Sample records for anthropogenic human-caused greenhouse

  1. anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to...

  2. Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990­2009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 In 1992, the United climate change. This inventory adheres to both (1) a comprehensive and detailed set of methodologies

  3. Long-term ice sheetclimate interactions under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing simulated with a complex Earth System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    with a complex Earth System Model Miren Vizcai´no Ć Uwe Mikolajewicz Ć Matthias Gro¨ger Ć Ernst Maier-Reimer Ć-millennia simulations have been performed with a complex Earth System Model (ESM) for different anthropogenic climate climate change Á Meridional overturning circulation Á Earth system modelling Á Sea level 1 Introduction

  4. Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin, Ireland

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

  5. Lecture 25: Evolution & Human-caused evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lecture 25: Evolution & Humans · Human-caused evolution · Global climate change · Exploitation:1786 Final, 14 Dec, 8-10 Review session, 13 Dec, Wednesday, 11am, 201 Abelson Evolution ­ relevance? A better populations ­ Conservation of biodiversity ­ Pests ­ Diseases Global warming and evolution · Moderation

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  7. Climate shocks: Natural and anthropogenic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondratyev, K.Ya.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much recent climate research has focused on the effects of CO{sub 2} and radiatively important trace species, volcanic eruptions, and nuclear exchanges on our future climate. These studies suggest that anthropogenic influence will alter our present climate. The reliability of the climate models are a subject of debate, yet valid information derived from climate models is critical for policy-makers and politicians to make decisions regarding energy use and development and defense strategies. K.Ya. Kondratyev, a leading Soviet climate scientist, addresses the role of the greenhouse effect, nuclear winter, and volcanic eruptions on our climate in a recently published book entitled Climate Shocks: Natural and Anthropogenic. The book provides a detailed survey of the literature on these fields, including the pertinent Soviet literature that is often not surveyed by Western scientists.

  8. Transitional strategies for the reduction of "greenhouse gas" emission in the United States electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Burt L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental issues have become increasingly important in the political arena, particularly with growing concern over the "greenhouse effect," a potential global climatic warming caused by increases in anthropogenic ...

  9. Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from contrasting beef production systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, Patricia

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture has been reported to contribute a significant amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere among other anthropogenic activities. With still more than 870 million people in the world suffering from under-nutrition ...

  11. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect."

  13. Inadvertent Climate Modification Due to Anthropogenic Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cziczo, Daniel J.; Stetzer, Olaf; Worringen, Annette; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan; Kamphus, M.; Gallavardin, S. J.; Curtius, J.; Borrmann, S.; Froyd, Karl D.; Mertes, S.; Mohler, Ottmar; Lohmann, U.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between atmospheric particulate matter and the formation of clouds is among the most uncertain aspects of our current understanding of climate change1. One specific question that remains unanswered is how anthropogenic particulate emissions are affecting the nucleation of ice crystals. Satellites show ice clouds cover more than a third of the globe2 and models suggest that ice nucleation initiates the majority of terrestrial precipitation3. It is therefore not possible to adequately understand either climate change or the global water cycle without understanding ice nucleation. Here we show that lead-containing particles are among the most efficient ice nucleating substances commonly found in the atmosphere. Field observations were conducted with mass spectrometry and electron microscopy at two remote stations on different continents, far removed from local emissions. Laboratory studies within two cloud chambers using controlled experimental conditions support the field data. Because the dominate sources of particulate lead are anthropogenic emissions such as aviation fuel, power generation, smelting, and the re-suspension of residue from tetra-ethyl leaded gasoline4, it is likely that cloud formation and precipitation have been affected when compared to pre-industrial times. A global climate model comparing pre-industrial and anthropogenically perturbed conditions shows that lead-containing particles may be increasing the outgoing longwave radiation by 0.2 to 0.8 W m-2, thereby offsetting a portion of the warming attributed to greenhouse gases1.

  14. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  15. Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

  16. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  17. Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor (the most abundant GHG) accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect. However, water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, and human activity...

  18. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  19. Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  20. Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 sources and sinks of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. In 1992, the United States signed and ratified and make available...national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks

  1. anthropogenic lead distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: . Activities related with metallurgy boosted the anthropogenic environmental impact. The oldest anthropogenic Metallurgy Southern Iberia Present day lead...

  2. Climate effects of anthropogenic sulfate: Simulations from a coupled chemistry/climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we use a more comprehensive approach by coupling a climate model with a 3-D global chemistry model to investigate the forcing by anthropogenic aerosol sulfate. The chemistry model treats the global-scale transport, transformation, and removal of SO{sub 2}, DMS and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} species in the atmosphere. The mass concentration of anthropogenic sulfate from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is calculated in the chemistry model and provided to the climate model where it affects the shortwave radiation. We also investigate the effect, with cloud nucleation parameterized in terms of local aerosol number, sulfate mass concentration and updraft velocity. Our simulations indicate that anthropogenic sulfate may result in important increases in reflected solar radiation, which would mask locally the radiative forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Uncertainties in these results will be discussed.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  4. The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains! natural greenhouse effect! · an empirical introduction #12;Moral of the story: The doubling of CO2 causes

  5. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  6. CHAPTER FIVE Impacts of Anthropogenic Features on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    clustering these features to maximize available habitats. Key Words: avoidance behavior, energy develop- ment Prairie-Chicken avoidance behavior of anthropogenic features be quantified for impact assessment and con of monthly home ranges (95% fixed kernels, n 539) and estimated the likelihood that anthropogenic features (i

  7. The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

  8. The Greenhouse Culture Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse ...

  9. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  10. 2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 2, 289­337, 2002 Greenhouse effect and climate stability V. G. Gorshkov and A. M. Makarieva water vapour concentration, dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content to dynamic singularities in the physical temperature-dependent behaviour of the greenhouse effect. We

  11. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

  12. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

  13. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  14. anthropogenic mercury emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory Pacyna et al., 2005. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged...

  15. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Ice on Anthropogenic Organic Particles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nucleation of Ice on Anthropogenic Organic Particles Collected in Mexico City. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Ice on Anthropogenic Organic Particles Collected in Mexico City....

  16. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

  18. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  19. greenhouse gas inve green developmen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    greenhouse gas inve green developmen energy conservation transportation carbon offs student facult;greenhouse gas inventory green development energy conservation transportation carbon offsets student faculty. Changi natural gas as a primary fuel allowed us to find cleaner and more effici university. Both in 1988

  20. ARM - Human Causes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneral ChangesFieldVisitorListHuman

  1. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, July 1, 1994--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1995-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to assembly and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and validation of General Circulation Models. In addition to changes due to variations in anthropogenic forcing, including greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes, the global climate system exhibits a high degree of internally-generated and externally-forced natural variability. To detect the anthropogenic effect, its signal must be isolated from the ``noise`` of this natural climatic variability. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. To facilitate this, available land and marine data bases will be updated and expanded. The data will be analyzed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by a variety of models, from simple energy balance climate models to coupled atmosphere ocean General Circulation Models. These analyses are oriented towards obtaining early evidence of anthropogenic climatic change that would lead either to confirmation, rejection or modification of model projections, and towards the statistical validation of General Circulation Model control runs and perturbation experiments.

  2. Resources on Greenhouse Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    resources for reporting annual greenhouse gas activities. FedCenter Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting Website: Features additional information, training, and tools to assist...

  3. Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Agency Progress Toward Reduction Targets Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2011 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2010...

  4. Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    inventories of emissions of the trace species included in the study at the appropriate sectoral, spatial inventories calculated global emissions by large geographic areas (Vfkhelyi, 1985), with very little spatial to compile regional to global inventories of anthropogenic emissions. This discussion is by no means

  5. Chemical Composition of Anthropogenically Influenced Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Chemical Composition of Anthropogenically Influenced Groundwater Jacqueline Gordon Brandeis of Biology 1 #12;ABSTRACT I examined the oxygen and nitrogen components of groundwater. I looked at groundwater from a pristine site, a human impacted site, and Title V treated wastewater. All of the water

  6. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  7. RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY METHODS Prepared For: California Energy Commission.........................................................................................................................1 Roadmap Organization

  8. Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Erle C.

    RESEARCH PAPER Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000 Erle C. Ellis1 *, Kees, Canada ABSTRACT Aim To map and characterize anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere anthromes, less than 20% seminatural and only a quarter left wild. Anthropogenic transformation

  9. Ahimsa Media -For Educators -The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Ahimsa Media - For Educators - The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity. Clean up and restore a natural habitat. http://www.ahimsamedia.com/lessonGreenhouseEffect.htm (1 of 5

  10. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tscheuschner called for this discussion in their paper.

  11. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

  12. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  13. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  14. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

  15. Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program provides performance data illustrating federal agency progress in meeting the greenhouse gas reduction targets established under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, as well as the comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories as reported by federal agencies.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

  17. Greenhouse Gas Program Overview (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Greenhouse Gas program, including Federal requirements, FEMP services, and contacts.

  18. anthropogenic trace metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    land. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Anthropogenic activities, such as mining of natural resources, manufacturing industries, modern agricultural practices and...

  19. anthropogenic carbon gosac: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Policy 3 (2003) 149157 Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  20. anthropogenic ecosystem perturbations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Anthropogenic impacts such as fishing and eutrophication are significant challenges to the sustainable management of aquatic ecosystems....

  1. anthropogenic interference dangerous: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"? Multidisciplinary...

  2. anthropogenic impacts recorded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming Physics (arXiv) Summary: Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5...

  3. anthropogenically mediated eutrophication: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The term that Earth has entered a new epoch called the Anthropocene. Anthropogenic global warming is central articles Top downloaded articles Our comprehensive...

  4. avoiding dangerous anthropogenic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"? Multidisciplinary...

  5. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division CSSP Lecture July 27, 2005 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What are we doing

  6. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Science Honor Society Center Moriches High School Center about how this drug affects brain chemistry. #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;Everybody talks about about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What

  7. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  9. Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean C. L. Sabine,1 R. A. Feely,2 R. M. Key,3 J] This work presents an estimate of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean based on measurements from the WOCE tracers; 9355 Information Related to Geographic Region: Pacific Ocean; KEYWORDS: Pacific Ocean

  10. The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Ed Boyle Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Reuer Rick Kayser Boyle Lab, arriving in Rio at the end of EN 367 #12;The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment · Lead is a volatile element and it is emitted by high temperature industrial activities (smelting

  11. anthropogenic methane emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMISSIONS FROM MSW LANDFILLS D. SAVANNE*, P. CASSINI the contribution to the greenhouse effect due to methane emitted by municipal solid waste landfills. The objective of the...

  12. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division CSSP Lecture July 30, 2002 . . . IS TO PUT TWO PEOPLE IN IT! #12;YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 CO2 of carbon a year in the form of carbon dioxide. #12;YOUR CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT At half

  13. Greenhouse Gas Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked...

  14. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Geothermal Greenhouse Information...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Information Package Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News...

  15. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burney, J. A; Davis, S. J; Lobell, D. B

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (2007) Agriculture. Climate Change 2007: Mitigationagriculture’s future contributions to climate change,agriculture greenhouse gas emissions mitigation carbon price | land use change | climate

  16. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

  17. Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities (Smith et al., 2011) · The following 100 years emissions had rapidly increased by use of coal, and by anthropogenic sources, such as burning of coal, oil and gases. SO2 as a pollutant not only changes the climate

  18. Long term fate of anthropogenic carbon Alvaro Montenegro,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, David

    Long term fate of anthropogenic carbon Alvaro Montenegro,1 Victor Brovkin,2 Michael Eby,1 David acidification, with pH decreasing from 8.16 to 7.46 units between years 2000 and 2300. Citation: Montenegro, A

  19. anthropogenic radiation sources: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Pollack, Sara 2008-01-01 6 The whitehouse effect: Shortwave radiative forcing of climate by anthropogenic aerosols, an overview CiteSeer Summary: Abstraet--Loadings of...

  20. anthropogenic lead inputs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    et al. Pb Brest, Universit de 6 GEOS-CHEM ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS Table 1. Inventories general features. Use of optional inventories is set in the input.geos file....

  1. Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

  2. anthropogenically enhanced global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming Physics Websites Summary: 1 Proving...

  3. Modeling non-CO? greenhouse gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyman, Robert C.

    Although emissions of CO? are the largest anthropogenic contributor to the risks of climate change, other substances are important in the formulation of a cost-effective response. To provide improved facilities for addressing ...

  4. Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Research Report #12;#12;Research Report Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Forestry forest soil survey 29 3.5.2 Carbon storage in the main British forest soil types 30 3.5.3 Changes in soil

  5. Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007 Heiner Lieth Plant Sciences of Montenegro is promotion of the their greenhouse flower production industry. At the time when the program was planned it was unknown what level of interest and expertise would be available on-site in Montenegro. Thus

  6. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  7. Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping the "Greenhouse Effect"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping ­ the "Greenhouse Effect" Goals ­ to look is the same as a 1.8 degree F change. #12;Last time - Greenhouse effect demo Selective absorption. Greenhouse

  8. Idaho National Laboratory's FY13 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only the large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  9. Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

  10. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative:...

  11. Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Reporting Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate...

  13. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through...

  14. atmospheric greenhouse effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Surface. This process is the natural greenhouse effect. The earths surface receives solar energy and energy reradiated 9 Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse...

  15. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program, as deemed appropriate for LM operations...

  16. Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment March 22, 2005 - 10:54am Addthis...

  17. White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Federal Government White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

  18. Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods...

  19. Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas...

  20. Responses of East Asian Summer Monsoon to Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings in the 17 Latest CMIP5 Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Fengfei; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examined the responses of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) to natural (solar variability and volcanic aerosols) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gasses and aerosols) forcings simulated in the 17 latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Program phase 5 (CMIP5) models with 105 realizations. The observed weakening trend of low-level EASM circulation during 1958-2001 is partly reproduced under all-forcing runs. A comparison of separate forcing experiments reveals that the aerosol-forcing plays a primary role in driving the weakened low-level monsoon circulation. The preferential cooling over continental East Asia caused by aerosol affects the monsoon circulation through reducing the land-sea thermal contrast and results in higher sea level pressure over northern China. In the upper-level, both natural-forcing and aerosol-forcing contribute to the observed southward shift of East Asian subtropical jet through changing the meridional temperature gradient.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Registry (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is required to establish a method for collecting emissions estimates from producers of greenhouse gases. Reporting is mandatory for some entities, and the...

  2. Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spates, C. N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC has developed...

  3. Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spates, C. N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC ...

  4. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  5. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  6. Towards the detection and attribution of an anthropogenic effect on climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santer, B.D.; Taylor, K.E.; Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wigley, T.M.L. [UCAR Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P.D. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit; Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been hypothesized recently that cooling caused by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may be obscuring a warming signal associated with changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Here the authors use results from model experiments in which sulfate and carbon dioxide have been varied individually and in combination in order to determine whether the simulated surface temperature change patterns are increasingly evident in observed records of temperature change. They use centered [R(t)] and uncentered [C(t)] pattern correlation statistics in order to compare observed time-evolving surface temperature change patterns with the model-predicted equilibrium signal patterns. They show that in the case of temperature signals from the ``CO{sub 2}-only`` and ``sulfate-only`` experiments, the C(t) statistic essentially reduces to a measure of observed global-mean temperature changes, and cannot be used to uniquely attribute observed climate changes to a specific causal mechanism. For the signal from the experiment with combined CO{sub 2}/sulfate aerosol forcing, C(t) provides information on pattern congruence, but trends in C(t) are difficult to interpret without decomposing the statistic into pattern similarity and global-mean change components. They therefore focus on R(t), which is a more useful statistic for discriminating between forcing mechanisms with different pattern signatures but similar rates of global mean change.

  7. Modeling Study of the Effect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Late Spring Drought in South China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Ning; Liu, Xiaohong

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the mechanisms underlying the decadal variability of late spring precipitation in south China are investigated using the latest version 1 of Community Earth System Model (CESM1). We aim to unravel the effects of different climate forcing agents, such as aerosols and greenhouse gases (GHGs), on the decadal variation of precipitation with transient experiments from pre-industry (for year 1850) to present-day (for year 2000). Our results reveal that: (1) CESM1 can reproduce the climatological features of atmospheric circulation and precipitation for the late spring in south China; (2) Only simulations including the forcing of anthropogenic aerosols can reproduce the observed decreasing trend of late spring precipitation from 1950-2000 in south China; (3) Aerosols affect the decadal change of precipitation mainly by altering the large scale atmospheric circulation, and to a less extent by increasing the lower-tropospheric stability to inhibit the convective precipitation; and (4) In comparison, other climate forcing agents, such as GHGs, have much smaller effects on the decadal change of spring precipitation in south China. Key words: precipitation, aerosols, climate change, south China, Community Earth System Model

  8. Solar greenhouses and sunspaces: lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiences of the DOE Appropriate Technology grantees provide valuable information for others to use in building and operating better sunspaces and greenhouses. Their experiences are the basis for Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned. This publication is divided into six major categories: design; construction tips; management, maintenance, and safety; horticulture; greenhouse construction workshops; and information sources. Each chapter presents basic background material on the topic and relevant information from selected project reports. A question and answer format is used to present information on ways greenhouses and sunspaces can be improved. This publication has been developed as a supplement to the existing literature to help prospective sunspace/greenhouse owner/builders get started in the right direction. It is not a text book, and is not a substitute for any of the good ''how-to'' greenhouse books available. Its purpose is to identify common mistakes in design, construction and/or operation that affect performance, and provide useful advice to help consumers avoid these mistakes.

  9. anthropogenic emission inventory: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anthropogenic emission inventory First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 GEOS-CHEM...

  10. The Urban Environmental Gradient: Anthropogenic Influences on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgia, through Atlanta, to the Gulf of Mexico and reflects a steep gradient in population density from as vehicular traffic. Introduction Many of the common anthropogenic pollution problems are focused in urban geographic areas. Suburbia does not contribute much by way of industrial pollution, but it does serve

  11. The Anthropogenic Perturbation of Atmospheric CO2 and the Climate System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    of carbon dioxide (CO2), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), are redistributed within the climate system

  12. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  13. Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic eects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic, are increasing due to human activities. Our analysis suggests that a third of global anthropogenic N2O emission the remainder. Over 80% of aquatic anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the Northern Hemisphere mid

  14. Greenhouse of the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavin, B. III

    1998-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

  15. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    27–29 in T. Wirth, editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gasfor national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume 2.National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme Task Force

  16. 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton University Reports Contents 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Campus Energy was established in 2008, the University has invested $5.3 million in energy-savings projects, resulting in annual of a 5.2-megawatt solar collector field. · Audit the remaining 20 of the top 50 energy- consuming

  17. Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Greg Smith Brandon Trelstad OSU Facilities Services June #12;#12;Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people from many, geothermal, tidal or sea currents etc. (7) "OUS Method" refers to the inventory for FY07 that is similar

  18. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

  19. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  20. [Page Intentionally Left Blank] Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reuter, Martin

    ..........................................................................11 4.2 Conventional Jet Fuel from Crude Oil2 June #12;[Page Intentionally Left Blank] #12;Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Alternative .......................................5 3.1 Life cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production in France Thierry Boulard Abstract The environmental impact of greenhouse pro- duction in France is poorly documented. Environmental production under polytunnel. Environmental impacts where assessed by life cycle analysis. Analyses were

  2. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  3. Satellite measurements of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    LETTERS Satellite measurements of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from tropospheric ozone HELEN M of 0.48±0.14 W m-2 between 45 S and 45 N. This estimate of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from

  4. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz The GREENS MENS Assistant Secretary for Foreign Affairs #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per

  5. alleviating greenhouse effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrate at the carbon cycle 12;However, 12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex 12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5 Johnson, Robert E. 5 2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect Physics...

  6. Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J.; Jones, Andrew D.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Delucchi, Mark A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Wang, M. (2001) "Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Fuels and MotorLifecycle Analysis of Biofuels." Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-08.

  7. Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howie, James Edward

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

  8. Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6/5/2013 1 Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas Council June 4, 2013 Portland, OR 1 CO2 Chemistry 1 molecule of CO 1 atom carbon1 molecule of CO2 = 1 atom carbon + 2 atoms oxygen 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 CO2 Chemistry 1 mole of carbon = 6 02 x 1023 carbon atoms 1

  9. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3 Contents Abstract 2 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem background

  10. 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism whereby absorbed solar system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds

  11. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz Rotary Club of Patchogue November 9, 2005 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12 Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What are we doing? #12;370 360 350

  12. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  13. Lesson Summary Students will examine six different greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    . Cloud cover also affects greenhouse warming by both reducing the amount of solar radiation reaching of the greenhouse effect AAAS Science Benchmarks The Nature of Science Scientific Inquiry The Physical Setting - 52. Background The earth's atmospheric "greenhouse effect" is much more complex than the simple

  14. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

  15. Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunstall, M.G. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Graeber, G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO{sub 2} concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse heating offers a further opportunity for utilization of the carbon dioxide present in the fluid. The main difficulty is that plants react adversely to hydrogen sulphide which is invariably mixed, at some concentration, with the CO{sub 2} from geothermal fluids. Even very low H{sub 2}S concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg can have negative effects on the growth of plants (National Research Council, 1979). Therefore, an appropriate purification process for the CO{sub 2} must be used to avoid elevated H{sub 2}S levels in the greenhouses. The use of adsorption and absorption processes is proposed. Two purification processes have been modelled using the ASOEN PLUS software package, using the Geothermal Greenhouses Ltd. Operation Kawerau New Zealand and an example. A greenhouse area of 8,000 m{sup 2}, which would create a demand for approximately 20 kg CO{sub 2} per hour, was chosen based on a proposed expansion at Kawerau. The Kawerau operation currently takes geothermal steam (and gas) from a high temperature 2-phase well to heat an area of 1650 m{sup 2}. Bottled carbon dioxide is utilized at a rate of about 50 kg per day, to provide CO{sub 2} levels of 800 mg/kg when the greenhouse is closed and 300 to 350 mg/kg whilst venting. In England and the Netherlands, CO{sub 2} levels of 1000 mg/kg are often used (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989) and similar concentrations are desired at Kawerau, but current costs of 0.60 NZ$/kg for bottled CO{sub 2} are too high (Foster, 1995).

  16. LEDs for Energy Efficient Greenhouse Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Devesh; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light energy is an important factor for plant growth. In regions where the natural light source, i.e. solar radiation, is not sufficient for growth optimization, additional light sources are being used. Traditional light sources such as high pressure sodium lamps and other metal halide lamps are not very efficient and generate high radiant heat. Therefore, new sustainable solutions should be developed for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Recent developments in the field of light source technologies have opened up new perspectives for sustainable and highly efficient light sources in the form of light-emitting diodes, i.e. LEDs, for greenhouse lighting. This review focuses on the potential of LEDs to replace traditional light sources in the greenhouse. In a comparative economic analysis of traditional vs. LED lighting, we show that the introduction of LEDs allows reduction of the production cost of vegetables in the long-run of several years, due to the high energy efficiency, low maintenance cost and lon...

  17. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL’s baseline GHG inventory: • Electricity is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the net anthropogenic CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion, fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill, mobile combustion (fleet fuels) and the employee commute • Sources with low emissions were contracted waste disposal, wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted) and fugitive emissions from refrigerants. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to stress that the methodology behind this inventory followed guidelines that have not yet been formally adopted. Thus, some modification of the conclusions may be necessary as additional guidance is received. Further, because this report differentiates between those portions of the INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  18. anthropogenic impacts multi-proxy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change Geosciences Websites Summary: ARTICLES Attributing physical and biological...

  19. Anthropogenic Influence on Recent Bathymetric Change in West-Central San Francisco Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Patrick; Kvitek, Rikk

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estuary, anthropogenic, dredging, aggregate mining, sedimentas aggregate min- ing and dredging on the regional sedimentfrom 1976 to 1996 for dredging and borrow pit min- ing for

  20. Equity and equality in the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses some ideas of how to balance equity and equality in negotiating action on greenhouse gases. Some parallels are drawn with previous agreements to combat another regional air pollution problem, acid rain. The ease with which formulations come into the mind should not mislead the reader into thinking the process will be easy. Setting international environmental policy is a tortuous process. Many attractive regulatory concepts, such as efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and benefits of control, are sacrificed on the negotiating table. But when the parties at the table represent such a broad cross-section of the human condition, some fundamental rethinking of cooperation and coordination is necessary. 8 refs.

  1. ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneral Changes inListGreenhouse Effect

  2. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NRELCost of6DataEnergy SystemsGreenhouse Gas

  3. On the meaning of feedback parameter, transient climate response, and the greenhouse effect: Basic considerations and the discussion of uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramm, Gerhard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the meaning of feedback parameter, greenhouse effect and transient climate response usually related to the globally averaged energy balance model of Schneider and Mass. After scrutinizing this model and the corresponding planetary radiation balance we state that (a) the this globally averaged energy balance model is flawed by unsuitable physical considerations, (b) the planetary radiation balance for an Earth in the absence of an atmosphere is fraught by the inappropriate assumption of a uniform surface temperature, the so-called radiative equilibrium temperature of about 255 K, and (c) the effect of the radiative anthropogenic forcing, considered as a perturbation to the natural system, is much smaller than the uncertainty involved in the solution of the model of Schneider and Mass. This uncertainty is mainly related to the empirical constants suggested by various authors and used for predicting the emission of infrared radiation by the Earth's skin. Furthermore, after inserting the ...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods...

  5. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    calculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for mobile combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions...

  6. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency...

  7. Lightning Dock KGRA, New Mexico's Largest Geothermal Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (0) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLightningDockKGRA,NewMexico%27sLargestGeothermalGreenhouse,LargestAquacultureFacility,andFirstBinaryE...

  8. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    national standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). The standards would apply to model year 2012 - 2016 passenger cars and light...

  9. DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    state, local, tribal and regional planning efforts related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the electric power sector. DOE is ready to support state, local, and tribal...

  10. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    how Federal departments and agencies should consider the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change in their National Environmental Policy Act reviews. The revised...

  11. CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    revised draft guidance on consideration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the effects of climate change in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) reviews on December 18,...

  12. aqueous greenhouse species: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine...

  14. Analysis of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Tax Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Gilbert E.

    The U.S. Congress is considering a set of bills designed to limit the nation’s greenhouse gas (GHG)

  15. atmospheric greenhouse gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  16. attached greenhouses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  17. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

  18. Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in...

  19. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  20. annual greenhouse gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as a transportation mode. Federal government initiatives on the US 34 Nuclear Power PROS -No' greenhouse gas emissions Geosciences Websites Summary: Nuclear Power PROS -No'...

  1. agroecosystem greenhouse gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to...

  2. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  3. Anthropogenic eutrophication shapes the past and present taxonomic composition of hybridizing Daphnia in unproductive lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Anthropogenic eutrophication shapes the past and present taxonomic composition of hybridizing It has been proposed that anthropogenic eutrophication of lakes facilitated the establishment the past eutrophication is assumed to have never been on the level necessary for D. galeata to reach high

  4. Acoustics of Anthropogenic Habitats: Noise Pollution and its Impacts on Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    Acoustics of Anthropogenic Habitats: Noise Pollution and its Impacts on Wildlife Caitlin Kight by anthropogenic noise pollution, which is often louder, has a different frequency emphasis, and may occur over a different temporal scale, than natural noise. Although a handful of studies have indicated that acoustically

  5. Anthropogenic and Natural Emissions of Mercury (Hg) in the northeastern United Jeffrey MacAdam Sigler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Abstract Anthropogenic and Natural Emissions of Mercury (Hg) in the northeastern United States impact may depend on the emission rate. Anthropogenic Hg emissions in the United States are poorly characterized. Natural Hg emissions are poorly understood worldwide, due to lack of data or measurement systems

  6. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850 S. Jevrejeva,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binford, Michael W.

    Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850 S. Jevrejeva,1 A. Grinsted,2 and J. C October 2009. [1] The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25

  7. A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE on the global warming that can be tolerated without risking dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. I" mainly as a metaphor for the danger posed by global warming. So I changed "Hell" to "disaster." What

  8. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

  9. An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Analysis ­ Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prepared by Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School of OceanAn Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted Clean Energy Standards Prepared for the U Hawai`i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask 12.3 Second Deliverable

  10. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar to those predicted atmospheric CO2 concentrations (˝CO2atm) during Earth's ancient greenhouse episodes is essential for accurately predicting the response of future climate to elevated CO2 levels. Empirical estimates of ˝CO2atm

  11. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

  12. New Evidence of an Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benestad, Rasmus E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of earth's climate is constrained by well-known physical principles such as energy balance and the conservation of energy. Increased greenhouse gas concentrations affect the atmospheric optical depth, and physical consistency implies that changes in the energy transfer in terms of infra-red light must be compensated by other means of energy flow. Here, a simple heuristic and comprehensive model is used to interpret new aspects of real-world data. It is shown that trends in tropospheric overturning activity and the estimated altitude where earth's bulk heat loss should place are two independent indicators of climate change. There has been increased vertical overturning in the middle and upper parts of the troposphere since 1995 on a global scale. Greater overturning compensates for reduced radiative energy transfer associated with increased optical depth. An increased optical depth is also expected to raise the altitude from where planetary bulk heat loss takes place according to the heuristic model,...

  13. An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series with regions of strong anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Citation: Erickson, D. J., III, R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, T. J

  14. Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

  15. Painter Greenhouse Guidelines Contact: All emails regarding facilities, facilities equipment, supplies at facilities, or watering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , supplies at facilities, or watering concerns to both the greenhouse manager, Shane Merrell Greenhouses is supplemented by heating and cooling from the main Painter Building. The smaller Painter

  16. First Direct Observation of CO2's Greenhouse Effect at the Earth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

  18. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs forEmployer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized...

  19. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs forEmployer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options - Dataset Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for...

  20. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 The report ranks...

  1. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumbenergyuselossemissionslg.gif How...

  2. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  3. Animated simulation of greenhouse internal transport using Siman/Cinema

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, W.; Ting, K.C.; Giacomelli, G.A. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on an animated computer model developed using a simulation language Sinman/Cinema to simulate greenhouse internal transport systems. The model can be used as a tool to study the performance of materials handling operations within a greenhouse. The potential bottleneck of a transport system can be visually detected on the computer monitor. Statistical analyses on the system parameters, such as the status and utilization of machines, workers and waiting lines, and throughput time of an operation, are performed during the simulation. From these data, the interaction between machines and workers within a greenhouse system can be studied.

  4. An Application of Phase Change Technology in a Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y.; Chen, C.; Guo, H.; Yue, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and Solar Cells, 1998,51: 401?411 [2] Yang Chun, Ge Xinshi, Cheng Shuxia. A theoretical and experimental study of the heat transfer problems in the greenhouse. Acta Energiae Solaris ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies... Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2003,24,6(12): 789-794. (In Chinese) [4] J.G.Pieters, J.M.Deltour. Modelling solar energy input in greenhouses. Solar Energy,1999,67: 119?130 [5] Mathala J. Gupta, Pitam Chandra. Effect of greenhouse design parameters...

  5. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibensperger, Eric Michael

    We investigate the climate response to changing US anthropogenic aerosol sources over the 1950–2050 period by using the NASA GISS general circulation model (GCM) and comparing to observed US temperature trends. Time-dependent ...

  6. Anthropogenic Disturbance of Western Gray Whale Behavior Off Sakhalin Island, Russia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gailey, Glenn Andrew

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    , the western gray whale population face several threats to their future survival. On their only known feeding grounds off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia, anthropogenic activity has increased in the past decade due to oil and gas exploration...

  7. Frequency and amplitude shifts in the whistle vocalizations of bottlenose dolphins in response to anthropogenic noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candelaria-Ley, Roxanne Inez

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic noise can have a number of negative effects on cetaceans including the masking of biologically important sounds. Although many observational studies are found in the literature, few data have been published on the effects of low...

  8. Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model Uwe earth system model con- sisting of an atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean general

  9. How sensitive is tropospheric oxidation to anthropogenic emissions? Oliver Wild1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    How sensitive is tropospheric oxidation to anthropogenic emissions? Oliver Wild1 and Paul I. Palmer regime. Citation: Wild, O., and P. I. Palmer (2008), How sensitive is tropospheric oxidation

  10. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  11. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  12. Fiscal Year 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel spreadsheet shows scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas inventories reported by federal agencies in fiscal year 2012. It includes emissions from sources not subject to the reduction targets.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

    The United States has made significant progress in reducing total energy use through energy efficiency improvements over the past decade, yet the United States still ranks as the highest absolute greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter in the world with 23...

  14. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    ..................................... 30 Appendix E: Canadian Default Factors for Calculating CO2 Emissions from Combustion of Natural Gas GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability ......................................................... 34 Appendix K: Fleet Vehicles on Campus .............

  15. Energy Department Assisting Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas-Emitting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to a jet fuel with lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions less than or equal to conventional petroleum-based jet fuel production, while remaining cost-competitive. To fuel the search,...

  16. Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers Director, Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Ph 61 2 6125 5905 Andrew.blakers@anu.edu.au Web: http

  17. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  18. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the President...

  19. Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to inform its decisions regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of U.S. LNG exports for use in electric power generation. The LCA GHG Report compares life cycle...

  1. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  2. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

  3. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  4. Cogeneration Leads to Major Aquaculture and Greenhouse Development in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercer, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilizing waste heat from thermal electric or hydro-electric power stations offers substantial energy and cost savings to both the salmon aquaculture and greenhouse industries in Canada. Projects successfully demonstrating this technology have led...

  5. Impacts of anthropogenic aerosol and greenhouse gas emissions on clouds, convection, and precipitation as simulated by a super-parameterized global climate model /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 coupled Community Earth System Model simulations. The meancoupled NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM), which alsoPrediction using Earth System Models Program, the National

  6. Climate response of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Dilip; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium climate response to the total effects (direct, indirect and semi-direct effects) of aerosols arising from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on the South Asian summer monsoon system is studied using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean model. Our results suggest that anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols generally induce a reduction in mean summer monsoon precipitation over most parts of the Indian subcontinent, strongest along the western coastline of the Indian peninsula and eastern Nepal region, but modest increases also occur over the north western part of the subcontinent. While most of the noted reduction in precipitation is triggered by increased emissions of aerosols from anthropogenic activities, modest increases in the north west are mostly associated with decreases in local emissions of aerosols from forest fire and grass fire sources. Anthropogenic aerosols from outside Asia also contribute to the overall reduction in precipitation but the dominant contribution comes from aerosol sources within Asia. Local emissions play a more important role in the total rainfall response to anthropogenic aerosol sources during the early monsoon period, whereas both local as well as remote emissions of aerosols play almost equally important roles during the later part of the monsoon period. While precipitation responses are primarily driven by local aerosol forcing, regional surface temperature changes over the region are strongly influenced by anthropogenic aerosols from sources further away (non-local changes). Changes in local anthropogenic organic and black carbon emissions by as much as a factor of two (preserving their ratio) produce the same basic signatures in the model's summer monsoon temperature and precipitation responses.

  7. A study of the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate and cloud drop nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C. C..; Penner, J. E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document investigates the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosols and the condensationally produced cloud drops. The changes in aerosol size distribution associated with anthropogenic sulfur emissions may increase the number of cloud drops with subsequent influence on cloud albedo and climate. It has been suggested that the increase in CCN in industrial regions might explain why the Northern Hemisphere has not been warming as rapidly as the Southern Hemisphere over the last 50 Years (Wigley, 1989). In reality, the aerosol size distribution is the result of processes working simultaneously and continuously with such sources as sulfur, soot, particulate organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, etc. Instead of applying a complete aerosol model to investigate the effect of anthropogenic sulfur emissions on the aerosol size distribution, we simply derived the anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosol distribution by assuming that 75% of the anthropogenic was formed through aqueous-phase oxidation and the remaining 25% condensed onto a Prescribed preexisting particle distribution. Uncertainties may arise from the assumed fraction of sulfate produced by condensation and in cloud oxidation. In addition, new particle formation through homogeneous nucleation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O is ignored in this paper.

  8. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  10. Use of SF6 to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the upper ocean Toste Tanhua,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Darryn W.

    Use of SF6 to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the upper ocean Toste Tanhua,1 Darryn W. Waugh,2s. Here we apply SF6, a tracer that continues to increase in the atmosphere, as a basis for the Cant water mass transit time distributions (TTDs) calculated with SF6 are compared to those based on CFC-12

  11. The impact of detailed urbanscale processing on the composition, distribution, and radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forcing of anthropogenic aerosols Jason Blake Cohen,1,2 Ronald G. Prinn,1 and Chien Wang1 Received 11 model to simulate the effects of cities around the world on aerosol chemistry, physics, and radiative values of total aerosol surface concentration, the total aerosol column abundance, the aerosol optical

  12. Discordance between living and death assemblages as evidence for anthropogenic ecological change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, C. Kevin

    '' in settings of documented anthropogenic eutrophication (AE) than in areas where AE and other human impacts with eutrophication (anomalous abundance of seagrass-dwellers and/or scarcity of organic-loving species in the death. ecological baseline eutrophication marine communities paleoecology Human activities affect living systems

  13. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet,*, Eric Apel, Daven K. Henze,§ Jason Hill, Julian D. Marshall, Hanwant B-Chem chemical transport model to constrain present-day North American ethanol sources, and gauge potential long

  14. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet*,1 , Eric Apel2 , Daven K. Henze3 , Jason Hill1 , Julian D. Marshall1S1 Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts INFORMATION Supporting Information contains a total of 12 pages, 1 table, and 7 figures. 1. AIRBORNE ETHANOL

  15. 5.AnthropogenicAlterations to the Biogeography of Puget Sound Salmon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    5.AnthropogenicAlterations to the Biogeography of Puget Sound Salmon George Pess, David R influences have altered the biogeography of Puget Sound salmon, by which we mean their morpho- logical the biogeography of Puget Sound salmon at the regional scale because different juvenile Pacific salmon species

  16. Lead isotopes in sediments of the Loire River (France): natural versus anthropogenic origin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lead isotopes in sediments of the Loire River (France): natural versus anthropogenic origin France) were investigated by means of lead isotopes determined on the labile sediment fraction, or acid-extractable matter (AEM). The combination of trace elements and lead isotopes allows deciphering the origin

  17. Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

  18. Biogenic carbon and anthropogenic pollutants combine to form a cooling haze over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Biogenic carbon and anthropogenic pollutants combine to form a cooling haze over the southeastern Y. Fung, April 15, 2009 (sent for review July 28, 2008) Remote sensing data over North America is large enough in summer to provide regional cooling; thus we conclude that this secondary aerosol source

  19. Z .Marine Chemistry 64 1999 99113 Sedimentary record of anthropogenic and biogenic polycyclic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    indicate a gradual replacement of wood by fossil-fuel as the main combustion source of PAHs in San .Wakeham et al., 1980 . Anthropogenic sources in- Z . Zclude a combustion of fossil-fuel Hites et al the speciation of PAHs Zin marine systems. In addition, recent studies Far- rington et al., 1983; Mc

  20. A06: Analysis of GRAPE data The effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud microphysical properties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This effect is known as the `first direct radiative forcing'[4 of this warming is to reduce the upward movement of moisture and in turn reduce the cloud cover[5]. This `semiA06: Analysis of GRAPE data The effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud microphysical properties

  1. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  2. The Agricultural Sector and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Model (ASMGHG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ...................................................................................37 3.5.1.1 Direct Carbon Emissions Through Fossil Fuel Use.....................38 3.5.1.2 Indirect.5.2.2 Production of Fossil Fuel Substitutes...........................................49 3.5.2.3 Conversion Taxes and Sequestration Subsidies...............................66 3.8.2.4 Special Greenhouse Gas

  3. 2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Summary Queen's University completes annual GHG inventories as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce GHG emissions and address climate in 2010. This is the fourth inventory report. This inventory report accounts for GHG emissions from

  4. Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve security); DNE21+ model. · National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); AIM model. · Natural Resources both the climate problem and security of supply, and thus provide synergies, while others represent

  5. U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective and Research Associate, respectively, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University. Seniority of Authorship is shared. This research was supported by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station through

  6. CO2 levels during the greenhouse of the Paleocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    CO2 levels during the greenhouse of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Francesca A. Mc, Boulder #12;Estimating paleopCO2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Meter Level, start of CIE=0 pCO2 pCO2 values using different calculation methods Bulk nalk For the past 250 years human

  7. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (crude refineryLand Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H and Alberta as examples for conventional oil production as well as oil sands production in Alberta

  8. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A facility with solar fraction less than 1 is a hybrid operating plant that combusts naturLife Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could

  9. Soil science Disinfection of drain water in greenhouses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soil science Disinfection of drain water in greenhouses using a wet condensation heater C Steinberg November 1994) Summary — A wet condensation heater has been modified to disinfect drain water were introduced into the disinfection circuit above the heater. Water was checked downstream

  10. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    when the need is discovered, but a good preventive maintenance program will reduce the number. This fact sheet will emphasize corrective and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporativeAE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E

  11. Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure

  12. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics Over the last thirty years, hundreds and utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. ~40 g CO2

  14. Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse # 1 Lu 430/Lu 400 24 White box style 2 Lu No bulbs 0 N/A Seed harvest room F32 T8/TL 841 90 bulbs VIGS Room F032 /741/ECO 60 bulbs Chamber Model Bulb

  15. PG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Transportation Natural Gas Capped at 334 MMT 80 MMT #12;(MMT CO2e Business as Usual ­ 2020 507 Electric and Natural Gas Sectors Energy Efficiency 12 Renewables 11 Other 2 Transportation Low Carbon FuelPG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance Fong Wan Senior Vice President

  16. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CO2) emission reduction estimates were obtained for each of the measures. The package of measures the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions-makers will require estimates of both the potential emission reductions and the costs or benefits associated

  17. Retrofitting a Greenhouse for Energy Conservation Bruce L. Parker, Margaret Skinner, Cheryl F. Sullivan & Donald Tobi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    1 Retrofitting a Greenhouse for Energy Conservation Bruce L. Parker, Margaret Skinner, Cheryl F in the greenhouse to keep air circulating properly (Fig. 12). It is good for energy conservation and disease

  18. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is energy used in U.S. manufacturing? How much greenhouse gas (GHG) is emitted from combustion in manufacturing operations? The U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas...

  19. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric...

  20. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Wang, M. (2001) "Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Fuels and MotorLifecycle Analysis of Biofuels." Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-08.

  1. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Dissonance: The History of EPA's Regulations and the Incongruity of Recent Legal Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, Robert B.; Zalzal, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    forty percent of all U.S. oil consumption"). GREENHOUSE GAStroleum consumption." I" 4 Importing foreign oil is widely

  3. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  4. Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification. Scha¨r (2008), Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent

  5. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  6. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  7. mARUS37, 207--213 (1979) Ammonia Photolysisand the Greenhouse Effect in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mARUS37, 207--213 (1979) Ammonia Photolysisand the Greenhouse Effect in the Primordial Atmosphere mixing ratio of am- monia of 10-5 or greater would provide a sufficient greenhouse effect to keep of longwave radiation NH3 could pro- duce a substantial "greenhouse effect" and maintain a surface temperature

  8. Attribution of the presentday total greenhouse effect Gavin A. Schmidt,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attribution of the presentday total greenhouse effect Gavin A. Schmidt,1 Reto A. Ruedy,1 Ron L to the presentday global greenhouse effect are among the most misquoted statistics in public discussions of climate though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative

  9. Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming and astronomy curricula. The idea of energy balance is used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming

  10. On the scattering-greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    On the scattering-greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds R. T. Pierrehumbert C. Erlick Department in J. Atmos. Sci. #12;Scattering Greenhouse Effect on Early Mars Page 2 Abstract We offer some remarks on the greenhouse effect due to high clouds which reflect thermal infrared radiation, but do not absorb or emit it

  11. BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 2001Byrne et al. / THE POSTMODERN GREENHOUSE The Postmodern Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    The Postmodern Greenhouse: Creating Virtual Carbon Reductions From Business-as-Usual Energy Politics John Byrne commons, and (c) the substitution of car- bon sequestration for meaningful reductions in energy use linked to a legacy of carbon dioxide releases to the atmosphere1 that results in the increased atmo

  12. Testimony to the US Senate on the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This testimony was presented on January 28, 1987 at the hearing on ''The Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion,'' United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Subcommittee on Environmental Protection and Subcommittee on Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances. The testimony concerns the observed global warming that has occurred over the past 100 years. How this temperature record was obtained is summarized and the details of the record described, with particular reference to the most recent decades and to the differences between the records for Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The record is compared with the predicted warming over the same period due to the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The projected warming over the next 70 years is compared with global temperature changes that have occurred over the past few million years. (ACR)

  13. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  14. Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The simple theoretical basis for photo acoustic (PA) system for studying infrared absorption properties of greenhouse gases is constructed. The amplitude of sound observed in PA depends on the modulation frequency of light pulse. Its dependence can be explained by our simple model. According to this model, sound signal has higher harmonics. The theory and experiment are compared in third and fifth harmonics by spectrum analysis. The theory has the analogy with electric circuits. This analogy helps students for understanding the PA system.

  15. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  16. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice on anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knopf, D.A.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Moffet, R.C.; Gilles, M.K.

    2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This study reports on heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of predominantly organic (or coated with organic material) anthropogenic particles sampled within and around the polluted environment of Mexico City. The onset of heterogeneous ice nucleation was observed as a function of particle temperature (Tp), relative humidity (RH), nucleation mode, and particle chemical composition which is influenced by photochemical atmospheric aging. Particle analyses included computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). In contrast to most laboratory studies employing proxies of organic aerosol, we show that anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City can potentially induce ice nucleation at experimental conditions relevant to cirrus formation. The results suggest a new precedent for the potential impact of organic particles on ice cloud formation and climate.

  17. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  18. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  19. Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruber, Nicolas

    Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans Richard A. Feely,1, * Christopher L carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Here we estimate the in situ CaCO3 dissolution rates for the global oceans from2 on CaCO3 shell­ forming species. CaCO3 dissolution rates, ranging from 0.003 to 1.2 micromoles per

  20. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

  1. Fast and Slow Responses of the South Asian Monsoon System to Anthropogenic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Dilip; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a global climate model with fully predictive aerosol life cycle, we investigate the fast and slow responses of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Our results show that the feedbacks associated with sea surface temperature (SST) change caused by aerosols play a more important role than the aerosol's direct impact on radiation, clouds and land surface (rapid adjustments) in shaping the total equilibrium climate response of the monsoon system to aerosol forcing. Inhomogeneous SST cooling caused by anthropogenic aerosols eventually reduces the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient and the easterly shear of zonal winds over the region, slowing down the local Hadley cell circulation, decreasing the northward moisture transport, and causing a reduction in precipitation over South Asia. Although total responses in precipitation are closer to the slow responses in general, the fast component dominates over land areas north of 25°N. Our results also show an east-west asymmetry in the fast responses to anthropogenic aerosols causing increases in precipitation west of 80°E but decreases east of it.

  2. Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

  3. Idaho National Laboratory’s FY09 & FY10 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and 2010 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL's GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated 103,590 and 102,413 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY09 and FY10, respectively. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's FY09 and FY10 GHG inventories: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  4. Objective: Determine the energy use of two greenhouse insulation technologies (a bubble insulation system and an energy/shade screen) retrofitted into plastic covered greenhouses, and compare the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Objective: Determine the energy use of two greenhouse insulation technologies (a bubble insulation structures. 1. Unimproved standard double-layer poly inflated greenhouse (control) 2. Bubble insulation is around 1-2, compared to an estimated 30 for the bubble system. What did we learn? The bubble insulation

  5. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibensperger, Eric Michael

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model combined with the GISS general circulation model to calculate the aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 ...

  6. Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic t aerosols change color from white to brown in pres- ence of ammonia. occurs for a wide range of biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols.

  7. Exploring the value proposition of integrating back-up saline storage into anthropogenic CO? supplied EOR operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toukan, Ibrahim (Ibrahim Khaled)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) through carbon dioxide (CO?) sequestration from anthropogenic sources has been gaining attention in policy circles. In particular, it is viewed as a potential way to help accelerate the deployment ...

  8. The effect of anthropogenic development on sediment loading to bays on St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCreery, Helen F

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the impact of anthropogenic development on sediment delivery rates to bays on St. John, U.S.V.I., I developed a sediment loading prediction model. Based on the modified universal soil loss equation, this ...

  9. Evolution of Anthropogenic Pb and Pb isotopes in the deep North Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Mi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pb and Pb isotopes in the ocean have varied on decadal to centennial time scales due to anthropogenic Pb inputs. Thus, tracing the temporal variation of Pb and Pb isotopes in the ocean provides information on the major ...

  10. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that duringmore »the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.« less

  11. Plant water use in a greenhouse: theory and measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaer, Yacoub Adib

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature, and the storage tank temperature if applicable. The external transport coefficient for water vapor between crop and air was considered constant in the SG79 model, equivalent to a -1 resistance of 250 s m . The leaf resistance is made to vary... with the predicted water use by the SG79 model. A description of this test follows. The Lysimeters Four lysimeters of about 0. 02 m , made from plastic pots were 2 installed in the turf growing in the test greenhouse and were weighed every two hours during...

  12. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  13. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name: Email: Terminal2,7,7,of Greenhouse Gases

  14. Melozi Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy8429°,Meeteetse, Wyoming:Information Greenhouse Low

  15. Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua NewSmallholder SystemsIndo Norwegian SolarGreenhouse

  16. Statement from U.S. Energy Secretary Moniz on Mexico's Greenhouse...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government of Mexico on new greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The commitment Mexico has made today sends a strong signal of Mexico's determination to do its share in...

  17. 2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Werner

    2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington October 2007....................................................................................................................4 Corporate vs. Geographic Inventories...........................................................................4 Inventory Protocol

  18. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

  19. Greenhouse Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Teemu Ahonen, Reino Virrankoski and Mohammed Elmusrati

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virrankoski, Reino

    simple without opportunities to control locally heating, lights, ventilation or some other activity provide several options to make local adjustments to the lights, ventilation, heating and other greenhouse

  20. City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through, with its functions distributed across other city departments. Where possible, this profile references

  1. Lead Section Grower Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products since 1977 and is the largest partner/supplier of the nationally recognized Greenhouse's Mission Statement in all job related functions. Minimum Qualifications: 1

  2. aggressive city greenhouse-gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Natural Gas) (Scope 2) ... 17 2.9.5 Steam Consumption 28 Nuclear Power PROS -No' greenhouse gas emissions Geosciences Websites Summary: Nuclear Power PROS -No'...

  3. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using EMEP measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic, showing a good agreement, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne LIDAR measurements. Evaluating the regional impacts in the Arctic of this event in terms of aerosol vertical structure, we find that during the 4 day presence of these aerosols in the lower European Arctic (< 75° N), biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface. The European plumes sampled during POLARCAT-France were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in Northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?˛, peaking at +3.3 W m?˛ at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  4. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  5. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muntean, Marilena

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, ...

  6. Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gasEconomic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider emissions. However, subsidies are needed to make agricultural biofuel production economically feasible

  7. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from several

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from several perialpine and alpine hydropower reservoirs by diffusion and loss in turbines T. Diem · S. Koch · S. Schwarzenbach · B. Wehrli · C investigated greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from reservoirs located across an altitude gradient

  9. Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolstad, Charles

    Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases to interpret a relationship between income and carbon emissions in a country (the environmental Kuznets curve), it was primarily concerned with Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) for greenhouse gas emissions. The EKC literature

  10. Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012's emissions of 740 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (mmTCO2e), and 41% of the CO2e emitted from

  12. Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant, Schneider, Lee, Bubbosh 2 ABSTRACT Extended truck idling is a very large source of fuel wastage, greenhouse, most long-haul truck drivers idle their vehicles for close to 10 hours per day to operate heating

  13. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  14. Modelization of helio-thermal converters : application to the greenhouse effect P. Gallet, F. Papini and A. Ropke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    169 Modelization of helio-thermal converters : application to the greenhouse effect P. Gallet, F surface - greenhouse effect association is discussed as an example. Revue Phys. Appl. 18 (1983) 169

  15. Institute on Climate and Planets http://icp.giss.nasa.gov/ The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    http://icp.giss.nasa.gov/ The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Determining the Surface. This process is the natural greenhouse effect. The earths surface receives solar energy and energy reradiated

  16. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYEMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  17. Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points Module 1, Lesson 1: CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Effect 1 Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points Module 1, Lesson 1: CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect Available at http://pics.uvic.ca/education/climate-insights-101 1. CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect Questions: How did the term "greenhouse effect" originate? Why did it stick in the public imagination? Why

  18. A. Gershunov R. Roca Coupling of latent heat flux and the greenhouse effect by large-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gershunov Ć R. Roca Coupling of latent heat flux and the greenhouse effect by large Abstract Coupled variability of the greenhouse effect (GH) and latent heat flux (LHF) over the tropical of convection) form regions of strong greenhouse effect in tropical convergence zones while subtropical high

  19. CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    113 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric of the surface known as the greenhouse effect. As we will see, trapping of terrestrial radiation by naturally accumulated in the atmosphere over the past decades and added to the greenhouse effect (Figure 7-1). Figure 7

  20. AMPLIFIED GREENHOUSE EFFECT SHAPING NORTH INTO SOUTH A new study published in Nature Climate Change reports decreasing temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    AMPLIFIED GREENHOUSE EFFECT SHAPING NORTH INTO SOUTH A new study published in Nature Climate Change. A greenhouse effect initiated by increased atmospheric concentration of heat-trapping gasses, such as water greenhouse effect. This amplified warming in the North, roughly above the border between Canada and the USA

  1. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  2. Anthropogenic iodine-129 in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian coastal current to the North Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winsor, Peter

    . The surface waters near the Norwegian coast are found to have 20 times higher 129 I concentration thanAnthropogenic iodine-129 in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian coastal current profiles collected during 2001 along a transect from the Norwegian Coastal Current to the North Pole

  3. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and not only by PV during sunny on-peak hours.

  4. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 ���°F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 ���°F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 ���°F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 ���°F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

  5. The role of heat storage in the soil in the energy balance of a greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadler, Edward John

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Oepartvient y I'a/Tiber I l'lay 1978 ABSTRACT THE ROLE OF HEPT STORAGE IN THE SOIi IN THE ENERGY BALANCE OF A GREENHOUSE. (Hay 1978) Edward John Sadler, B. S. , University of Hissouri Chairman of Advisory Committee: Or. C . H . ii. van Bavel A number o... f simulation models of greenhouses have been developed, but the authors differ in their opinion of the significance of the heat, storaae and its effects on the physical environment ins. ide the greenhouse. These opinions are reflected...

  6. Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

  7. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  8. Estimating the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monacrovich, E.; Pilifosova, O.; Danchuck, D. [Kazakh Scientific-Research Hydrometeorlogical Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan)] [and others

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the studies related to the obligations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Republic of Kazakhstan started activities to inventory greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess of GHG mitigation options, The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the possibility of mitigating GHG emissions and determine the mitigation priorities. It presents a compilation of the possible options and their assessment in terms of major criteria and implementation feasibility. Taking into account the structure of GHG emissions in Kazakhstan in 1990, preliminary estimates of the potential for mitigation are presented for eight options for the energy sector and agriculture and forestry sector. The reference scenario prepared by expert assessments assumes a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in 1996-1998 by about 26% from the 1990 level due to general economic decline, but then emissions increase. It is estimated that the total potential for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions for the year 2000 is 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the reference scenario. The annual reduction in methane emissions due to the estimated options can amount to 5%-6% of the 1990 level. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  10. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  12. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants Fred Clark Energy/GHG Advisor BP Aromatics & Acetyls Naperville, Illinois BP is the world?s leading producer of purified terephthalic acid...

  14. Air Emmissions Trading Program/Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a carbon dioxide emissions budget trading program. The program includes a statewide annual CO2 budget allowance of 8,620,460 tons between...

  15. Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

  16. o meet the challenges of global climate change, greenhouse-gas emissions must

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    . Emissions from fossil fuels are the largest contributor to the anthropo- genic greenhouse effect, so . In my view, it is therefore an attractive target for energy subsidies and for inclusion in the global

  17. Modeling & learning from the design recommendations for California's Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Chester, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate Change has become a Major issue beginning with our generation. Governments the world over are now recognizing that industry cannot continue to pollute in a business-as-usual manner. Emitting Greenhouse gases has a ...

  18. Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adger, W.N. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment); Moran, D.C. (Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies.

  19. Field Guide to the Insects, Mites and Mollusks of Nursery, Floral and Greenhouse Crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gouge, Dawn H.; Smith, Kirk A.; Wilkerson, Don

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This field guide provides excellent photo identification keys for numerous pests and beneficials found in nursery, greenhouse and floral crops. The text includes a physical description, examples of damage and information on the life cycle of each...

  20. The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Justin Scott

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

  1. Incentive-based approaches for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions : issues and prospects for India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Shreekant.

    As a consequence of the flexibility mechanisms incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol, incentive-based policies such as emissions trading and the clean development mechanism are being widely discussed in the context of greenhouse ...

  2. Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

  3. GLOBAL HYDRLOGIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE MID-CRETACEOUS GREENHOUSE CLIMATE (APTIAN-ALBIAN)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suarez, Marina B.

    2009-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse climate in the Aptian-Albian through the perspective of the global hydrologic cycle. Stable isotopic compositions of pedogenic and exposure surface carbonates presented ...

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    power generation, energy policy, fuel economy ABSTRACT Prioritizing the numerous technology and policy Publications for book titled "Energy Consumption: Impacts of Human Activity, Current and Future Challenges, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric

  5. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  6. Paradox Farm cold climate greenhouse Photo: Sue Wika Section I: Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    survey of greenhouse growers and sustainable agriculture organizations for their time and input. Joe their hearts and energy to growing vegetables during the winter; something that most people believe

  7. What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

  8. The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Justin Scott

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation as a Structural Change and Policies that Offset Its Depressing Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker, Mustafa H.M.

    The current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, yet the politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often ...

  10. Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

  11. Anthropogenic and Climate Influences on Biogeochemical Dynamics and Molecular-Level Speciation of Soil Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, D.; Lehmann, J; Kinyangi, J; Pell, A; Theis , J; Riha , S; Ngoze, S; Amelung, W; du Preez, C; et. al.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil environment is a primary component of the global biogeochemical sulfur (S) cycle, acting as a source and sink of various S species and mediating oxidation state changes. However, ecological significance of the various S forms and the impacts of human intervention and climate on the amount and structural composition of these compounds are still poorly understood. We investigated the long-term influences of anthropogenically mediated transitions from natural to managed ecosystems on molecular-level speciation, biogeochemical dynamics, and the apparent temperature sensitivity of S moieties in temperate, subtropical, and tropical environments with mean annual temperature (MAT) ranging from 5C to 21C, using elemental analysis and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Land-use and land-cover changes led to the depletion of total soil S in all three ecoregions over a period of up to 103 years. The largest decline occurred from tropical forest agroecosystems (67% Kakamega and 76% Nandi, Kenya), compared to losses from temperate (36% at Lethbridge, Canada, and 40% at Pendleton, USA) and subtropical (48% at South Africa) grassland agroecosystems. The total S losses correlated significantly with MAT. Anthropogenic interventions profoundly altered the molecular-level composition and resulted in an apparent shift in oxidation states of organic S from native ecosystems composed primarily of S moieties in intermediate and highly reduced oxidation states toward managed agroecosystems dominated by organic S rich in strongly oxidized functionalities. The most prominent change occurred in thiols and sulfides, the proportion of which decreased by 46% (Lethbridge) and 57% (Pendleton) in temperate agroecosystems, by 46% in subtropical agroecosystems, and by 79% (Nandi) and 81% (Kakamega) in tropical agroecosystems. The proportion of organic S directly linked to O increased by 81%, 168%, 40%, 92%, and 85%, respectively. Among the various organic S functionalities, thiols and sulfides seem to have higher apparent temperature sensitivity, and thus these organic S moieties may become prone to losses due to land-use changes, even from the cooler regions of the world if MAT of these regions rise in the future.

  12. Greenhouse space allocation in the ornamental foliage industry in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krafka, Brenda Dea Lang

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GREENHOUSE SPACE ALLOCATION IN THE ORNAMENTAL FOLIAGE INDUSTRY IN THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by BRENDA DEA LANG KRAFKA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics GREENHOUSE SPACE ALLOCATION IN THE ORNAMENTAL FOLIAGE INDUSTRY IN THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by BRENDA DEA LANG KRAFKA Approved as to style and content by...

  13. The Runaway Greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate climate emergency is a "runaway greenhouse": a hot and water vapour rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only once the surface reaches ~1400K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that Earth will in around 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases. But could we bring on such a catastrophe prematurely, by our current climate-altering activities? Here we review what is known about the runaway greenhouse to answer this question, describing the various limits on outgoing radiation and how climate will evolve between these. The good news is that almost all lines of evidence lead us to believe that is unlikely to be possible, even in principle, to trigger full a runaway greenhouse by addition of non-condensible greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

  14. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  15. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 2. How does it work? Part one: greenhouse gasses and blackbody

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creel, Scott

    gasses and blackbody radiation. A quick review of: · Fossil fuels · Carbon cycles · Anthropogenic effects of fossil fuel oxidation on carbon cycles Fossil Fuels The primary driver of anthropogenic climate change fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) to produce energy. Almost all energy on earth ultimately comes from

  16. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  17. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara G. Cafferty; Erin M. Searcy; Long Nguyen; Sabrina Spatari

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from Scottish arable agriculture and the potential for biochar to be used as an agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation option 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winning, Nicola Jane

    2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Agriculture is a major source of N2O and in the UK approximately 71 % of ...

  19. An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Afforestation, Forest management, Biofuels, Ag soil, Animals, Fertilization, Rice, Grassland expansion, Manure of Biofuel strategies Examine the dynamics of mitigation strategies #12;PolicyPolicy ContextContext U

  20. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 9 MARCH 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2144 Distinct e ects of anthropogenic aerosols on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    frequency because of greenhouse gas warming4 . At present, the detection of long-term TC trends hurricanes in recent decades12 . Satellite analysis suggests that cooling over the tropical North Atlantic as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and altering TCs has been examined in several numerical studies. Cloud

  1. Quantitative implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide climate forcing in the past glacial-interglacial cycles for the likely future climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soon, Willie

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the recent refereed literature fails to confirm quantitatively that carbon dioxide (CO2) radiative forcing was the prime mover in the changes in temperature, ice-sheet volume, and related climatic variables in the glacial and interglacial periods of the past 650,000 years, even under the "fast response" framework where the convenient if artificial distinction between forcing and feedback is assumed. Atmospheric CO2 variations generally follow changes in temperature and other climatic variables rather than preceding them. Likewise, there is no confirmation of the often-posited significant supporting role of methane (CH4) forcing, which despite its faster atmospheric response time is simply too small, amounting to less than 0.2 W/m2 from a change of 400 ppb. We cannot quantitatively validate the numerous qualitative suggestions that the CO2 and CH4 forcings that occurred in response to the Milankovich orbital cycles accounted for more than half of the amplitude of the changes in the glacial/intergla...

  2. Effects of anthropogenic activities on the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: an ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourtchev, I.; O'Connor, I. P.; Giorio, C.; Fuller, S.; Kristenen, K.; Maenhaut, W.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Glasius, M.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Various sources contribute 56 to formation of PM and include anthropogenic sources such as use of diesel and petrol, 57 burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Biogenic sources include VOCs emitted by vegetation. 58 Urban... 279405). 417 418 References 419 Birch, M.E., Cary, R.A., 1996. Elemental carbon-based method for monitoring occupational 420 exposure to particulate diesel exhaust. Aerosol Science and Technology 25, 221–241. 421 Cecinato, A., Di Palo, V., Pomata, D...

  3. Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Jones, C. D. [Hadley Center, Devon, England

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries) and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.

  4. Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for pipelines that are robust to a priori uncertainty in CO2 production from industrial sources and CO2 storage emissions from electric power plants that emit CO2 as a consequence of combusting fossil fuels (namely coal% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions,5 whereas steel production emitted approximately 2.7 GtCO2 in 2011.6 CO2 capture

  5. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  6. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States). Departments of Chemistry and Environmental and Molecular Toxicology

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

    2011-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

  8. Understanding the ocean carbon and sulfur cycles in the context of a variable ocean : a study of anthropogenic carbon storage and dimethylsulfide production in the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Naomi Marcil

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic activity is rapidly changing the global climate through the emission of carbon dioxide. Ocean carbon and sulfur cycles have the potential to impact global climate directly and through feedback loops. Numerical ...

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  10. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inherently, natural gas combustion produces significantlygas turbines were fuel gas combustion devices and that theyof greenhouse gas emissions released during combustion. 5 0

  11. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

  12. Chapter Four Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Many states and localities are exploring or implementing clean energy policies to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air pollutant1 emission reductions. Document map • Chapter one

  13. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009. Stephen P Holland. Emissions taxes versus intensityindustry’s greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research2008. John CV Pezzey. Emission taxes and tradeable permits a

  14. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estimates shown here for Marcellus gas are similar toGreenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_.research- ers acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production

  15. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth, intermediate levels of economic development, and less rapid and more diverse technological change (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). Data were obtained from the SRES modeling teams that provide more detail than that reported in the SRES. For the A1 marker scenario, the modeling team provided final energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by fuel for industry, buildings, and transportation for nine world regions. Final energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for three sectors (industry, transport, buildings) for the four SRES world regions were provided for the B2 marker scenario. This report describes the results of a disaggregation of the SRES projected energy use and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions for the industrial, transport, and buildings sectors for 10 world regions (see Appendix 1) to 2030. An example of further disaggregation of the two SRES scenarios for the residential buildings sector in China is provided, illustrating how such aggregate scenarios can be interpreted at the end use level.

  16. Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergast, D.

    2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.

  17. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  18. Monthly Highlights from Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station April 2009 Sustainable Greenhouse Practices begin with Energy Audits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Greenhouse Practices begin with Energy Audits A.J. Both, Ph.D., Extension Specialist in Bioresource? The first step is conducting a thorough audit, including a compre- hensive energy audit. Measure. Assess where things stand. Farm and greenhouse energy audits are highly specialized compared to those usually

  19. Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming in the Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goelzer, Heiko

    Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sustained multi-millennial greenhouse warming. Use was made of fully polar regions. This leads to an almost complete disintegration of the Greenland ice sheet after 3

  20. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae, Calvin Ng, Joseph Pateman University of British Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae Calvin Ng Joseph Pateman March a microbrewery. In order to assess the viability of any potential structures to use this waste heat energy

  2. Economic Implications of International Participation Alternatives for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    of International Participation Alternatives for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Abstract The world of biofuels. However, such options can be competitive with domestic food production. In a free trade arena of effects that would be observed due to the simplifying cost assumptions, indicate compliance causes supply

  3. Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    implemented in Canada, what would be the response of the industrial sector in terms of energy consumptionHybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application for modeling industrial energy consumption, among them a series of environmental and security externalities

  4. ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795% was incinerated (with or without household wastes) or landfilled. Nowadays, sludge reduction is a major concern

  5. The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1 , James Katzer1 1 M coal can make to the growing world energy demand during a period of increasing concern about global pursue in the short-term so that we can utilize coal in the longer-term and reduce its associated CO2

  6. Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas required for building the structure; and 2) the operational energy required for habitation energy used for space heating and cooling during the life of the building. Similar ratios are found

  7. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  8. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  9. Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn More

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn;SB 375 GHG Reduc2on Targets · SCAG (greater Los Angeles) ­ 189 ci2es and 6 as underlying data, rela2onships, and calibra2on. 2. Policies and Prac2ces a) Models

  10. Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement Final://people.anu.edu.au/jack.pezzey (J.C.V. Pezzey) Keywords: emission pricing, tax-versus-trading, uncertainties, revenue recycling, and revenue recycling. Including multiple, independent parties greatly reduces the welfare advantage

  11. A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200806 A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Abstract for explaining this relationship, based upon jurisdiction-specific data on energy supply, infrastructure

  12. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  13. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murty, Katta G.

    Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment Katta G. Murty Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering University of Michigan, Ann to tremendous increases in the construction of huge airport facilities, the development of large jumbo

  15. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions and global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions) from bioenergy ecosystems with a biogeochemical model AgTEM, assuming maize (Zea mays L.), switchgrass haĂ?1 yrĂ?1 . Among all three bioenergy crops, Miscanthus is the most biofuel productive and the least

  16. Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement to an increase of AF use from 8.7% to 20.9% of the total energy consumption. 2. One of the alternative fuels used cement industry produces about 3.3 billion tonnes of cement annually. Cement production is energy

  17. Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imamoglu, Atac

    LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed

  18. The hydrogen energy economy: its long-term role in greenhouse gas reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    The hydrogen energy economy: its long-term role in greenhouse gas reduction Geoff Dutton, Abigail for Climate Change Research Technical Report 18 #12;The Hydrogen Energy Economy: its long term role 2005 This is the final report from Tyndall research project IT1.26 (The Hydrogen energy economy: its

  19. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

  20. A. Bringing Plants Into BTI The Greenhouse Manager must be given reasonable, advance notice before

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    10 8.0 PLANTS A. Bringing Plants Into BTI The Greenhouse Manager must be given reasonable, advance notice before plants are brought into the growth facility. Incoming plants will be inspected for pests and diseases. Pest control measures or quarantine may be required before moving plants into the assigned

  1. Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

  2. Identification of optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blessington, Trisha R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this research was to determine the optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation. New Guinea impatiens 'Ovation Salmon Pink Swirl' were grown in recirculating subirrigation trays using 0 -12 mM K, with constant 1.5 mM P...

  3. Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    and transport, to compare its environmental impact with other fuels. Until recent years, LCA studies environmental impacts between two competing fuels/products are small. This study builds upon an existingUncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal Aranya Venkatesh

  4. Post Doctoral Research Fellowship Simulating the greenhouse gas emission from boreal region reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of greenhouse gases from northern boreal reservoirs as part of a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research modified the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the exchange of CO2 between boreal by the creation of reservoirs for the production of hydro-electricity. We have recently developed a water column

  5. Lecture 3 week 2/3 2012: Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....cycles of cold and warm climate. Averaged over the globe, sunlight falling on Earth in July (aphelion) is indeedLecture 3 week 2/3 2012: H 222c Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine http://en.wikipedia.org/ #12;#12;The 3 streams of this course (see syllabus) 1.Energy forms of energy concentrated, dilute

  6. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of green

  8. TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

  9. Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    1 Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential By Bruce biofuel usage. Biofuel feedstocks are a source of raw material that can be transformed into petroleum for coal. In the USA, liquid fuel biofuel production has not proven to be broadly economically feasible

  10. SMARTTool Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report Reporting Entity: University of Northern British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Reporting Year: Calendar Year 2010 Greenhouse Gases in Tonnes Measure Quantity CO2 CH4 N2O tCO2e1 Scope 1.30 Emissions from Biomass Total Biomass Emissions 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 Total Emissions, Calendar Year 2010 5

  11. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for presentation at DOE First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, 2001, Washington D.C. #12 sequestration generally refers to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosyntheticEconomic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration

  12. 2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy of fossil-fuel energy systems. These scenarios are analysed for various environmental and health impacts from fossil fuels and other energy sources reported by IEA []. In all of these countries except Kenya

  13. Integrated Chemical Complex and Cogeneration Analysis System: Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Management Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    19f Integrated Chemical Complex and Cogeneration Analysis System: Energy Conservation and Cogeneration Analysis System is an advanced technology for energy conservation and pollution prevention, Beaumont, TX 77710, hopperjr@hal.lamar.edu, yawscl@hal.lamar.edu Key words; Energy Conservation, Greenhouse

  14. Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public-0171 Fax: (404) 894-2278 E-mail: frank.southworth@ce.gatech.edu Dr. Michael D. Meyer, P.E. Director-2278 E-mail: michael.meyer@ce.gatech.edu #12;Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 2 Calculators for Estimating

  15. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population January 2009 # Potato Association of America 2009 Abstract Potato common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksman & Henrici) is a major disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), due to the unmarketability

  16. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population J. Driscoll & J. Coombs & R. Hammerschmidt & W. Kirk & L. Wanner & D. Douches # Potato Association of America 2009 Abstract Potato common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksman & Henrici) is a major

  17. arXiv:1311.0292v1[astro-ph.EP]1Nov2013 Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Rory

    arXiv:1311.0292v1[astro-ph.EP]1Nov2013 Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to irradiation to experience a runaway greenhouse effect. Results. Planetary illumination from a 13-Jupiter-mass planet onto

  18. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034014 Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas Mohan Jiang1 , W Michael Griffin2,3 , Chris greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of Marcellus shale natural gas and compares its emissions

  19. Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Berg, Larry K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Morrison, H.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud-system resolving simulations with the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model are used to quantify the impacts of regional anthropogenic and oceanic emissions on changes in aerosol properties, cloud macro- and microphysics, and cloud radiative forcing over the Southeast Pacific (SEP) during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) (15 Oct–Nov 16, 2008). The effects of oceanic aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and the shortwave forcing counteract those of anthropogenic aerosols. Despite the relatively small changes in Na concentrations (2-12%) from regional oceanic emissions, their net effect (direct and indirect) on the surface shortwave forcing is opposite and comparable or even larger in magnitude compared to those of regional anthropogenic emissions over the SEP. Two distinct regions are identified in the VOCALS-REx domain. The near-coast polluted region is characterized with strong droplet activation suppression of small particles by sea-salt particles, the more important role of the first than the second indirect effect, low surface precipitation rate, and low aerosol-cloud interaction strength associated with anthropogenic emissions. The relatively clean remote region is characterized with large contributions of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN, number concentration denoted by NCCN) and droplet number concentrations (Nd) from non-local sources (lateral boundaries), a significant amount of surface precipitation, and high aerosol-cloud interactions under a scenario of five-fold increase in anthropogenic emissions. In the clean region, cloud properties have high sensitivity (e.g., 13% increase in cloud-top height and a 9% surface albedo increase) to the moderate increase in CCN concentration (?Nccn = 13 cm-3; 25%) produced by a five-fold increase in regional anthropogenic emissions. The increased anthropogenic aerosols reduce the precipitation amount over the relatively clean remote ocean. The reduction of precipitation (as a cloud water sink) more than doubles the wet scavenging timescale, resulting in an increased aerosol lifetime in the marine boundary layer. Therefore, the aerosol impacts on precipitation are amplified by the positive feedback of precipitation on aerosol. The positive feedback ultimately alters the cloud micro- and macro-properties, leading to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The higher sensitivity of clouds to anthropogenic aerosols over this region is also related to a 16% entrainment rate increase due to anthropogenic aerosols. The simulated aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are stronger at night over the clean marine region, while during the day, solar heating results in more frequent decoupling, thinner clouds, reduced precipitation, and reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The simulated high sensitivity to the increased anthropogenic emissions over the clean region suggests that the perturbation of the clean marine environment with anthropogenic aerosols may have a larger effect on climate than that of already polluted marine environments.

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  1. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerlich, Gerhard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier 1824, Tyndall 1861 and Arrhenius 1896 and is still supported in global climatology essentially describes a fictitious mechanism in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, ...

  2. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

  3. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  4. Renewable portfolio standards, Greenhouse gas reduction, and Long-Line transmission investments in the WECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arne; Orans, Ren; Allen, Doug; Moore, Jack; Woo, C.K.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New, long-distance transmission lines to remote areas with concentrations of high-quality renewable resources can help western states meet the challenges of increasing renewable energy procurement and reducing greenhouse gas emissions more cost-effectively than reliance on local resources alone. The approach applied here to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council is useful for an initial determination of the net benefits of long-line transmission between regions with heterogeneous resource quality. (author)

  5. Well-To-Wheels Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouse GasCaliforniaNew England MEDIA CONTACT:

  6. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  8. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  9. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

  10. A game of climate chicken : can EPA regulate greenhouse gases before the U.S. Senate ratifies the Kyoto Protocol?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bugnion, Véronique.; Reiner, David M.

    EPA's legal authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act is reviewed. While EPA clearly does not have the authority to implement the precise terms of the Kyoto Protocol, arguments could be put ...

  11. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, Russell William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

  12. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1991--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

  13. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Robert L.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

  14. Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

  15. E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse gas regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse.................................................................................................. 5 1.1.3 CALIFORNIA CLEAN FUELS PROGRAM ....................................... 6 1.1.5 AB 1007: THE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN

  16. Greenhouse and laboratory studies on the effects of an anaerobic digester sludge on growth and nutrient uptake of sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, John Cooper

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORI STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis By John Cooper Vincent Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Agronomy GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORy STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis by John Cooper Vincent Approved...

  17. 150 G. Marland et al. / Climate Policy 3 (2003) 149157 Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce to create a system of credits and debits wherein emission or sequestration of carbon in the biosphere; Carbon sequestration; Land use change; Land surface change; Surface energy balance 1. Introduction Human

  18. Inter-and intra-annual variations of Pb/Ca ratios in clam shells (Mercenaria mercenaria): a record of anthropogenic lead pollution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    of anthropogenic lead pollution? David P. Gillikin1, * , Frank Dehairs1 , Willy Baeyens1 , Jacques Navez1,2 , Anne Pollution Bulletin on 23 March 2005 Revision submitted 12 May 2005 hal-00452793,version1-3Feb2010 Author manuscript, published in "Marine Pollution Bulletin 50, 12 (2005) 1530-1540." #12;Gillikin et al. Pb

  19. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of the anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigby, Matthew

    We report on ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates of the four anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH[subscript 3]CF[subscript 2]CH[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3], 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), ...

  20. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

  1. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

  2. Comments on the "Proof of the atmospheric greenhouse effect" by Arthur B. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramm, Gerhard; Zelger, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is shown that Smith (2008) used inappropriate and inconsistent formulations in averaging various quantities over the entire surface of the Earth considered as a sphere. Using two instances of averaging procedures as customarily applied in studies on turbulence, it is shown that Smith's formulations are highly awkward. Furthermore, Smith's discussion of the infrared absorption in the atmosphere is scrutinized and evaluated. It is shown that his attempt to refute the criticism of Gerlich and Tscheuschner (2007, 2009) on the so-called greenhouse effect is rather fruitless.

  3. Screening cucumber for resistance to the vegetable leafminer in the greenhouse and field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franca, Felix Humberto

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are removed earlier than those stored for longer periods. The longer the pupae were held at 13' C the greater the male mortality. Mines and pupal evaluations showed that PI 200815 was consistently resistant to VLM in both greenhouse and field experiments.... The lines 817A, GY 14A and PI 279465 were susceptible to VLM in all plant stages. VLM ratios of 0. 5 female/plant and above provided measurable differences between resistant candidates and known susceptible lines in nonchoice tests. Egg...

  4. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  5. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlassGreenHunter Biodiesel RefineryGreenhouse

  6. ETC/RWM working paper 2008/1 Municipal waste management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................................................... 30 6.7. Inclusion of biogenic and anthropogenic CO2 emissions .............................................................................. 19 6. Modelling greenhouse gas emissions............................................................. 21 6.1. Greenhouse gas emissions as environmental indicator

  7. Anthropogenic SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} committee summary of current status--annual inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the First GEIA Workshop on Global Emissions Inventories, held in Baltimore, MD on December 1--2, 1991, data on anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen developed by Dignon (1992) were selected to form the basis for the GEIA SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} annual inventories. The Dignon data include emissions from fuel combustion only and currently extend to 1980. The methodology used was detailed in Dignon and Hameed (1985) and consists of statistical regression models based on available emissions data from the U.S and some other member countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes Australia, Canada, Japan and western European countries. Control regulations are incorporated via the use of different statistical parameter The grid definition from these inventories was also adopted for the GEIA grid: origin at 180{degree}W, 90{degree}S, 1{degree} {times} 1{degree} resolution (i.e., 360 cells in the longitude direction, 180 cells in the latitude direction). To upgrade the basic GEIA inventories, data for the different geographic regions being solicited from researchers located within these areas. This paper contains the upgrades which have been accomplished to date.

  8. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirăo Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F., E-mail: mfking@uvic.ca [The Community-Based Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada); Gutberlet, Jutta, E-mail: gutber@uvic.ca [Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in Săo Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In Săo Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  9. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  10. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: tim.mcallister@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ? Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ? Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ? Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ? Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  11. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  12. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  13. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  14. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  15. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  16. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V. [ENKI, o.p.s., Dukelska 145, 379 01 Trebon (Czech Republic); Sourek, B. [ENKI, o.p.s., Dukelska 145, 379 01 Trebon (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University of Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague (Czech Republic); Cerveny, J. [ENKI, o.p.s., Dukelska 145, 379 01 Trebon (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Biology, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  18. Greenhouse Heating Checklist1 R. A. Bucklin, P. H. Jones, B.A. Barmby, D. B. McConnell, and R. W. Henley2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR791 Greenhouse Heating Checklist1 R. A. Bucklin, P. H. Jones, B.A. Barmby, D. B. Mc heating is the union of an appropriate heat source and an efficient heat distribu- tion system. The best greenhouse heat source in the world is useless if the heat cannot be transferred to the plant environment

  19. Heating Greenhouses1 D.E. Buffington, R.A. Bucklin, R.W. Henley and D.B. McConnell2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    AE11 Heating Greenhouses1 D.E. Buffington, R.A. Bucklin, R.W. Henley and D.B. McConnell2 1 supplemental heat is required. Obviously there are many ways this can be accomplished from the standpoint of these factors be considered when selecting and installing a heating system. HEATING SYSTEMS Greenhouse heating

  20. Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

  1. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 1 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Marc Ross for Light Duty Vehicles Critical to the Pavley bill's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from trucks (large symbols). The emissions from midsize and smaller cars, emit about half as much. Question

  2. What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming in Community Atmosphere Models?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dezheng

    What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming in Community.-Z. Sun (2008), What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming for global warming because the latter may have a different spatial pattern of warming [e.g., Sun and Held

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Waste Heat Recovery for Usage by a Rooftop Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into Waste Heat Recovery for Usage by a Rooftop Greenhouse Rohit Singla, Jeremy Lord, Jorden Hetherington Investigation into Waste Heat Recovery for Usage by a Rooftop Greenhouse April 4, 2013 Dr. Naoko Ellis APSC 262 of a microbrewery, an excess amount of waste heat in the form of steam is produced. In the sustainability principles

  4. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis

  5. Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, John A

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Science 281(5381): 1327- Balcomb, K. C. I. and D. E.fates remaining unknown (Balcomb and Claridge 2001). Tissuewhale distribution (K. Balcomb and D. Claridge pers. comm. )

  6. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  7. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

    2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  11. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  12. Abstract--Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among other things, on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    other things, on the continuing and increased use of hydroelectric power. However, climate change itself provision of hydropower. Index Terms-- hydroelectric power generation, hydrology, meteorology, finance, risk1 Abstract-- Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among

  13. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol% of total domestic ethanol production. That is, while the model still covers all alternative fuels and five

  14. UConn Extension offers Bedding Plant Program for Greenhouse The University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension is offering Bedding Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    UConn Extension offers Bedding Plant Program for Greenhouse Growers The University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension is offering Bedding Plants - Spring 2015! This educational program will feature, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT · Diseases of Spring Crops and Their Management, Yonghao Li, Plant

  15. Greenhouse Ventilation1 Dennis E . Buffington, Ray A. Bucklin, Richard W. Henley and Dennis B. McConnell2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    VENTILATION A heating system with adequate capacity is needed in the winter to maintain environmental of the winter, when the heating system is running at full capacity, some ventilation is still requiredAE-10 Greenhouse Ventilation1 Dennis E . Buffington, Ray A. Bucklin, Richard W. Henley and Dennis B

  16. State and Regional Comprehensive Carbon Pricing and Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the Power Sector under the EPA's Clean Power Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    1 State and Regional Comprehensive Carbon Pricing and Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the Power Sector goal of comprehensive carbon pricing along with various other policies (LCFS) · Into this setting drops rate" and the role of renewable energy and energy efficiency in the rate targets and in compliance

  17. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops in the U.S. With Implications for Asian-Pacific Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    into energy crop production will most likely carry this price through increased purchasing cost and all energy the production of energy crops and other agricultural mitigation strategies. This analysis estimates the economicGreenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops in the U.S. With Implications for Asian

  18. The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    and wind power in three Canadian jurisdictions, namely British Columbia, Ontario and Alberta. An Optimal baseload mixtures. The large premium paid for displacing hydro or nuclear power with wind power does littleThe Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse

  19. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  20. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  1. GreenhouseSupervisor Mendel is a private agbiotech/agchem company developing solutions for the sustainable production of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    for the sustainable production of food, fiber and fuel. We have had longstanding collaborations with Monsanto, Bayer. Mendel is seeking a Greenhouse Supervisor. The qualified candidate will be responsible for planning special attention (small size, altered flowering, etc.) and adjust protocols as needed · Quality Control

  2. Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol Anand R Gopal1,4,6 and Daniel M Kammen1,2,3,5 1 Energy supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol; fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian

  3. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of annual greenhouse gas fluxes from a constructed wetland in an arid region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    (CO2). - Many constructed treatment wetland systems (CWS) have been developed to remove nutrients fromSpatial and temporal variability of annual greenhouse gas fluxes from a constructed wetland of Sustainability, 3Wetland Ecosystem Ecology Lab, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. - Wetlands support

  5. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

  6. Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  9. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  10. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E. [JPL/CAL Tech; Rotman, Douglas A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Walker, Bruce C. [Sandia National Laboratory

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  11. Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to irradiation from hot, young giant planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kepler space telescope has detected transits of objects as small as the Earth's Moon, and moons as small as 0.2 Earth masses can be detected in the Kepler data by transit timing and transit duration variations of their host planets. Such massive moons around giant planets in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) could serve as habitats for extraterrestrial life. We here assess the danger of exomoons to be in a runaway greenhouse (RG) state due to extensive heating from the planet. We apply pre-computed evolution tracks for giant planets to calculate the incident planetary radiation on the moon as a function of time. The total energy budget of stellar flux, illumination from the planet, and tidal heating in the satellite is compared to the critical flux for the moon to experience an RG effect. Irradiation from a 13-Jupiter-mass planet onto an Earth-sized moon at a distance of ten Jupiter radii can drive an RG state on the moon for about 200 Myr. If stellar illumination equivalent to that received by Earth from t...

  12. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  13. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  14. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  16. Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassberger, J.A., Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

    1997-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The world`s population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today`s risks.

  17. Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Chini, Louise M.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter; Hurtt, George; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). To examine the significance of such effects on global and regional patterns of climate change, a baseline and alternative scenario of future anthropogenic activity are simulated within the Integrated Earth System Model, which couples the Global Change Assessment Model, Global Land-use Model, and Community Earth System Model. The alternative scenario has high biofuel utilization and approximately 50% less global forest cover compared to the baseline, standard RCP4.5 scenario. Both scenarios stabilize radiative forcing from atmospheric constituents at 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. Thus, differences between their climate predictions quantify the biophysical effects of LUC. Offline radiative transfer and land model simulations are also utilized to identify forcing and feedback mechanisms driving the coupled response. Boreal deforestation is found to strongly influence climate due to increased albedo coupled with a regional-scale water vapor feedback. Globally, the alternative scenario yields a 21st century warming trend that is 0.5 °C cooler than baseline, driven by a 1 W/m2 mean decrease in radiative forcing that is distributed unevenly around the globe. Some regions are cooler in the alternative scenario than in 2005. These results demonstrate that neither climate change nor actual radiative forcing are uniquely related to atmospheric forcing targets such as those found in the RCP’s, but rather depend on particulars of the socioeconomic pathways followed to meet each target.

  18. Seed priming of native ornamental species to improve the rate and uniformity of germination in modern greenhouse operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finnerty, Terry Lee

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and assistance with this research; and for the pleasure and privilege of working with such courteous, professional people. Thanks to Mr. Stan Akagi and Native Plants, Inc, of Salt Lake City, Utah; to Mr. Michael Schupe of Containerized Plants in Independence... and Uniformity of Germination in Modern Greenhouse Operations (August 1990) Terry Lee Finnerty B. S. , Utah State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, Jayne M. Zajicek Many wildf1ower species have complex dormancy systems that cause sporadic...

  19. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  20. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1991--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to changes due to variations in greenhouse gas concentrations, the global climate system exhibits a high degree of internally-generated and externally-forced natural variability. To detect the enhanced greenhouse effect, its signal must be isolated from the ``noise`` of this natural climatic variability. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. To facilitate this, available land and marine data bases will be updated and expanded. The data will be analyzed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by a variety of models, from simple energy balance climate models to ocean General Circulation Models. Appendices A--G contain the following seven papers: (A) Recent global warmth moderated by the effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption; (B) Recent warming in global temperature series; (C) Correlation methods in fingerprint detection studies; (D) Balancing the carbon budget. Implications for projections of future carbon dioxide concentration changes; (E) A simple model for estimating methane concentration and lifetime variations; (F) Implications for climate and sea level of revised IPCC emissions scenarios; and (G) Sulfate aerosol and climatic change.

  1. Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

  2. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridlind, Ann

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases JAMESHANSEN,ANDREW LACIS,AND MICHAEL PRATHER NASA

  3. Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. IV. On the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles: Numerical radiative transfer studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitzmann, D; Rauer, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their wavelengths dependent absorption and scattering properties, clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. Especially, the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. We study the radiative effects of CO2 ice particles obtained by different numerical treatments to solve the radiative transfer equation. The comparison between the results of a high-order discrete ordinate method and simpler two-stream approaches reveals large deviations in terms of a potential scattering efficiency of the greenhouse effect. The two-stream methods overestimate the transmitted and reflected radiation, thereby yielding a higher scattering greenhouse effect. For the particular case of a cool M-type dwarf the CO2 ice particles show no strong effective scattering greenhouse eff...

  4. An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Impact of Mandatory Company Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting Under The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Celina

    2014-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this research is to examine the effectiveness and impact of the UK’s mandatory reporting of company greenhouse gas emissions, otherwise known as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, in accordance to ...

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of how the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR Kelly Patrick U.S. Environmental Protection Agency kelly...

  6. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

  7. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  9. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

  11. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  12. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  13. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  14. Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granier, Claire; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Bond, Tami C.; D'Angiola, Ariela; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Frost, G. J.; Heil, Angelika; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kinne, Stefan; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, Jean; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, Catherine; Masui, Toshihiko; Meleux, Frederik; Mieville, Aude; Ohara, Toshimasa; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Riahi, Keywan; Schultz, Martin; Smith, Steven J.; Thomson, Allison M.; van Aardenne, John; van der Werf, Guido R.; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical emissions developed in support of the simulations for the IPCC AR5 assessment. Emissions for 2005 and 2010 from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are also included. Large discrepancies between the global and regional emissions are identified, which shows that there is still no consensus on the best estimates for surface emissions of atmospheric compounds. At the global scale, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 show the best agreement in most years. The agreement is low for BC emissions, particularly in the period prior to 2000. The best consensus is for NOx emissions for all periods and all regions, except for China where emissions in 1980 and 1990 need to be better defined. Emissions of CO need a better quantification in the USA for all periods; in Central Europe, the evolution of emissions during the past two decades needs to be better determined. The agreement between the different SO2 emissions datasets is rather good for the USA, but better quantification is needed elsewhere, particularly for Central Europe and China. The comparisons performed in this study show that the use of RCP8.5 for the extension of the ACCMIP inventory beyond 2000 is reasonable, until more global or regional estimates become available. Concerning biomass burning emissions, most inventories agree within 50-80%, depending on the year and season. The large differences are due to differences in the estimates of burned areas from the different available products, as well as in the amount of biomass burnt.

  15. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program, initiated by President Bush, and subsequently authorized in EPAct2005, is responsible for preparing this report on behalf CCCSTI. This report systematically examines the market readiness of key technologies important to meeting climate change mitigation goals. It assesses the barriers and business risks impeding their progress and greater market application. Importantly, by documenting the hundreds of Federal policies, programs, regulations, incentives, and other activities that are in effect and operating today to address these barriers, it provides a broad context for evaluating the adequacy of current policy and the potential need, if any, for additional measures that might be undertaken by government or industry. Finally, it draws conclusions about the current situation, identifies gaps and opportunities, and suggests analytical principles that should be applied to assess and formulate policies and measures to accelerate the commercialization and deployment of these technologies.

  16. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1992--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1993-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. The main research areas covered by this proposal are (b), First Detection and (c) Supporting Data. The project will also include work under area (a), Modeling: specifically, analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulating Models (GCMs).

  17. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  18. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

  19. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  20. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.