National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for anticipated steady growth

  1. Anticipate-Affect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anticipate-Affect Anticipate-Affect Scientists are developing sophisticated modeling and research techniques to give them an advantage in their ability to anticipate and affect explosive-related threats or events. v Sophisticated modeling and research techniques to counter threats What conditions lead an individual or group toward committing political violence? Is it possible to accurately forecast who will become radicalized or even estimate when they might resort to violence? These and similar

  2. The role of C and Mn at the austenite/pearlite reaction front during non-steady-state pearlite growth in a Fe-C-Mn steel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aranda, M. M.; Rementeria, R.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Capdevila, Carlos

    2015-04-18

    The role of C and Mn during the growth of pearlite under non-steady state conditions is analyzed by comparing the phase compositions of austenite, ferrite and cementite (γ+α+θ) through the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and atom probe tomography (APT) measurements across the austenite/pearlite interface. Furthermore, a local Mn enrichment and C depletion at the austenite/pearlite interface has been measured, which causes a change in the driving force with time during divergent pearlite growth.

  3. Anticipated transients without scram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lellouche, G.S.

    1980-07-01

    This article discusses in various degrees of depth the publications WASH-1270, WASH-1400, and NUREG-0460, and has as its purpose a description of the technical work done by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) personnel and its contractors on the subject of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). It demonstrates the close relation between the probability of scram failure derived from historical scram data and that derived from the use of component data in a model of a system (the so-called synthesis method), such as was done in WASH-1400. The inherent conservatism of these models is demonstrated by showing that they predict significantly more events than have in fact occurred and that such models still predict scram failure probabilities low enough to make ATWS an insignificant contributor to accident risk.

  4. Mines in the Four Corners anticipate growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-02-15

    Productive mines in the southwest deplete reserves, while the government drags its heels on new power projects. Production in Arizona and New Mexico has fallen 18% over the last four years to 34.1 million tons. With Chevron Mining's McKinley mine rapidly depleting its reserves the industry will continue to contract. In the last three years at least three large mines in the Four Corners have terminated operations. Three others remain captive operations: BHP Billiton's San Juan Underground and Navajo Surface operations and Peabody Energy's Kayenta surface mine. In 2006 the Black Mesa mine stopped producing coal. These four mines are isolated from the national railways. Peabody's new El Segundo surface mine near Grants, NM is increasing production. If the planned $3 billion Desert Rock coal-fired power plant is built this will present a new market for the Navajo mine. The article gives details about the state of the aforementioned mines and of the new King II coal mine on the northern periphery of the San Juan basin and discusses the state of plans for the Desert Rock Energy Project. 5 photos.

  5. Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)" held on June 24, 2014. Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles ...

  6. Quantum steady computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castagnoli, G. )

    1991-08-10

    This paper reports that current conceptions of quantum mechanical computers inherit from conventional digital machines two apparently interacting features, machine imperfection and temporal development of the computational process. On account of machine imperfection, the process would become ideally reversible only in the limiting case of zero speed. Therefore the process is irreversible in practice and cannot be considered to be a fundamental quantum one. By giving up classical features and using a linear, reversible and non-sequential representation of the computational process - not realizable in classical machines - the process can be identified with the mathematical form of a quantum steady state. This form of steady quantum computation would seem to have an important bearing on the notion of cognition.

  7. Record attendance anticipated for 6th Annual Portsmouth Site...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Record attendance anticipated for 6th Annual Portsmouth Site Science Alliance Record attendance anticipated for 6th Annual Portsmouth Site Science Alliance October 2, 2015 - 3:39pm...

  8. Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (FCEVs) | Department of Energy for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)" held on June 24, 2014. Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Webinar Slides (3.28 MB) More Documents

  9. Webinar: Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles (FCEVs) | Department of Energy Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Webinar: Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)," originally presented on June 24, 2014. In addition to this text version of the audio, you can access the presentation slides. Alli Aman: [Audio starts

  10. AIS/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: AISDOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating New Routes To Steel Sheet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AISDOE Technology Roadmap...

  11. AIS/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AISDOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating New Routes To Steel Sheet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AISDOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip...

  12. DOE Announces Webinars on Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 24: Live Webinar on Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Webinar Sponsor: ... metering and their importance in making projects cost-effective. ...

  13. Rational design of metal-organic frameworks with anticipated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rational design of metal-organic frameworks with anticipated porosities and ... Until now, much progress has been made to rationalize the design and synthesis of MOFs. ...

  14. Steady State Dense Gas Dispersion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    SLAB-LLNL is a steady-state one-dimensional program which calculates the atmospheric dispersion of a heavier than air gas that is continuously released at ground level. The model is based on the steady-state crosswind-averaged conservation equations of species, mass, energy, and momentum. It uses the air entrainment concept to account for the turbulent mixing of the gas cloud with the surrounding atmosphere and similarity profiles to determine the crosswind dependence.

  15. Webinar: Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated FCEVs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles" on Tuesday, June 24, from 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. Eastern...

  16. Offshore Wind Energy Market Installed Capacity is Anticipated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Offshore Wind Energy Market Installed Capacity is Anticipated to Reach 52,120.9 MW by 2022 Home > Groups > Renewable Energy RFPs Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150)...

  17. CA_OPPUSST - Cantera OPUS Steady State

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-01

    The Cantera Opus Steady State (ca-opusst) applications solves steady reacting flow problems in opposed-flow geometries. It is a 1-0 application that represents axisymmetnc 3-0 physical systems that can be reduced via a similarity transformation to a 1-0 mathematical representation. The code contain solutions of the general dynamic equations for the particle distribution functions using a sectional model to describe the particle distribution function. Operators for particle nucleation, coagulation, condensation (i.e., growth/etching via reactions with themore » gas ambient), internal particle reactions. particle transport due to convection and due to molecular transport, are included in the particle general dynamics equation. Heat transport due to radiation exchange of the environment with particles in local thermal equilibrium to the surrounding gas will be included in the enthalpy conservation equation that is solved for the coupled gas! particle system in an upcoming version of the code due in June 2005. The codes use Cantera , a C++ Cal Tech code, for determination of gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics physical properties and source terms. The Codes use the Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package, a general library for aerosol modeling, to calculate properties and source terms for the aerosol general dynamics equation, including particle formation from gas phase reactions, particle surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, particle transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis, and thermal radiative transport involving particles. Also included are post-processing programs, cajost and cajrof, to extract ascii data from binary output files to produce plots.« less

  18. ATWS: a reappraisal. Part 3. Frequency of anticipated transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClymont, A.S.; Poehlman, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    This document is the first revision of Part 3 of the EPRI study of the anticipated transients without scram question. This revision includes an update of events at nuclear power plants which had led to fast reactor shutdowns (scrams). The purpose of this document is to present the nuclear power plant operating experience, reflecting the frequency of these events identified by their principal characteristics.

  19. EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-860 Form Anticipated Questions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    860 Answers to Anticipated Questions for New Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report" I am currently registered for the survey Form EIA-860. Will I need to re-register prior to submitting my 2007 data? No, you will automatically have access to the Form EIA-860 once the form is open for data collection. How do I add a newly planned or missing existing electric plant to the Form EIA-860 survey? The respondent cannot add a new electric plant to the survey. EIA has to perform that

  20. EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-923 Form Anticipated Questions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    923 Answers to Anticipated Questions for New Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report" I am currently registered for the survey Form EIA-906 and/or survey Form EIA-920. Will I need to re-register prior to submitting my data for Form EIA-923? No, you will automatically have access to the new Form EIA-923 once the form is open for data collection. What is Form EIA-923 and why has EIA come up with another form for me to fill out? Form EIA-923 replaces Forms EIA-906, EIA-920, EIA-423,

  1. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, W.C.

    1983-05-17

    This invention relates to the confinement of field reversed plasma rings and, more particularly, to the steady state maintainance of field reversed plasma rings produced by coaxial plasma guns.

  2. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  3. BWR Anticipated Transients Without Scram Leading to Instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng L. Y.; Baek J.; Cuadra, A.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in aboiling water reactor (BWR) were simulated in order to understand reactor response and determine the effectiveness of automatic and operator actions to mitigate this beyond-design-basis accident. The events of interest herein are initiated by a turbine trip when the reactor is operating in the expanded operating domainMELLLA+ [maximum extended load line limit plus]. In these events the reactor may initially be at up to 120% of the original licensed thermal power (OLTP) and at flow rates as low as 80% of rated.For these (and similar) ATWS events the concern isthat when the reactor power decreases in response to a dual recirculation pump trip, the core will become unstable and large amplitude oscillations will begin. The occurrence of these power oscillations, if left unmitigated, may result in fuel damage, and the amplitude of the poweroscillations may hamper the effectiveness of the injection of dissolved neutron absorber through the standby liquid control system (SLCS).

  4. Anticipating Potential Waste Acceptance Criteria for Defense Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.; Lord, M.E.; Stockman, C.T.; McCurley, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and disposal of DOE owned defense spent nuclear fuel and high level waste (DSNF/DHLW). A desirable option, direct disposal of the waste in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, depends on the final waste acceptance criteria, which will be set by DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). However, evolving regulations make it difficult to determine what the final acceptance criteria will be. A method of anticipating waste acceptance criteria is to gain an understanding of the DOE owned waste types and their behavior in a disposal system through a performance assessment and contrast such behavior with characteristics of commercial spent fuel. Preliminary results from such an analysis indicate that releases of 99Tc and 237Np from commercial spent fuel exceed those of the DSNF/DHLW; thus, if commercial spent fuel can meet the waste acceptance criteria, then DSNF can also meet the criteria. In large part, these results are caused by the small percentage of total activity of the DSNF in the repository (1.5%) and regulatory mass (4%), and also because commercial fuel cladding was assumed to provide no protection.

  5. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State...

  6. Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  7. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.

    1985-02-20

    The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.

  8. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, Alan C.; Jardin, Stephen C.; Yamada, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.

  9. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design point is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported.

  10. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  11. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles System-level models using ...

  12. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  13. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Kovarik, Vincent J.; Prelec, Krsto

    1990-01-01

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.

  14. Enhancing the ABAQUS thermomechanics code to simulate multipellet steady and transient LWR fuel rod behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson

    2011-08-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance analysis capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth, gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. This new capability is demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multipellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Comparisons are made between discrete and smeared-pellet simulations. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional, multipellet, fully-coupled thermomechanical approach. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermomechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  15. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

    2009-09-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  16. DOE Announces Webinars on Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Electric Vehicles, Net Metering for Tribes, and More | Department of Energy Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, Net Metering for Tribes, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, Net Metering for Tribes, and More June 19, 2014 - 6:48pm Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to

  17. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth and the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.

  18. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore » the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less

  19. Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Current and Anticipated FCEVs Jason Marcinkoski U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov 3 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated FCEVs Jason Marcinkoski U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office C A L I F O R N I A E N E R G Y C O M M I S S I O N Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program

  20. Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of Photoinduced Decomposition of TATB at Ambient and Elevated Pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  1. Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giachetti, R.T. (Giachetti (Richard T.), Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs.

  2. Dynamic Analytical Capability to Better Understand and Anticipate Extremist Shifts Within Populations under Authoritarian Regimes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to create a generalizable data- and theory-supported capability to better understand and anticipate (with quantifiable uncertainty): 1) how the dynamics of allegiance formations between various groups and society are impacted by active conflict and by third-party interventions and 2) how/why extremist allegiances co-evolve over time due to changing geopolitical, sociocultural, and military conditions.

  3. Current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes in NFI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuda, K.; Takayasu, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic codes currently used in NFI for the LWR fuel development and licensing application including transient and design basis accident analyses of LWR plants. The current status of the codes are described in the context of code capability, modeling feature, and experience of code application related to the fuel development and licensing. Finally, the anticipated use of the future thermal-hydraulic code in NFI is briefly given.

  4. Method and apparatus for adapting steady flow with cyclic thermodynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Reid, Robert S.; Ward, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Energy transfer apparatus has a resonator for supporting standing acoustic waves at a selected frequency with a steady flow process fluid thermodynamic medium and a solid medium having heat capacity. The fluid medium and the solid medium are disposed within the resonator for thermal contact therebetween and for relative motion therebetween. The relative motion is produced by a first means for producing a steady velocity component and second means for producing an oscillating velocity component at the selected frequency and concomitant wavelength of the standing acoustic wave. The oscillating velocity and associated oscillating pressure component provide energy transfer between the steady flow process fluid and the solid medium as the steady flow process fluid moves through the resonator.

  5. Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrafast time-resolved infrared and steady state Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopies were used to probe TATB and its products after photoexcitation with a 5 ns pulse of 532 ...

  6. Paducah Site Undergoing Steady Groundwater Cleanup with Variety of Methods

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Site Undergoing Steady Groundwater Cleanup with Variety of Methods Paducah Site Undergoing Steady Groundwater Cleanup with Variety of Methods June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis The yellow outline depicts an area southeast of the C-400 Cleaning Building, background, where electrical resistance heating will be used to remove trichloroethene (TCE) down to 60 feet below ground. Electrodes will heat the chemical into a vapor that can be pumped to the surface and treated in the

  7. Tracer advection by steady groundwater flow in a stratified aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sposito, Garrison; Weeks, Scott W.

    1997-01-02

    The perfectly stratified aquifer has often been investigated as a simple, tractable model for exploring new theoretical issues in subsurface hydrology. Adopting this approach, we show that steady groundwater flows in the perfectly stratified aquifer are always confined to a set of nonintersecting permanent surfaces, on which both streamlines and vorticity lines lie. This foliation of the flow domain exists as well for steady groundwater flows in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer. In the present model example it is a direct consequence of the existence of a stream function, we then demonstrate that tracer plume advection by steady groundwater flow in a perfectly stratified aquifer is never ergodic, regardless of the initial size of the tracer plume. This nonergodicity, which holds also for tracer advection in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer, implies that stochastic theories of purely advective tracer plume movement err in assuming ergodic behavior to simplify probabilistic calculations of plume spatial concentration moments.

  8. Effect of power oscillations on suppression pool heating during ATWS (Anticipated Transients Without Scram) conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Nine selected Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) have been simulated on the BNL Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA), to determine how power and flow oscillations, similar to those that did or could have occurred at the LaSalle-2 boiling Water Reactor (BWR), could affect the rate of Pressure Suppression Pool heating. It has been determined that the pool can reach its temperature limit of 80{degree}C in 4.3 min. after Turbine Trip without Bypass, if the feedwater pumps are not tripped. The pool will not reach its limit, if Boron is injected, even when oscillations are encountered. Simultaneous turbine and recirculation pump trips, introduced under stable conditions, can lead to instability. 2 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Effect of recirculation pump trip following anticipated transients without scram at Big Rock Point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    As requested by the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) in their Technical Report on Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) for Water-Cooled Reactors (WASH-1270), Consumers Power Company has submitted analyses which describe the response of their Big Rock Point (BRP) Plant to ATWS. The original analyses were submitted on Febuary 21, 1975, and results indicated that a recirculation pump trip (RPT) was effective in limiting the consequences of an ATWS. The response of BRP to an ATWS was reanalyzed as a part of the Big Rock Point Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Results of the analysis were submitted on February 26, 1981, with the conclusion that automatic RPT provides little safety improvement at BRP. Purpose of this report is to evaluate the submitted analyses to determine the effectiveness of Recirculation Pump Trip in ATWS recovery.

  10. RAMONA-3B calculations for Browns Ferry ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, P; Slovik, G C; Neymotin, L Y

    1987-02-01

    Several aspects of the Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) initiated by an inadvertent closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV) in a typical BWR/4 are analyzed in the report. The analysis is performed using the Brookhaven National Laboratory code, RAMONA-3B, which employs a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with a parallel-channel thermal hydraulics in representing a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Core. Four different transient scenarios have been investigated: (a) downcomer water level and reactor pressure control, (b) manual control rod insertion transient, (c) high pressure boil-off, and (d) recirculation pump trip failure. Results of these calculations should provide better understanding of mitigative effects of operator actions during ATWS, thus helping in the development of adequate Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPG) required for the BWR plant safety. A few unresolved questions subject to future investigations are also discussed.

  11. Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.

  12. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bieli, R.; Bergmann, U. C.

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  13. QUASI-STEADY CONFIGURATIONS OF CONDUCTIVE INTRACLUSTER MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voit, G. M.

    2011-10-10

    The radial distributions of temperature, density, and gas entropy among cool-core clusters tend to be quite similar, suggesting that they have entered a quasi-steady state. If that state is regulated by a combination of thermal conduction and feedback from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), then the characteristics of those radial profiles ought to contain information about the spatial distribution of AGN heat input and the relative importance of thermal conduction. This paper addresses those topics by deriving steady-state solutions for clusters in which radiative cooling, electron thermal conduction, and thermal feedback fueled by accretion are all present, with the aim of interpreting the configurations of cool-core clusters in terms of steady-state models. It finds that the core configurations of many cool-core clusters have entropy levels just below those of conductively balanced solutions in which magnetic fields have suppressed electron thermal conduction to {approx}1/3 of the full Spitzer value, suggesting that AGN feedback is triggered when conduction can no longer compensate for radiative cooling. And even when feedback is necessary to heat the central {approx}30 kpc, conduction may still be the most important heating mechanism within a cluster's central {approx}100 kpc.

  14. TRACE Model for Simulation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram in a BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng L. Y.; Baek J.; Cuadra,A.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    A TRACE model has been developed for using theTRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] to simulate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The model represents a BWR/5 housed in a Mark II containment. The reactor and the balance of plant systems are modeled in sufficient detail to enable the evaluation of plant responses and theeffectiveness of automatic and operator actions tomitigate this beyond design basis accident.The TRACE model implements features thatfacilitate the simulation of ATWS events initiated by turbine trip and closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIV). It also incorporates control logic to initiate actions to mitigate the ATWS events, such as water levelcontrol, emergency depressurization, and injection of boron via the standby liquid control system (SLCS). Two different approaches have been used to model boron mixing in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel: modulate coolant flow in the lower plenum by a flow valve, and use control logic to modular.

  15. New Report Charts Dynamic, Steady Growth of the U.S. Solar Jobs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rounding out the top three largest subsectors is the sales and distribution industry -- which has grown to more than 16,000 skilled workers. With public and private innovation ...

  16. System studies for quasi-steady-state advanced physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-11-01

    Parametric studies were conducted using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak Systems Code to investigate the impact of veriation in physics parameters and technology limits on the performance and cost of a low q/sub psi/, high beta, quasi-steady-state tokamak for the purpose of fusion engineering experimentation. The features and characteristics chosen from each study were embodied into a single Advanced Physics Tokamak design for which a self-consistent set of parameters was generated and a value of capital cost was estimated.

  17. Steady state model of an industrial FCC unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Isunza, F.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J.

    1996-12-31

    A reactor model has been developed to simulate the steady-state of an industrial fluid catalytic cracking unit using a three-lump kinetic expression with parameters estimated from experiments in a microactivity test reactor. The model considers a transported bed reactor (riser) where gas-oil and catalyst are in contact to perform the endothermic cracking reactions, interacting with a two-phase moving bed regenerator with recirculation where the combustion of the coke deposited on the catalyst takes place. The model is used to find best operating conditions for maximizing gasoline yield in terms of gas-oil feed temperature (To) and recycled catalyst to gas-oil ratio (C/O). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Raman

    2003-10-08

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

  19. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N. Li, J. G.

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  20. Steady-state and transient thermal performance of subsea hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabaras, G.J.; Zhang, J.

    1998-06-01

    The thermal performance of subsea hardware is of ultimate importance to the economic development and reliable operation of deepwater subsea oil and gas systems because of the potential for hydrate formation. Results of numerical calculations are presented on the thermal performance of subsea equipment such as wellheads, tubing and flowline jumpers, and flowline field joints. In contrast to previous published studies on the thermal performance of insulated subsea wellbores and flowlines, this paper addresses the thermal performance of the subsea equipment that can provide weak thermal links for the subsea system. A two-dimensional (2D), general-purpose, finite-element, partial-differential equation solver was used to analyze the steady-state and transient thermal behavior at different cross sections of the subsea tree. This paper presents a new method for predicting pressure profiles in oil and gas wells. The method combines mechanistic flow-pattern transition criteria with physical models for pressure-loss and liquid-holdup calculations for each of the flow patterns considered. Past published methods relied heavily on empirical fit of limited field data. As a result, they are inaccurate when used outside the range of data upon which they are based. In contrast, the new method is universally applicable to all types of wells under all operating scenarios because it is based on fundamental physics rather than the curve-fit of field data. Its prediction performance has been demonstrated by extensive comparison to field data from a variety of wells.

  1. Severe Accident Sequence Analysis Program: Anticipated transient without scram simulations for Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallman, R J; Gottula, R C; Holcomb, E E; Jouse, W C; Wagoner, S R; Wheatley, P D

    1987-05-01

    An analysis of five anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The five detailed deterministic simulations of postulated ATWS sequences were initiated from a main steamline isolation valve (MSIV) closure. The subject of the analysis was the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1, a boiling water reactor (BWR) of the BWR/4 product line with a Mark I containment. The simulations yielded insights to the possible consequences resulting from a MSIV closure ATWS. An evaluation of the effects of plant safety systems and operator actions on accident progression and mitigation is presented.

  2. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Office presentation icon Presentation Abstract: PDF icon Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protectio Colloquium Committee: The Princeton

  3. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  4. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden

    2003-10-02

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been

  5. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Cardella, A; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Kasparek, W; Klinger, T.; Koenig, R; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Michel, G; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Wegener, Lutz; Werner, A.; Zhang, D; Beidler, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brown, T.; Geiger, J.; Harris, Jeffrey H; Heitzenroeder, P.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Neilson, G. H.; Otte, M; Rummel, Thomas; Spong, Donald A; Tretter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  6. Aspects of Steady-State Operation of the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, J.; Wolf, R. C.; Beidler, C.; Cardella, A; Chlechowitz, E; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Hirsch, M; Kasparek, W; Kisslinger, J; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Lore, Jeremy D; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Michel, G; Otte, M; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Wendelstein 7-X is to demonstrate steady-state operation at -values of up to 5%, at ion temperatures of several keV and plasma densities of up to 2 1020 m 3. The second operational phase foresees a fully steady-state high heat flux (HHF) divertor. Preparations are underway to cope with residual bootstrap currents, either by electron cyclotron current drive or by HHF protection elements. The main steady-state heating system is an electron cyclotron resonance heating facility. Various technical improvements of the gyrotrons have been implemented recently. They enable a reliable operation at the 1MW power level. Some of the technical issues preparing plasma diagnostics for steady-state operation are exemplified. This includes the protection against non-absorbed microwave radiation.

  7. "Fueling method for small, steady-state, aneutronic FRC fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactors" Inventors Samuel A. Cohen, Daren Stotler, Michael Buttolph | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Fueling method for small, steady-state, aneutronic FRC fusion reactors" Inventors Samuel A. Cohen, Daren Stotler, Michael Buttolph A method is described for introducing controllable, continuous streams of deuterium and helium-3 atoms into the core of small field-reversed-configuration (FRC) fusion reactors enabling steady power production. No.: M-863

  8. Steady state effects in a two-pulse diffusion-weighted sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S.; Stilbs, Peter

    2015-04-21

    In conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements a significant amount of experimental time is used up by magnetization recovery, serving to prevent the formation of the steady state, as in the latter case the manifestation of diffusion is modulated by multiple applications of the pulse sequence and conventional diffusion coefficient inference procedures are generally not applicable. Here, an analytical expression for diffusion-related effects in a two-pulse NMR experiment (e.g., pulsed-gradient spin echo) in the steady state mode (with repetition times less than the longitudinal relaxation time of the sample) is derived by employing a Fourier series expansion within the solution of the Bloch-Torrey equations. Considerations are given for the transition conditions between the full relaxation and the steady state experiment description. The diffusion coefficient of a polymer solution (polyethylene glycol) is measured by a two-pulse sequence in the full relaxation mode and for a range of repetition times, approaching the rapid steady state experiment. The precision of the fitting employing the presented steady state solution by far exceeds that of the conventional fitting. Additionally, numerical simulations are performed yielding results strongly supporting the proposed description of the NMR diffusion measurements in the steady state.

  9. Analysis of a high pressure ATWS (anticipated transient without scram) with very low make-up flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    A series of calculations were performed to analyze the response of General Electric Company's (GE) advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) during an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). This work investigated the early plant response with an assumed failure or manual inhibit of the high pressure core flooder (HPCF). Consequently, the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) and control rod drive (CRD) systems are the only sources of high pressure injection available to maintain core cooling. Steam leaving the reactor pressure vessel was diverted to the pressure suppression pool (PSP) via the steam line and the safety relief valves. The combination of an unscrammed core and the CRD and RCIC injection sources make this a particularly challenging transient. System energy balance calculations were performed to predict the core power and PSP heat-up rate. The amount of vessel vapor superheat and the PSP temperature were found to significantly affect the resultant core power. Consequently, detailed thermal-hydraulic calculations were performed to simulate the system response during the postulated transient. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Current and anticipated use of thermal-hydraulic codes for BWR transient and accident analyses in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arai, Kenji; Ebata, Shigeo

    1997-07-01

    This paper summarizes the current and anticipated use of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes for the BWR transient and accident analyses in Japan. The codes may be categorized into the licensing codes and the best estimate codes for the BWR transient and accident analyses. Most of the licensing codes have been originally developed by General Electric. Some codes have been updated based on the technical knowledge obtained in the thermal hydraulic study in Japan, and according to the BWR design changes. The best estimates codes have been used to support the licensing calculations and to obtain the phenomenological understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena during a BWR transient or accident. The best estimate codes can be also applied to a design study for a next generation BWR to which the current licensing model may not be directly applied. In order to rationalize the margin included in the current BWR design and develop a next generation reactor with appropriate design margin, it will be required to improve the accuracy of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic model. In addition, regarding the current best estimate codes, the improvement in the user interface and the numerics will be needed.

  11. Electronic transport characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2015-09-28

    Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.

  12. Casimir effect in the nonequilibrium steady state of a quantum spin chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, D. L.; Racz, Z.

    2010-05-15

    We present a fully microscopics-based calculation of the Casimir effect in a nonequilibrium system, namely, an energy-flux-driven quantum XX chain. The force between the walls (transverse-field impurities) is calculated in a nonequilibrium steady state which is prepared by letting the system evolve from an initial state with the two halves of the chain prepared at equilibrium at different temperatures. The steady state emerging in the large-time limit is homogeneous but carries an energy flux. The Casimir force in this nonequilibrium state is calculated analytically in the limit when the transverse fields are small. We find that the the Casimir force range is reduced compared to the equilibrium case, and suggest that the reason for this is the reduction of fluctuations in the flux-carrying steady state.

  13. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles System-level models using iterative concept analysis are being used on a closed loop controlled, waste heat recovery system running automatically over various drive cycles. p-26_wright.pdf (210.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of an ORC system to improve HD truck fuel efficiency US Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel

  14. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A.; Hatch, Arthur E.; Goldsmith, Jeff M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  15. Creep crack growth in ductile alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argon, A.S.; Lau, C.W.; Ozmat, B.; Parks, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Creep crack growth in ductile alloys involves considerable fragmentation of the crack tip region in its early phases of growth. This is a result of the defocusing action of crack tip blunting by both distortional and cavitational strains on the distribution of intergranular creep damage and is affected significantly by the initial sharpness of the crack. Specific models of intergranular damage combining non-steady creep flow, evolution and growth of grain boundary facet cracks in the inelastic deformation field leading to final fracture have been developed. When used in conjunction with finite element programs for crack tips, these damage models can explain such crack extension modes. The combination of mechanistic three dimensional damage models and large strain finite element codes, promise to be of wide-spread utility in predicting the development of creep damage under complex loading histories.

  16. Transient and steady state photoelectronic analysis in TlInSe{sub 2} crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qasrawi, A.F.; Gasanly, N.M.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The steady state and time dependent photoconductivity kinetics of the TlInSe{sub 2} crystals are investigated in the temperature region of 100-350 K. {yields} The photocurrent of the sample exhibited linear, sublinear, and supralinear recombination mechanisms, at, above and below 160 K, respectively. {yields} Steady state photoconductivity revealed two recombination centres located at 234 and 94 meV. {yields} The transient photoconductivity is limited by a trapping center located at 173 meV. {yields} The capture coefficient of the trap for holes was determined as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}. -- Abstract: The temperature and illumination effects on the transient and steady state photoconductivities of TlInSe{sub 2} crystals have been studied. Namely, two recombination centres located at 234 and at 94 meV and one trap center located at 173 meV were determined from the temperature-dependent steady state and transient photoconductivities, respectively. The illumination dependence of photoconductivity indicated the domination of sublinear and supralinear recombination mechanisms above and below 160 K, respectively. The change in the recombination mechanism is attributed to the exchange of roles between the linear recombination at the surface and trapping centres in the crystal, which become dominant as temperature decreases. The transient photoconductivity measurement allowed the determination of the capture coefficient of traps for holes as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}.

  17. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  18. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  19. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  20. Properties of steady discharge in Ar-Kr-F2 gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chengen, Z.

    1981-11-01

    Some properties of Ar-Kr-F/sub 2/ laser gas mixture plasma under steady discharge conditions are computed and discussed. Both the excitation rate of the discharging electrons and the distribution of the discharge energy are discussed. The effects of fluoride gas content and impurity gas content on the discharge property are studied.

  1. Highly Emissive Multiexcitons in Steady-State Photoluminescence of Individual Giant CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Htoon, Han; Malko, Anton V.; Bussian, David A.; Vela, Javier; Chen, Yongfen; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2010-06-01

    The development of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) with suppressed nonradiative Auger recombination has been an important goal in colloidal nanostructure research motivated by the needs of prospective applications in lasing devices, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells. Here, we conduct single-nanocrystal spectroscopic studies of recently developed core-shell NQDs (so-called giant NQDs) that comprise a small CdSe core surrounded by a 16-monolayer-thick CdS shell. Using both continuous-wave and pulsed excitation, we observe strong emission features due both to neutral and charged biexcitons, as well as multiexcitons of higher order. The development of pronounced multiexcitonic peaks in steady-state photoluminescence of individual nanocrystals, as well as continuous growth of the emission intensity in the range of high pump levels, point toward a significant suppression of nonradiative Auger decay that normally renders multiexcitons nonemissive. The unusually high multiexciton emission efficiencies in these systems open interesting opportunities for studies of multiexciton phenomena using well-established methods of single-dot spectroscopy, as well as new exciting prospects for applications, that have previously been hampered by nonradiative Auger decay.

  2. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  3. A steady state field-reversed configuration with rotating magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Kitagaki, Jiro; Ishida, Akio

    1995-12-31

    The numerical simulations were made on current sustainment of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The RMF externally applied just after producing the FRC by a theta pinch discharge is found to penetrate rapidly into the FRC, and to drive a steady current before the FRC collapses due to Joule dissipation. The minimum rotating magnetic field to sustain the equilibrium is also found to be as small as 10% of the axial magnetic field. The RMF`s with the mode number of m = 1 or 2 are found to provide the similar effects. The numerical results show that the method of applying an RMF to an FRC is considerably effective for sustaining the hot and dense FRC in the steady state.

  4. Study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kui, Zhou; Xing, Luo; Xiangyang, Lu; Shengwen, Quan; Jifei, Zhao; Ziqin, Yang

    2014-09-15

    Micro-pulse electron gun (MPG) employs the basic concept of multipacting to produce high-current and short-pulse electron beams from a radio-frequency (RF) cavity. The concept of MPG has been proposed for more than two decades. However, the unstable operating state of MPG vastly obstructs its practical applications. This paper presents a study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun with theory and experiments. The requirements for the steady operating state are proposed through the analysis of the interaction between the RF cavity and the beam load. Accordingly, a MPG cavity with the frequency of 2856 MHz has been designed, constructed, and tested. Some primary experiments have been finished. Both the unstable and stable operating states of the MPG have been observed. The stable output beam current has been detected at about 3.8 mA. Further experimental study is under way now.

  5. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Z. L. Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Frhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20?Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5?GHz, respectively, with a 20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80?Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5?GHz.

  6. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  7. A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2009-09-01

    We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.

  8. Steady-state tokamak reactor with non-divertor impurity control: STARFIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    STARFIRE is a conceptual design study of a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant. Particular emphasis has been placed on simplifying the reactor concept by developing design concepts to produce a steady-state tokamak with non-divertor impurity control and helium ash removal. The concepts of plasma current drive using lower hybrid rf waves and a limiter/vacuum system for reactor applications are described.

  9. Predicts the Steady-State Heating and Cooling Performance of Electric Heat Pump

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-13

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a leader in the development of analytical tools for the design of electrically driven, air-to-air heat pumps. Foremost among these tools is the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, which can be used to predict the steady-state heating and cooling performance of an electrically driven, air-source heat pump. This version is three to five times faster than the earlier version, easier to use and more versatile.

  10. Equivalence of integral and differential methods of generating accurately solvable potentials of the steady Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    It is proven that the well-known nonlocal (i.e., based on integral transformations) methods of generating accurately solvable potentials of the one-dimensional steady Schroedinger equation are equivalent to multiple use of the local (i.e., based on a differential transformation) method known as the Darboux transformation. New accurately solvable potentials with a hydrogen-like spectrum are obtained, and several functions of the lowest states of the discrete spectrum are presented.

  11. Innovative imaging systems on the Wendelstein 7-X bring steady-state fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy closer to reality Innovative imaging systems on the Wendelstein Innovative imaging systems on the Wendelstein 7-X bring steady-state fusion energy closer to reality Innovative new imaging systems designed at Los Alamos are helping physicists peer into the roiling world of superhot plasmas. January 27, 2016 Glen Wurden in the stellarator's vacuum vessel during camera installation in 2014. Glen Wurden in the stellarator's vacuum vessel during camera installation in 2014. Contact Nick

  12. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk ; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  13. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of the CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely

  14. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore » CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely

  15. Results from a scaled reactor cavity cooling system with water at steady state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisowski, D. D.; Albiston, S. M.; Tokuhiro, A.; Anderson, M. H.; Corradini, M. L.

    2012-07-01

    We present a summary of steady-state experiments performed with a scaled, water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) at the Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison. The RCCS concept is used for passive decay heat removal in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design and was based on open literature of the GA-MHTGR, HTR-10 and AVR reactor. The RCCS is a 1/4 scale model of the full scale prototype system, with a 7.6 m structure housing, a 5 m tall test section, and 1,200 liter water storage tank. Radiant heaters impose a heat flux onto a three riser tube test section, representing a 5 deg. radial sector of the actual 360 deg. RCCS design. The maximum heat flux and power levels are 25 kW/m{sup 2} and 42.5 kW, and can be configured for variable, axial, or radial power profiles to simulate prototypic conditions. Experimental results yielded measurements of local surface temperatures, internal water temperatures, volumetric flow rates, and pressure drop along the test section and into the water storage tank. The majority of the tests achieved a steady state condition while remaining single-phase. A selected number of experiments were allowed to reach saturation and subsequently two-phase flow. RELAP5 simulations with the experimental data have been refined during test facility development and separate effects validation of the experimental facility. This test series represents the completion of our steady-state testing, with future experiments investigating normal and off-normal accident scenarios with two-phase flow effects. The ultimate goal of the project is to combine experimental data from UW - Madison, UI, ANL, and Texas A and M, with system model simulations to ascertain the feasibility of the RCCS as a successful long-term heat removal system during accident scenarios for the NGNP. (authors)

  16. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  17. Simulates the Forced-Flow Chemical Vapor Infiltration in Steady State

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-12

    GTCVI is a finite volume model for steady-state simulation of forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration in either Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. The model solves energy and momentum balances simultaneously over a given domain discretized into an array of finite volume elements. The species balances and deposition rates are determined after the energy and momentum balances converge. Density-dependent preform properties are included in the model. Transient average density, backpressure, temperature gradient, and average radial deposition rates canmore » be summarized. Optimal infiltration conditions can be found by varying temperature, flow, and reactant concentration.« less

  18. Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

  19. Heating and current drive requirements towards steady state operation in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Gorelenkova, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Batchelor, D. B.; Harvey, B.; Petrov, Y.

    2014-02-12

    Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H/CD sources that maintain weakly reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the EC equatorial and upper launcher, the formation and sustainment of quasi-steady state ITBs could be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration. However, with proper constraints from peeling-ballooning theory on the pedestal width and height, the fusion gain and the maximum non-inductive current are below the ITER target. Upgrades of the heating and current drive system in ITER, like the use of Lower Hybrid current drive, could overcome these limitations, sustaining higher non-inductive current and confinement, more expanded ITBs which are ideal MHD stable.

  20. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  1. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from "road tests" that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  2. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Ho?avaLifshitz early universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodadi, M. Sepangi, H.R.

    2014-07-15

    We study the phase transition from quarkgluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 110?s old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Ho?avaLifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat FriedmannRobertsonWalker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Ho?avaLifshitz gravity, ?, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (?)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the IsraelStewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: In this paper we have studied quarkhadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Ho?avaLifshitz model. We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the IsraelStewart fluid, respectively.

  3. The high-β{sub N} hybrid scenario for ITER and FNSF steady-state missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turco, F.; Petty, C. C.; Luce, T. C.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Ferron, J. R.; Heidbrink, W.; Carpanese, F.; Holcomb, C. T.

    2015-05-15

    New experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated the steady-state potential of the hybrid scenario, with 1 MA of plasma current driven fully non-inductively and β{sub N} up to 3.7 sustained for ∼3 s (∼1.5 current diffusion time, τ{sub R}, in DIII-D), providing the basis for an attractive option for steady-state operation in ITER and FNSF. Excellent confinement is achieved (H{sub 98y2} ∼ 1.6) without performance limiting tearing modes. The hybrid regime overcomes the need for off-axis current drive efficiency, taking advantage of poloidal magnetic flux pumping that is believed to be the result of a saturated 3/2 tearing mode. This allows for efficient current drive close to the axis, without deleterious sawtooth instabilities. In these experiments, the edge surface loop voltage is driven down to zero for >1 τ{sub R} when the poloidal β is increased above 1.9 at a plasma current of 1.0 MA and the ECH power is increased to 3.2 MW. Stationary operation of hybrid plasmas with all on-axis current drive is sustained at pressures slightly above the ideal no-wall limit, while the calculated ideal with-wall MHD limit is β{sub N} ∼ 4–4.5. Off-axis Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) power has been used to broaden the pressure and current profiles in this scenario, seeking to take advantage of higher predicted kink stability limits and lower values of the tearing stability index Δ′, as calculated by the DCON and PEST3 codes. Results based on measured profiles predict ideal limits at β{sub N} > 4.5, 10% higher than the cases with on-axis NBI. A 0-D model, based on the present confinement, β{sub N} and shape values of the DIII-D hybrid scenario, shows that these plasmas are consistent with the ITER 9 MA, Q = 5 mission and the FNSF 6.7 MA scenario with Q = 3.5. With collisionality and edge safety factor values comparable to those envisioned for ITER and FNSF, the high-β{sub N} hybrid represents an attractive high performance option for the steady

  4. Code System for Transient and Steady-State Temperature Distribution in Multidimensional Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EDWARDS, ARTHUR L.

    2005-10-24

    Version 01 TRUMP solves a general nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady‑state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables, temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time‑steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state.

  5. Code System for Transient and Steady-State Temperature Distribution in Multidimensional Systems.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-24

    Version 01 TRUMP solves a general nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady‑state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complexmore » shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables, temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time‑steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state.« less

  6. Surfkin: A program to solve transient and steady state heterogeneous reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COLTRIN,MICHAEL E.; WIXOM,RYAN R.; DANDY,DAVID S.

    2000-05-01

    Heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring at a gas/surface interface are fundamental in a variety of important applications, such as combustion, catalysis, chemical vapor deposition and plasma processing. Detailed simulation of these processes may involve complex, coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, gas-phase chemistry, in addition to heterogeneous reaction chemistry. This report documents the Surfkin program, which simulates the kinetics of heterogeneous chemical reactions. The program is designed for use with the Chemkin and Surface Chemkin (heterogeneous chemistry) programs. It calculates time-dependent or steady state surface site fractions and bulk-species production/destruction rates. The surface temperature may be specified as a function of time to simulate a temperature-programmed desorption experiment, for example. This report serves as a user's manual for the program, explaining the required input and format of the output. Two detailed example problems are included to further illustrate the use of this program.

  7. Status of steady-state irradiation testing of mixed-carbide fuel designs. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The steady-state irradiation program of mixed-carbide fuels has demonstrated clearly the ability of carbide fuel pins to attain peak burnup greater than 12 at.% and peak fluences of 1.4 x 10/sup 23/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). Helium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 20.7 at.% (192 MWd/kg), and no breaches have occurred in pins of this design. Sodium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 15.8 at.% (146 MWd/kg). Breaches have occurred in helium-bonded fuel pins in PE-16 cladding (approx. 5 at.% burnup) and in D21 cladding (approx. 4 at.% burnup). Sodium-bonded fuel pins achieved burnups over 11 at.% in PE-16 cladding and over 6 at.% in D9 and D21 cladding.

  8. Analytical and numerical solution of one- and two-dimensional steady heat transfer in a coldplate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Bennett, G.A.; Bultman, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We develop analytical models for steady-state, one- and two-dimensional heat transfer in a single-material, flat-plate coldplate. Discrete heat sources are mounted on one side of the plate and heat transfer to a flowing fluid occurs on the other. The models are validated numerically using finite differences. We propose a simple procedure for estimating maximum coldplate temperature at the location of each heat source which includes thermal interaction among the sources. Results from one model are compared with data obtained for a composite coldplate operated in the laboratory. We demonstrate the utility of the models as diagnostic tools to be used for predicting the existence and extent of void volumes and delaminations in the composite material that can occur with coldplates of this type. Based on our findings, recommendations for effective coldplate design are given.

  9. Steady-state, high-dose neutron generation and concentration apparatus and method for deuterium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    A steady-state source of neutrons is produced within an electrically grounded and temperature controlled chamber confining tritium or deuterium plasma at a predetermined density to effect implantation of ions in the surface of a palladium target rod coated with diffusion barrier material and immersed in such plasma. The rod is enriched with a high concentration of deuterium atoms after a prolonged plasma ion implantation. Collision of the deuterium atoms in the target by impinging ions of the plasma initiates fusion reactions causing emission of neutrons during negative voltage pulses applied to the rod through a high power modulator. The neutrons are so generated at a relatively high dose rate under optimized process conditions.

  10. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  11. Shock compression modeling of metallic single crystals: comparison of finite difference, steady wave, and analytical solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lloyd, Jeffrey T.; Clayton, John D.; Austin, Ryan A.; McDowell, David L.

    2015-07-10

    Background: The shock response of metallic single crystals can be captured using a micro-mechanical description of the thermoelastic-viscoplastic material response; however, using a such a description within the context of traditional numerical methods may introduce a physical artifacts. Advantages and disadvantages of complex material descriptions, in particular the viscoplastic response, must be framed within approximations introduced by numerical methods. Methods: Three methods of modeling the shock response of metallic single crystals are summarized: finite difference simulations, steady wave simulations, and algebraic solutions of the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. For the former two numerical techniques, a dislocation density based framework describes themore » rate- and temperature-dependent shear strength on each slip system. For the latter analytical technique, a simple (two-parameter) rate- and temperature-independent linear hardening description is necessarily invoked to enable simultaneous solution of the governing equations. For all models, the same nonlinear thermoelastic energy potential incorporating elastic constants of up to order 3 is applied. Results: Solutions are compared for plate impact of highly symmetric orientations (all three methods) and low symmetry orientations (numerical methods only) of aluminum single crystals shocked to 5 GPa (weak shock regime) and 25 GPa (overdriven regime). Conclusions: For weak shocks, results of the two numerical methods are very similar, regardless of crystallographic orientation. For strong shocks, artificial viscosity affects the finite difference solution, and effects of transverse waves for the lower symmetry orientations not captured by the steady wave method become important. The analytical solution, which can only be applied to highly symmetric orientations, provides reasonable accuracy with regards to prediction of most variables in the final shocked state but, by construction, does not provide

  12. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  13. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  14. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A top executive for New England`s biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State`s system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State`s nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed.

  15. ELECTRICAL LOAD ANTICIPATOR AND RECORDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.B.; Thomas, R.J.

    1961-07-25

    A system is descrbied in which an indication of the prevailing energy consumption in an electrical power metering system and a projected Power demand for one demand interval is provided at selected increments of time withm the demand interval. Each watthour meter in the system is provided with an impulse generator that generates two impulses for each revolution of the meter disc. The total pulses received frorn all the meters are continuously totaled and are fed to a plurality of parallel connected gated counters. Each counter has its gate opened at different sub-time intervals during the demand interval. A multiplier is connected to each of the gated counters except the last one and each multiplier is provided with a different multiplier constant so as to provide an estimate of the power to be drawn over the entire demand interval at the end of each of the different sub-time intervals. Means are provided for recording the ontputs from the different circuits in synchronism with the actuation oi each gate circuit.

  16. ELECTRICAL LOAD ANTICIPATOR AND RECORDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werme, J.E.

    1961-09-01

    A system is described in which an indication of the prevailing energy consumption in an electrical power metering system and a projected power demand for one demand in terval is provided at selected increments of time within the demand interval. Each watt-hour meter in the system is provided with an impulse generator that generates two impulses for each revolution of the meter disc. In each demand interval, for example, one half-hour, of the metering system, the total impulses received from all of the meters are continuously totaled for each 5-minute interval and multiplied by a number from 6 to 1 depending upon which 5- minute interval the impulses were received. This value is added to the total pulses received in the intervals preceding the current 5-minute interval within the half-hour demand interval tc thereby provide an indication of the projected power demand every 5 minutes in the demand interval.

  17. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  18. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  19. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment simulating an anticipated transient with multiple failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bang, Y.S.; Seul, K.W.; Kim, H.J.

    1994-02-01

    The RELAP5/MOD3 5m5 code is assessed using the L9-1/L3-3 test carried out in the LOFT facility, a 1/60-scaled experimental reactor, simulating a loss of feedwater accident with multiple failures and the sequentially-induced small break loss-of-coolant accident. The code predictability is evaluated for the four separated sub-periods with respect to the system response; initial heatup phase, spray and power operated relief valve (PORV) cycling phase, blowdown phase and recovery phase. Based on the comparisons of the results from the calculation with the experiment data, it is shown that the overall thermal-hydraulic behavior important to the scenario such as a heat removal between the primary side and the secondary side and a system depressurization can be well-predicted and that the code could be applied to the full-scale nuclear power plant for an anticipated transient with multiple failures within a reasonable accuracy. The minor discrepancies between the prediction and the experiment are identified in reactor scram time, post-scram behavior in the initial heatup phase, excessive heatup rate in the cycling phase, insufficient energy convected out the PORV under the hot leg stratified condition in the saturated blowdown phase and void distribution in secondary side in the recovery phase. This may come from the code uncertainties in predicting the spray mass flow rate, the associated condensation in pressurizer and junction fluid density under stratified condition.

  20. Impact of central ECCD on steady-state hybrid scenario in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, C. C. Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Chen, Xi; Prater, R.; Nazikian, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Kolemen, E.; McKee, G. R.; Turco, F.

    2015-12-10

    Steady-state” hybrid plasmas in DIII-D with zero surface loop voltage have been maintained for up to two current relaxation times using 3.4 MW of central electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). In addition to driving ≈0.2 MA of plasma current, central ECCD leads to significant changes in Alfvén eigenmode (AE) activity and thermal transport. For neutral-beam-only heating, strong AE activity is observed that causes a ∼35% degradation in the neutron rate. With central ECCD this AE activity is suppressed, replaced by a bursty energetic particle mode that appears more benign as the neutron rate is closer to the classical value. The electron thermal diffusivity increases by ≈50% for 2.4 MW of ECCD compared to neutral-beam-only cases. Fortunately, the global thermal confinement factor remains the same (H{sub 98y2}=1.4) as the higher thermal transport for P{sub EC}=2.4 MW hybrids is offset by the decreased fast ion transport resulting from AE suppression.

  1. The Effect of Steady Winds on Radon-222 Entry from soil into houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1994-10-01

    Wind affects the radon-222 entry rate from soil into buildings and the resulting indoor concentrations. To investigate this phenomenon, we employ a previously tested three-dimensional numerical model of soil-gas Bow around houses, a commercial computational fluid dynamics code, an established model for determining ventilation rates in the presence of wind, and new wind tunnel results for the ground-surface pressure field caused by wind. These tools and data, applied under steady-state conditions to a prototypical residential building, allow us (1) to determine the complex soil-gas flow patterns that result from the presence of wind-generated ground-surface pressures, (2) to evaluate the effect of these flows on the radon concentration in the soil, and (3) to calculate the effect of wind on the radon entry rate and indoor concentration. For a broad range of soil permeabilities, two wind speeds, and two wind directions, we quantify the"flushing" effect of wind on the radon in the soil surrounding a house, and the consequent sharp decrease in radon entry rates. Experimental measurements of the time-dependent radon concentration in soil gas beneath houses confirm the existence of wind-induced flushing. Comparisons are made to modeling predictions obtained while ignoring the effect of the wind-generated ground-surface pressures. These investigations lead to the conclusion that wind-generated ground-surface pressures play a significant role in determining radon entry rates into residential buildings. [References: 26

  2. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  3. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  4. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-08-01

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  5. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  6. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary ...

  7. Development of microbial-enzyme-mediated decomposition model parameters through steady-state and dynamic analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M; Mayes, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model, based on the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that describes the dynamics of physically defined pools of soil organic matter (SOC). These include particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved organic matter (POC, MOC, and DOC, respectively), microbial biomass, and associated exoenzymes. The ranges and/or distributions of parameters were determined by both analytical steady-state and dynamic analyses with SOC data from the literature. We used an improved multi-objective parameter sensitivity analysis (MOPSA) to identify the most important parameters for the full model: maintenance of microbial biomass, turnover and synthesis of enzymes, and carbon use efficiency (CUE). The model predicted an increase of 2 C (baseline temperature =12 C) caused the pools of POC-Cellulose, MOC, and total SOC to increase with dynamic CUE and decrease with constant CUE, as indicated by the 50% confidence intervals. Regardless of dynamic or constant CUE, the pool sizes of POC, MOC, and total SOC varied from 8% to 8% under +2 C. The scenario analysis using a single parameter set indicates that higher temperature with dynamic CUE might result in greater net increases in both POC-Cellulose and MOC pools. Different dynamics of various SOC pools reflected the catalytic functions of specific enzymes targeting specific substrates and the interactions between microbes, enzymes, and SOC. With the feasible parameter values estimated in this study, models incorporating fundamental principles of microbial-enzyme dynamics can lead to simulation results qualitatively different from traditional models with fast/slow/passive pools.

  8. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-02-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N{sub 2}: O{sub 2}: H{sub 2}O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  9. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  10. EQUILIBRIUM DISKS, MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY MODE EXCITATION, AND STEADY-STATE TURBULENCE IN GLOBAL ACCRETION DISK SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-02-15

    Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions-perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence-upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure <{alpha}{sub P}>bar = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).

  11. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  12. Growth, steady-state, and time-resolved photoluminescence study of CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures on InSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiNezza, Michael J.; Liu, Shi; Kirk, Alexander P.; Zhang, Yong-Hang; School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 ; Zhao, Xin-Hao; School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287

    2013-11-04

    CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DHs) are grown on InSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy and reveal strong photoluminescence with over double the intensity of a GaAs/AlGaAs DH with an identical layer structure design grown on GaAs. Time-resolved photoluminescence of the CdTe/MgCdTe DH gives a Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime of 86 ns, which is more than one order of magnitude longer than that of typical polycrystalline CdTe films. These findings indicate that monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe DHs effectively reduce surface recombination, have limited nonradiative interface recombination, and are promising for solar cells that could reach power conversion efficiencies similar to that of GaAs.

  13. Co-GISAXS technique for investigating surface growth dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainville, Meliha G.; Hoskin, Christa; Ulbrandt, Jeffrey G.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Zhou, Hua; Headrick, Randall L.; Ludwig, Jr., Karl F.

    2015-12-08

    Detailed quantitative measurement of surface dynamics during thin film growth is a major experimental challenge. Here X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy with coherent hard X-rays is used in a Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (i.e. Co-GISAXS) geometry as a new tool to investigate nanoscale surface dynamics during sputter deposition of a-Si and a-WSi2 thin films. For both films, kinetic roughening during surface growth reaches a dynamic steady state at late times in which the intensity autocorrelation function g2(q,t) becomes stationary. The g2(q,t) functions exhibit compressed exponential behavior at all wavenumbers studied. The overall dynamics are complex, but the most surface sensitive sections of the structure factor and correlation time exhibit power law behaviors consistent with dynamical scaling.

  14. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  15. Applications of exact linearization techniques for steady-state stability enhancement in a weak ac/dc system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaprielian, S.; Clements, K. ); Turi, J. )

    1992-05-01

    A nonlinear control strategy to improve the steady-state stability of a weak AC/DC power system is presented. The approach described in this paper is based on the extension of feedback linearization techniques to nonlinear descriptor system models. This method produces a nonlinear control strategy which is capable of enhancing system performance for various system operating conditions. This claim is supported with simulation results.

  16. Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.; Herbin-Davis, Karen M.; Saunders, Jesse; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

    2010-12-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in which mice received daily oral doses of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kilogram of body weight. Regardless of genotype, arsenic body burdens attained steady state after 10 daily doses. At steady state, arsenic body burdens in As3mt knockout mice were 16 to 20 times greater than in wild-type mice. During the post dosing clearance period, arsenic body burdens declined in As3mt knockout mice to {approx} 35% and in wild-type mice to {approx} 10% of steady-state levels. Urinary concentration of arsenic was significantly lower in As3mt knockout mice than in wild-type mice. At steady state, As3mt knockout mice had significantly higher fractions of the body burden of arsenic in liver, kidney, and urinary bladder than did wild-type mice. These organs and lung had significantly higher arsenic concentrations than did corresponding organs from wild-type mice. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in tissues of As3mt knockout mice; tissues from wild-type mice contained mixtures of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Diminished capacity for arsenic methylation in As3mt knockout mice prolongs retention of inorganic arsenic in tissues and affects whole body clearance of arsenic. Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites.

  17. Support and enhancement of ASPEN Plus for the steady state simulation of the SRC-I process. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fais, B.D.; Tomkinson, W.S.; Kradel, R.H.

    1983-10-01

    The ASPEN computer program was developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). ASPEN provides steady state simulation of certain fossil fuel conversion processes at the steady state. As part of its contract with DOE to design, build and operate the SRC-I Coal Refinery, International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was asked to evaluate the ASPEN program to determine its usefulness in simulating the steady state performance of coal conversion processes. ICRC performed a preliminary technical assessment of ASPEN in 1981 and concluded that it could be readily upgraded for simulation of the SRC-I process. In 1983, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) licensed ASPEN Plus, an upgraded version of ASPEN from ASPEN Technology, Inc., in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for ICRC. ICRC commissioned APCI to maintain, support and enhance ASPEN Plus in 1983 and this report documents the work performed with ASPEN Plus during 1983. Two versions of the program have been installed and installation of a third version is pending. System support, maintenance, system tuning and validation, technical support and training are part of the work performed with ASPEN Plus. System tuning included modifying the execution of ASPEN Plus to increase its efficiency. The method of installation of two unit models developed at APCI are described. Conclusions and recommendations are included in the report.

  18. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J., E-mail: wagnernj@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Neutron Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the Delaware-Rutgers rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.

  19. Effect of helium growth and carbon impurities on the properties of aged metal tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConville, G.T.; Menke, D.A.; West, D.; Woods, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    The interaction of tritium with metals is made complex by two phenomena. The beta decay in the metal produces {sup 3}He. The helium moves to form bubbles. We shall show that the growth of the bubbles produces a two stage swelling of the metal coming first from the appearance of the helium and second from the relaxation of the lattice disorder caused by the bubble growth. The second phenomenon is the steady state ion and free radical concentration in the tritium over gas which interacts with impurities on the metal surface. We shall show that the reaction rates are much faster than for normal hydrogen cleaning. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Fractal dimension of cohesive sediment flocs at steady state under seven shear flow conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Yu, Jingshan; Wang, Hongrui; Dou, Jie; Wang, Cheng

    2015-08-12

    The morphological properties of kaolin flocs were investigated in a Couette-flow experiment at the steady state under seven shear flow conditions (shear rates of 5.36, 9.17, 14, 24, 31, 41 and 53 s-1). These properties include a one-dimensional (1-D) fractal dimension (D1), a two-dimensional (2-D) fractal dimension (D2), a perimeter-based fractal dimension (Dpf) and an aspect ratio (AR). They were calculated based on the projected area (A), equivalent size, perimeter (P) and length (L) of the major axis of the floc determined through sample observation and an image analysis system. The parameter D2, which characterizes the relationship between the projectedmore » area and the length of the major axis using a power function, A ∝ LD2, increased from 1.73 ± 0.03, 1.72 ± 0.03, and 1.75 ± 0.04 in the low shear rate group (G = 5.36, 9.17, and 14 s-1) to 1.92 ± 0.03, 1.82 ± 0.02, 1.85 ± 0.02, and 1.81 ± 0.02 in the high shear rate group (24, 31, 41 and 53 s-1), respectively. The parameter D1 characterizes the relationship between the perimeter and length of the major axis by the function P ∝ LD1 and decreased from 1.52 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02, 1.55 ± 0.02, and 1.63 ± 0.02 in the low shear group (5.36, 9.17, 14 and 24 s-1) to 1.45 ± 0.02, 1.39 ± 0.02, and 1.39 ± 0.02 in the high shear group (31, 41 and 53 s-1), respectively. The results indicate that with increasing shear rates, the flocs become less elongated and that their boundary lines become tighter and more regular, caused by more breakages and possible restructurings of the flocs. The parameter Dpf, which is related to the perimeter and the projected area through the function , decreased as the shear rate increased almost linearly. The parameter AR, which is the ratio of the length of the major axis and equivalent diameter, decreased from 1.56, 1.59, 1.53 and 1.51 in the low shear rate group to 1.43, 1.47 and 1.48 in the high shear rate group. These changes in Dpf and AR show that the flocs become

  1. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  2. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Cities - Smart Growth The United States Secretaries of Commerce will co-lead a Business Development Mission to China from April 12-17, 2015. This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green building/construction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental technologies in support of the Smart Cities-Smart Growth theme. On November 12, President Obama and President Xi jointly announced the two countries'

  3. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Sometimes supersaturation conditions are used in making this measurement. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  5. SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L.

    1993-12-01

    SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

  6. The political and socioeconomic predicates of risk analysis: Integration of natural and social science in anticipating the environmental consequences of development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, T.P.

    1995-12-31

    The fundamental origins of industrial development and land-use changes that generate physical and chemical threats to biological natural resources are social, political, and economic forces. Two new international economic trade treaties, NAFTA in North America and MERCOSUR in South America, are major forces inducing a complex of changes and regional economic developments that will pose new regional treats to natural resources. Current strategies of ecological risk assessment rarely include an analysis of social, political, or economic factors in any systematic form. Nor are these social sciences integrated with natural sciences in performing a comprehensive risk analysis. A suggested strategy is delineated here that would incorporate social sciences in risk analysis for large programs like NAFTA and MERCOSUR. This strategy would also be applicable in regional risk analysis to estimate the probability and location of development of certain types of industrial development and large scale land-use change. The implications of projected regional economic growth and the development of specific types of industries and land-use changes stimulated by these or other social, political, or economic forces could be addressed using more traditional forms of evaluation and ecological risk analysis. Ultimately, a more comprehensive and synthetic definition and delineation of the procedures of risk analysis must evolve to include aspects of both natural and social sciences.

  7. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  8. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of

  9. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei; Wang, D.; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  10. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grcar, Joseph F; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Ultra-lean, hydrogen-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames and flame balls. Direct numerical simulations are performed of flames that develop into steadily and stably propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word"flamelet'' when they were observed in lean flammability studies conducted early in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified and are contrasted with the properties of one-dimensional flame balls and flat flames. Although lean hydrogen-air flames are subject to thermo-diffusive effects, in this case the result is to stabilize the flame rather than to render it unstable. The flame cells may be useful as basic components of engineering models for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable.

  11. RELAP5-3D Validation Study Using MB-2 Prototypical Steam Generator Steady-State Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, A.; Williamson, M.; Zhao, K.; Ruggles, A.

    2005-09-15

    A validation study of RELAP5-3D is performed using data from the Model Boiler Number 2 (MB-2) Prototypical Steam Generator Testing Program. The MB-2 is a 6.67-MW(thermal) power-scaled representation of the Westinghouse Model F steam generator. Comparisons with previous simulations using RELAP5/MOD3.2 are also offered. Limit cycles predicted by the RELAP5/MOD3.2 simulation are reduced in the RELAP5-3D simulation using identical nodalization. Steady-state data from the MB-2 tests used in the validation do not exhibit a limit cycle. The sources of the predicted limit cycles are investigated and feedback mechanisms contributing to the limit cycles are explained.

  12. Compact steady-state and high-flux Falcon ion source for tests of plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girka, O.; Bizyukov, I.; Sereda, K.; Bizyukov, A.; Gutkin, M.; Sleptsov, V.

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design and operation of the Falcon ion source. It is based on conventional design of anode layer thrusters. This ion source is a versatile, compact, affordable, and highly functional in the research field of the fusion materials. The reversed magnetic field configuration of the source allows precise focusing of the ion beam into small spot of Almost-Equal-To 3 mm and also provides the limited capabilities for impurity mass-separation. As the result, the source generates steady-state ion beam, which irradiates surface with high heat (0.3 - 21 MW m{sup -2}) and particle fluxes (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21}- 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} m{sup -2}s{sup -1}), which approaches the upper limit for the flux range expected in ITER.

  13. Noise sources and competition between stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering: A one-dimensional steady-state approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Tao; Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 ; Li, Zhichao; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Guang-yue; Zheng, Jian

    2013-09-15

    A 1D steady-state model is developed to deal with stimulated scattering processes. The volume and boundary noise sources for scattered light are discussed in detail. Our results indicate that the boundary noise sources may play a significant role in estimating the reflectivity of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). With the capability of our model to deal with broadband scattered light, we find that pump depletion could be the main reason to the anti-correlation between SBS and SRS versus electron density observed in experiments. A simple method is proposed to phenomenologically include the effect of nonlinear saturation mechanisms in our model and reasonable results are obtained.

  14. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, J. R.; Bergeron, A.; Dionne, B.; Van den Branden, G.; Kalcheva, S.; Sikik, E.; Koonen, E.

    2015-12-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water (Figure 1). The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident.

  15. The preliminary analysis on the steady-state and kinetic features of the molten salt pebble-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, B.; Lu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A novel design concept of molten salt pebble-bed reactor with an ultra-simplified integral primary circuit called 'Nuclear Hot Spring' has been proposed, featured by horizontal coolant flow in a deep pool pebble-bed reactor, providing 'natural safety' features with natural circulation under full power operation and less expensive primary circuit arrangement. In this work, the steady-state physical properties of the equilibrium state of the molten salt pebble-bed reactor are calculated by using the VSOP code, and the steady-state thermo-hydraulic analysis is carried out based on the approximation of absolutely horizontal flow of the coolant through the core. A new concept of 2-dimensional, both axial and radial, multi-pass on-line fuelling scheme is presented. The result reveals that the radial multi-pass scheme provides more flattened power distribution and safer temperature distribution than the one-pass scheme. A parametric analysis is made corresponding to different pebble diameters, the key parameter of the core resistance and the temperature at the pebble center. It is verified that within a wide range of pebble diameters, the maximum pebble center temperatures are far below the safety limit of the fuel, and the core resistance is considerably less than the buoyant force, indicating that the natural circulation under full power operation is achievable and the ultra-simplified integral primary circuit without any pump is possible. For the kinetic properties, it is verified that the negative temperature coefficient is achieved in sufficient under-moderated condition through the preliminary analysis on the temperature coefficients of fuel, coolant and moderator. The requirement of reactivity compensation at the shutdown stages of the operation period is calculated for the further studies on the reactivity control. The molten salt pebble-bed reactor with horizontal coolant flow can provide enhanced safety and economical features. (authors)

  16. Fast-ion transport in qmin>2, high- β steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Gong, X.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Bass, E. M.; et al

    2015-05-22

    The results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high-qminqmin confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing βN and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with qmin>2 that target the typical range of q95= 5–7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reducesmore » the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable βN. Conversely similar plasmas except with qmin just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take qmin>3 plasmas to higher βP with q95= 11–12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-qmin scenario, the high βP cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇βfast, and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, βN, and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q95, high-qmin plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes.« less

  17. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guang-Hua

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (886 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed a disruptive new crystal growth technology, called Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG).

  19. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U₈₆Ga₁₄, (UC)₇₀Ga₃₀ and U₈₁Cs₉, (UC)₇₉Cs₂₁, respectively.

  20. Role of Nucleation and Growth in Two-Phase Microstructure Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong Ho Shin

    2008-05-01

    During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, a rich variety of two-phase microstructures develop, and the selection process of a specific microstructure is complicated due to the following two considerations. (1) In contrast to many single phase and eutectic microstructures that grow under steady state conditions, two-phase microstructures in a peritectic system often evolve under non-steady-state conditions that can lead to oscillatory microstructures, and (2) the microstructure is often governed by both the nucleation and the competitive growth of the two phases in which repeated nucleation can occur due to the change in the local conditions during growth. In this research, experimental studies in the Sn-Cd system were designed to isolate the effects of nucleation and competitive growth on the dynamics of complex microstructure formation. Experiments were carried out in capillary samples to obtain diffusive growth conditions so that the results can be analyzed quantitatively. At high thermal gradient and low velocity, oscillatory microstructures were observed in which repeated nucleation of the two phases was observed at the wall-solid-liquid junction. Quantitative measurements of nucleation undercooling were obtained for both the primary and the peritectic phase nucleation, and three different ampoule materials were used to examine the effect of different contact angles at the wall on nucleation undercooling. Nucleation undercooling for each phase was found to be very small, and the experimental undercooling values were orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by the classical theory of nucleation. A new nucleation mechanism is proposed in which the clusters of atoms at the wall ahead of the interface can become a critical nucleus when the cluster encounters the triple junction. Once the nucleation of a new phase occurs, the microstructure is found to be controlled by the relative growth of the two phases that give rise to different

  1. Dispersed-flow film boiling in rod-bundle geometry: steady-state heat-transfer data and correlation comparisons. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G. L.; Morris, D. G.; Mullins, C. B.; Ott, L. J.; Reed, D. A.

    1982-03-01

    Assessment of six film boiling correlations and one single-phase vapor correlation has been made using data from 22 steady state upflow rod bundle tests (series 3.07.9). Bundle fluid conditions were calculated using energy and mass conservation considerations. Results of the steady state film boiling tests support the conclusions reached in the analysis of prior transient tests 3.03.6AR, 3.06.6B, and 3.08.6C. Comparisons between experimentally determined and correlation-predicted heat transfer coefficients, are presented.

  2. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail

  3. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  4. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  5. Theory of gyroresonance and free-free emissions from non-Maxwellian quasi-steady-state electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

    2014-02-01

    Currently there is a concern about the ability of the classical thermal (Maxwellian) distribution to describe quasi-steady-state plasma in the solar atmosphere, including active regions. In particular, other distributions have been proposed to better fit observations, for example, kappa- and n-distributions. If present, these distributions will generate radio emissions with different observable properties compared with the classical gyroresonance (GR) or free-free emission, which implies a way of remotely detecting these non-Maxwellian distributions in the radio observations. Here we present analytically derived GR and free-free emissivities and absorption coefficients for the kappa- and n-distributions, and discuss their properties, which are in fact remarkably different from each other and from the classical Maxwellian plasma. In particular, the radio brightness temperature from a gyrolayer increases with the optical depth τ for kappa-distribution, but decreases with τ for n-distribution. This property has a remarkable consequence allowing a straightforward observational test: the GR radio emission from the non-Maxwellian distributions is supposed to be noticeably polarized even in the optically thick case, where the emission would have strictly zero polarization in the case of Maxwellian plasma. This offers a way of remote probing the plasma distribution in astrophysical sources, including solar active regions as a vivid example.

  6. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators. 6 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

  8. FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

  9. Steady-state benchmarks of DK4D: A time-dependent, axisymmetric drift-kinetic equation solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, B. C.; Jardin, S. C.; Ramos, J. J.

    2015-05-15

    The DK4D code has been written to solve a set of time-dependent, axisymmetric, finite-Larmor-radius drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) for the non-Maxwellian part of the electron and ion distribution functions using the full, linearized Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator. The plasma is assumed to be in the low- to finite-collisionality regime, as is found in the cores of modern and future magnetic confinement fusion experiments. Each DKE is formulated such that the perturbed distribution function carries no net density, parallel momentum, or kinetic energy. Rather, these quantities are contained within the background Maxwellians and would be evolved by an appropriate set of extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. This formulation allows for straight-forward coupling of DK4D to existing extended MHD time evolution codes. DK4D uses a mix of implicit and explicit temporal representations and finite element and spectral spatial representations. These, along with other computational methods used, are discussed extensively. Steady-state benchmarks are then presented comparing the results of DK4D to expected analytic results at low collisionality, qualitatively, and to the Sauter analytic fits for the neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current, quantitatively. These benchmarks confirm that DK4D is capable of solving for the correct, gyroaveraged distribution function in stationary magnetic equilibria. Furthermore, the results presented demonstrate how the exact drift-kinetic solution varies with collisionality as a function of the magnetic moment and the poloidal angle.

  10. A Numerical Model Without Truncation Error for a Steady-State Analysis of a Once-Through Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang; Eoh, Jae Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To overcome the drawbacks of conventional schemes for a numerical analysis of a steam generator (SG), an efficient numerical model has been developed to analyze the steady state of a once-through-type SG where the feedwater is heated to superheated steam. In the developed model, the temperature and enthalpy are defined at the boundary of a calculation cell, and the exact solutions for the temperature distribution in a calculation cell are utilized. This feature of the developed model frees calculation from the undesirable effects of numerical diffusion, and only a small number of nodes are required. Also, the developed model removes the ambiguity from the parameter values at the inlet and exit of a calculation.The BoSupSG-SS computer code was developed by using the analysis model, and it performed well with only three calculation nodes to analyze a superheated SG. The developed model can be effectively used for the cases where a fast one-dimensional calculation is required such as an SG or system design analysis.

  11. Simulation of injector dynamics during steady inductive helicity injection current drive in the HIT-SI experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.; Marklin, G.; Victor, B.; Akcay, C.; Jarboe, T.

    2015-04-15

    We present simulations of inductive helicity injection in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI) device that treats the entire plasma volume in a single dynamic MHD model. A new fully 3D numerical tool, the PSI-center TETrahedral mesh code, was developed that provides the geometric flexibility required for this investigation. Implementation of a zero-? Hall MHD model using PSI-TET will be presented including formulation of a new self-consistent magnetic boundary condition for the wall of the HIT-SI device. Results from simulations of HIT-SI are presented focusing on injector dynamics that are investigated numerically for the first time. Asymmetries in the plasma loading between the two helicity injectors and progression of field reversal in each injector are observed. Analysis indicates cross-coupling between injectors through confinement volume structures. Injector impedance is found to scale with toroidal current at fixed density, consistent with experimental observation. Comparison to experimental data with an injector drive frequency of 14.5 kHz shows good agreement with magnetic diagnostics. Global mode structures from Bi-Orthogonal decomposition agree well with experimental data for the first four modes.

  12. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alcohols as gasoline blending agent at up to 85 vol-% levels were evaluated in a 2.2L direct injection SI engine for combustion, engine efficiency, and engine-out emissions effects at steady-state and transient test conditions

  13. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-07-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  14. Anticipating the unintended consequences of security dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, George A.; Overfelt, James Robert; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Saltiel, David H.; Simon Paul Moulton

    2010-01-01

    In a globalized world, dramatic changes within any one nation causes ripple or even tsunamic effects within neighbor nations and nations geographically far removed. Multinational interventions to prevent or mitigate detrimental changes can easily cause secondary unintended consequences more detrimental and enduring than the feared change instigating the intervention. This LDRD research developed the foundations for a flexible geopolitical and socioeconomic simulation capability that focuses on the dynamic national security implications of natural and man-made trauma for a nation-state and the states linked to it through trade or treaty. The model developed contains a database for simulating all 229 recognized nation-states and sovereignties with the detail of 30 economic sectors including consumers and natural resources. The model explicitly simulates the interactions among the countries and their governments. Decisions among governments and populations is based on expectation formation. In the simulation model, failed expectations are used as a key metric for tension across states, among ethnic groups, and between population factions. This document provides the foundational documentation for the model.

  15. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2011-06-09

    The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cybersecurity challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral triggers to help focus the analysts attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sensemaking problems.

  16. RELAP-7 Level 2 Milestone Report: Demonstration of a Steady State Single Phase PWR Simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Andrs; Ray Berry; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau; John Peterson; Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou

    2012-05-01

    The document contains the simulation results of a steady state model PWR problem with the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on INL's modern scientific software development framework - MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). This report summarizes the initial results of simulating a model steady-state single phase PWR problem using the current version of the RELAP-7 code. The major purpose of this demonstration simulation is to show that RELAP-7 code can be rapidly developed to simulate single-phase reactor problems. RELAP-7 is a new project started on October 1st, 2011. It will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series (the replacement for RELAP5). The key to the success of RELAP-7 is the simultaneous advancement of physical models, numerical methods, and software design while maintaining a solid user perspective. Physical models include both PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) and experimental based closure models. RELAP-7 will eventually utilize well posed governing equations for multiphase flow, which can be strictly verified. Closure models used in RELAP5 and newly developed models will be reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past three decades. RELAP-7 uses modern numerical methods, which allow implicit time integration, higher order schemes in both time and space, and strongly coupled multi-physics simulations. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. Its development follows modern software design paradigms. The code is easy to read, develop, maintain, and couple with other codes. Most importantly, the modern software design allows the RELAP-7 code to

  17. Quartz crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  18. Time dependence of tip morphology during cellular/dendritic arrayed growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H.; Tewari, S.N.

    1996-04-01

    Succinonitrile-1.9 wt pct acetone has been directionally solidified in 0.7 x 0.7-cm-square cross section pyrex ampoules in order to observe the cell/dendrite tip morphologies, not influenced by the wall effects, which are present during growth in the generally used thin (about 200 {micro}m) crucibles. The tips do not maintain a steady-state shape, as is generally assumed. Instead, they fluctuate within a shape envelope. The extent of fluctuation increases with decreasing growth speed, as the micro structure changes from the dendritic to cellular. The influence of natural convection has been examined by comparing these morphologies with those grown, without convection, in the thin ampoules.

  19. Steady state and dynamic modeling of a packed bed reactor for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde: experimental results compared with model predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwedock, M.J.; Windes, L.C.; Ray, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Heterogeneous and pseudohomogeneous models are compared to experimental data from a packed bed reactor for the partical oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over an iron oxide-molybdenum oxide catalyst. Heat transfer parameters which were successful in matching data from experiments without reaction were not successful in matching temperature data from experiments with reaction. This made it necessary to decrease the fluid radial heat transfer to obtain good fit. A good fit was obtained for steady state composition profiles by optimizing selected frequency factors and the activation energy for methanol. A redox rate expression for the oxidation of formaldehyde to carbon monoxide was proposed since a simple first-order rate expression did not fit the data. The pseudohomogeneous model gave results similar to the heterogeneous model for both steady state and dynamic experiments and has been recommended for future experimental state estimation and control studies. 21 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Phosphorus-31 NMR magnetization-transfer measurements of ATP turnover during steady-state isometric muscle contraction in the rat hind limb in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brindle, K.M.; Blackledge, M.J.; Challiss, R.A.J.; Radda, G.K. )

    1989-05-30

    Phosphorus-31 NMR magnetization-transfer measurement have been used to measure the flux between ATP and inorganic phosphate during steady-state isometric muscle contraction in the rat hind limb in vivo. Steady-state contraction was obtained by supramaximal sciatic nerve stimulation. Increasing the stimulation pulse width from 10 to 90 ms, at a pulse frequency of 1 Hz, or increasing the frequency of a 10-ms pulse from 0.5 to 2 Hz resulted in an increase in the flux which was an approximately linear function of the increase in the tension-time integral. The flux showed an approximately linear dependence on the calculated free cytosolic ADP concentration up to an ADP concentration of about 90 {mu}M. The data are consistent with control of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by the cytosolic ADP concentration and indicate that the apparent K{sub m} of the mitochondria for ADP is at least 30 {mu}M.

  1. Thermal neutron steady-state spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with various non-1/v absorbers of different concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Chandra, S.; Jha, R.C.; Tewari, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the thermal neutron scattering kernel that explicitly incorporates the presence of chemical binding energy and the collective oscillations in the dynamics of water, the steady-state thermal neutron spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with non-1/v absorbers, such as cadmium, samarium, erbium, and gadolinium, in various concentrations have been computed at 298 K. The calculated spectra are in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental spectra for realistic source terms.

  2. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  3. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  4. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditioning biomass for microbial growth Title: Conditioning biomass for microbial growth You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) DOE Patents. This ...

  5. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon ...

  6. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  7. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  8. Steady-state axial pressure losses along the exterior of deformed fuel cladding: Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundles B-1 and B-2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincey, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental and COBRA-IV computational data presented in this report confirm that increased pressure losses, induced by the steady-state axial flow of water exterior to deformed Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundles B-1 and B-2, may be closely predicted using a bundle-averaged approach for describing flow channel restrictions. One anomaly that was encountered using this technique occurred while modeling the B-2 flow test data near a severe channel restriction: the COBRA-IV results tended to underestimate experimental pressure losses.

  9. Starlite figures of merit for tokamak current drive - economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive ({gamma}{sub B} {proportional_to} n{sub e} I{sub o} R{sub o}/P{sub CD}), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for {gamma}{sub B} depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium.

  10. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  11. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  12. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  13. Application Of ERT For Tracking CO2 Plume Growth And Movement At The SECARB Cranfield Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, C R; Ramirez, A L; Newmark, R L; Aines, R; Friedmann, S J

    2009-04-27

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) installed to track the development of an injected subsurface CO{sub 2} plume at the SECARB Cranfield, MS. sequestration site will be the deepest subsurface application of this method to date. ERT utilizes vertical arrays of electrodes, usually in a cross-well arrangement, to perform four-electrode measurements of changes in the spatial distribution of electrical resistance within a subsurface formation. Because a formation containing super-critical CO{sub 2} is approximately five times as resistive as its surroundings, significant resistance changes are anticipated during plume growth and movement within a brine-filled formation. ERT has also been shown to be quite sensitive to CO{sub 2} saturation changes. The Cranfield ERT electrode arrays will be emplaced at a depth exceeding 10,000 ft. (3280 m); the system design and installation must address significant challenges associated with both the depth and borehole conditions including temperatures of 258 F (126 C), pressures exceeding 5000 psi and a groundwater pH of 3. In addition, the system must allow co-located emplacement and concurrent operation with other monitoring techniques that utilize the same boreholes. ERT electrode and cabling will be attached to the outside of the well casing, allowing free access to the interior of the well, which is required by some of the other monitoring techniques being fielded. We will highlight these design challenges along with preliminary simulations indicating the anticipated level of imaging and the advantages of applying the technique in conjunction with other methods (such as cross-well seismics) to more accurately track the properties, location and movement of CO{sub 2} plumes.

  14. 2015 NREL Industry Growth Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During NREL’s 2015 Industry Growth Forum, 30 competitively selected clean energy startups will pitch their businesses to investors and compete to win the NREL Best Venture Award.  One of the...

  15. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  16. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  17. Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Johathan; Luhrs, Claudia; Terani, Mehran; Al - Haik, Marwan; Garcia, Daniel; Taha, Mahmoud R

    2009-01-01

    smooth walls and low impurity content were grown. Carbon nanofibers were also grown on a carbon fiber cloth using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a mixture of acetylene and ammonia. In this case, a cobalt colloid was used to achieve a good coverage of nanofibers on carbon fibers in the cloth. Caveats to CNT growth include damage in the carbon fiber surface due to high-temperatures (>800 C). More recently, Qu et al. reported a new method for uniform deposition of CNT on carbon fibers. However, this method requires processing at 1100 C in the presence of oxygen and such high temperature is anticipated to deepen the damage in the carbon fibers. In the present work, multi-scale filaments (herein, linear carbon structures with multi-micron diameter are called 'fibers', all structures with sub-micron diameter are called 'filaments') were created with a low temperature (ca. 550 C) alternative to CVD growth of CNTs. Specifically, nano-scale filaments were rapidly generated (> 10 microns/hour) on commercial micron scale fibers via catalytic (Pd particles) growth from a fuel rich combustion environment at atmospheric pressure. This atmospheric pressure process, derived from the process called Graphitic Growth by Design (GSD), is rapid, the maximum temperature low enough (below 700 C) to avoid structural damage and the process inexpensive and readily scalable. In some cases, a significant and unexpected aspect of the process was the generation of 'three scale' materials. That is, materials with these three size characteristics were produced: (1) micrometer scale commercial PAN fibers, (2) a layer of 'long' sub-micrometer diameter scale carbon filaments, and (3) a dense layer of 'short' nanometer diameter filaments.

  18. Fatigue flaw growth assessment and inclusion of stratification to the LBB assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samohyl, P.

    1997-04-01

    The application of the LBB requires also fatigue flaw growth assessment. This analysis was performed for PWR nuclear power plants types VVER 440/230, VVER 440/213c, VVER 1000/320. Respecting that these NPP`s were designed according to Russian codes that differ from US codes it was needed to compare these approaches. Comparison with our experimental data was accomplished, too. Margins of applicability of the US methods and their modifications for the materials used for construction of Czech and Slovak NPP`s are shown. Computer code accomplishing the analysis according to described method is presented. Some measurement and calculations show that thermal stratifications in horizontal pipelines can lead to additive loads that are not negligible and can be dangerous. An attempt to include these loads induced by steady-state stratification was made.

  19. Neutronic, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Kazakhstan VVR-K reactor with LEU fuel: ANL independent verification results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanan, Nelson A.; Garner, Patrick L.

    2015-08-01

    Calculations have been performed for steady state and postulated transients in the VVR-K reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), Kazakhstan. (The reactor designation in Cyrillic is BBP-K; transliterating characters to English gives VVR-K but translating words gives WWR-K.) These calculations have been performed at the request of staff of the INP who are performing similar calculations. The selection of the transients considered started during working meetings and email correspondence between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and INP staff. In the end the transient were defined by the INP staff. Calculations were performed for the fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) core and for four subsequent cores as beryllium is added to maintain critically during the first 15 cycles. These calculations have been performed independently from those being performed by INP and serve as one step in the verification process.

  20. New opportunities for quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering at steady-state sources using mechanical selection of the incident and final neutron energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamantov, Eugene

    2015-06-12

    We propose a modification of the neutron wide-angle velocity selector (WAVES) device that enables inelastic (in particular, quasielastic) scattering measurements not relying on the neutron time-of-flight. The proposed device is highly suitable for a steady-state neutron source, somewhat similar to a triple-axis spectrometer, but with simultaneous selection of the incident and final neutron energy over a broad range of scattering momentum transfer. Both the incident and final neutron velocities are defined by the WAVES geometry and rotation frequency. The variable energy transfer is achieved through the natural variation of the velocity of the transmitted neutrons as a function of themore » scattering angle component out of the equatorial plane.« less

  1. Ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy with atomic or molecular dark resonances: Exact steady-state line shapes and asymptotic profiles in the adiabatic pulsed regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Clercq, Emeric de; Arimondo, Ennio [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris, France, and CNRS, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris (France); LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica ''E. Fermi,'' Universita di Pisa, Lgo. B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Exact and asymptotic line shape expressions are derived from the semiclassical density matrix representation describing a set of closed three-level {Lambda} atomic or molecular states including decoherences, relaxation rates, and light shifts. An accurate analysis of the exact steady-state dark-resonance profile describing the Autler-Townes doublet, the electromagnetically induced transparency or coherent population trapping resonance, and the Fano-Feshbach line shape leads to the linewidth expression of the two-photon Raman transition and frequency shifts associated to the clock transition. From an adiabatic analysis of the dynamical optical Bloch equations in the weak field limit, a pumping time required to efficiently trap a large number of atoms into a coherent superposition of long-lived states is established. For a highly asymmetrical configuration with different decay channels, a strong two-photon resonance based on a lower states population inversion is established when the driving continuous-wave laser fields are greatly unbalanced. When time separated resonant two-photon pulses are applied in the adiabatic pulsed regime for atomic or molecular clock engineering, where the first pulse is long enough to reach a coherent steady-state preparation and the second pulse is very short to avoid repumping into a new dark state, dark-resonance fringes mixing continuous-wave line shape properties and coherent Ramsey oscillations are created. Those fringes allow interrogation schemes bypassing the power broadening effect. Frequency shifts affecting the central clock fringe computed from asymptotic profiles and related to the Raman decoherence process exhibit nonlinear shapes with the three-level observable used for quantum measurement. We point out that different observables experience different shifts on the lower-state clock transition.

  2. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  3. Fast-ion transport in q{sub min}>2, high-β steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Bass, E. M.; Luce, T. C.; Pace, D. C.; Solomon, W. M.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Podesta, M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; Park, J. M.; Kim, K.; Turco, F.

    2015-05-15

    Results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high-q{sub min} confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing β{sub N} and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with q{sub min}>2 that target the typical range of q{sub 95}= 5–7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reduces the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable β{sub N}. In contrast, similar plasmas except with q{sub min} just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take q{sub min}>3 plasmas to higher β{sub P} with q{sub 95}= 11–12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-q{sub min} scenario, the high β{sub P} cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇β{sub fast}, and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, β{sub N}, and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q{sub 95}, high-q{sub min} plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes.

  4. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  5. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, & Renewables Analysis U.S. Energy Information Administration Implications of low electricity demand growth Growth in electricity use slows, but still increases by 29% from 2012 to 2040 -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 percent growth (3-year compounded annual growth rate) Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Reference

  6. Fuel Cell Growth Markets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth Markets Fuel Cell Growth Markets Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held Nov. 16, 2009 htmwg_nov09_fuel_cell_growth.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Accelerated Testing Validation Minutes of the Fall 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report

  7. Modeling delamination growth in composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Mello, F.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method for modeling the initiation and growth of discrete delaminations in shell-like composite structures is presented. The laminate is divided into two or more sublaminates, with each sublaminate modeled with four-noded quadrilateral shell elements. A special, eight-noded hex constraint element connects opposing sublaminate shell elements. It supplies the nodal forces and moments needed to make the two opposing shell elements act as a single shell element until a prescribed failure criterion is satisfied. Once the failure criterion is attained, the connection is broken, creating or growing a discrete delamination. This approach has been implemented in a 3D finite element code. This code uses explicit time integration, and can analyze shell-like structures subjected to large deformations and complex contact conditions. The shell elements can use existing composite material models that include in-plane laminate failure modes. This analysis capability was developed to perform crashworthiness studies of composite structures, and is useful whenever there is a need to estimate peak loads, energy absorption, or the final shape of a highly deformed composite structure. This paper describes the eight-noded hex constraint element used to model the initiation and growth of a delamination, and discusses associated implementation issues. Particular attention is focused on the delamination growth criterion, and it is verified that calculated results do not depend on element size. In addition, results for double cantilever beam and end notched flexure specimens are presented and compared to measured data to assess the ability of the present approach to model a growing delamination.

  8. Plenum type crystal growth process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals are grown in a tank which is divided by a baffle into a crystal growth region above the baffle and a plenum region below the baffle. A turbine blade or stirring wheel is positioned in a turbine tube which extends through the baffle to generate a flow of solution from the crystal growing region to the plenum region. The solution is pressurized as it flows into the plenum region. The pressurized solution flows back to the crystal growing region through return flow tubes extending through the baffle. Growing crystals are positioned near the ends of the return flow tubes to receive a direct flow of solution.

  9. Method of monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  10. Apparatus for monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  11. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  12. New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean Energy Job Sector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean Energy Job Sector New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean Energy Job Sector New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean ...

  13. Cavitation in a metallic liquid: Homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Y.; Wu, H. A.; Luo, S. N.

    2014-06-07

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (∼0.9 J m{sup −2}) and the Tolman length (0.4–0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10{sup 33−34} s{sup −1} m{sup −3}) and critical size (3–4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence.

  14. Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Adam W. Babcock, Susan E.; Li, Jincheng; Brown, April S.

    2015-05-15

    The authors have examined bismuth concentration profiles in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using high angle annular dark field imaging (Z-contrast imaging) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunction with x-ray diffraction. Samples were grown with a gradient in each of the component fluxes, and therefore, the III/V ratio across the substrate. Rotating the sample during growth exposed the growth surface to an oscillating III/V flux ratio. Sinusoidal [Bi] profiles resulted in the growth direction, the wavelength and number of which were consistent with the growth rate and the rate of substrate rotation. However, the magnitude of [Bi] in the observed fluctuations was greater than the maximum [Bi] achieved using the same Bi flux and Ga/As flux ratios in steady-state conditions on a stationary substrate, suggesting that varying the III/V flux ratio during growth promotes the incorporation of Bi in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films. A proposed qualitative model for how this enhancement might occur hypothesizes a critical role for alternating growth and shrinkage of Ga-Bi predroplet clusters on the surface as the growing material is rotated through Ga-rich and As-rich flux compositions.

  15. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  16. Steady-State Gyrokinetics Transport Code (SSGKT), A Scientific Application Partnership with the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahey, Mark R.; Candy, Jeff

    2013-11-07

    This project initiated the development of TGYRO ? a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two

  17. Growth of a tectonic ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, R.W.; Messerich, J.A.; Johnson, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake of M 7.6 created an impressive record of surface rupture and ground deformation. Fractures extend over a length of more than 80 km including zones of right-lateral shift, steps in the fault zones, fault intersections and vertical changes. Among the vertical changes was the growth of a tectonic ridge described here. In this paper the authors describe the Emerson fault zone and the Tortoise Hill ridge including the relations between the fault zone and the ridge. They present data on the horizontal deformation at several scales associated with activity within the ridge and belt of shear zones and show the differential vertical uplifts. And, they conclude with a discussion of potential models for the observed deformation.

  18. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  19. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  20. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  1. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  2. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-09-19

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 mol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  3. FRAPCON-2: a computer code for the calculation of steady state thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berna, G.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Rausch, W.N.; Williford, R.E.; Lanning, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and failure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include: (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e) fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version2.

  4. Investigation of deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films by a steady-state photocapacitance method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Xiaobo, E-mail: hxb1314@gmail.com; Sakurai, Takeaki; Akimoto, Katsuhiro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamada, Akimasa; Ishizuka, Shogo; Niki, Sigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    The properties of defect levels located 0.8?eV above the valence band in Cu(In{sub 1?x},Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films were investigated by a steady-state photocapacitance method. When illuminated by light with a photon energy of 0.8?eV at 60?K, a fast increase, followed by a slow increase, was observed in the photocapacitance transients of all samples. Upon being re-exposed, samples with a low bandgap energy showed a slow decrease in photocapacitance transients. These observations were interpreted using a configuration coordinate model assuming two states for the 0.8?eV defect: a stable state D and its metastable state D* with a large lattice relaxation. The difference in the evolution mechanisms of the photocapacitance transients was attributed to the difference in the optical transition of carriers between the two states of the 0.8?eV defect and the valence and conduction bands.

  5. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  6. Network Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling using Integrated Genomic, Proteomic and Phosphorylation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, Katrina M.; Liu, Tao; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Willse, Alan R.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Kathmann, Loel E.; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2012-03-29

    To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF) using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.

  7. VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth in solar means growth in Ohio VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 10:57am Addthis DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy

  8. GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM ELECTRODES Authors: Sheridan, Leah B 1 ; Hensley, Dale K 1 ; Lavrik, Nickolay V 1 ; Smith, ...

  9. Crystallographic evidence for simultaneous growth in graphic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Crystallographic evidence for simultaneous growth in graphic granite ... Publication Date: 2015-08-21 OSTI Identifier: 1178828 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  10. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  11. Probing the effect of electron acceptor structure and morphology on charge separation in ZnO/P3HT hybrid photovoltaics using steady-state transient photoinduced absorption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Robert Jackson; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Lee, Yun-Ju; Hsu, Julia W. P.

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid cells based on ZnO/P3HT heterojunctions have the advantage of better device stability, but suffer poor photovoltaic performance compared to all-organic cells which use PCBM as the electron acceptor. The photovoltaic effect in these hybrid systems is accomplished via photoinduced charge separation at the interface between the absorbing polymer (P3HT) and the electron acceptor (ZnO). Efforts to improve device performance in these hybrid systems have centered on reducing the required diffusion length for P3HT excitons by creating bulk heterojunctions from either ZnO nanoparticles and P3HT or using ZnO precursors which convert in situ to form ZnO networks inside a polymer matrix. In this study, we use transient photoinduced absorption to access the lifetimes of P3HT polarons and excitons in bulk heterojunctions constructed using P3HT and ZnO nanoparticles or ZnO precursors and compare to those in planar ZnO/P3HT devices. Steady-state photoinduced absorption spectra of ZnO/P3HT show characteristic of sub-bandgap transitions associated with the formation of long-lived (msec lifetimes) radical cations (polarons) in P3HT. Similar short-lived polarons (psec lifetimes) are observed by picosecond transient photoinduced absorption in addition to infrared absorption due to excitons. Here we examine the lifetimes of both the excitons and polarons in ZnO:P3HT bulk heterojunctions using both picosecond and millisecond techniques in an effort to understand the effect of the structure and morphology of the electron acceptor on charge separation. We will also compare the relative photoexitation lifetimes, hence charge separation efficiency, for the planar and bulk heterojunction hybrid system to an all-organic P3HT:PCBM system.

  12. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  13. Particle growth in silane-hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujundzic, Damir; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The growth of silicon particles has been measured in silane-hydrogen radio-frequency (rf) discharges using a typical hydrogen/silane dilution ratio (20) and the pressure range (1.2-2.2 Torr) used for the production of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films and devices. By operating brief discharges without gas flow, the particle size is obtained from the afterglow diffusion and the particle density from the scattered-light intensity. These small-reactor data thus provide the expected particle size and density versus location-in a commercial large-area-isothermal-flowing-gas reactor. Particle growth rate is a strong function of pressure, whereas film growth rate is almost independent of pressure. Both growth rates are sensitive to rf voltage, although particle growth is more sensitive.

  14. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-08-15

    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions inmore » a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Lastly, simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.« less

  15. Growth mechanism and optical properties of Ti thin films deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einollahzadeh-Samadi, Motahareh; Dariani, Reza S.

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a detailed study of the influence of the thickness on the morphological and optical properties of titanium (Ti) thin films deposited onto rough fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by d.c. magnetron sputtering is carried out. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity, morphology, and optical properties. Regardless of the deposition time, all the studied Ti films of 400, 1500, 2000, and 2500?nm in thickness were single crystalline in the ?-Ti phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition. Using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, the authors analyzed the roughness evolution of the Ti films characteristics as a function of the film thickness. By applying the dynamic scaling theory to the AFM images, a steady growth roughness exponent ??=?0.72??0.02 and a dynamic growth roughness exponent ??=?0.22??0.02 were determined. The value of ? and ? are consistent with nonlinear growth model incorporating random deposition with surface diffusion. Finally, measuring the reflection spectra of the samples by a spectrophotometer in the spectral range of 3001100?nm allowed us to investigate the optical properties. The authors observed the increments of the reflection of Ti films with thickness, which by employing the effective medium approximation theory showed an increase in thickness followed by an increase in the volume fraction of metal.

  16. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    B High Economic Growth case projections This page inTenTionally lefT blank 43 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 High Economic Growth case projections Table B1. World total primary energy consumption by region, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 128.2 132.3 137.0 142.4 150.1 0.9 United States a 96.8 94.4

  17. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  18. Ectopic expression of eIF4E-transporter triggers the movement of eIF4E into P-bodies, inhibiting steady-state translation but not the pioneer round of translation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Cho, Hana; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2008-05-16

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is the best-characterized mRNA surveillance mechanism; this process removes faulty mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs). NMD targets newly synthesized mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding proteins 80/20 (CBP80/20) and exon junction complex (EJC), the former of which is thought to recruit the ribosome to initiate the pioneer round of translation. After completion of the pioneer round of translation, CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E, which mediates steady-state translation in the cytoplasm. Here, we show that overexpression of eIF4E-T preferentially inhibits cap-dependent steady-state translation, but not the pioneer round of translation. We also demonstrate that overexpression of eIF4E-T or Dcp1a triggers the movement of eIF4E into the processing bodies. These results suggest that the pioneer round of translation differs from steady-state translation in terms of ribosome recruitment.

  19. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S.; Piotrowski, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  20. China-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  1. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dark energy, and the linear growth factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor We study the degeneracies between ...

  2. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Title: Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Authors: Chen, Wei ; Cui, ...

  3. Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) Surface Title: Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) ...

  4. ClimateWorks-Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks-Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Retrieved from "http:...

  5. Thailand-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Thailand-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  6. Cambodia-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Cambodia-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  7. Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "GGGI is dedicated to pioneering and diffusing a new model of economic growth, known as "green growth," that simultaneously targets key aspects of economic performance, such as...

  8. Green Growth e-Learning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Green Growth e-Learning AgencyCompany Organization: Green Growth Best Practice Initiative (GGBPI) Focus Area: Economic Development, Energy...

  9. Peru-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name Peru-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  10. Jordan-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name Jordan-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...