}-{sup 3}He scattering.

  1. Optical and Physical Properties from Primary On-Road Vehicle ParticleEmissions And Their Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Hallar, A.G.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Harley, R.A.; Lunden, M.M.

    2009-01-23

    During the summers of 2004 and 2006, extinction and scattering coefficients of particle emissions inside a San Francisco Bay Area roadway tunnel were measured using a combined cavity ring-down and nephelometer instrument. Particle size distributions and humidification were also measured, as well as several gas phase species. Vehicles in the tunnel traveled up a 4% grade at a speed of approximately 60 km h{sup -1}. The traffic situation in the tunnel allows the apportionment of emission factors between light duty gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks. Cross-section emission factors for optical properties were determined for the apportioned vehicles to be consistent with gas phase and particulate matter emission factors. The absorption emission factor (the absorption cross-section per mass of fuel burned) for diesel trucks (4.4 {+-} 0.79 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) was 22 times larger than for light-duty gasoline vehicles (0.20 {+-} 0.05 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}). The single scattering albedo of particles - which represents the fraction of incident light that is scattered as opposed to absorbed - was 0.2 for diesel trucks and 0.3 for light duty gasoline vehicles. These facts indicate that particulate matter from motor vehicles exerts a positive (i.e., warming) radiative climate forcing. Average particulate mass absorption efficiencies for diesel trucks and light duty gasoline vehicles were 3.14 {+-} 0.88 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1} and 2.9 {+-} 1.07 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1}, respectively. Particle size distributions and optical properties were insensitive to increases in relative humidity to values in excess of 90%, reinforcing previous findings that freshly emitted motor vehicle particulate matter is hydrophobic.

  2. Modeling of the optical properties of nonspherical particles in the atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guang

    2009-05-15

    The single scattering properties of atmospheric particles are fundamental to radiative simulations and remote sensing applications. In this study, an efficient technique, namely, the pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) ...

  3. Multishell Au/Ag/SiO2 nanorods with tunable optical properties as single particle orientation and rotational tracking probes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Kuangcai; Lin, Chia -Cheng; Vela, Javier; Fang, Ning

    2015-04-07

    In this study, three-layer core–shell plasmonic nanorods (Au/Ag/SiO2–NRs), consisting of a gold nanorod core, a thin silver shell, and a thin silica layer, were synthesized and used as optical imaging probes under a differential interference contrast microscope for single particle orientation and rotational tracking. The localized surface plasmon resonance modes were enhanced upon the addition of the silver shell, and the anisotropic optical properties of gold nanorods were maintained. The silica coating enables surface functionalization with silane coupling agents and provides enhanced stability and biocompatibility. Taking advantage of the longitudinal LSPR enhancement, the orientation and rotational information of the hybridmore »nanorods on synthetic lipid bilayers and on live cell membranes were obtained with millisecond temporal resolution using a scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The results demonstrate that the as-synthesized hybrid nanorods are promising imaging probes with improved sensitivity and good biocompatibility for single plasmonic particle tracking experiments in biological systems.« less

  4. Optical assessment of particle size and composition in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and, thus, climate [2,3]. Phytoplankton species is important for understanding regional primary productivity and rates of carbon sequestration, the fate, which influence the passive optical remote sensing of the coastal ocean. Here, the extensive bio

  5. Diferenciais Introdu c ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barata, João Carlos Alves

    uma funâ?º câ? ao de uma variâ?? avel e um conjunto finito de suas derivadas. Vamos tentar formalizar essa

  6. Optical transition radiation used in the diagnostic of low energy and low current electron beams in particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, T. F.; Bonini, A. L.; Lima, R. R.; Maidana, N. L.; Malafronte, A. A.; Pascholati, P. R.; Vanin, V. R.; Martins, M. N. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) plays an important role in beam diagnostics for high energy particle accelerators. Its linear intensity with beam current is a great advantage as compared to fluorescent screens, which are subject to saturation. Moreover, the measurement of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation enables the determination of many beam parameters in a single observation point. However, few works deals with the application of OTR to monitor low energy beams. In this work we describe the design of an OTR based beam monitor used to measure the transverse beam charge distribution of the 1.9-MeV electron beam of the linac injector of the IFUSP microtron using a standard vision machine camera. The average beam current in pulsed operation mode is of the order of tens of nano-Amps. Low energy and low beam current make OTR observation difficult. To improve sensitivity, the beam incidence angle on the target was chosen to maximize the photon flux in the camera field-of-view. Measurements that assess OTR observation (linearity with beam current, polarization, and spectrum shape) are presented, as well as a typical 1.9-MeV electron beam charge distribution obtained from OTR. Some aspects of emittance measurement using this device are also discussed.

  7. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, Daniel; Stancari, Giulio

    2015-11-17

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Singleparticle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is calculated with a particle-in-cell code to estimate current limits, profile distortions, and the effects on the circulating beam. In the conclusions, we summarize the main findings and list directions for further work.

  8. Magneto-optical granulometry: on the determination of the statistics of magnetically induced particle chains in concentrated ferrofluids from linear dichroism experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Socoliuc; L. B. Popescu

    2014-10-09

    An analytical theoretical model for the influence of the magnetically induced nanoparticle chaining on the linear dichroism in ferrofluids was developed. The model is based on a statistical theory for magnetic nanoparticle chaining in ferrofluids. Together with appropriate experimental approach and data processing strategy, the model grounds a magneto-optical granulometry method able to determine the magnetic field dependence of the statistics of magnetically induced particle chains in concentrated ferrofluids.

  9. Effects of volatile coatings on the morphology and optical detection of combustion-generated black carbon particles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bambha, Ray P.; Dansson, Mark Alex; Schrader, Paul E.; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2013-09-01

    We have measured time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) from combustion-generated mature soot extracted from a burner and (1) coated with oleic acid or (2) coated with oleic acid and then thermally denuded using a thermodenuder. The soot samples were size selected using a differential mobility analyser and characterized with a scanning mobility particle sizer, centrifugal particle mass analyser, and transmission electron microscope. The results demonstrate a strong influence of coatings particle morphology and on the magnitude and temporal evolution of the LII signal. For coated particles higher laser fluences are required to reach LII signal levels comparable to those of uncoated particles. This effect is predominantly attributable to the additional energy needed to vaporize the coating while heating the particle. LII signals are higher and signal decay rates are significantly slower for thermally denuded particles relative to coated or uncoated particles, particularly at low and intermediate laser fluences.

  10. Effect of particle size on the thermo-optic properties of gold nanofluids – A thermal lens study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Basheer, N. Shemeena; Kurian, Achamma [Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta (India); George, Sajan D., E-mail: sajan.george@manipal.edu [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-28

    Spherical gold nanoparticles having particle size in the range 30 to 50 nm are prepared using citrate reduction of gold chloride trihydrate in water. The influence of particle size on the thermal diffusivity value of gold nanofluid is measured using dual beam thermal lens technique. The present study shows that the particle size influences the effective thermal diffusivity value of the nanofluid substantially and the value decreases with decrease in particle size for the investigated samples.

  11. H menos 3100 candidatos ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    cursos de ciências e tecnologias p 9 #12;Menos 3100 alunos querem concorrer ao ensino superior Educação ciências e tecnologias Menos alunos inscritos para exames e também menos candidatos ao en- sino superior

  12. A magnetohydrodynamic model of the M87 jet. II. Self-consistent quad-shock jet model for optical relativistic motions and particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Masanori

    2014-04-20

    We describe a new paradigm for understanding both relativistic motions and particle acceleration in the M87 jet: a magnetically dominated relativistic flow that naturally produces four relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks (forward/reverse fast and slow modes). We apply this model to a set of optical super- and subluminal motions discovered by Biretta and coworkers with the Hubble Space Telescope during 1994-1998. The model concept consists of ejection of a single relativistic Poynting jet, which possesses a coherent helical (poloidal + toroidal) magnetic component, at the remarkably flaring point HST-1. We are able to reproduce quantitatively proper motions of components seen in the optical observations of HST-1 with the same model we used previously to describe similar features in radio very long baseline interferometry observations in 2005-2006. This indicates that the quad relativistic MHD shock model can be applied generally to recurring pairs of super/subluminal knots ejected from the upstream edge of the HST-1 complex as observed from radio to optical wavelengths, with forward/reverse fast-mode MHD shocks then responsible for observed moving features. Moreover, we identify such intrinsic properties as the shock compression ratio, degree of magnetization, and magnetic obliquity and show that they are suitable to mediate diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic particles via the first-order Fermi process. We suggest that relativistic MHD shocks in Poynting-flux-dominated helical jets may play a role in explaining observed emission and proper motions in many active galactic nuclei.

  13. Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kips, R; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Amonette, J; Wang, Z; Johnson, T; Gerlach, D; Olsen, K B

    2009-05-29

    Both nuclear forensics and environmental sampling depend upon laboratory analysis of nuclear material that has often been exposed to the environment after it has been produced. It is therefore important to understand how those environmental conditions might have changed the chemical composition of the material over time, particularly for chemically sensitive compounds. In the specific case of uranium enrichment facilities, uranium-bearing particles stem from small releases of uranium hexafluoride, a highly reactive gas that hydrolyzes upon contact with moisture from the air to form uranium oxyfluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) particles. The uranium isotopic composition of those particles is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify whether a facility is compliant with its declarations. The present study, however, aims to demonstrate how knowledge of time-dependent changes in chemical composition, particle morphology and molecular structure can contribute to an even more reliable interpretation of the analytical results. We prepared a set of uranium oxyfluoride particles at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, European Commission, Belgium) and followed changes in their composition, morphology and structure with time to see if we could use these properties to place boundaries on the particle exposure time in the environment. Because the rate of change is affected by exposure to UV-light, humidity levels and elevated temperatures, the samples were subjected to varying conditions of those three parameters. The NanoSIMS at LLNL was found to be the optimal tool to measure the relative amount of fluorine in individual uranium oxyfluoride particles. At PNNL, cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved U(VI) fluorescence microspectroscopy (CLIFS) was used to monitor changes in the molecular structure.

  14. Adaptac~ao ao Contexto em Sistemas de Comunicac~ao Heterogeneos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Luís E.T.

    de Ci^encias da Universidade de Lisboa Campo Grande, 1749­016 Lisboa Portugal Technical reports,lrosa,nalmeida}@lasige.di.fc.ul.pt Hugo Miranda Lu´is Rodrigues {hmiranda,ler}@di.fc.ul.pt Universidade de Lisboa Resumo Hoje em dia beneficia da disponibilidade de uma pilha de comunicac¸ ~ao em grupo reconfigur´avel. 1 Introduc¸~ao Hoje em

  15. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively in situ at 467 and 530 nm. Closure modeling with the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) refractive index model was able to capture the increasing absorption trend with RH indicating that the droplets were heterogeneously mixed while containing dispersed insoluble absorbing material within those droplets. Seven other refractive index mixing models including LVA did not adequately describe the measurements for OC. Mixing the biomass OC aerosol with select mass fractions of ammonium sulfate ranging from 25 to 36% and sodium chloride ranging from 21 to 30% resulted in an increase in light scattering and extinction with RH and inorganic mass fraction. However, no detectable difference in light absorption behavior in comparison to pure biomass OC was observed. The main finding of this research is a measured increase in absorption with increasing RH, which is currently not represented in radiative transfer models even though biomass burning produces most of the primary OC aerosol in the atmosphere.

  16. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  17. Probing young massive clusters with laser guide star adaptive optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrady, Nate

    2009-01-01

    laser guide star adaptive optics Nate McCrady Received: 10laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS/AO) on the 10 m Keckof 4 Mpc. Our adaptive optics work is motivated by three

  18. Extended Hartree-Fock study of the single-particle potential: the nuclear symmetry energy, nucleon effective mass, and folding model of the nucleon optical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loan, Doan Thi; Khoa, Dao T

    2015-01-01

    The nucleon mean-field potential has been thoroughly investigated in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM) using the CDM3Y3 and CDM3Y6 density dependent versions of the M3Y interaction. The single-particle (s/p) energies of nucleons in NM are determined according to the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem, which gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT) of the s/p potential at the Fermi momentum. Using the RT obtained exactly at the different NM densities and neutron-proton asymmetries, a consistent method is suggested to take into account effectively the momentum dependence of the RT of the s/p potential within the standard HF scheme. To obtain a realistic momentum dependence of the nucleon optical potential (OP), the high-momentum part of the s/p potential was accurately readjusted to reproduce the observed energy dependence of the nucleon OP over a wide range of energies. The impact of the RT and momentum dependence of the s/p potential on the density dependence of the nuclear sy...

  19. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J

    2008-02-04

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  20. Laser particle sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

    1987-11-30

    Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

  1. Extended Hartree-Fock study of the single-particle potential: the nuclear symmetry energy, nucleon effective mass, and folding model of the nucleon optical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doan Thi Loan; Bui Minh Loc; Dao T. Khoa

    2015-08-23

    The nucleon mean-field potential has been thoroughly investigated in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM) using the CDM3Y3 and CDM3Y6 density dependent versions of the M3Y interaction. The single-particle (s/p) energies of nucleons in NM are determined according to the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem, which gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT) of the s/p potential at the Fermi momentum. Using the RT obtained exactly at the different NM densities and neutron-proton asymmetries, a consistent method is suggested to take into account effectively the momentum dependence of the RT of the s/p potential within the standard HF scheme. To obtain a realistic momentum dependence of the nucleon optical potential (OP), the high-momentum part of the s/p potential was accurately readjusted to reproduce the observed energy dependence of the nucleon OP over a wide range of energies. The impact of the RT and momentum dependence of the s/p potential on the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and nucleon effective mass has been studied in details. The high-momentum tail of the s/p potential was found to have a sizable effect on the slope of the symmetry energy and the neutron-proton effective mass splitting at supranuclear densities of the NM. Based on a local density approximation, the folding model of the nucleon OP of finite nuclei has been extended to take into account consistently the RT and momentum dependence of the nucleon OP in the same mean-field manner, and successfully applied to study the elastic neutron scattering on the lead target at the energies around the Fermi energy.

  2. Um Sistema Computacional integrando Suporte `a Decis~ao na Area de Reproduc ~ao Humana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baranauskas, José Augusto

    desenvolvimento de um sistema computacional que a implementa. Tais elementos permitem informatizar os processos e¸ ~ao. Palavras-chaves: Reproduc¸ ~ao Assistida, Sistemas de Suporte `a Decis~ao, Aprendizado de M´aquina

  3. A.O. Smith | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A.O. Smith A.O. Smith The energy advantage of micro-CHP compared to standard energy building usage. Based on primary source energy combined heat and power has the potential to...

  4. Optical forces and optical torques on various materials arising from optical lattices in the Lorentz-Mie regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Lin

    By combining the Maxwell stress tensor with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we calculate the optical force and optical torque on particles from optical lattices. We compare our method to the two-component ...

  5. Polymer-gold composite particles are a tremendous research interest. Due to their unique structures, these particles demonstrate superior properties for optical, catalytic and electrical applications. Moreover, the incorporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer-gold composite particles are a tremendous research interest. Due to their unique structures, the incorporation of "smart" polymers enables the composite particles to synergistically respond to environmental, a novel Pickering emulsion polymerization route is employed to synthesize core-shell polymer

  6. Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Gregory

    Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA The Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) will concentrate on astronomical and vision science applications of adaptive optics and will reach out to other adaptive optics communities to share technologies. It will develop new instruments optimized for adaptive optics. Adaptive

  7. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  8. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  9. EXERCICIOS INTRODUC ~AO `A TEORIA DOS GRAFOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    exerc´icios com data de entrega devem ser resolvidos e entregues. Estes exerc´icios far~ao parte de suaEXERC´ICIOS INTRODUC¸ ~AO `A TEORIA DOS GRAFOS 2O. SEMESTRE DE 2010 Instru¸c~oes: 1. Os problemas e avalia¸c~ao. 2. A entrega dos exerc´icios deve ser feita no come¸co da aula (as datas de entrega ser

  10. Logica Computacional Verificac ~ao com Logicas Temporais

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

    ´izo `a ind´ustria e a seus consumidores, como, por exemplo, a produc¸ ~ao em massa de componentes eletr

  11. Sensitivity Study of the Effects of Mineral Dust Particle Nonsphericity and Thin Cirrus Clouds on MODIS Dust Optical Depth Retrievals and Direct Radiative Forcing Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Qian

    2011-10-21

    A special challenge posed by mineral dust aerosols is associated with their predominantly nonspherical particle shapes. In the present study, the scattering and radiative properties for nonspherical mineral dust aerosols at violet-to-blue (0.412, 0...

  12. Discovery of Optical Emission in the Hotspots of Three 3CR Quasars: High-Energy Particle Acceleration in Powerful Radio Hotspots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. C. Cheung; J. F. C. Wardle; T. Chen

    2005-03-29

    Archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images were used to search for optical emission associated with the radio jets of a number of luminous quasars. From this search, we report new optical hotspot detections in the well-known blazar 3C~454.3 and the lobe-dominated quasars 3C~275.1 and 3C~336. We also find optical emission in the vicinity of the hotspot in 3C~208, but believe this is a chance alignment. Optical emission from the arcsecond-scale jet in 3C~454.3 is also detected. Multi-frequency archival radio data from the VLA and MERLIN are analyzed, and the synchrotron spectra of these high-power hotspots are presented. We estimate that their break frequencies are in the range of $10^{10}-10^{11}$ Hz, with large uncertainties due to the wide gap in frequency coverage between the radio and optical bands. We also calculate their equipartition magnetic fields, and find that the anti-correlation between break frequency and magnetic field found by Brunetti et al. for lower power hotspots extends to these high power hotspots. This supports their model of hot-spots based on shock acceleration and synchrotron losses.

  13. Utilizac~ao de Chaves em Algoritmos de Detecc~ao de Diferencas para XML

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hara, Carmem Satie

    Utilizac¸~ao de Chaves em Algoritmos de Detecc¸~ao de Diferenc¸as para XML Rodrigo C. Santos 1 of the algorithm. Resumo. Algoritmos de detecc¸~ao de diferenc¸as para documentos XML reali- zam uma an no mundo real e que portanto devem ser casados pelo algoritmo. A abordagem proposta neste artigo consiste

  14. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  15. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  16. Soluc~ao dos Exercicios Capitulo 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cipolatti, Rolci

    ) = 0. e Exerc´icio 9.5: Mostre que o sistema abaixo pode ser resolvido com: 1) x, y, u em fun¸c~ao de zSolu¸c~ao dos Exerc´icios Cap´itulo 9 Exerc´icio 9.1: Considere a superf´icie xy-z log y+eyz -e = 0¸c~ao das vari´aveis x e y uma vizinhan¸ca do ponto (0, 1). Exerc´icio 9.2: O ponto P = (1, -1, 2) pertence

  17. PROPOSTA E APLICAC~AO DE UM ALGORITMO DE LEIL~AO DESCENTRALIZADO PARA COORDENAC~AO DE M ULTIPLOS ROB^OS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaimowicz, Luiz

    PROPOSTA E APLICA¸C~AO DE UM ALGORITMO DE LEIL~AO DESCENTRALIZADO PARA COORDENA¸C~AO DE M ´ULTIPLOS proposto um algoritmo para coordena¸c~ao de m´ultiplos rob^os. O algoritmo proposto, denominado Fully-Distribuited-Auction (FDA) ´e baseado no algoritmo de leil~ao cl´assico proposto por Bertsekas. O algoritmo FDA ´e uma

  18. Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

  19. Universidade de S~ao Paulo Instituto de Fsica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nussenzveig, Alberto

    ¸c~ao espectral da intensidade de um laser. . . . . . . . 12 2.2 Representa¸c~ao de um estado coerente no espa

  20. Configurac~ao do Suporte de Comunicac~ao em Ambientes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Luís E.T.

    ¸~ao de protocolos configur´avel, que fornece a comunicac¸~ao em grupo. Este artigo discute o papel do, mudanc¸as din^amicas e efici^encia deste tipo de sistemas, os ambientes MOO (multi-utilizador orientados

  1. Func~ao Inversa e Func~ao Implicita (Resoluc~ao Sumaria) 19 de Maio de 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventura, Joana

    ) = f(x, xy) (com f : R2 R de classe C2). Exprima a derivada parcial mista F12 `a custa de derivadas g : R2 R de classe C2). Exprima as derivadas parciais de ordens 1 e 2 de F `a custa de derivadas a derivada de f g ´e a derivada direccional de f segundo dg dt . Resolu¸c~ao: Pela regra da derivada da

  2. Adaptive Optics in Astronomy Jay J. McCarthy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Adaptive Optics in Astronomy Jay J. McCarthy NW Computational Intelligence Laboratory Portland State University Abstract ­ The field of adaptive optics (AO) has developed as a means to correct for the phase disturbances of an optical signal by understanding the medium through which it passes. This paper

  3. Particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Gerrity, Daniel P.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2005-06-28

    Energy tunable solid state sources of neutral particles are described. In a disclosed embodiment, a halogen particle source includes a solid halide sample, a photon source positioned to deliver photons to a surface of the halide, and a collimating means positioned to accept a spatially defined plume of hyperthermal halogen particles emitted from the sample surface.

  4. Performance of a MEMS-based AO-OCT system using Fourier Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J; Zawadzki, R; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2009-01-21

    Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-resolution (3.5 {micro}m isotropic), 3-D images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction. Developments to improve performance or functionality of the instrument are on-going. Based on previous work in system characterization we have focused on improved AO control. We present preliminary results and remaining challenges for a newly implemented Fourier transform reconstructor (FTR). The previously reported error budget analysis is also reviewed and updated, with consideration of how to improve both the amount of residual error and the robustness of the system. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of future systems.

  5. Thicket: Construc~ao e Manutenc~ao de Multiplas Arvores numa Rede entre Pares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Luís E.T.

    num pequeno subconjunto de todas as ´arvores, e folha nas restantes. As m´ultiplas ´arvores permitem participantes. O principal problema que afecta este tipo de sistemas ´e o desbalanceamento na contribui¸c~ao de

  6. APRENDIZADO SEMI-SUPERVISIONADO MULTI-VIS~AO PARA A CLASSIFICAC ~AO DE BASES DE TEXTO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batista, Gustavo

    quando somente um pequeno conjunto de exemplos rotulados est´a dispon´ivel. Entre os algoritmos semi-supervisionados existe uma fam´ilia de algoritmos conhecidos como semi-supervisionados multi-vis~ao. Essa fam´ilia ´e composta por algoritmos que necessitam de duas ou mais vis~oes dos dados que geralmente s~ao varia¸c~oes do

  7. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  8. Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

  9. 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ELECTRON GUNS; BEAM EMITTANCE; CHARGE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SPACE 430200* -- Particle Accelerators-- Beam Dynamics, Field Calculations, & Ion Optics The evolution of the electron-beam phase space distribution in laser-driven rf guns is...

  10. AOS Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgramInformation ALLETE, Inc.EnergyPlcAOS Solar Inc

  11. Authorizing Official (AO) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUS SERVICE SUBSIDIES AT THEEnergyAO is the Senior DOE

  12. SHAPE AND SIZE FROM THE MIST A Deformable Model for Particle Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or particles in gas, such as the coal particles from a power plant. A vision-based system can pro- vide of the particles de- pends on the optical properties of the camera setup, 1PROVAEN ­ Process Visualisation, and the physical reflectance properties of the particles. The depth of field of the camera optics is narrow

  13. Secc~ao de Algebra e Analise, Departamento de Matematica,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    valor m´edio. II. C´alculo Diferencial em Rn Diferenciabilidade de fun¸c~oes em Rn . Derivadas variedade diferencial. Independ^encia relativamente `a parametriza¸c~ao. Aplica¸c~ao ao c´alculo deSec¸c~ao de ´Algebra e An´alise, Departamento de Matem´atica, Instituto Superior T´ecnico C´alculo

  14. MAC 412 Organizac~ao de Computadores Agosto de 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Siang Wun

    a sua evolu¸c~ao atrav´es da lista TOP500. #12;3/22 Computa¸c~ao de Alto Desempenho Medida de desempenho pode mudar :-) #12;6/22 Tr^es Brasileiros na TOP500 · Todos da Petrobr´as · Posi¸c~ao 95 - IBM x,922 TFLOPS Linpack) #12;6/22 Tr^es Brasileiros na TOP500 · Todos da Petrobr´as · Posi¸c~ao 95 - IBM x

  15. Particle preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Conrad, Frank J. (Russellville, NM); Custer, Chad A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  16. Particle preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Conrad, Frank J. (Russellville, SC); Custer, Chad A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  17. Particle preconcentrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linker, Kevin L.; Conrad, Frank J.; Custer, Chad A.; Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L.

    2005-09-20

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  18. Particle preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Conrad, F.J.; Custer, C.A.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.

    1998-12-29

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents. 3 figs.

  19. Maratona de Programac~ao ACM ICPC 2005 1 Brincadeira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .c, brinca.cpp, brinca.java ou brinca.pas Alice e Beto s~ao amigos desde crian¸cas. Hoje em dia est cursa Ci^encia da Computa¸c~ao, ele decidiu mostrar a Alice sua habilidade em programa¸c~ao, escrevendo

  20. Departamento de Ci^encia da Computac~ao IME-USP Segundo Semestre de 2010 MAC 115 Introduc~ao `a Computac~ao IF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    calculadora mec^anica que realizava somas e subtra¸c~oes. A linguagem de programa¸c~ao Pascal (desenvolvida

  1. Simple Laser Accelerator - Optics and Particle Dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

    1991-01-01

    fitting structure are being investigated. The model developed will be presented to various Natural Gas producing countries such as Iran, Iraq, Russia, and Saudi to name a few and will ultimately be set up the same way that OPEC was....

  2. Suporte `a computac~ao orientada aos grupos em sistemas distribuidos tolerantes a faltas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Luís E.T.

    Faculdade de Ci^encias da Universidade de Lisboa e co-orientac¸~ao do Prof. Doutor Nuno Manuel de Carvalho desempenho aceit´avel sobre este tipo de redes. A grande maioria das redes de grande-escala hoje existentes s

  3. ISPS: Especificac~ao Formal de Hardware MAC 412 -Organizac~ao de Computadores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Siang Wun

    ´aquina, para descrever: · Estado do processador Pc · Estado da mem´oria Mp · C´alculo do endere¸co efetivo · O´ario. · Interrupt.Request vale 1 se h´a pedido de interrup¸c~ao e 0 caso contr´ario. #12;C´alculo do endere

  4. Generalizing Optical Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rickard Jonsson; Hans Westman

    2007-08-21

    We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz and Lasota 1997, Class. Quantum Grav. 14 (1997) A23). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 1) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity.

  5. Optical microspectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  6. Review of Particle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Kenzo

    2010-01-01

    11. Particle Physics Education Sites . . . . . . . . .ONLINE PARTICLE PHYSICS INFORMATION 1.11. Particle Physics Education Sites . . . . . . . . . . 12.

  7. REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beringer, Juerg

    2013-01-01

    ONLINE PARTICLE PHYSICS INFORMATION 1.3. Particle Physics Information Platforms . . . . . . . . .14. Particle Physics Education and Outreach

  8. A func~ao f : R3 R definida pela express~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granja, Gustavo

    existam as derivadas segundo (1, 1) em (1, 1) e (-1, 1). · LE 7.29 Seja f(x, y) = xk y x2+y2 se (x, y¸c~ao do par^ametro k. · LE 7.32 Seja f(x, y) = |xy|. (a) Calcule as derivadas parciais em (0, 0). (b diferenciabilidade de f. (d) Verifique se existe derivada de f segundo o vector (1, 1) nos pontos (0, 0) e (3, 5) e

  9. Curso de posgraduac~ao em Astrofisica Prova de admiss~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    para produzir energia el´etrica consiste no funcionamento de um motor t´ermico operando entre a superf, 002603 u.m.a., ent~ao quanta energia de massa de repouso ´e convertida no decaimento? b) Em um referencial no qual o n´ucleo de 8 Be est´a inicialmente em repouso, qual ´e a energia cin´etica que cada n

  10. Performance of Subaru adaptive optics system and the scientific results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iye, Masanori

    Performance of Subaru adaptive optics system and the scientific results Hideki Takami*a , Naruhisa Institute, Heidelberg ABSTRACT We present an overview of Subaru Cassegrain adaptive optics system and its light in Dec. 2000. The AO system has been in service for two instruments, IRCS; infrared camera

  11. EXERCICIOS MAC430 ALGORITMOS E COMPLEXIDADE DE COMPUTAC ~AO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    . Os problemas e exerc´icios com data de entrega devem ser resolvidos e entregues. Estes exerc´iciosEXERC´ICIOS MAC430 ALGORITMOS E COMPLEXIDADE DE COMPUTAC¸ ~AO 2O. SEMESTRE DE 2012 Instru¸c~oes: 1 far~ao parte de sua avalia¸c~ao. 2. A entrega dos exerc´icios deve ser feita no come¸co da aula (as

  12. AO DO FLUXO DE POT ENCIA EM AMBIENTE VETORIAL USANDO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.

    SOLU ¸ C ~ AO DO FLUXO DE POT â?? ENCIA EM AMBIENTE VETORIAL USANDO O M ' ETODO DO GRADIENTE BI uma redu¸c~ao no custo computacional. O algoritmo foi executado em ambiente com­ putacional vetorial¸c~ao de energia el'etrica, assim como in'umeros problemas em engenharia e ou­ tras ciâ??encias, requer

  13. INTRODUC¸ ˜AO `AS TRANSFORMADAS DE RADON 1. Introduç ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-08-11

    em 1956 quando trabalhava no departamento de radiologia do hospital Groote Schurr (o mesmo onde foi feito o primeiro transplante de coraç˜ao) na cidade do

  14. Departamento de Ci^encia da Computac~ao IME-USP MAC 115 --Introduc~ao `a Computac~ao para Ci^encias Exatas e Tecnologia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reverbel, Francisco

    ´e 16 de abril de 2007. Caixa Eletr^onico Devido ao grande n´umero de solicita¸c~oes de clientes que est a programa¸c~ao de seus caixas eletr^onicos. A nova programa¸c~ao permitir´a saques de qualquer quantia que reais como 17 c´edulas de 10 reais e 8 c´edulas de um real. O caixa eletr^onico ´e dotado de um

  15. All-optical polariton transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Dario; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Houdré, Romuald; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Cingolani, Roberto; Bramati, Alberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    While optical technology provides the best solution for the transmission of information, optical logics is still in its infancy. In particular, energy considerations impose to reduce the power required for nonlinear interactions in future optical devices, which, in addition, should be compatible with present semiconductor technology. Exciton-polaritons are composite particles, resulting from the strong coupling between excitons and photons, which have recently demonstrated exceptional properties like huge non-linearities, condensation and superfluidity. Here we experimentally demonstrate a switching scheme for polaritons moving in the plane of a microcavity which satisfy all the requirements for an all-optical transistor. Two laser beams are converted into polariton quasi-particles, which are used as input states for generating and controlling the output, obtaining up to 19 times amplification. Moreover this polariton transistor shows to work with an interchangeable input-output signal, and needing an energy ...

  16. Optical ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  17. Optical ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

    1994-03-29

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

  18. Parameterized complexity of discrete morse theory Benjamin A. Burton, Thomas Lewiner, Jo~ao Paix~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Díaz, Lorenzo J.

    -free matching N´umero de p´aginas : 21 Data de submiss~ao : December 4th , 2012 Enderec¸o eletr^onico : http

  19. Reconstruc~ao Melhorada de Dados de Resson^ancia Magnetica Usando Aproximac~ao de Ordem Baixa Baseada em Decomposic~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    ]. As aproxima¸c~oes baseadas em redu¸c~ao de ordem a partir de DVS podem ser aplicadas tanto no espa¸co-k como ordem pelo crit´erio de Akaike (AIC) no dom´inio da imagem e no espa¸co-k, analisando-se qualitativa e a aplica¸c~ao no dom´inio da imagem, como para no espa¸co-k. (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure: (a) Imagem original

  20. A Deformable Model for Bringing Particles in Anders Lindbjerg Dahl1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    in for example a fermentation process, oil droplets in water, coal particles in a power plant, and spray depends on the optical properties of the camera setup, the distance of the particles to the focus plane, and the physical reflectance properties of the particles. The depth of field of the camera optics is narrow

  1. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living Ying Geng,1,2,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye Ying Geng,1,2,* Alfredo Dubra,1,3,4 Lu Yin for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA 2 The Institute of Optics, University@corning.com Abstract: Correction of the eye's monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve

  2. Particle identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Particle IDentification (PID) is fundamental to particle physics experiments. This paper reviews PID strategies and methods used by the large LHC experiments, which provide outstanding examples of the state-of-the-art. The first part focuses on the general design of these experiments with respect to PID and the technologies used. Three PID techniques are discussed in more detail: ionization measurements, time-of-flight measurements and Cherenkov imaging. Four examples of the implementation of these techniques at the LHC are given, together with selections of relevant examples from other experiments and short overviews on new developments. Finally, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS 02) experiment is briefly described as an impressive example of a space-based experiment using a number of familiar PID techniques.

  3. Particle identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Lippmann

    2011-06-12

    Particle IDentification (PID) is fundamental to particle physics experiments. This paper reviews PID strategies and methods used by the large LHC experiments, which provide outstanding examples of the state-of-the-art. The first part focuses on the general design of these experiments with respect to PID and the technologies used. Three PID techniques are discussed in more detail: ionization measurements, time-of-flight measurements and Cherenkov imaging. Four examples of the implementation of these techniques at the LHC are given, together with selections of relevant examples from other experiments and short overviews on new developments. Finally, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS 02) experiment is briefly described as an impressive example of a space-based experiment using a number of familiar PID techniques.

  4. Olivier GuyonOlivier Guyon (on behalf of SCExAO team)(on behalf of SCExAO team)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyon, Olivier

    >~10% Very small air flow to MEMS chamber Pressure sensor on output (post MEMS, 2014 On-sky wavefront correction with aOn-sky wavefront correction with a 2048 actuator MEMS2048 actuator MEMS Contact: oliv.guyon@gmail.com #12;2 Extreme AO systems (superAO+coronagraph) myths #12

  5. Spectroscopic monitoring of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiteri, C M; Capetti, A; Heidt, J; Arnaboldi, M; Magazzu`, A; 10.1051/0004-6361:20066599

    2009-01-01

    We performed optical spectroscopic monitoring of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 (z=0.94) with the VLT and TNG telescopes from Aug. 2003 to Dec. 2004, during an extended WEBT campaign. The flux of this source is both contaminated and absorbed by a foreground galactic system at z=0.524, the stars of which can act as gravitational micro-lenses. In this period the object was in an optically faint, though variable state, and a broad Mg II emission line was visible at all epochs. The spectroscopic analysis reveals an overall variation in the Mg II line flux of a factor 1.9, while the corresponding continuum flux density changed by a factor 4.3. Most likely, the photoionising radiation can be identified with the emission component that was earlier recognised to be present as a UV-soft-X-ray bump in the source SED and that is visible in the optical domain only in very faint optical states. We estimate an upper limit to the BLR size of a few light months from the historical minimum brightness level; from this we infer ...

  6. Automation of particle accelerator control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silbar, R.R.; Schultz, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have begun a program aiming toward automatic control of charged-particle beam optics using artificial intelligence programming techniques. In developing our prototype, we are working with LISP machines and the KEE expert system shell. Our first goal was to develop a 'mouseable' representation of a typical beamline. This responds actively to changes input from the mouse or keyboard, giving an updated display of the beamline itself, its optical properties, and the instrumentation and control devices as seen by the operator. We have incorporated the Fortran beam optics code TRANSPORT for simulation of the beam. The paper describes the experience gained in this process and discusses plans to extend the work so that it is usable, in real-time, on an operating beamline. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 (2007) S228S234 doi:10.1088/1464-4258/9/8/S16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad G.

    2007-01-01

    IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 (2007) S228­S234 doi:10.1088/1464-4258/9/8/S16 Optical forces on particles of arbitrary shape and size Douglas/S228 Abstract In this paper we present a theory of optical forces on particles of arbitrary shape

  8. Gauss Optics and Gauss Sum on an Optical Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shigeki Matsutani

    2008-07-12

    In the previous article (Found Phys. Lett. {\\bf{16}} 325-341), we showed that a reciprocity of the Gauss sums is connected with the wave and particle complementary. In this article, we revise the previous investigation by considering a relation between the Gauss optics and the Gauss sum based upon the recent studies of the Weil representation for a finite group.

  9. OPTICAL PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIER TEST FOR OPTICAL STOCHASTIC COOLING OF RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    that has been pumped by a second harmonic of pulsed CO2 laser system. Particle emission was emulated by output of another hybrid CO2 laser operating in single longitudenal mode regime at wavelength 9.552 m in heating. The compromise between cooling and heating imposes requirements on the optical amplifier gain

  10. Composition for forming an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Lewis, Linda A.

    2015-12-29

    A composition for producing an optically clear, well bonded superhydrophobic coating includes a plurality of hydrophobic particles comprising an average particle size of about 200 nm or less, a binder at a binder concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.5 wt. %, and a solvent. The hydrophobic particles may be present in the composition at a particle concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 1 wt. %. An optically transparent, superhydrophobic surface includes a substrate, a plurality of hydrophobic particles having an average particle size of about 200 nm or less dispersed over the substrate, and a discontinuous binder layer bonding the hydrophobic particles to the substrate, where the hydrophobic particles and the binder layer form an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating.

  11. RECONSTRU C~AO DE IMAGENS DE RESSON^ANCIA MAGNETICA DE FLUXO COM IMAGEAMENTO PARALELO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    ¸c~oes e que s~ao menos estressantes aos paci- entes, visto que reduzem o tempo de exposi¸c~ao a uma m´aquina ano- malias no trato gastrointestinal (como elementos que n~ao foram corretamente digeridos e que est ao esqueleto, ao inv´es de colocar elementos de uma conforma¸c~ao espacial em uma chapa 2D, como fa

  12. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  13. Von Neumann: suas contribuic~oes ` a Computac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    'isica, Meteorologia, Economia e Computa¸c~ao. Em v'arios ca­ sos as suas contribui¸c~oes foram muito al'em de solu

  14. Anomalous Eurasian snow extent and the wintertime AO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundgren, Elizabeth Whitin

    2009-01-01

    The winter mode of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is the dominating influence on extratropical winter climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) . The phase of the Arctic Oscillation is characterized by trends in ...

  15. Bi-stable optical element actuator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a bistable optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to move an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, between two stable positions. A non-powered means holds the actuation arm in either of the two stable positions. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm between the two stable positions.

  16. Two position optical element actuator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

  17. Secc~ao de Algebra e Analise, Departamento de Matematica,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    . · "Complementos de C´alculo Diferencial", L. Magalh~aes, AEIST. · "Calculus on Manifolds", M.Spivak, W.A. BenjaminSec¸c~ao de ´Algebra e An´alise, Departamento de Matem´atica, Instituto Superior T´ecnico C´alculo Diferencial e Integral II Prof. Jo~ao Pimentel Nunes Programa I. Topologia e Continuidade de Fun¸c~oes em Rn

  18. Particulate optical scattering coefficients along an Atlantic Meridional Transect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Particulate optical scattering coefficients along an Atlantic Meridional Transect G. Dall'Olmo,1, E, USA gdal@pml.ac.uk Abstract: The particulate optical backscattering coefficient (bbp) is a fundamental optical property that allows monitoring of marine suspended particles both in situ and from space

  19. MA327 -Turma Y -Algebra Linear Espacos vetoriais. Base e dimens~ao. Soma e intersec~ao.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussner, Peter

    , ´Algebra Linear e Aplica¸c~oes, dispon´ivel em vers~ao eletr^onica (pdf) em http://www.mat.ufmg.br/ regi

  20. Optical sedimentation recorder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2014-05-06

    A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

  1. A.O. Smith: Demonstrate Underutilized micro-CHP - 2015 Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A.O. Smith: Demonstrate Underutilized micro-CHP - 2015 Peer Review A.O. Smith: Demonstrate Underutilized micro-CHP - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Kris Jorgensen, A.O. Smith View the...

  2. A.O. Smith Corporation Response to Preliminary Plan for Retrospective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A.O. Smith Corporation Response to Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of A.O. Smith Corporation Response to Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of A.O. Smith...

  3. Fiber Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    said Todd Eckman, vice president of Information Management for MSA. "This new fiber optics will benefit DOE, Benton PUD and NoaNet (Northwest Open Access Network) users. This,...

  4. Seminario de Probabilidade Grandes desvios e aus^encia de transic~ao de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedli, Sacha

    mais geral em mec^anica estatist´ica: sistemas unidimensionais, em geral, n~ao exibem transi¸c~ao de

  5. Extreme photo-polarimetric behaviour of the blazar AO 0235+164

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio A. Cellone; Gustavo E. Romero; Jorge A. Combi; Josep Marti

    2007-07-17

    We present optical photo-polarimetric observations with high temporal resolution of the blazar AO 0235+164. Our data, the first to test the photo-polarimetric behaviour of this object at very short time-scales, show significant micro-variability in total flux, colour index, linear polarization degree, and position angle. Strong inter-night variations are also detected for these parameters. Although no correlation between colour index and total flux was found, our data seem to support the general bluer-when-brighter trend already known for this object. The polarization degree, in turn, shows no correlation with total flux, but a clear trend in the sense that colour index is redder (the spectrum is softer) when the measured polarization is higher.

  6. Soot Particle Studies - Instrument Inter-Comparison – Project Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, E.; Sedlacek, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Ahern, A.; Wrobel, W.; Slowik, J. G.; Olfert, J.; Lack, D. A.; Massoli, P.; Cappa, C. D.; Schwarz, J.; Spackman, J. R.; Fahey, D. W.; Trimborn, A.; Jayne, J. T.; Freedman, A.; Williams, L. R.; Ng, N. L.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M.; Brem, B.; Kok, G.; Subramanian, R.; Freitag, S.; Clarke, A.; Thornhill, D.; Marr, L.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2010-03-06

    An inter-comparison study of instruments designed to measure the microphysical and optical properties of soot particles was completed. The following mass-based instruments were tested: Couette Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyzer (CPMA), Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer - Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (AMS-SMPS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) and Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor (PAS2000CE). Optical instruments measured absorption (photoacoustic, interferometric, and filter-based), scattering (in situ), and extinction (light attenuation within an optical cavity). The study covered an experimental matrix consisting of 318 runs that systematically tested the performance of instruments across a range of parameters including: fuel equivalence ratio (1.8 {le} {phi} {le} 5), particle shape (mass-mobility exponent (D{sub f m}), 2.0 {le} D{sub f m} {le} 3.0), particle mobility size (30 {le} d{sub m} {le} 300 nm), black carbon mass (0.07 {le} m{sub BC} {le} 4.2 fg) and particle chemical composition. In selected runs, particles were coated with sulfuric acid or dioctyl sebacate (DOS) (0.5 {le} {Delta}r{sub ve} {le} 201 nm) where {Delta}r{sub ve} is the change in the volume equivalent radius due to the coating material. The effect of non-absorbing coatings on instrument response was determined. Changes in the morphology of fractal soot particles were monitored during coating and denuding processes and the effect of particle shape on instrument response was determined. The combination of optical and mass based measurements was used to determine the mass specific absorption coefficient for denuded soot particles. The single scattering albedo of the particles was also measured. An overview of the experiments and sample results are presented.

  7. Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols, Natural Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: Broadband Optical Properties and Sensitivity Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Bingqi

    2013-07-09

    This dissertation aims to study the broadband optical properties and radiative effects of dust aerosols and ice clouds. It covers three main topics: the uncertainty of dust optical properties and radiative effects from the dust particle shape...

  8. Advanced Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions Advanced Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  9. Particle Physics Booklet 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    et al., C. Amsler

    2008-01-01

    212 25. Accelerator physics of colliders ? 26. High-energythe full Review. PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET TABLE OF CONTENTSrev. ) Summary Tables of Particle Physics Gauge and Higgs

  10. SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (SPHER) for Solarof the small particle heat exchange receiver (or SPHER), asabsorption process, the heat exchange to the gas, the choice

  11. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  12. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Michael J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility.

  13. Single-ultrafine-particle mass spectrometer development and application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glagolenko, Stanislav Yurievich

    2004-11-15

    ., 1997], LAMPAS-2 [Trimborn et al., 2000] and SPLAT [Schneider et al., 2004] instruments use light scattering to detect particles, and the aerodynamic diameter is determined from the particle time of flight between two points. The main disadvantage... of the optical techniques is that particles too small to be detected by light scattering (roughly, smaller than 200 nm in diameter) cannot be analyzed. To overcome this limitation, an aerodynamic focusing mechanism was implemented in the RSMS-II instrument...

  14. Secc~ao de Algebra e Analise, Departamento de Matematica,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    corresponde a 14 semanas de aulas teoricas: I. Variedades em Rn Semana 1. Revis~ao do calculo diferencial em Editora, 1996. \\Complementos de Calculo Diferencial", L. Magalh~aes, AEIST. 1 #12; fundamentais do calculo vectorial. Semana 12. Aplicac~oes. V. Integral de Lebesgue Semana 13. Conjuntos

  15. Introduc~ao `a Analise em Rn J. Campos Ferreira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventura, Joana

    diferencial 83 4.1 Introdu¸c~ao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.2 C´alculo diferencial de primeira ordem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 4.3 C´alculo diferencial de ordem superior continuidade -- e abordaremos o estudo do c´alculo diferencial, bem como algumas das suas aplica¸c~oes mais

  16. FSE IPSE (2014 AO Admission) Faculty of Science and Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    ability who are grounded in science and engineering knowledge such as math in addition to humanitiesFSE IPSE (2014 AO Admission) Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Fundamental Science and Engineering School of Creative Science and Engineering School of Advanced Science and Engineering WASEDA

  17. AO14: Detection of Aircraft Emission Signatures in Atmospheric Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    damaging levels. NOx (NO2 and NO) are the next most abundant molecules in aircraft emissions. HighAO14: Detection of Aircraft Emission Signatures in Atmospheric Spectra Supervisors: Dr A. Dudhia emissions is both relevant and important. Aircraft emissions are analysed and NO2 is selected as the most

  18. Universidade de S~ao Paulo Instituto de Fisica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nussenzveig, Alberto

    Luz Alessandro de Sousa Villar Tese de doutorado apresentada ao Instituto de F´isica para a obten Multicolor entre Feixes Intensos de Luz. São Paulo, 2007. Tese (Doutorado) - Universidade de São Paulo. USP/IF/SBI-019/2007 #12;. Resumo Investigamos as propriedades qu^anticas dos feixes de luz produzidos

  19. AEROSOL OBSERVING SYSTEMS (AOS): NEW CAPABILITIES FOR ASR RESEARCHERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ABSTRACT Three new AOS units, including.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish

  20. IPSE (2015 AO Admission) Statement on Missing Subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    IPSE (2015 AO Admission) Statement on Missing Subjects Reasons why I do not take the designated subjects for the university entrance qualification examinations and standardized tests Name in Full Date of Birth Name of Subject that I do not submit the score; Circle one Physics Chemistry I have the score

  1. Optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2004-06-15

    In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.

  2. Optical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  3. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  4. The Observer April 2003 page 3 Adaptive Optics Available at CSU Fresno Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringwald, Frederick A.

    The Observer April 2003 page 3 Adaptive Optics Available at CSU Fresno Observatory By Greg Morgan-tilt mirror continually adjusts the telescopes light cone to hold a guide star on a designated pixel an AO-7 adaptive optics device. It is just one of the many state-of-the-art instruments available

  5. ROBERTO DE BEAUCLAIR SEIXAS VISUALIZAC ~AO VOLUM ETRICA COM RAY-CASTING NUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    ROBERTO DE BEAUCLAIR SEIXAS VISUALIZAC ~AO VOLUM ETRICA COM RAY-CASTING NUM AMBIENTE DISTRIBU IDO Beauclair Seixas Visualizac~ao Volum etrica com Ray-Casting num Ambiente Distribu do Tese apresentada ao^encia durante a fase de testes. #12;Resumo Ray-Casting e uma t ecnica muito usada em visualizac~ao volum etrica

  6. IDENTIFICAC ~AO PAPILOSC OPICA DE REC EM-NASCIDOS. Daniel Weingaertner1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a obtenc¸~ao de imagens com min´ucias suficientes para a identificac¸~ao do beb^e. Impress~oes palmares e para a criac¸~ao de um sistema de identificac¸~ao autom´atico para beb^es (AFIS), e produz imagens que

  7. Departamento de Ci^encia da Computac~ao IME-USP MAC 110 --Introduc~ao `a Computac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reverbel, Francisco

    programa deve ler um real > 0 que define a precis~ao para c´alculo de ra´izes quadradas, um inteiro n 1 e 1 2 3 1 0 -2 Figura 1: Exemplo de entrada para o programa de c´alculo de ra´izes de equa¸c~oes quadr.4142 -1.4142 Figura 2: Sa´ida correspondente `a entrada na Figura 1 1 #12;C´alculo da raiz quadrada de um

  8. Departamento de Ci^encia da Computac~ao IME-USP MAC0115 Introduc~ao `a Computac~ao para Ci^encias Exatas e Tecnologia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reverbel, Francisco

    a precis~ao para c´alculo de ra´izes quadradas, um inteiro n 1 e os coeficientes reais a, b e c de n equa entrada para o programa de c´alculo de ra´izes de equa¸c~oes quadr´aticas Raizes de Equacoes Quadraticas.4142 Figura 2: Sa´ida correspondente `a entrada na Figura 1 1 #12;C´alculo da raiz quadrada de um n´umero real

  9. Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adrian, Ronald J. (Champaign, IL); Barnhart, Donald H. (Urbana, IL); Papen, George A. (Urbana, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time.

  10. Sistemas Distribuidos e Redes de Sensores Comunicac~ao em Grupo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Noemi

    EffortBroadcast (beb). Events: Request: bebBroadcast | m>: bcast m Indication: bebDeliver | src, m>: entrega m Properties: BEB1: Validade melhor-esfor¸co: se Pi e Pj s~ao corretos, toda msg de Pi ´e entregue por Pj BEB2: N~ao duplica¸c~ao: nenhuma msg ´e entregue mais de uma vez BEB3: N~ao-cria¸c~ao: se a msg ´e

  11. Optical Calibration For Jefferson Lab HKS Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Yuan; L. Tang

    2005-11-04

    In order to accept very forward angle scattering particles, Jefferson Lab HKS experiment uses an on-target zero degree dipole magnet. The usual spectrometer optics calibration procedure has to be modified due to this on-target field. This paper describes a new method to calibrate HKS spectrometer system. The simulation of the calibration procedure shows the required resolution can be achieved from initially inaccurate optical description.

  12. Sandia Energy - Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Optics Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Quantum Optics Quantum OpticsTara Camacho-Lopez2015-03-30T16:37:03+00:00 Quantum Optics with a Single...

  13. Sobre a viagem de Enrico Fermi ao Brasil em 1934

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caruso, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Enrico Fermi was one of the greater physicists of the XX century. In 1934, he gave several lectures in Brazil. Invited by Theodoro Ramos to work in S\\~ao Paulo, he preferred to stay in Rome and went to the USA in 1938. However, Fermi recommended Gleb Wataghin to come in his place. Wataghin made history in Brazil, becoming one of the first Professors of the future S\\~ao Paulo University. Besides his relevance to the History of Science, Fermi eventually leaved an indelible mark on the creation and institutionalization of national scientific research due to the indication of Wataghin. Despite this fact, very little is known about Fermi's trip to Brazil. This work tries to reconstruct the fullest possible steps of the famous Italian physicist in our lands.

  14. Secc~ao de Algebra e Analise, Departamento de Matematica,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    ://www.math.ist.utl.pt/jpnunes/AMII/iarn.pdf · "C´alculo Diferencial e Integral em Rn ", G. Pires, IST Press 2012. · "Vector Calculus", J. Marsden e. · "Complementos de C´alculo Diferencial", L. Magalh~aes, AEIST. · "Calculus on Manifolds", M.Spivak, W.A. BenjaminSec¸c~ao de ´Algebra e An´alise, Departamento de Matem´atica, Instituto Superior T´ecnico C´alculo

  15. Size distribution of particle systems analyzed with organic photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sentis, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As part of a consortium between academic and industry, this PhD work investigates the interest and capabilities of organic photo-sensors (OPS) for the optical characterization of suspensions and two-phase flows. The principle of new optical particle sizing instruments is proposed to characterize particle systems confined in a cylinder glass (standard configuration for Process Analytical Technologies). To evaluate and optimize the performance of these systems, a Monte-Carlo model has been specifically developed. This model accounts for the numerous parameters of the system: laser beam profile, mirrors, lenses, sample cell, particle medium properties (concentration, mean & standard deviation, refractive indices), OPS shape and positions, etc. Light scattering by particles is treated either by using Lorenz-Mie theory, Debye, or a hybrid model (that takes into account the geometrical and physical contributions). For diluted media (single scattering), particle size analysis is based on the inversion of scatter...

  16. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Downing, Robert G. (Albany, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  17. Parallel optical sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  18. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  19. The Engineering of Optical Conservative Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Junjie; Ding, Kun; Du, Guiqiang; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T; Ng, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Optical forces have been fruitfully applied in a broad variety of areas that not only span the traditional scientific fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in more applied fields. It is customary and useful to split the optical force into the (conservative) gradient force and the (non-conservative) scattering and absorption force. These forces are different in attributes. The ability to tailor them will open great potential in fundamental optics and practical applications. Here, we present an analytical and a numerical approach to calculate these forces, and, with these tools, we create a fairly general class of 2D conservative optical force field. In general, particles immersed in an optical force do not obey equilibrium statistical mechanics, making the analysis complicated. With conservative forces, these issues are resolved.

  20. Sistema Composto para Amostragem e Gerac~ao de Luzes a partir de Mapas de Iluminac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    luz representa um problema desafiador e de grande in- teresse da comunidade de computac¸~ao gr, i)Ld(p, i)|cosi|di A mesma pode ser quebrada num somat´orio sobre as fon- tes de luz da cena luzes j da j-´esima fonte de luz e Ld(p, i) = j Ld(j)(p, i). Como num ambiente real temos iluminac

  1. Optical Tweezers Physics 464 Applied Optics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical Tweezers Physics 464 ­ Applied Optics, By Scott Cline #12;Project Topics · Brief history · Typical set-up · How they work · Common use #12;Discovery · Effects of optical scattering and gradient forces discovered by Arthur Ashkin 1970 · Method of creating an "optical trap" established in 1986

  2. Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellia, Marco

    Optical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Optical Packet Switching Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group ­ Electronics Department e.mellia@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4173 #12;Optical Packet Switching - 2 · This work is licensed under the Creative Commons

  3. Optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Honghua U

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale forces play an important role in different scanning probe microscopies, most notably atomic force microscopy (AFM). In contrast, in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) a light-induced coupled local optical polarization between tip and sample is typically detected by scattering to the far field. Measurements of the optical gradient force associated with that optical near-field excitation would offer a novel optical scanning probe modality. Here we provide a generalized theory of optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy. We quantify magnitude and distance dependence of the optical gradient force and its spectral response. We show that the optical gradient force is dispersive for single particle electronic and vibrational resonances, distinct from recent claims of its experimental observation. In contrast, the force can be absorptive for collective resonances. We provide a guidance for its measurements and distinction from competing processes such as thermal expansion.

  4. Measuring storage and loss moduli using optical tweezers: broadband microrheology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manlio Tassieri; Graham M. Gibson; R. M. L. Evans; Alison M. Yao; Rebecca Warren; Miles J. Padgett; Jonathan M. Cooper

    2009-10-07

    We present an experimental procedure to perform broadband microrheological measurements with optical tweezers. A generalised Langevin equation is adopted to relate the time-dependent trajectory of a particle in an imposed flow to the frequency-dependent moduli of the complex fluid. This procedure allows us to measure the material linear viscoelastic properties across the widest frequency range achievable with optical tweezers.

  5. Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning, and processes that underlie optics and optical engineering. 2. Strong understanding of the fundamental science, mathematics, and processes that underlie optics and optical

  6. Optical microphone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

  7. Optical microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotz, K.T.; Noble, K.A.; Faris, G.W. [Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2004-09-27

    We present a method for the control of small droplets based on the thermal Marangoni effect using laser heating. With this approach, droplets covering five orders of magnitude in volume ({approx}1.7 {mu}L to 14 pL), immersed in decanol, were moved on an unmodified polystyrene surface, with speeds of up to 3 mm/s. When two droplets were brought into contact, they spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed in less than 33 ms. This optically addressed microfluidic approach has many advantages for microfluidic transport, including exceptional reconfigurability, low intersample contamination, large volume range, extremely simple substrates, no electrical connections, and ready scaling to large arrays.

  8. Optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  9. particle physics 2009Highlights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report particle physics 2009ª #12;2 | Contents #12;Contents | 3 contentsª º introduction 4 º News;Introduction | 5 projects, (ii) coordination of national particle physics activities and (iii) reaching outparticle physics 2009ªHighlights and Annual Report Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics

  10. Optical Diffusometry Techniques and Applications in Biological ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-09-22

    Sep 22, 2008 ... the objective is to establish optical diffusometry as a viable tech- nique for .... nipulating microscale particles around 1970 in a series of path- breaking ... aspects involved in setting up a laser trap are discussed by Smith et al. .... the laser power used, the higher the trap strength and the lesser the observ-.

  11. RICHARD REMPEL DE SOUZA AVALIAC~AO DE CACHES ESPECIALIZADAS PARA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hexsel, Roberto A

    Souza #12;Conte´udo 1 Introdu¸c~ao 1 2 Ambiente de Simula¸c~ao 3 2.1 Simple o projeto de sistemas embarcados, tais como consumo de energia, tamanho do circuito integrado

  12. SMIT: Uma Arquitetura Tolerante a Intrus~oes Baseada em Virtualizac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correia, Miguel

    . Sistemas financeiros, de controle de gerac¸~ao e distribuic¸~ao de energia, de controle de dispositivos a necessidade de, no m´inimo, 3f + 1 r´eplicas para tolerar faltas bizantinas [Lamport et al. 1982

  13. An alise Matem atica IV Electrotecnia (excepto Telecomunica c~oes) e Gest~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matos, João Palhoto

    Decida se existe ou n~ao uma vizinhan#24;ca U de 0 em C e uma fun#24;c~ao anal#19;#16;tica h : U ! C tal

  14. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jason, Andrew J. (Los Alamos, NM); Blind, Barbara (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  15. Wavefront Control for Extreme Adaptive Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyneer, L A

    2003-07-16

    Current plans for Extreme Adaptive Optics systems place challenging requirements on wave-front control. This paper focuses on control system dynamics, wave-front sensing and wave-front correction device characteristics. It may be necessary to run an ExAO system after a slower, low-order AO system. Running two independent systems can result in very good temporal performance, provided specific design constraints are followed. The spatially-filtered wave-front sensor, which prevents aliasing and improves PSF sensitivity, is summarized. Different models of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors are studied. In a noise-free case, a piston-tip-tilt segmented MEMS device can achieve nearly equivalent performance to a continuous-sheet DM in compensating for a static phase aberration with use of spatial filtering.

  16. PRIMEIRA PROVA -FI002 1. Considere a equac~ao de Schrodinger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    | ~ = eiH0t/¯h | U 0 (t)| . (a) Obtenha a equa¸c~ao diferencial satisfeita por | ~ . (b) Definindo o propagador por | ~(t) ~T(t, t0)| ~(t0) , encontre a equa¸c~ao diferencial satisfeita for ~T(t, t0) e~ao necess´arios para o c´alculo da se¸c~ao de choque. Explique a depend^encia angular do problema anterior

  17. Simulac~ao de Sistemas Embarcados utilizando ArchC Andreia Aparecida Barbiero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hexsel, Roberto A

    equi- pamentos eletr^onicos. Estes produtos s~ao projetados sob restric¸~oes de recursos como energia

  18. Col^onia de Formigas: Uma Abordagem Para Resoluc~ao De Problemas De Layout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomes, Francisco A. M.

    - pitais, minimiza¸c~ao do comprimento de fios em circuitos eletr^onicos, escalonamento de linhas de produ

  19. Acustica submarina em alta frequ^encia: teoria, simulac~ao e resultados experimentais1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesus, Sérgio M.

    ~oes, peso, consumo de energia e custo dos equipamentos normalmente utilizados para transmiss~ao e recep sinal recebido ´e uma combina¸c~ao linear de r´eplicas atenuadas e atrasadas do sinal emitido pela fonte´oximos, as r´eplicas s~ao em grande n´umero e as atenua¸c~oes s~ao muito dif´iceis de prever e portanto o sinal

  20. Escola de Inverno de Matematica, IST, 19 de Fevereiro de 2010 Introduc~ao `a Modelac~ao Matematica em Mec^anica dos Fluidos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baia, Margarida

    ´atica em Mec^anica dos Fluidos Juha H. Videman Resumo · Revis~ao de conceitos b´asicos da mec^anica dos

  1. Detecc~ao de Intrusos Descentralizada em Redes de Sensores Sem Fio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonseca, Rodrigo

    a partir de eventos percebidos neste ambiente. Resultados de simulac¸ ~ao apresentam uma avaliac¸~ao da de energia na rede. 1. Introduc¸~ao Redes de Sensores sem Fio (RSSFs) constituem um novo paradigma de dados e possuem recursos limitados em termos de reserva de energia, largura de banda, capacidade de

  2. AVALIAC ~AO DO MODELO DE ONDAS O modelo de onda WAVEWATCH implementado operacionalmente no CP-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WWATCH-III est~ao arquivadas nas horas 0,3,6,...,21,24, e em pontos de grade com espa¸camento de 1 grau `a ob- serva¸c~ao do sat´elite. No espa¸co, aplicou-se uma interpola¸c~ao bi-c´ubica, e no tempo, uma

  3. Uma Estrategia de Navegac~ao para Rob^os Moveis em Ambientes Interiores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Uma Estrategia de Navegac~ao para Rob^os Moveis em Ambientes Interiores Raquel Frizera Vassallo~ao UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO ESPIRITO SANTO Vitoria, ES - BRASIL Dezembro de 1998 #12;Uma Estrategia de Navegac Uma Estrategia de Navegac~ao para Rob^os Moveis em Ambientes Interiores. Vitoria] 1998 xiii, 97p., 29

  4. Reconstruc~ao de Imagens de Resson^ancia Magnetica de Fluxo com Imageamento Paralelo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    deste trabalho: desenvolver algoritmos para a reconstru¸c~ao de imagens de RM utilizando imageamento; Implementar um algoritmo de reconstru¸c~ao de imagens usando a t´ecnica sensitivity encoding (SENSE). Exemplo anatomia e fisiologia do corpo humano. Estudo Espec´ifico Implementa¸c~ao de algoritmos em MATLAB para an

  5. Optimizac~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior Tecnico Engenharia Electrotecnica e de Computadores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Optimiza¸c~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior T´ecnico ­ Engenharia Electrot´ecnica e de Computadores S´erie de Problemas 4 Minimiza¸c~ao sem restri¸c~oes (algoritmos gradiente, Newton, quasi-Newton BFGS) Minimiza¸c~ao em conjuntos convexos (algoritmo gradiente condicional) Introdu

  6. Um Modelo de Gest~ao E ciente de Recursos Computacionais Marcos Castilho Renato Carmo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hexsel, Roberto A

    vez maior. A din^amica que rege a aquisi#24;c~ao de equipamentos e a contrata#24;c~ao de recursos tecnologia, e mais, as decis~oes que norteiam estas compras s~ao muitas vezes tomadas por grupos

  7. UM METODO DE OCULTAMENTO DE ERROS EM TRANSMISS~AO DE Ana Luisa de Araujo Santos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    Eunice, e aos meus padrinhos Cl´eia e Manuel, pela base de valores e apoio incondicional em toda a minha´em ao LPS, pela infra-estrutura, e `a CAPES, pela bolsa de mestrado, sem os quais n~ao teria sido poss

  8. Resoluc~ao Sumaria da ficha de exercicios de Mec^anica Geometrica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    Resolu¸c~ao Sum´aria da 2a ficha de exerc´icios de Mec^anica Geom´etrica 9 de Maio de 2002 1), onde 0 0, 2 (portanto c n~ao ´e uma geod´esica). Seja V um campo vectorial paralelo ao longo de c tal

  9. Reconstruc~ao de Imagens de Resson^ancia Magnetica de Fluxo com Compressed Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    ; Resson^ancia magn´etica nuclear (RMN): alternativa proeminente com o potencial para um exame) reconstru¸c~ao por energia m´inima, (d) reconstru¸c~ao por CS [3]. s~ao as diferen¸cas finitas nas dire a energia do sinal esteja fortemente concentrada em

  10. Optics: general-purpose scintillator light response simulation code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Frlez; B. K. Wright; D. Pocanic

    2000-06-27

    We present the program optics that simulates the light response of an arbitrarily shaped scintillation particle detector. Predicted light responses of pure CsI polygonal detectors, plastic scintillator staves, cylindrical plastic target scintillators and a Plexiglas light-distribution plate are illustrated. We demonstrate how different bulk and surface optical properties of a scintillator lead to specific volume and temporal light collection probability distributions. High-statistics optics simulations are calibrated against the detector responses measured in a custom-made cosmic muon tomography apparatus. The presented code can also be used to track particles intersecting complex geometrical objects.

  11. Interaction and Deformation of Viscoelastic Particles. 2. Adhesive Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Interaction and Deformation of Viscoelastic Particles. 2. Adhesive Particles Phil Attard Ian Wark, 2001. In Final Form: April 30, 2001 Analyzed is the mutual deformation of adhesive particles the particles' adhesion. An analytic

  12. Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to radiation force and torque University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 USA lzhang@chaos.utexas.edu Abstract: Acoustical and optical non-diffracting beams are potentially useful for manipulating particles and larger objects. An extended optical theorem

  13. Optical manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-02-23

    Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

  14. The SLS optics beamline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    The SLS Optics Beamline U. Flechsig ? , R. Abela ? , R.in the ?eld of x-ray optics and synchrotron radiation in-radiation, beamline optics, channel cut monochromator,

  15. SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Y.R.

    2010-01-01

    B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,

  16. NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chenson K.

    2010-01-01

    N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (W. A. Benjamin, 1977) p.Research Division NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K.ED LBL-12084 NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K. Chen

  17. Origin of Interplanetary Dust through Optical Properties of Zodiacal Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hongu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the origin of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) through the optical properties, albedo and spectral gradient, of zodiacal light. The optical properties were compared with those of potential parent bodies in the solar system, which include D-type (as analogue of cometary nuclei), C-type, S-type, X-type, and B-type asteroids. We applied Bayesian inference on the mixture model made from the distribution of these sources, and found that >90% of the interplanetary dust particles originate from comets (or its spectral analogues, D-type asteroids). Although some classes of asteroids (C-type and X-type) may make a moderate contribution, ordinary chondrite-like particles from S-type asteroids occupy a negligible fraction of the interplanetary dust cloud complex. The overall optical properties of the zodiacal light were similar to those of chondritic porous IDPs, supporting the dominance of cometary particles in zodiacal cloud.

  18. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, P.R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Best, P.E.

    1987-03-24

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided. 51 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, Peter R. (West Hartford, CT); Carangelo, Robert M. (Coventry, CT); Best, Philip E. (Mansfield, CT)

    1987-01-01

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided.

  20. Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear & Particle Physics science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology National security depends on science and...

  1. Chapter 2 Diffractive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-09-14

    Diffractive optics is an emerging technology with many applications. Some of the important applications include the design and fabrication of optical elements ...

  2. Advanced Optical Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    laser. Today, the optical team designs and fabricates a variety of custom diffractive optics for researchers worldwide. Included are multilayer dielectric and gold-overcoated...

  3. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01

    Planar Micro-Optic Solar Collectors," Optics for Solarin planar micro-optic solar collectors,” Optics Express, (inin planar micro-optic solar collectors,” Optics Express (in

  4. Correla\\c{c}\\~ao de longa-dura\\c{c}\\~ao e anal\\'ise bayesiana da evolu\\c{c}\\~ao temporal dos terremotos ao longo da falha de samambaia, nordeste do brasil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Freitas, D B; Pereira, L L S; Pedro, L S; Atanazio, M G N; Vilar, C S

    2013-01-01

    A Bayesian approach is adopted to analyze the sequence of seismic events and their magnitudes near Jo\\~ao C\\^amara which occurred mainly from 1983 to 1998 along the Samambaia fault. In this work, we choose a Bayesian model for the process of occurrence times conditional on the observed magnitude values following the same procedure suggested by Stavrakakis and Tselentis (1987). The model parameters are determined on the basis of historical and physical information. We generate posterior samples from the joint posterior distribution of the model parameters by using a variant of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We use the results in a variety of ways, including the construction of pointwise posterior confidence bands for the conditional intensity of the point process as a function of time, as well as, a posterior distribuition as a function of the mean of occurrence per unit time.

  5. Optical Fibre Dosimeter for SASE FEL Undulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Körfer, M

    2003-01-01

    Single pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) are developed for high brightness and short wavelength applications. They use permanent magnet undulators which are radiation sensitive devices. During accelerator commissioning beam losses can appear anywhere along the undulator line. To avoid damage of the permanent magnets due to radiation, an optical fibre dosimeter system can be used. The increase of absorption caused by ionizing radiation is measured in radiation sensitive optical fibers. The dose system enables relatively fast particle loss tuning during accelerator operation and allows the monitoring of the accumulated dose. Dose measurements in narrow gaps which are inaccessible for any other (online) dosimeter type become possible. The electromagnetic insensitivity of optical fibre sensor is an advantage of applications in strong magnetic undulator fields. At each location the light absorption is measured by using an optical power-meter. The dynamic range is ...

  6. Resonant-cavity apparatus for cytometry or particle analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, P.L.

    1998-08-11

    A resonant-cavity apparatus for cytometry or particle analysis is described. The apparatus comprises a resonant optical cavity having an analysis region within the cavity for containing one or more biological cells or dielectric particles to be analyzed. In the presence of a cell or particle, a light beam in the form of spontaneous emission or lasing is generated within the resonant optical cavity and is encoded with information about the cell or particle. An analysis means including a spectrometer and/or a pulse-height analyzer is provided within the apparatus for recovery of the information from the light beam to determine a size, shape, identification or other characteristics about the cells or particles being analyzed. The recovered information can be grouped in a multi-dimensional coordinate space for identification of particular types of cells or particles. In some embodiments of the apparatus, the resonant optical cavity can be formed, at least in part, from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. The apparatus and method are particularly suited to the analysis of biological cells, including blood cells, and can further include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 35 figs.

  7. Axial range of conjugate adaptive optics in two-photon microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paudel, Hari P; Mertz, Jerome; Bifano, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We describe an adaptive optics technique for two-photon microscopy in which the deformable mirror used for aberration compensation is positioned in a plane conjugate to the plane of the aberration. We demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment that this technique yields a large field of view advantage in comparison to standard pupil-conjugate adaptive optics. Further, we show that the extended field of view in conjugate AO is maintained over a relatively large axial translation of the deformable mirror with respect to the conjugate plane. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and prospects for the conjugate AO technique in two-photon biological microscopy.

  8. Characterization of Fundamental Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben J Baten

    2009-05-25

    This report provides an alternative to the Standard Model of particle physics. The model described here is based on results from Quantum Field Mechanics, according to which all fundamental particles and interactions originate from the interaction of two pre-space/pre-time protofields. In contrast with the Standard Model, (virtual) interaction-particles are absent in the description of any of the four fundamental interactions. Electrons perform a single quantum beat process while mesons and baryons have, respectively, two and three bound quantum beat processes. Quantum Field Mechanics suggests that the charge of an electron and positron can be identified with the two possible phases of a quantum beat process as observed in the electromagnetic protofield. This report assumes that short-range binding interaction between quantum beat processes has a masking effect on the externally observable charge of hadrons. Using this assumption, the internal structure of particles is derived from their known particle charges and relative masses. The particle structures are used to obtain the so-called charge-quantum phase law. The fractional charge of quantum beat processes inside a particle is deduced by rewriting the charge-quantum phase law in terms of a linear combination of charge contributions of individual constituent quantum beat processes. Strangeness and isospin are mathematically defined in terms of the quantum beat phases of sets of particles of the same type. Application of conservation laws to particle processes leads to relations between quantum phase, strangeness and isospin.

  9. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, A C

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 - 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 - 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 - 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + power law) model. In BL Lacertae, optical flux and degree of polarization were anti-correlated.

  10. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearns, Edward

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  11. Pileup per particle identification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing “pileup per particle identification” (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape ? which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of ? for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used tomore »rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.« less

  12. REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beringer, Juerg

    2013-01-01

    APS Careers: gateway for physicists, students, and physicsAPS/DPF/DPB Summer Study on the Future of Particle Physics (APS Acta Physica Slovaca ARNPS Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science ARNS Annual Review of Nuclear Science ASP Astroparticle Physics

  13. Review of Particle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Kenzo

    2010-01-01

    careersvc/ • APS Careers in Physics: The American PhysicalAPS/DPF/DPB Summer Study on the Future of Particle Physics (APS Acta Physica Slovaca ARNPS Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science ARNS Annual Review of Nuclear Science ASP Astroparticle Physics

  14. Wave Particles Cem Yuksel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    Wave Particles Cem Yuksel Computer Science Texas A&M University Donald H. House Visualization captured from our real-time simulation system (approximately 100,000 wave particles) Abstract We present a new method for the real-time simulation of fluid sur- face waves and their interactions with floating

  15. Pileup per particle identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing “pileup per particle identification” (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape ? which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of ? for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used to rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.

  16. Integrated ultrasonic particle positioning and low excitation light fluorescence imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernassau, A. L.; Al-Rawhani, M.; Beeley, J.; Cumming, D. R. S. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-09

    A compact hybrid system has been developed to position and detect fluorescent micro-particles by combining a Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) imager with an acoustic manipulator. The detector comprises a SPAD array, light-emitting diode (LED), lenses, and optical filters. The acoustic device is formed of multiple transducers surrounding an octagonal cavity. By stimulating pairs of transducers simultaneously, an acoustic landscape is created causing fluorescent micro-particles to agglomerate into lines. The fluorescent pattern is excited by a low power LED and detected by the SPAD imager. Our technique combines particle manipulation and visualization in a compact, low power, portable setup.

  17. Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics without Tip-tilt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Davies; S. Rabien; C. Lidman; M. Le Louarn; M. Kasper; N. M. Forster Schreiber; V. Roccatagliata; N. Ageorges; P. Amico; C. Dumas; F. Mannucci

    2008-01-24

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems allow a telescope to reach its diffraction limit at near infrared wavelengths. But to achieve this, a bright natural guide star (NGS) is needed for the wavefront sensing, severely limiting the fraction of the sky over which AO can be used. To some extent this can be overcome with a laser guide star (LGS). While the laser can be pointed anywhere in the sky, one still needs to have a natural star, albeit fainter, reasonably close to correct the image motion (tip-tilt) to which laser guide stars are insensitive. There are in fact many astronomical targets without suitable tip-tilt stars, but for which the enhanced resolution obtained with the Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF) would still be very beneficial. This article explores what adaptive optics performance one might expect if one dispenses with the tip-tilt star, and in what situations this mode of observing might be needed.

  18. LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab I - 1 LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS In this lab, you will solve several problems related to the formation of optical images. Most of us have a great deal of experience with the formation of optical images this laboratory, you should be able to: · Describe features of real optical systems in terms of ray diagrams

  19. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofThe Maximum Value Method.SciTechOrigin of| SciTech

  20. Optical XOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  1. Amplitude variations on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J; Thomas, S; Dillon, D; Gavel, D; Phillion, D; Macintosh, B

    2007-08-14

    High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. At the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, we have already demonstrated wavefront control of better than 1 nm rms within controllable spatial frequencies. Corresponding contrast measurements, however, are limited by amplitude variations, including those introduced by the micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror. Results from experimental measurements and wave optic simulations of amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed are presented. We find systematic intensity variations of about 2% rms, and intensity variations with the MEMS to be 6%. Some errors are introduced by phase and amplitude mixing because the MEMS is not conjugate to the pupil, but independent measurements of MEMS reflectivity suggest that some error is introduced by small non-uniformities in the reflectivity.

  2. Quantum gravitational optics: the induced phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ahmadi; M. Nouri-Zonoz

    2007-03-26

    The geometrical approximation of the extended Maxwell equation in curved spacetime incorporating interactions induced by the vacuum polarization effects is considered. Taking into account these QED interactions and employing the analogy between eikonal equation in geometrical optics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the particle motion, we study the phase structure of the modified theory. There is a complicated, local induced phase which is believed to be responsible for the modification of the classical picture of light ray. The main features of QGO could be obtained through the study of this induced phase. We discuss initial principles in conventional and modified geometrical optics and compare the results.

  3. InteGrade: Rumo a um Sistema de Computac~ao em Grade para Aproveitamento de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Alfredo

    Departamento de Ci^encia da Computa¸c~ao Instituto de Matem´atica e Estat´istica Universidade de S~ao Paulo de recursos. Pro- cessadores que hoje equipam computadores pessoais possuem capacidade de¸c~ao de Grades A id´eia de Grade transcende o uso de redes que fazemos hoje em dia. Em uma rede que se

  4. Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J; Thomas, S; Gavel, D; Dillon, D; Macintosh, B

    2008-06-10

    High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. The Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at UC Santa Cruz is investigating limits to high-contrast imaging in support of the Gemini Planet Imager. Previous contrast measurements were made with a simple single-opening prolate spheroid shaped pupil that produced a limited region of high-contrast, particularly when wavefront errors were corrected with the 1024-actuator Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror currently in use on the testbed. A more sophisticated shaped pupil is now being used that has a much larger region of interest facilitating a better understanding of high-contrast measurements. In particular we examine the effect of heat sources in the testbed on PSF stability. We find that rms image motion scales as 0.02 {lambda}/D per watt when the heat source is near the pupil plane. As a result heat sources of greater than 5 watts should be avoided near pupil planes for GPI. The safest place to introduce heat is near a focal plane. Heat also can effect the standard deviation of the high-contrast region but in the final instrument other sources of error should be more significant.

  5. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Robert B. (Shoreham, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  6. Transfer^encia de Ficheiros Baseada em Chunks com Eliminac~ao de Redund^ancia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo

    Bytes. Por exemplo, o TeraShake [1] ´e uma aplicac¸~ao para a Grid que faz simulac¸~oes de actividades s´ismicas

  7. Maratona de Programac~ao da SBC ACM ICPC 2006 1 Circuito Bioquimico Digital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ´ogico que se comporta como um micro-circuito eletr^onico digital. Dependendo do estado da rea¸c~ao no recept

  8. Reconstruc~ao Paralelizada de Dados de Resson^ancia Magnetica de Fluxo em

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    desenvolver algoritmos r´apidos para a reconstru¸c~ao de imagens de RM, por meio do uso de n´ucleos de

  9. MAT 103 --Complementos de Matematica para Contabilidade e Administrac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccione, Paolo

    MAT 103 -- Complementos de Matem´atica para Contabilidade e Administra¸c~ao Prova 1 -- B 13 de Maio

  10. MAT 103 --Complementos de Matematica para Contabilidade e Administrac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccione, Paolo

    MAT 103 -- Complementos de Matem´atica para Contabilidade e Administra¸c~ao Prova 1 -- E 13 de Maio

  11. MAT 103 --Complementos de Matematica para Contabilidade e Administrac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccione, Paolo

    MAT 103 -- Complementos de Matem´atica para Contabilidade e Administra¸c~ao Prova 1 -- D 13 de Maio

  12. Saldo Capitalizavel e Saldo N~ao Capitalizavel: Novos Algoritmos para o Regime de Juros Simples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forger, Frank Michael

    matem´atica financeira em qualquer curso de gradua¸c~ao de economia ou de contabilidade no Brasil e como

  13. MAT 103 --Complementos de Matematica para Contabilidade e Administrac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccione, Paolo

    MAT 103 -- Complementos de Matem´atica para Contabilidade e Administra¸c~ao Prova 1 -- F 13 de Maio

  14. MAT 103 --Complementos de Matematica para Contabilidade e Administrac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccione, Paolo

    MAT 103 -- Complementos de Matem´atica para Contabilidade e Administra¸c~ao Prova 1 -- A 13 de Maio

  15. MAT 103 --Complementos de Matematica para Contabilidade e Administrac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccione, Paolo

    MAT 103 -- Complementos de Matem´atica para Contabilidade e Administra¸c~ao Prova 1 -- C 13 de Maio

  16. Resoluc~ao Sumaria da ficha de exercicios de Mec^anica Geometrica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    Resolu¸c~ao Sum´aria da 4a ficha de exerc´icios de Mec^anica Geom´etrica 10 de Abril de 2002 1 : N TN ´e um campo vectorial normal a N ent~ao B(X, Y ), Z = - Y, XZ . Resolu¸c~ao: Come¸camos por vectorial normal a N ent~ao B(X, Y ), Z = ( XY ) , Z = XY - ( XY ) , Z = XY, Z = X · Y, Z - Y, XZ = X · 0

  17. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  18. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  19. Particle Physics Masterclass

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Helio Takai

    2010-01-08

    Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

  20. Query-driven Analysis of Plasma-based Particle Acceleration Data Oliver Rubel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Query-driven Analysis of Plasma-based Particle Acceleration Data Oliver R¨ubel LBNL Cameron G. R Laboratory, e-mail: {oruebel, ewbethel}@lbl.gov Laser, Optical Accelerator System Integrated Studies (LOASIS INTRODUCTION Plasma-based particle accelerators utilize an electron plasma wave driven by a short ( 100 fs

  1. Variability of Large Particle (>100 m) Export Around Station ALOHA: The C-MORE OPEREX Cruise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highlight Variability of Large Particle (>100 µm) Export Around Station ALOHA: The C-MORE OPEREX the formation and evolution of these bloom around Station ALOHA and their impact on particle export. Low wind was widespread, export production was localized. Optical measurements from an Underwater Video Profiler (UVP

  2. ccsd00001498, Directed transport of Brownian particles in a double symmetric potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00001498, version 1 ­ 30 Apr 2004 Directed transport of Brownian particles in a double transport can appear. We demonstrate that the directed motion is induced by breaking the symmetry of realizing our model in a system of cold particles trapped in optical lattices. PACS numbers: 05.40.-a,05

  3. Energy exchange between a laser beam and charged particles using inverse transition radiation and method for its use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimura, Wayne D. (Bellevue, WA); Romea, Richard D. (Seattle, WA); Steinhauer, Loren C. (Bothell, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for exchanging energy between relativistic charged particles and laser radiation using inverse diffraction radiation or inverse transition radiation. The beam of laser light is directed onto a particle beam by means of two optical elements which have apertures or foils through which the particle beam passes. The two apertures or foils are spaced by a predetermined distance of separation and the angle of interaction between the laser beam and the particle beam is set at a specific angle. The separation and angle are a function of the wavelength of the laser light and the relativistic energy of the particle beam. In a diffraction embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the diffraction effect due to the apertures in the optical elements. In a transition embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the transition effect due to pieces of foil placed in the particle beam path.

  4. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Sue I. (Berkeley, CA); Fergenson, David P. (Alamo, CA); Srivastava, Abneesh (Santa Clara, CA); Bogan, Michael J. (Dublin, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Oakland, CA); Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  5. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NO?A”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  6. Latching micro optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  7. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    were observed to lead to resuspension of particles in thethe nozzles may lead to resuspension of deposited particles.resuspension, the decreased response to turbulent velocity fluctuations of the very large particles should lead

  8. Active optical zoom system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  9. Brown Dwarf Companions to Young Solar Analogs: An Adaptive Optics Survey Using Palomar and Keck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metchev, Stanimir

    Brown Dwarf Companions to Young Solar Analogs: An Adaptive Optics Survey Using Palomar and Keck to its present state, had it not been for the dedication and professionalism of the Palomar and Keck possibilities offered by the technology. Rich and Hal also helped me design the Palomar AO astrometric

  10. Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuc Bui; Michael Read; Lawrence ives

    2012-05-17

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.

  11. Active Optics in Modern, Large Optical Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lothar Noethe

    2001-11-07

    Active optics is defined as the control of the shape and the alignment of the components of an optical system at low temporal frequencies. For modern large telescopes with flexible monolithic or segmented primary mirrors and also flexible structures this technique is indispensable to reach a performance which is either diffraction limited for an operation in space or limited by the atmosphere for an operation on the ground. This article first describes the theory of active optics, both of the wavefront analysis and the correction mechanisms, then the design of three representative active optics systems, two in telescopes of the four and eight meter class with meniscus mirrors and one in a telescope with a segmented primary mirror, and, finally, presents practical experience with these active optics systems.

  12. LABORATORY VII: WAVE OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VII: WAVE OPTICS Lab VII - 1 In this lab, you will solve problems in ways that take-like behavior. These conditions may be less familiar to you than the conditions for which geometrical optics

  13. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  14. MAC323 EXERCICIO-PROGRAMA 3 LOCALIZAC~AO DE PALAVRAS I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    /6/2013 (23:55) 1. Introdu¸c~ao Nos EPs 3 e 4, voc^e far´a alguns exerc´icios simples envolvendo textos e PLN (por exemplo, dado T, determinar as senten¸cas que com- p~oe T) ser~ao resolvidos usando um

  15. Departamento de Matematica do IST, Secc~ao de Algebra e Analise Analise Matematica III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granja, Gustavo

    ´iveis na web, s~ao uma excelente introdu¸c~ao `a mat´eria. Exerc´icios Resolvidos: Na webpage da cadeira encontram-se links para listas de exerc´icios resolvidos assim como para enunciados e algumas resolu/ou exames resolvidos. (Encontram-se por vezes `a venda listas de exerc´icios resolvidos de qualidade duvi

  16. Optimizac~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior Tecnico Engenharia Electrotecnica e de Computadores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Optimiza¸c~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior T´ecnico ­ Engenharia Electrot´ecnica e subproblema nos algoritmos de optimiza¸c~ao que operam por pesquisa em linhas. Nesse contexto, dado que o

  17. Inverse Problems, Design and Optimization Symposium Jo~ao Pessoa, Brazil, August 25-27, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Inverse Problems, Design and Optimization Symposium Jo~ao Pessoa, Brazil, August 25-27, 2010. Jorge Mechanical Engineering Institute Federal University of Itajub´a Itajub´a, MG, Brazil ariosto and Optimization Symposium Jo~ao Pessoa, Brazil, August 25-27, 2010 ## # # Thermocouples Heat source x y z Figure 1

  18. Maria de Andrade Costa e Silva Calculo de Estruturas Afins e Aplicac~ao `as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewiner, Thomas (Thomas Lewiner)

    Maria de Andrade Costa e Silva C´alculo de Estruturas Afins e Aplica¸c~ao `as Isossuperf´icies Tese: Prof. Thomas Lewiner Rio de Janeiro Agosto de 2011 #12;Maria de Andrade Costa e Silva C´alculo de parcial do trabalho sem autoriza¸c~ao da universidade, do autor e do orientador. Maria de Andrade Costa e

  19. Classificac~ao Automatica de G^eneros Musicais Utilizando Metodos de Bagging e Boosting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    um estudo utilizando t´ecnicas de meta- aprendizagem para o problema de classificac¸~ao autom´atica de g^eneros musi- cais. As t´ecnicas de meta-aprendizagem utilizadas foram Bagging e Boosting. Em]. No momento, a maior parte das informac¸~oes sobre dados multim´idia s~ao classificadas e organizadas baseadas

  20. Grids Computacionais: da Computac~ao de Alto Desempenho a Servicos sob Demanda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirne, Walfredo

    desempenho). Como con- seq¨u^encia, as tecnologias de Grids Computacionais se fundiram com Web Services e se posicionaram como uma tecnologia fundamental para computac¸~ao no s´eculo XXI. O texto a seguir descreve a evoluc¸~ao dos Grids Computacionais, cobrindo as principais tecnologias existentes, e apresentando os

  1. optics.org http://optics.org/articles/news/12/3/26 1 of 2 3/29/2006 12:25 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    . These structures can act as integrated particle filters as well as passive fluid mixers, which convert laminar fluid flow into a turbulent flow. "It also turns out that we can make nanoparticles with controlledoptics.org http://optics.org/articles/news/12/3/26 1 of 2 3/29/2006 12:25 PM lasers, optics

  2. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  3. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  4. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  5. Diesel particles -a health hazard 1 Diesel particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diesel particles - a health hazard 1 Diesel particles - a health hazard #12;The Danish Ecological Council - August 20042 Diesel particles - a health hazard ISBN: 87-89843-61-4 Text by: Christian Ege 33150777 Fax no.: +45 33150971 E-mail: info@ecocouncil.dk www.ecocouncil.dk #12;Diesel particles - a health

  6. University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics Spring 2010 OSE-6432: Principles of guided wave optics; electro -optics, acousto-optics and optoelectronics. Location: CREOL-A-214 or by Appointment Reference Materials: 1. Class Notes. 2. "Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides", K. Okamoto, Academic

  7. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  8. Toward the Understanding and Prediction of Optical Variability in the Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    , and organisms. 5. How do solar zenith angles, winds, surface waves and upper ocean optical properties affect, particles & organisms & exits sea Exiting light can be seen above water surface; sensed by airplanes

  9. Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jacqueline Anne

    2005-11-01

    The research presented here retrieves the cloud optical thickness and particle effective size of cirrus clouds using surface radiation measurements obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) field campaign. ...

  10. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  11. Biological particle identification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

  12. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  13. Particle penetration through building cracks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D L; Nazaroff, William W

    2003-01-01

    advanced our knowledge, they have not fully elucidated the extent to which particles penetrate building envelopes.

  14. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  15. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mendez, Victor P. (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  16. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS Nanostructures + Light = `New Optics'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL Nanostructures + Light = `New Optics' Guest Editors Nikolay Zheludev University of Southampton, UK Vladimir optics and classical electrodynamics became fashionable again. Fields that several generations

  17. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  18. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  19. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  20. Nano-engineering by optically directed self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, Eric; Dunn, Elissa; Park, Jin-Gyu; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Sainis, Sunil; Merrill, Jason; Dufresne, Eric; Reichert, Matthew D.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Molecke, Ryan A.; Koehler, Timothy P.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Grillet, Anne Mary; Gorby, Allen D.; Singh, John; Lele, Pushkar; Mittal, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Lack of robust manufacturing capabilities have limited our ability to make tailored materials with useful optical and thermal properties. For example, traditional methods such as spontaneous self-assembly of spheres cannot generate the complex structures required to produce a full bandgap photonic crystals. The goal of this work was to develop and demonstrate novel methods of directed self-assembly of nanomaterials using optical and electric fields. To achieve this aim, our work employed laser tweezers, a technology that enables non-invasive optical manipulation of particles, from glass microspheres to gold nanoparticles. Laser tweezers were used to create ordered materials with either complex crystal structures or using aspherical building blocks.

  1. Particle Physics and Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Pralavorio

    2014-12-04

    Today, both particle physics and cosmology are described by few parameter Standard Models, i.e. it is possible to deduce consequence of particle physics in cosmology and vice verse. The former is examined in this lecture, in light of the recent systematic exploration of the electroweak scale by the LHC experiments. The two main results of the first phase of the LHC, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle and the absence so far of new particles predicted by "natural" theories beyond the Standard Model (supersymmetry, extra-dimension and composite Higgs) are put in a historical context to enlighten their importance and then presented extensively. To be complete, a short review from the neutrino physics, which can not be probed at LHC, is also given. The ability of all these results to resolve the 3 fundamental questions of cosmology about the nature of dark energy and dark matter as well as the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is discussed in each case.

  2. Elementary particle interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)

  3. m anchester particle physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to fluctuations in the energy measurement. This provides a contribution to the inherent energy resolution leads to a contribution to the energy resolution. This note shows how the effect can be evaluatedV ­15 GeV is used as an illustration. #12; 1. Introduction When a particle deposits energy

  4. Anomalous optical nonlinearity of dielectric nanodispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milichko, V A; Dzyuba, V P; Kul'chin, Yurii N

    2013-06-30

    We present the results of studying the nonlinear optical response of nanodispersions of semiconductor (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO) and dielectric (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles of spherical, spheroidal and flake shape, suspended in polar and nonpolar dielectric matrices (water, isopropanol, polymethylsiloxane and transformer oil) by means of z-scanning in the field of low-intensity visible laser radiation. It is found that, unlike semiconductor nanoparticles and particles of spherical shape, flake-shaped SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles suspended in nonpolar matrices exhibit nonlinear optical response within the intensity interval from 0 to 500 W cm{sup -2} that vanishes at higher intensities. The diagrams of energy states of the optical electrons in nanoparticles that allow explanation of differences in the nonlinear-optical properties of nanodispersions are proposed. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical dependences of nonlinear refractive indices and absorption coefficients on the intensity of radiation is observed. (optical nanostructures)

  5. Ultima actualizac~ao: 30/5/2003 Instituto Superior Tecnico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cannas da Silva, Ana

    + + n=1 (an cos(nx) + bn sin(nx)) . Como f(x) ´e ´impar, todos os an's s~ao 0. Quanto aos bn's, s~ao dados pela f´ormula bn = 1 -1 x sin(nx)dx = 2 1 0 x sin(nx)dx porque x sin(nx) ´e par = 2 - x cos(nx) n 1 0 + 1 0 cos(nx) n dx = - 2(-1)n n + 0 = 2(-1)n+1 n . Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento de Fourier

  6. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan, M L; Besga, B; Brennen, G; Molina-Terriza, G; Volz, T

    2015-01-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same...

  7. Material Removal Rate for Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) of Optical Glasses with Nanodiamond MR Fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; Wilson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-07-13

    We present a material removal rate model for MRF of optical glasses using nanodiamond MR fluid. The new model incorporates terms for drag force, polishing particle properties, chemical durability and glass composition into an existing model that contains only terms for the glass mechanical properties. Experimental results for six optical glasses are given that support this model.

  8. Measurement of the exit characteristics of light from optical multimode plastic fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebbeker, Thomas

    Measurement of the exit characteristics of light from optical multimode plastic fibres von Simon multimode plastic fibres are an essential part of many detectors used in modern particle physics experiments the functionality of the simulation software. #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Optical Multimode Plastic Fibres 5 2

  9. Particle creation in (2+1) circular dust collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutti, Sashideep; Singh, T. P.

    2007-09-15

    We investigate the quantum particle creation during the circularly symmetric collapse of a 2+1 dust cloud, for the cases when the cosmological constant is either zero or negative. We derive the Ford-Parker formula for the 2+1 case, which can be used to compute the radiated quantum flux in the geometric optics approximation. It is shown that no particles are created when the collapse ends in a naked singularity, unlike in the 3+1 case. When the collapse ends in a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, we recover the expected Hawking radiation.

  10. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-17

    A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.

  11. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

  12. Optical Properties of Saharan Dust and Asian Dust: Application to Radiative Transfer Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Guangyang

    2012-07-16

    an important role in climate change, the majorities of aerosols are natural ones and can impact cloud properties, convective cloud dynamics, and the development of tropical storms (Jones et al. 2004). The optical properties of mineral dust aerosols... dusts from the Rayleigh regime to the geometric optics regime. A database of the optical properties of randomly oriented spheroids has been developed. 4.1 Geometry of the dust particle model The geometry of the spheroidal model used is shown...

  13. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  14. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  15. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  16. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  17. Particle measurement systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Paul T. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-10-04

    A system according to one embodiment includes a light source for generating light fringes; a sampling mechanism for directing a particle through the light fringes; and at least one light detector for detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes. A method according to one embodiment includes generating light fringes using a light source; directing a particle through the light fringes; and detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes using at least one light detector.

  18. Particle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    Particle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring Zachary E. Humes blowing and suction control flows­flows that are a fraction of the jet flow rate­to sharply change

  19. Universidade Estadual de Campinas Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computac~ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    serem auto- organiz´aveis em torno do objetivo de minimiza¸c~ao do consumo de energia de seus neur cognitivos capazes de atuar nos mais diversos ambientes e dom´inios. Palavras-chave: intelig^encia artificial

  20. Optimizac~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior Tecnico Engenharia Electrotecnica e de Computadores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Optimiza¸c~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior T´ecnico ­ Engenharia Electrot´ecnica e um mini- mizante global. Problema 6.[Algoritmos: coordenadas c´iclicas, descida de gradi- ente e

  1. Guia rapido de refer^encia da linguagem Pascal Vers~ao Free Pascal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4 Exemplo de intera¸c~ao com a m´aquina para compilar . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.5 Erros de principal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5 Elementos b´asicos 20 5.1 S

  2. MAC 0316/5754 --Conceitos de Linguagens de Programac~ao Primeiro Semestre de 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reverbel, Francisco

    numa prova. O par^ametro crit ´e uma fun¸c~ao que implementa o crit´erio de c´alculo da m´edia. A fun

  3. Optical geometry analysis of the electromagnetic self-force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiano Sonego; Marek A. Abramowicz

    2006-02-17

    We present an analysis of the behaviour of the electromagnetic self-force for charged particles in a conformally static spacetime, interpreting the results with the help of optical geometry. Some conditions for the vanishing of the local terms in the self-force are derived and discussed.

  4. Measurement of the Optical Proper-ties of Volcanic Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Measurement of the Optical Proper- ties of Volcanic Ash Daniel M. Peters and R. G. Grainger of Volcanic Ash". This project will measure vol- canic ash aerosol extinction spectra and the aerosol particle is required in the analysis of IR satellite observations of ash clouds. Dry, water ice and sulphuric acid

  5. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P.

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  6. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  7. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  8. Departamento de Ci^encia da Computac~ao IME-USP MAC0122 Principios de Desenvolvimento de Algoritmos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reverbel, Francisco

    Algoritmos Poli/El´etrica, Opc¸~ao Sistemas Eletr^onicos -- Primeiro Semestre de 2010 Terceiro Exerc

  9. 27 Jan 2003 Smart Optics Faraday Partnership 1 Smart Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    27 Jan 2003 Smart Optics Faraday Partnership 1 Smart Optics Technologies, Techniques and Space Applications Alan Greenaway Physics, EPS Heriot-Watt University #12;27 Jan 2003 Smart Optics Faraday Partnership 2 Smart? · The Smart Optics Faraday Partnership interprets `Smart Optics' to mean: ­ `... includes

  10. Von Neumann e a previs~ao num'erica de tempo e clima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    von Neumann de que a Meteorologia seria uma das 'areas que mais se beneficiaria com o advento da t a Meteorologia, cuja atividade de previs~ao de tempo mais se aproximava de arte do que de ciâ??encia. Von Neumann, quando teve uma conversa com Carl­Gustav Rossby, ent~ao o l'ider mundial da Meteorologia Dinâ??amica, na

  11. O LEMA DE SELEC AO DA CURVA E O TEOREMA DE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreira, Carlos Gustavo

    entâ?ao existe uma curva analâ??�tica p definida em [0, 1) com p(0) = 0 tal que p(t) pertence a X para arbitrariamente prâ??oximos da origem, isto â??e, 0 # fecho(U # V ), entâ?ao existe uma curva real analâ??�tica p : [0â??oximos de 0. Seja x = p(t), |t| tica deste ramo. Para cada g i , a fun

  12. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  13. Particle production at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changyi Zhou

    2009-06-19

    H1 has measured a number of different known particles and compared their production to QCD models and to other reactions such as N-N collisions. ZEUS has also measured the production of K0SK0S pairs with a view to searching for glueballs. Several resonances are seen which are glueball candidates. The results on the masses and widths are compared to other experiments.

  14. NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chenson K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface Plasmons at a Metal-Dielectric Interface . . . .Plasmons at Metal-Dielectric Interfaces . . . . A. GeneralNONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K. Chen (Ph.D.

  15. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  16. TESTING THE APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPH ON THE LABORATORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS EXTREME ADAPTIVE OPTICS TESTBED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald [Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, University of California/Lick Observatories, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Soummer, Remi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, E-mail: sthomas@ucolick.org, E-mail: dillon@ucolick.org, E-mail: gavel@ucolick.org, E-mail: soummer@stsci.edu, E-mail: macintosh1@mail.llnl.gov, E-mail: anand@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  17. Algoritmos de Coordenac~ao para Enxames de Rob^os Leandro Soriano Marcolino e Luiz Chaimowicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaimowicz, Luiz

    Algoritmos de Coordenac¸~ao para Enxames de Rob^os Leandro Soriano Marcolino e Luiz Chaimowicz 1 Ve algoritmos de coordenac¸~ao dis- tribu´ida que permitem a um enxame de rob^os navegar em cen´arios complexos. S~ao apresentados algoritmos para resolver dois problemas principais: (i) Nave- gar em um ambiente

  18. Uma Experi^encia de Sincronizac~ao de Bases de Dados Relacionais Utilizando SyncML

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hara, Carmem Satie

    protocolo SyncML neste contexto s~ao tamb´em apresentados. 1. Introduc¸~ao O aumento do n´umero de entre uma ferramenta de gerenciamento de projetos (GP) com uma ferramenta de agenda pes- soal, esta relacionais (SGBDR) propriet´arios. O GSMS utiliza como protocolo de sincronizac¸~ao o Sync

  19. Quantum particles from classical statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Wetterich

    2010-02-11

    Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.

  20. AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS... ...the light as you've never seen before... Optics:http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser5.htm #12;5 DEFINITION Quantum Optics: "Quantum optics is a field in quantum physics, dealing OPTICS OPERATORS Light is described in terms of field operators for creation and annihilation of photons

  1. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, Anthony S. (7723 Storrie Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Rader, Daniel J. (7217 Ottawa Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109)

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed.

  2. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, A.S.; Rader, D.J.

    1996-06-04

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. 5 figs.

  3. Morphologically and size uniform monodisperse particles and their shape-directed self-assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Joshua E.; Bell, Howard Y.; Ye, Xingchen; Murray, Christopher Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Monodisperse particles having: a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology are disclosed. Due to their uniform size and shape, the monodisperse particles self assemble into superlattices. The particles may be luminescent particles such as down-converting phosphor particles and up-converting phosphors. The monodisperse particles of the invention have a rare earth-containing lattice which in one embodiment may be an yttrium-containing lattice or in another may be a lanthanide-containing lattice. The monodisperse particles may have different optical properties based on their composition, their size, and/or their morphology (or shape). Also disclosed is a combination of at least two types of monodisperse particles, where each type is a plurality of monodisperse particles having a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology; and where the types of monodisperse particles differ from one another by composition, by size, or by morphology. In a preferred embodiment, the types of monodisperse particles have the same composition but different morphologies. Methods of making and methods of using the monodisperse particles are disclosed.

  4. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2014-10-21

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  5. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  6. Bio-Optical Variability in Mayaguez Bay during the Rainy Season Joel A. Quiones Rivera, ja23_degrees@hotmail.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Bio-Optical Variability in Mayaguez Bay during the Rainy Season Joel A. Quiñones Rivera, ja23 by suspending particles in the water that affects light penetration. This is critical for the bio-optical from different stations collected with an bio-optical rosette along the Mayagüez Bay and considering

  7. ccsd-00001498,version1-30Apr2004 Directed transport of Brownian particles in a double symmetric potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ccsd-00001498,version1-30Apr2004 Directed transport of Brownian particles in a double symmetric no space or time symmetry of the Hamiltonian is broken, we show that directed transport can appear. We in a system of cold particles trapped in optical lattices. PACS numbers: 05.40.-a,05.60.-k,32.80.Pj In usual

  8. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Schipper, John F. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  9. Optical scanning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villarreal, R.A.

    1985-11-06

    An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

  10. An instrument to measure extended particle size and velocity ranges in multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, C.P.; Hess, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a miniaturized particle sizing velocimeter developed and built by MetroLaser to measure the spatial and temporal distributions of particle size and velocity. The instrument is the first of its kind to utilize the pulse displacement technique (PDT) to measure particle size. PDT is based on the detection of scattered refraction and reflection pulses which sweep past a detector at different times as a particle traverses a narrow laser sheet. In conjunction with Mie scattering and a time-of-fight velocity measuring technique, the instrument provides detailed distributions of particle size from 2 {micro}m to 6,000 {micro}m in two optical configurations, and particle velocity from 0.5 m/s to 150 m/s. This paper summarizes the theoretical foundation of PDT which allows the calculation of particle diameter from various optical parameters such as refractive index and collection angle. An overview of the instrument is presented, followed by a brief description of the miniaturized optical probe. The processing of data is described and, lastly, the results of experimental studies are presented which verify the accuracy and versatility of the instrument.

  11. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  12. Optically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  13. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  14. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  15. Hadron particle theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    Radiation therapy with ``hadrons`` (protons, neutrons, pions, ions) has accrued a 55-year track record, with by now over 30,000 patients having received treatments with one of these particles. Very good, and in some cases spectacular results are leading to growth in the field in specific well-defined directions. The most noted contributor to success has been the ability to better define and control the radiation field produced with these particles, to increase the dose delivered to the treatment volume while achieving a high degree of sparing of normal tissue. An additional benefit is the highly-ionizing, character of certain beams, leading to creater cell-killing potential for tumor lines that have historically been very resistant to radiation treatments. Until recently these treatments have been delivered in laboratories and research centers whose primary, or original mission was physics research. With maturity in the field has come both the desire to provide beam facilities more accessible to the clinical setting, of a hospital, as well as achieving, highly-efficient, reliable and economical accelerator and beam-delivery systems that can make maximum advantage of the physical characteristics of these particle beams. Considerable work in technology development is now leading, to the implementation of many of these ideas, and a new generation of clinically-oriented facilities is beginning to appear. We will discuss both the physical, clinical and technological considerations that are driving these designs, as well as highlighting, specific examples of new facilities that are either now treating, patients or that will be doing so in the near future.

  16. Nuclear and Particle Futures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE The 2014 surveyNuclear and Particle Futures Nuclear and

  17. Small Particles, Big Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performed StevenSmall Particles, Big Impact

  18. Geometrical vs wave optics under gravitational waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Angélil; Prasenjit Saha

    2015-05-20

    We present some new derivations of the effect of a plane gravitational wave on a light ray. A simple interpretation of the results is that a gravitational wave causes a phase modulation of electromagnetic waves. We arrive at this picture from two contrasting directions, namely null geodesics and Maxwell's equations, or, geometric and wave optics. Under geometric optics, we express the geodesic equations in Hamiltonian form and solve perturbatively for the effect of gravitational waves. We find that the well-known time-delay formula for light generalizes trivially to massive particles. We also recover, by way of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the phase modulation obtained under wave optics. Turning then to wave optics - rather than solving Maxwell's equations directly for the fields, as in most previous approaches - we derive a perturbed wave equation (perturbed by the gravitational wave) for the electromagnetic four-potential. From this wave equation it follows that the four-potential and the electric and magnetic fields all experience the same phase modulation. Applying such a phase modulation to a superposition of plane waves corresponding to a Gaussian wave packet leads to time delays.

  19. Self-assembly of colloid-cholesteric composites provides a possible route to switchable optical materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Stratford; O. Henrich; J. S. Lintuvuori; M. E. Cates; D. Marenduzzo

    2015-04-19

    Colloidal particles dispersed in liquid crystals can form new materials with tunable elastic and electro-optic properties. In a periodic `blue phase' host, particles should template into colloidal crystals with potential uses in photonics, metamaterials, and transformational optics. Here we show by computer simulation that colloid/cholesteric mixtures can give rise to regular crystals, glasses, percolating gels, isolated clusters, twisted rings and undulating colloidal ropes. This structure can be tuned via particle concentration, and by varying the surface interactions of the cholesteric host with both the particles and confining walls. Many of these new materials are metastable: two or more structures can arise under identical thermodynamic conditions. The observed structure depends not only on the formulation protocol, but also on the history of an applied electric field. This new class of soft materials should thus be relevant to design of switchable, multistable devices for optical technologies such as smart glass and e-paper.

  20. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  1. Bringing Optical Metamaterials to Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentine, Jason Gage

    2010-01-01

    refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires. ," Science ,Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photonics ,Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D

  2. Renewable Surface Biosensors With Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-12-01

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  3. Renewable Surface Biosensors with Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-04-30

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  4. Projection optics box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry (Tracy, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Parker, John M. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  5. The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yu

    2007-09-17

    ?µm). The discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) model is used to compute the radiances for a set of optical thicknesses, particle effective sizes, viewing and illumination angles, and cloud temperatures. A parameterization of cloud bi...

  6. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  7. Scalable optical quantum computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manykin, E A; Mel'nichenko, E V [Institute for Superconductivity and Solid-State Physics, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr{sup 3+}, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  8. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  9. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  10. Silicon fiber optic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-02

    A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

  11. Modelling Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of High Energy Fusion Alpha-Particle Distributions in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of High Energy Fusion Alpha-Particle Distributions in JET

  12. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, D. J.; Pekour, M. S.; Zhang, Q.; Setyan, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-04-17

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles (defined heremore »as particles with aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 2.5 microns), yielding ? = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea-salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.« less

  13. Particle Impact Damping in the Horizontal Plane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Bryan

    2012-07-16

    Particle impact damping is measured for a cantilevered beam vibrating freely in the horizontal plane. Several particle configurations are investigated beginning with a single particle and progressing to multiple layers of particles. The effects...

  14. Enhancement mechanisms for optical forces in integrated optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancement mechanisms for optical forces in integrated optics M. L. Povinelli(a) , M. Loncar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 ABSTRACT We investigate the extension of optical micromanipulation to integrated optics. In particular, we consider whether propagating light signals can cause

  15. Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy David Merino and Chris Dainty Applied Optics Group, Department of Experimental Physics, National and Adrian Gh. Podoleanu Applied Optics Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent at Canterbury

  16. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  17. A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force Varat Intaraprasonk,1@stanford.edu Abstract: We consider the lateral optical force between a resonator and a waveguide, and study the possibility of an equilibrium that occurs solely from the optical force in such system. We prove analytically

  18. Study on metal nanoparticles induced third-order optical nonlinearity in phenylhydrazone derivatives with DFWM technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudheesh, P.; Chandrasekharan, K. [Laser and Nonlinear Optics Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut (India); Rao, D. Mallikharjuna [Nano Display Laboratory, School of Nanoscience and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut (India)

    2014-01-28

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of newly synthesized phenylhydrazone derivatives and the influence of noble metal nanoparticles (Ag and Au) on their nonlinear optical responses were investigated by employing Degenerate Four wave Mixing (DFWM) technique with a 7 nanosecond, 10Hz Nd: YAG laser pulses at 532nm. Metal nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation and the particle formation was confirmed using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The nonlinear optical susceptibility were measured and found to be of the order 10{sup ?13}esu. The results are encouraging and conclude that the materials are promising candidate for future optical device applications.

  19. Cooled particle accelerator target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  20. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boyang [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.; Hendrickson, Joshua [Air Force Research Lab., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Nader, Nima [Air Force Research Lab., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Solid State Scientific Corporation, Nashua, New Hampshire (United States); Chen, Hou -Tong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies.; Guo, Junpeng [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    2014-12-15

    Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared. Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.

  1. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  2. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Boyang; Hendrickson, Joshua; Nader, Nima; Chen, Hou -Tong; Guo, Junpeng

    2014-12-15

    Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared.more »Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.« less

  3. Optical gamma thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, Glen Peter; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon Kwee

    2013-08-06

    An optical gamma thermometer includes a metal mass having a temperature proportional to a gamma flux within a core of a nuclear reactor, and an optical fiber cable for measuring the temperature of the heated metal mass. The temperature of the heated mass may be measured by using one or more fiber grating structures and/or by using scattering techniques, such as Raman, Brillouin, and the like. The optical gamma thermometer may be used in conjunction with a conventional reactor heat balance to calibrate the local power range monitors over their useful in-service life. The optical gamma thermometer occupies much less space within the in-core instrument tube and costs much less than the conventional gamma thermometer.

  4. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  5. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  6. Optical fiber switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  7. Resoluc~ao Sumaria da ficha de exercicios de Mec^anica Geometrica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    Resolu¸c~ao Sum´aria da 5a ficha de exerc´icios de Mec^anica Geom´etrica 23 de Abril de 2002 1 vectorial : so(3) R3 tal que A = (A) � para todo o R3 e A so(3). Resolu¸c~ao: Se 0 -c b c 0 -a -b vectorial, uma vez que ´e claramente linear e bijectiva. ´E interessante notar que se A, B so(3), com (A

  8. Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amato, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules. Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are held responsible for most of the energy that is put in relativistic particles in the Universe, but they are not thought to accelerate particles up to the highest individual energies, $\\approx 10^{20}$ eV...

  9. Toroidal optical activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2015-01-01

    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  10. Classical Models of Subatomic Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann; M. S. Morris

    1993-07-21

    We look at the program of modelling a subatomic particle---one having mass, charge, and angular momentum---as an interior solution joined to a classical general-relativistic Kerr-Newman exterior spacetime. We find that the assumption of stationarity upon which the validity of the Kerr-Newman exterior solution depends is in fact violated quantum mechanically for all known subatomic particles. We conclude that the appropriate stationary spacetime matched to any known subatomic particle is flat space.

  11. PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Photonic RF Waveform Synthesis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Photonic RF Waveform, Shijun Xiao Funding from ARO, DARPA, and NSF #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER performance (spectral engineering, dispersion compensation) #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL

  12. PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Andrew M. Weiner and Ehsan Hamidi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Andrew M. Weiner ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Ultrawideband (UWB) Radio-frequency Photonics UWB;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Femtosecond Pulse Shaping A

  13. 0.1 Imers"oes e submers"oes entre espa,cos de Banach. Destacamos esta se,c"ao da 0.0 pois em rela,c"ao `a imers"oes e submers"oes*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tausk, Daniel Victor

    0.1 Imers"oes e submers"oes entre espa,cos de Banach. Destacamos esta se,c"ao da 0.0 pois em rela,c"ao `a imers"oes e submers"oes* * o c'alculo em espa,cos de Banach cont'em algumas diferen teoria (i.e., a di* *ferencial das fun,c"oes e na se,c"ao seguinte o espa,co tangente `as variedades) 'e

  14. Fault location in optical networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Rick C.; Kryzak, Charles J.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Kornrumpf, William P.

    2008-07-01

    One apparatus embodiment includes an optical emitter and a photodetector. At least a portion of the optical emitter extends a radial distance from a center point. The photodetector provided around at least a portion of the optical emitter and positioned outside the radial distance of the portion of the optical emitter.

  15. The Mathematics of Nonlinear Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Métivier, Guy

    The Mathematics of Nonlinear Optics Guy M´etivier March 7, 2009 Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 Examples of equations arising in nonlinear optics 11 3 The framework of hyperbolic systems 18 3.1 Equations Optics 49 5.1 Linear geometric optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5

  16. Undergraduate Handbook Dear Optics student,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Undergraduate Handbook Fall 2013 #12;2 Dear Optics student, It is my great pleasure to welcome you to The Institute of Optics. The Institute of Optics has been educating the next generation of leaders in the field since it was founded in 1929 as the first optics department in the country

  17. SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - i - INTRODUCTION WHAT IS SCIENCE, 0PTICS & YOU? The Science, Optics and You Guidebook is made up as follows: Science, Optics and You is a standards light, color, and optics. Activities are designed to engage students in active investigation

  18. Fibre optics: Forty years later

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2010-01-31

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

  19. Stochastic pump of interacting particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasish Chaudhuri; Abhishek Dhar

    2010-12-28

    We consider the overdamped motion of Brownian particles, interacting via particle exclusion, in an external potential that varies with time and space. We show that periodic potentials that maintain specific position-dependent phase relations generate time-averaged directed current of particles. We obtain analytic results for a lattice version of the model using a recently developed perturbative approach. Many interesting features like particle-hole symmetry, current reversal with changing density, and system-size dependence of current are obtained. We propose possible experiments to test our predictions.

  20. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, John A. (Ithaca, NY); Greenwald, Shlomo (Haifa, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  1. The particle-nuclear interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, F.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)):(Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences and similarities between modern nuclear physics and particle physics. Similarities are presented between QED and QCD. (LSP)

  2. Special Theory for Superluminal Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bo-Jun Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yan Wang

    2011-10-31

    The OPERA collaboration reported evidence for muonic neutrinos travelling faster than light in vacuum. In this paper, an extended relativity theory is proposed. We think all particles can be divided into three kinds: The first kind of particle is its velocity in the range of $0\\leq v < c$, e.g. electron, atom, molecule and so on ($c$ is light velocity, i.e., the limit velocity of the first kind of particle). The second kind of particle is its velocity in the range of $0\\leq v < c_{m1}$, e.g. photon ($c_{m1}$ is the limit velocity of the second kind of particle). The third kind of particle is its velocity in the range of $c\\leq v < c_{m2}$, e.g. tachyon, and muonic neutrinos ($c_{m2}$ is the limit velocity of the third kind of particle). The first kind of particle is described by the special relativity. With the extended relativity theory, we can describe the second and third kinds particles, and can analysis the OPERA experiment results and calculate the muonic neutrinos mass.

  3. Continuous flow dielectrophoretic particle concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-04-17

    A continuous-flow filter/concentrator for separating and/or concentrating particles in a fluid is disclosed. The filter is a three-port device an inlet port, an filter port and a concentrate port. The filter separates particles into two streams by the ratio of their dielectrophoretic mobility to their electrokinetic, advective, or diffusive mobility if the dominant transport mechanism is electrokinesis, advection, or diffusion, respectively.Also disclosed is a device for separating and/or concentrating particles by dielectrophoretic trapping of the particles.

  4. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  5. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  6. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

  7. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  8. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  9. Regras de Avaliac~ao de CDI-II (Leic-A, 1o s 2010/2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baia, Margarida

    lista bi-semanal de exerc´icios propostos. Estes exerc´icios devem ser resolvidos pelos alunos antes das prepara¸c~ao pr´evia dos exerc´icios de cada ficha, e sobre o desempenho em deter- minados exerc´icios finalizar a resolu¸c~ao dos exerc´icios, recorrendo ao docente para esclarecer eventuais d´uvidas. Em cada

  10. Um Estudo Sobre a Efetividade do Metodo de Imputac~ao Baseado no Algoritmo k-Vizinhos Mais Proximos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batista, Gustavo

    Um Estudo Sobre a Efetividade do M´etodo de Imputa¸c~ao Baseado no Algoritmo k-Vizinhos Mais Pr foi mostrado que o algoritmo k-vizinhos mais pr´oximos prov^e bons resultados comparado com outros m´etodo de imputa¸c~ao baseado no algoritmo k-vizinhos mais pr´oximos n~ao ´e capaz de superar outros m

  11. Frustum Culling Hibrido em CPU e GPU para Visualizac~ao de Modelos Massivos em Tempo Real

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Alberto

    modelos massivos, necessita-se de al- goritmos de alto desempenho, pois a quantidade de c´alculos aumenta~ao processadores origi- nalmente dedicados para c´alculos gr´aficos e s~ao altamente paralelizados. Nos ´ultimos Second ´e uma medida de perfor- mance na computac¸~ao, especialmente na ´area de c´alculos cient

  12. Optical Communication Without Photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Gisin

    2013-04-30

    I analyse a recent quantum communication protocol by Salih et al. that allows one to communicate without any particle carrying the information from the sender to the receiver. I show how this can equally be achieved using classical communication.

  13. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS Polarization Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friesem, Asher A.

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL Polarization Optics Guest Editors Jari Turunen University of Joensuu, Finland Asher A Friesem Weizmann Institute This special issue on Polarization Optics contains one review article and 23 research papers, many of which

  14. Engenharia de Sistemas e Informatica (ex -Eng. de Sistemas e Computac~ao)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesus, Sérgio M.

    Engenharia de Sistemas e Inform´atica (ex - Eng. de Sistemas e Computa¸c~ao) e Engenharia F de apoio foi inicialmente escrito para o Curso de Inform´atica de Sistemas, disciplina anual de de An´alise de Circuitos dos cursos de Engenharia de Sistemas e Inform´atica e Engenharia F´isica da

  15. Ultra-high Sensitivity Wavefront Sensing for Extreme-AO Olivier Guyon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyon, Olivier

    bright. Noise propagation will push the AO system to be optimized either for bright stars (maximize-Hartman and curvature) make a relatively inefficient use of incoming photons, especially for low order aberrations (this. For example, estimation of Tip-Tilt in a SH WFS is obtained by measuring the average of the spot centroids

  16. Aerosol Observing Systems (AOS), New Capabilities for ASR Researchers Stephen R. Springston (srs@bnl.gov)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gases PTRMS Carbon Monoxide Ozone Ozone Ozone Sulfur Dioxide Speciated Odd Nitrogen (NO, NO NO ) o Lab of remote access over the internet allows mentors complete control over AOS infrastructure components/off all subsystems allowing both remote and autonomous restart and shutdown of unit in graded steps o

  17. RSC DECISION THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL AO DECISION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    RSC DECISION THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL AO DECISION Application for Residence North Carolina law, bona fide legal residents (domiciliaries) of North Carolina are eligible for a lower are available for inspection in admissions offices. North Carolina statute (G.S. 116-143) requires: "To qualify

  18. Reconstruc~ao de Imagens de Resson^ancia Magnetica de Fluxo com Imageamento Paralelo II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    pilha de epirais temporalmente resolvidas no espa¸co kx-ky-kv [2]. kv kx ky Figura: Trajet´oria no espa¸c~ao qualitativa dos resultados do SPIRiT foi realizada para os dom´inios do espa¸co e de tempo-velocidade, baseada

  19. Optimizac~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior Tecnico Engenharia Electrotecnica e de Computadores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Optimiza¸c~ao e Algoritmos (2004/2005) Instituto Superior T´ecnico ­ Engenharia Electrot´ecnica e¸c~oes e com restri¸c~oes (algoritmo gradientes conjugados e de ponto interior ) Dualidade Problema 1

  20. UFPR Bacharelado em Ci^encia da Computac~ao CI064 Software Basico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hexsel, Roberto A

    ¸c~ao ro, ex e wr. (i) Qual seria o tamanho de uma tabela de p´aginas linear nesta m´aquina? (ii) mostre (ii), 1/2 dos elementos da tabela de primeiro n´ivel sejam inv´alidos. Calcule os tamanhos m´aximo e m

  1. Extended decimeter radio emission after large solar flares A.O. Benz a,*, H. Perret a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by extremely intense radio emissions at decimeter wave- lengths. The radio emission continued long afterExtended decimeter radio emission after large solar flares A.O. Benz a,*, H. Perret a , P. Saint; accepted 19 September 2005 Abstract The large solar flares of October and November 2003 were accompanied

  2. LOGIN/REGISTO CATLICA DO PORTO CRIA FUNDO DE APOIO AOS ESTUDANTES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    alargar o número de bolsas atribuídas aos estudantes. NOTÍCIAS ARRISCA UMA IDEIA DE NEGÓCIO E HABILITA pessoas que operam e visitam as subestações elétricas. O segundo prémio, no valor de 6 500 euros, foi, no valor de 3500 euros, foi para David Cerdeira, do IST. Com um projeto na área das Smart Grids, isto é

  3. Modeling Chemical Reactions with Single Reactant Specie Abhyudai Singh and Jo~ao Pedro Hespanha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hespanha, João Pedro

    Modeling Chemical Reactions with Single Reactant Specie Abhyudai Singh and Jo~ao Pedro Hespanha Abstract-- A procedure for constructing approximate stochastic models for chemical reactions involving involved in a chemical reaction as the continuous state of a polynomial Stochastic Hybrid System (p

  4. Proxy Key Re-encapsulation Mechanism for Group Communications Chunbo Ma and Jun Ao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    - 1 - Proxy Key Re-encapsulation Mechanism for Group Communications Chunbo Ma and Jun Ao School. China machunbo@guet.edu.cn Abstract. Many practical applications use hybrid encryption mechanism to deal scheme is poor. The key encapsulation is a crucial part in hybrid encryption mechanism, which allows

  5. AO17: Ash detection and characterisation in IASI data Candidate number: 441639

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    AO17: Ash detection and characterisation in IASI data Candidate number: 441639 Supervisors: Dr E. Carboni and Dr R. G. Grainger Word count: 4275 Abstract Methods for the fast detection of volcanic ash aircraft of the presence of volcanic ash. Previous methods for detecting ash can gener- ate many false

  6. AO05: Ash detection and characterisation in IASI data Candidate number: 249038

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    AO05: Ash detection and characterisation in IASI data Candidate number: 249038 Supervisors: Dr. E to distinguish volcanic ash from other airborne substances such as water clouds and desert dust. The method and by calculating their ratios and applying some conditions the ash affected pixels are found. A set

  7. AO18: Satellite tracking of volcanic eruption plumes using ash and Candidate number: 782932

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    AO18: Satellite tracking of volcanic eruption plumes using ash and SO2 Candidate number: 782932 was to study, using satel- lite images, both ash and SO2 emitted from vol- canoes during eruptions, particularly to investi- gate whether the ash and SO2 in volcanic plumes are always collocated. If not, the aim

  8. Introduc~ao a Geometria Simpletica Henrique Bursztyn e Leonardo Macarini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bursztyn, Henrique

    - mento da geometria simpl´etica ´e seu papel interdisciplinar na matem´a- tica, interagindo com topologia. Estas notas apresentam uma breve introdu¸c~ao `a geometria simpl´e- tica com foco em dois aspectos

  9. Departamento de Matematica do IST, Secc~ao de Algebra e Analise Analise Matematica III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    por arcos. Teorema fundamental do c´alculo para inte- grais de linha. Conserva¸c~ao de energia mec^anica vectorial seja gradi- ante. C´alculo de fun¸c~oes potenciais. 12. Homotopia. Invari^ancia de integrais de conjuntos em estrela em R3 . Exemplo de campo solenoidal sem potencial vectorial: campo gravitacional de uma

  10. IMPLEMENTAC~AO DO CONTROLE DE ENXAMES DE ROB^OS UTILIZANDO A HIDRODIN^AMICA DE PARTICULAS SUAVIZADAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaimowicz, Luiz

    Chaimowicz§ Programa de P´os-Gradua¸c~ao em Engenharia El´etrica Departamento de Engenharia Eletr

  11. Particle production at RHIC energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Debbe; for the BRAHMS collaboration

    2003-08-06

    This paper presents recent results from the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC; including results on particle production in rapidity space extending from y=0 to y ~ 3 and on the transverse momentum distribution of fully identified charged particles. These results were obtained from the 5% most central Au-Au collisions recorded during RHIC Run-2 at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV.

  12. Cancer Therapy with Particle Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Cancer Therapy with Particle Beams #12;· The potential to use high energy particle beams to treat many types of cancer has been known even before their creation. · The availability of these treatments to be used in medicine, specifically for the treatment of certain cancers. His paper was published when

  13. Observer-dependent optical properties of stationary axisymmetric spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Fernando de Felice; Andrea Geralico

    2014-08-23

    The world lines of null particles admit arbitrary parametrizations. In the presence of a family of observers one may introduce along a null world line an extension of the so-called Cattaneo's relative standard time parameter (valid for massive particles) which plays a special role. Another possibility is to use the coordinate time itself as a parameter. The relation between relative standard time and coordinate time allows for the introduction of an observer-dependent optical path and associated refraction index. Both these quantities are studied here working out explicit examples concerning familiar null orbits and observers in black hole spacetimes.

  14. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  15. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  16. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  17. Optical key system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA); Clough, Robert E. (Danville, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  18. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES Campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, D. J.; Pekour, M. S.; Zhang, Q.; Setyan, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Cappa, C. D.

    2014-12-10

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 CARES study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles, yielding ? = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. Themore »derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.« less

  19. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Zhang, Qi; Setyan, Ari; Zelenyuk, Alla; Cappa, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 CARES study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles, yielding ? = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.

  20. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3×105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  1. Quantum vacuum radiation in optical glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Liberati; Angus Prain; Matt Visser

    2011-11-01

    A recent experimental claim of the detection of analogue Hawking radiation in an optical system [PRL 105 (2010) 203901] has led to some controversy [PRL 107 (2011) 149401, 149402]. While this experiment strongly suggests some form of particle creation from the quantum vacuum (and hence it is per se very interesting), it is also true that it seems difficult to completely explain all features of the observations by adopting the perspective of a Hawking-like mechanism for the radiation. For instance, the observed photons are emitted parallel to the optical horizon, and the relevant optical horizon is itself defined in an unusual manner by combining group and phase velocities. This raises the question: Is this really Hawking radiation, or some other form of quantum vacuum radiation? Naive estimates of the amount of quantum vacuum radiation generated due to the rapidly changing refractive index --- sometimes called the dynamical Casimir effect --- are not encouraging. However we feel that naive estimates could be misleading depending on the quantitative magnitude of two specific physical effects: "pulse steepening" and "pulse cresting". Plausible bounds on the maximum size of these two effects results in estimates much closer to the experimental observations, and we argue that the dynamical Casimir effect is now worth additional investigation.

  2. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  3. Focusing particle concentrator with application to ultrafine particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hering, Susanne; Lewis, Gregory; Spielman, Steven R.

    2013-06-11

    Technology is presented for the high efficiency concentration of fine and ultrafine airborne particles into a small fraction of the sampled airflow by condensational enlargement, aerodynamic focusing and flow separation. A nozzle concentrator structure including an acceleration nozzle with a flow extraction structure may be coupled to a containment vessel. The containment vessel may include a water condensation growth tube to facilitate the concentration of ultrafine particles. The containment vessel may further include a separate carrier flow introduced at the center of the sampled flow, upstream of the acceleration nozzle of the nozzle concentrator to facilitate the separation of particle and vapor constituents.

  4. Optically Reconfigurable Photonic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qian; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic components with adjustable parameters, from variable-focal-length lenses to spectral filters that can change functionality upon stimulation, have enormous technological importance. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nano-mechanical actuation of their consitutive parts, stretching or application of thermal stimuli. Here we report a new dielectric metasurface platform for reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and re-written as two-dimensional binary or grey-scale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase-transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films optimized for high-optical-contrast ovonic switching with a sub-wavelength-resolution optical writing process to demonstrate technologically relevant devices: visible-range reconfigurable bi-chr...

  5. Particle Measurement Methods. Number Concentrations. One common method used to measure number concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    , and are the surface tension, molecular weight, and density of the alcohol, R is the universal gas constant a narrow jet. Individual particles are counted by an optical device, which consists of a laser beam partial pressure (p, the amount of vapor in the gas), divided by the saturation vapor pressure, S= p

  6. Energy flow between two hydrodynamically coupled particles kept at different effective temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine Bérut; Artyom Petrosyan; Sergio Ciliberto

    2015-05-26

    We measure the energy exchanged between two hydrodynamically coupled micron-sized Brownian particles trapped in water by two optical tweezers. The system is driven out of equilibrium by random forcing the position of one of the two particles. The forced particle behaves as it has an "effective temperature" higher than that of the other bead. This driving modifies the equilibrium variances and cross-correlation functions of the bead positions: we measure an energy flow between the particles and an instantaneous cross-correlation, proportional to the effective temperature difference between the two particles. A model of the interaction which is based on classical hydrodynamic coupling tensors is proposed. The theoretical and experimental results are in excellent agreement.

  7. Interface deformations affect the orientation transition of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary B. Davies; Timm Krüger; Peter V. Coveney; Jens Harting; Fernando Bresme

    2014-10-28

    Manufacturing new soft materials with specific optical, mechanical and magnetic properties is a significant challenge. Assembling and manipulating colloidal particles at fluid interfaces is a promising way to make such materials. We use lattice-Boltzmann simulations to investigate the response of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at liquid-liquid interfaces to external magnetic fields. We provide further evidence for the first-order orientation phase transition predicted by Bresme and Faraudo [Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 19 (2007), 375110]. We show that capillary interface deformations around the ellipsoidal particle significantly affect the tilt-angle of the particle for a given dipole-field strength, altering the properties of the orientation transition. We propose scaling laws governing this transition, and suggest how to use these deformations to facilitate particle assembly at fluid-fluid interfaces.

  8. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  9. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1998-10-06

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  10. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1996-12-17

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  11. Cavity quantum electro-optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankei Tsang

    2010-06-30

    The quantum dynamics of the coupling between a cavity optical field and a resonator microwave field via the electro-optic effect is studied. This coupling has the same form as the opto-mechanical coupling via radiation pressure, so all previously considered opto-mechanical effects can in principle be observed in electro-optic systems as well. In particular, I point out the possibilities of laser cooling of the microwave mode, entanglement between the optical mode and the microwave mode via electro-optic parametric amplification, and back-action-evading optical measurements of a microwave quadrature.

  12. Optical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Optical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Optical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) conducts optical characterization of large solar concentration devices. Concentration solar power (CSP) mirror panels and concentrating solar systems are tested with an emphasis is on measurement of parabolic trough mirror panels. The Optical Characterization Laboratory provides state-of-the-art characterization and testing capabilities for assessing the optical surface quality and optical performance for various CSP technologies including parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, dishes, and heliostats.

  13. Particle-particle random phase approximation applied to Beryllium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Blanchon; Nicole Vinh Mau; Angela Bonaccorso; Marc Dupuis; Nathalie Pillet

    2010-07-16

    This work is dedicated to the study of even-even 8-14 Be isotopes using the particle-particle Random Phase Approximation that accounts for two-body correlations in the core nucleus. A better description of energies and two-particle amplitudes is obtained in comparison with models assuming a neutron closed-shell (or subshell) core. A Wood-Saxon potential corrected by a phenomenological particle-vibration coupling term has been used for the neutron-core interaction and the D1S Gogny force for the neutron-neutron interaction. Calculated ground state properties as well as excited state ones are discussed and compared to experimental data. In particular, results suggest the same 2s_1/2-1p_1/2 shell inversion in 13Be as in 11Be.

  14. Optical fiber based ultrashort pulse multispectral nonlinear optical microscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Adam Michael

    2009-05-15

    Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) utilizing femtosecond laser pulses is well suited for imaging living tissues. This work reports on the design and development of an optical fiber based multispectral NLOM developed around ...

  15. Optics in data center network architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrington, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2 Reducing Cabling Complexity with Optics . . . . .Advances in Information Optics and Photonics. SPIE, 2008. [c-Through: Part-time Optics in Data Centers,” in Proceedings

  16. High-index-contrast electromechanical optical switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, Reginald (Reginald Eugene), 1978-

    2011-01-01

    System developers are looking to replace protocol-dependent, bandwidth-limited optical networks with intelligent optically-transparent integrated photonic networks. Several electromechanical optical switches are explored ...

  17. 2.71 Optics, Fall 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbastathis, George

    Introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Geometrical optics: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Wave optics: basic electrodynamics, ...

  18. Two-particle quantum transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ron Folman

    2012-11-25

    Two-photon interference is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum mechanics and stands at the base of numerous experimental observations. Here another manifestation of this phenomenon is described, taking place at a Y junction. Specifically it is shown how the r^2+t^2 term which is behind previous observations of two-photon interference, may give rise to different states at a beam-splitter and different two-particle transmission coefficients at a Y junction. Different from previous descriptions of quantum transmission based on one-particle physics, the enhanced transmission described here is due to two-particle physics.

  19. Particle Production and Universal Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhajit Saha; Subenoy Chakraborty

    2015-07-06

    In the present work, particle creation mechanism has been employed to the Universe as a thermodynamical system. The Universe is considered to be a spatially flat FRW model and cosmic fluid is chosen as a perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state -- $p = (\\gamma -1)\\rho$. By proper choice of the particle creation rate, expressions for the entropy and temperature have been determined at various stages of evolution of the Universe. Finally, using the deceleration parameter $q$ as a function of the redshift parameter $z$ based on recent observations, the particle creation rate has been evaluated and its variation at different epochs have been shown graphically.

  20. Quantum Cellular Automata Without Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Meyer; Asif Shakeel

    2015-06-04

    Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA) constitute a natural discrete model for quantum field theory (QFT). Although QFTs are defined without reference to particles, computations are done in terms of Feynman diagrams, which are explicitly interpreted in terms of interacting particles. Similarly, the easiest QCA to construct are Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). A natural question then is, "are all nontrivial QCA QLGA?". Here we show by construction that the answer is "no"; thus there are QCA, even in $1+1$ dimensions, that have no particle interpretation.

  1. Exercicios-Desafio de AMIV Nota Importante: N~ao e recomendavel e e altamente desaconselhado o investimento de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    investimento de tempo na tentativa de resolu¸c~ao destes exerc´icios por quem ainda n~ao tenha resolvido com su- cesso e relativa facilidade os exerc´icios-teste semanais e uma quantidade bastante substancial de exerc´icios

  2. Identificac~ao da Doenca de Chagas Baseada em Analise de Sinais de Variabilidade da Frequ^encia Cardiaca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    varia¸c~ao (desvio padr~ao/m´edia); M´aximo intervalo RR, m´inimo intervalo RR e faixa din^amica com clareza o grupo de indiv´iduos normais do grupo de chag´asicos. Melhores resultados: Coeficiente

  3. Linac Envelope Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baartman, Rick

    2015-01-01

    I develop the formalism that allows calculation of beam envelopes through a linear accelerator given its on-axis electric field. Space charge can naturally be added using Sacherer formalism. A complicating feature is that the reference particle's energy-time coordinates are not known a priori. Since first order matrix formalism applies to deviations from the reference particle, this means the reference particle's time and energy must be calculated simultaneously with the beam envelope and transfer matrix. The code TRANSOPTR is used to track envelopes for general elements whose infinitesimal transfer matrices are known, and in the presence of space charge. Incorporation of the linac algorithm into TRANSOPTR is described, and some examples given.

  4. Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1999-05-18

    Optical apparatus is disclosed for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors. The optical apparatus comprises one or more diffractive optical elements formed on a substrate for receiving light from a source and processing the incident light. The optical apparatus includes an addressing element for alternately addressing each diffractive optical element thereof to produce for one unit of time a first correlation with the incident light, and to produce for a different unit of time a second correlation with the incident light that is different from the first correlation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the optical apparatus is in the form of a correlation spectrometer; and in other embodiments, the apparatus is in the form of an optical processor. In some embodiments, the optical apparatus comprises a plurality of diffractive optical elements on a common substrate for forming first and second gratings that alternately intercept the incident light for different units of time. In other embodiments, the optical apparatus includes an electrically-programmable diffraction grating that may be alternately switched between a plurality of grating states thereof for processing the incident light. The optical apparatus may be formed, at least in part, by a micromachining process. 24 figs.

  5. Fiber optic compass development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Kyongtae

    2005-11-01

    magnetometer based on this principle, a single mode optical fiber coated with nickel [6] 3 or wrapped around a Metglas cylinder [7] experiences a strain which is dependent on the external magnetic field [8-10]. The fiber is deployed in one arm of a Michelson...

  6. Optical cloaking with metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bilotti; S. Tricarico; L. Vegni

    2008-06-06

    In this contribution, we present the design of cylindrical electromagnetic cloaks working at optical frequencies, making use of layered structures of plasmonic and non-plasmonic materials. The simulated results confirm the validity of the proposed approach and show a rather broad-band behavior of the cloaking device.

  7. High throughput optical scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  8. Genesis of CREOLGenesis of CREOL The College of Optics & PhotonicsThe College of Optics & Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Genesis of CREOLGenesis of CREOL The College of Optics & PhotonicsThe College of Optics & Photonics, the School of OpticsCREOL, the School of Optics CREOL, The College of Optics & PhotonicsCREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics CREOL & FPCE, The College of Optics and PhotonicsCREOL & FPCE, The College of Optics

  9. Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering The Institute of Optics Major Requirements OPT 201 Geometrical Optics Lab (2 cr.) OPT 202 Physical Optics Lab (2 Theory of Optics OPT 225 Optical Sources and Detectors OPT 241 Geometrical Optics OPT 242 Aberrations

  10. Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering The Institute of Optics Major Requirements OPT 197 Geometrical Optics Lab (2 cr.) OPT 198 Physical Optics Lab (2 Theory of Optics OPT 225 Optical Sources and Detectors OPT 241 Geometrical Optics OPT 242 Aberrations

  11. Optical single sideband modulation using strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Hyuk-Kee; Lau, Erwin K.; Wu, Ming C.

    2007-01-01

    generation by direct modulation of optical injection-lockedreported direct SSB modulation from an optically injection-

  12. 4-ID-D optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-ID-D Beamline Optics A schetch of the major optical components for beam line 4-ID-D are shown above. All these components located in the B-station upstream from the D...

  13. Frame dragging with optical vortices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strohaber, James

    2011-12-22

    General Relativistic calculations in the linear regime have been made for electromagnetic beams of radiation known as optical vortices. These exotic beams of light carry a physical quantity known as optical orbital angular momentum (OAM...

  14. Diagnostics Implemented on NIF - Optical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Streaked Optical Pyrometer Shared LOS 90-315 DIM LLNL SOP measures the breakout time of an optically emitting shock. Robert M. Malone et al., "Combining a thermal-imaging...

  15. Optics (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optics Group (X-ray Science Division) The mission of the Optics Group is to facilitate the efficient and productive use and operation of APS beamline-based research facilities. In...

  16. Distributed optical fiber vibration sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hui

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents a distributed optical fiber vibration sensor. The purpose of this sensing system is to monitor, in real time, the status of railcars by burying an optical fiber underground beside the rails. Using a coherent homodyne technique...

  17. Particle Physics: a Progress Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guido Altarelli

    2006-09-11

    We present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First we discuss QCD, then the electroweak sector and finally the motivations and the avenues for new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  18. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  19. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  20. Optical diode based on the chirality of guided photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sayrin; C. Junge; R. Mitsch; B. Albrecht; D. O'Shea; P. Schneeweiss; J. Volz; A. Rauschenbeutel

    2015-02-05

    Photons are nonchiral particles: their handedness can be both left and right. However, when light is transversely confined, it can locally exhibit a transverse spin whose orientation is fixed by the propagation direction of the photons. Confined photons thus have chiral character. Here, we employ this to demonstrate nonreciprocal transmission of light at the single-photon level through a silica nanofibre in two experimental schemes. We either use an ensemble of spin-polarised atoms that is weakly coupled to the nanofibre-guided mode or a single spin-polarised atom strongly coupled to the nanofibre via a whispering-gallery-mode resonator. We simultaneously achieve high optical isolation and high forward transmission. Both are controlled by the internal atomic state. The resulting optical diode is the first example of a new class of nonreciprocal nanophotonic devices which exploit the chirality of confined photons and which are, in principle, suitable for quantum information processing and future quantum optical networks.

  1. Colloidal metal particles as probes of nanoscale thermal transport in fluids Orla M. Wilson, Xiaoyuan Hu, David G. Cahill,* and Paul V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Colloidal metal particles as probes of nanoscale thermal transport in fluids Orla M. WilsonPd nanoparticles as probes of thermal transport in fluids and determine approximate values for the thermal conductance G of the particle/fluid interfaces. Subpicosecond 770 nm optical pulses from a Ti:sapphire mode

  2. Visibility bound caused by a distinguishable noise particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Gavenda; Lucie Celechovska; Jan Soubusta; Miloslav Dusek; Radim Filip

    2011-03-11

    We investigate how distinguishability of a "noise" particle degrades interference of the "signal" particle. The signal, represented by an equatorial state of a photonic qubit, is mixed with noise, represented by another photonic qubit, via linear coupling on the beam splitter. We report on the degradation of the "signal" photon interference depending on the degree of indistinguishability between "signal" and "noise" photon. When the photons are principally completely distinguishable but technically indistinguishable the visibility drops to the value 1/sqrt(2). As the photons become more indistinguishable the maximal visibility increases and reaches the unit value for completely indistinguishable photons. We have examined this effect experimentally using setup with fiber optics two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  3. Resoluc~ao Sumaria da 1a Ficha de Exercicios de AMIII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventura, Joana

    (x, xy) (com f : E2 R de classe C2). Exprima a derivada parcial mista F12 `a custa de derivadas parciais : E2 R de classe C2). Exprima as derivadas parciais de ordens 1 e 2 de F `a custa de derivadas a derivada de f g ´e a derivada direccional de f segundo dg dt . Resolu¸c~ao: Pela regra da derivada da

  4. MA091 Matematica basica Aula 6 Raz~ao. Taxa. Porcentagem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomes, Francisco A. M.

    cont´em 500 ml de l´iquido. Para preparar o suco, misturamos o concentrado com ´agua, na raz~ao 1:3. Quantos ml de ´agua devemos adicionar a 200 ml do suco concentrado? Nesse caso, qual ser´a o volume total de suco? Mistura: partes de suco partes de ´agua = 1 3 . Mistura com 200 ml de suco: 1 3 · 200 ml 200

  5. MAC-412 Organizac~ao de Computadores Lista de Exercicios No. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Siang Wun

    MAC-412 Organiza¸c~ao de Computadores Lista de Exerc´icios No. 1 · A entrega de exerc´icios pode no andar t´erreo do Bloco C. · Se voce prefere entregar por email, mande para song@ime.usp.br Pesquise na internet e responda sucintamente as quest~oes. 1. Na lista top500 de junho deste ano (consultar o site top

  6. Mori Development Team E tipu, e rea, m ng r o t ao;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Mori Development Team MORI #12;#12;E tipu, e rea, m ng r o t ao; ko t ringa ki ng rkau a te Pkeh hei oranga m t tinana; ko t ngkau ki ng taonga a tpuna hei tikitiki m t mhunga. ko t wairua ki t Atua, nna nei ng me a katoa ­ T Apirana Ngata Sir Apirana Ngata of Ngti Porou was born in Te Araroa in 1874

  7. Calculo Diferencial e Integral II Exercicio de Aplicac~ao 6 -Mec^anica de Fluidos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    C´alculo Diferencial e Integral II Exerc´icio de Aplica¸c~ao 6 - Mec^anica de Fluidos Um fluido ´e F = - A pn dV2, onde n ´e a normal unit´aria exterior (o integral de um campo vectorial ´e o vector qualquer campo vectorial v : R3 R3 satisfazen

  8. WhiteOptics' Low-Cost Reflector Composite Boosts LED Fixture Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    With the help of DOE funding, WhiteOptics has developed a composite coating that can be used to improve efficiency in backlit, indirect, and cavity-mixing LED luminaire designs by maximizing light reflection and output. The highly diffuse coating, which is based on a novel high-reflectance particle technology, allows for uniform distribution of light without exaggerating the point-source nature of the LEDs, and is intended to offer an overall system cost-improving solution for LED optics.

  9. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  10. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P, Anusha N, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Shaji, Chitra, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  11. Particles in Surface Waters: Coagulation and Transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culkin, Gerald W.; Lawler, Desmond F.

    1991-01-01

    -averaged, unsteady particle transport were developed to approximate the size-dependent particle transport processes, which included advection, dispersion, and settling. Coupled exchange of discrete particles between the water column and sediment bed was modeled using...

  12. Ultrafast Optics and Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory http://purcell.ecn.purdue.edu/~fsoptics/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    Ultrafast Optics and Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory http, A. M. Weiner Purdue University C. Lin Avanex Corporation Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics;Ultrafast Optics and Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory http://purcell.ecn.purdue.edu/~fsoptics/ 2

  13. Catalog Entry for PHYS 522: NONLINEAR OPTICS PHYS 522 (3) Nonlinear Optics (3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    Catalog Entry for PHYS 522: NONLINEAR OPTICS PHYS 522 (3) Nonlinear Optics (3) Classical and propagation. Properties of optical fibers and nonlinear materials. Theory of nonlinear propagation, solitons, inverse scattering transforms, optical chaos. Applications to lasers, optical violability, self

  14. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, J.M.

    1996-03-26

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

  15. Single-cycle nonlinear optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulielmakis, E.; Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik

    2008-01-01

    g l e - C y c l e Nonlinear Optics E. G o u l i e l m a k iSingle-Cycle Nonlinear Optics E. Goulielmakis *, M.D-85748 Garching. Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley

  16. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John M. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 .mu.m.

  17. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprehn, G.A.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Sandler, P.H.

    1997-11-04

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency. 4 figs.

  18. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 \\Theta 4 square array of optical tweezers -- the hexadeca

  19. Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of large dust particles in the atmosphere around Niamey.

  20. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...