Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report.

Sarmiento, J.L.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Factors influencing anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake in the North Atlantic in models of the ocean carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

The uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon in the North Atlantic is investigated using different configurations of ocean general circulation/carbon cycle models. We investigate how different representations of the ocean physics in the models, which represent the range of models currently in use, affect the evolution of CO{sub 2} uptake in the North Atlantic. The buffer effect of the ocean carbon system would be expected to reduce ocean CO{sub 2} uptake as the ocean absorbs increasing amounts of CO{sub 2}. We find that the strength of the buffer effect is very dependent on the model ocean state, as it affects both the magnitude and timing of the changes in uptake. The timescale over which uptake of CO{sub 2} in the North Atlantic drops to below preindustrial levels is particularly sensitive to the ocean state which sets the degree of buffering; it is less sensitive to the choice of atmospheric CO{sub 2} forcing scenario. Neglecting physical climate change effects, North Atlantic CO{sub 2} uptake drops below preindustrial levels between 50 and 300 years after stabilisation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} in different model configurations. Storage of anthropogenic carbon in the North Atlantic varies much less among the different model configurations, as differences in ocean transport of dissolved inorganic carbon and uptake of CO{sub 2} compensate each other. This supports the idea that measured inventories of anthropogenic carbon in the real ocean cannot be used to constrain the surface uptake. Including physical climate change effects reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake and storage in the North Atlantic further, due to the combined effects of surface warming, increased freshwater input, and a slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation. The timescale over which North Atlantic CO{sub 2} uptake drops to below preindustrial levels is reduced by about one-third, leading to an estimate of this timescale for the real world of about 50 years after the stabilisation of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. In the climate change experiment, a shallowing of the mixed layer depths in the North Atlantic results in a significant reduction in primary production, reducing the potential role for biology in drawing down anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

Smith, R.S.; Marotzke, J. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Are there basic physical constraints on future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Climate Models (GCMs) provide forecasts of future climate warming using a wide variety of highly sophisticated anthropogenic CO2 emissions models as input, each based on the evolution of four emissions "drivers": population p, standard of living g, energy productivity (or efficiency) f and energy carbonization c. The range of scenarios considered is extremely broad, however, and this is a primary source of forecast uncertainty. Here, it is shown both theoretically and observationally how the evolution of the human system can be considered from a surprisingly simple thermodynamic perspective in which it is unnecessary to explicitly model two of the emissions drivers: population and standard of living. Specifically, the human system grows through a self-perpetuating feedback loop in which the consumption rate of primary energy resources stays tied to the historical accumulation of global economic production - or p times g - through a time-independent factor of 9.7 +/- 0.3 milliwatts per inflation-adjuste...

Garrett, Timothy J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries) and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.

Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Jones, C. D. [Hadley Center, Devon, England

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a consequence of anthropogenic global change, can profoundly affect the interactions between crop plants and insect pests and may promote yet another form of global change: the rapid establishment of invasive species. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the susceptibility of soybean plants grown under field conditions to the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) and to a variant of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) resistant to crop rotation by down-regulating gene expression related to defense signaling [lipoxygenase 7 (lox7), lipoxygenase 8 (lox8), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (acc-s)]. The down-regulation of these genes, in turn, reduced the production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CystPIs), which are specific deterrents to coleopteran herbivores. Beetle herbivory increased CystPI activity to a greater degree in plants grown under ambient than under elevated CO{sub 2}. Gut cysteine proteinase activity was higher in beetles consuming foliage of soybeans grown under elevated CO{sub 2} than in beetles consuming soybeans grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, consistent with enhanced growth and development of these beetles on plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. These findings suggest that predicted increases in soybean productivity under projected elevated CO{sub 2} levels may be reduced by increased susceptibility to invasive crop pests.

Zavala, J.; Casteel, C.; DeLucia, E.; Berenbaum, M. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

7

Lifetime of Anthropogenic Climate Change: Millennial Time Scales of Potential CO2 and Surface Temperature Perturbations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multimillennial simulations with a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model are examined to assess the persistence of the climatic impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. It is found that the time required to absorb anthropogenic CO2 strongly ...

M. Eby; K. Zickfeld; A. Montenegro; D. Archer; K. J. Meissner; A. J. Weaver

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Quantifying and Minimizing Uncertainty of Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic aerosols are composed of a variety of aerosol types and components including water-soluble inorganic species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), condensed organic species, elemental or black carbon, and mineral dust. Previous ...

J. E. Penner; R. J. Charlson; S. E. Schwartz; J. M. Hales; N. S. Laulainen; L. Travis; R. Leifer; T. Novakov; J. Ogren; L. F. Radke

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Title Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Novakov, Tihomir, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Surabi Menon, and Jeffery Aguiar Journal Geophysical Research Letters Volume 35 Issue 19 Abstract In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC) - an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols - with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

10

A human-caused climate change signal emerges from the noise  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-05 For immediate release: 11292012 | NR-12-11-05 A human-caused climate change signal emerges from the noise Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov...

11

If anthropogenic CO2 emissions cease, will atmospheric CO2 concentration continue to increase?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If anthropogenic CO2 emissions were to suddenly cease, the evolution of the atmospheric CO2 concentration would depend on the magnitude and sign of natural carbon sources and sinks. Experiments using Earth system models indicate that overall ...

Andrew H. MacDougall; Michael Eby; Andrew J. Weaver

12

Microsoft Word - NEPA SECARB Anthropogenic Final EA 2.24.2011.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

85 85 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT For The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Phase III Anthropogenic Test Project U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY March 2011 U.S. Department of Energy SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test National Energy Technology Laboratory Final Environmental Assessment i March 2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This report was prepared with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42590. U.S. Department of Energy SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test National Energy Technology Laboratory Final Environmental Assessment ii March 2011 COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Title: Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Phase III Anthropogenic Test

13

Exploring the value proposition of integrating back-up saline storage into anthropogenic CO? supplied EOR operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) through carbon dioxide (CO?) sequestration from anthropogenic sources has been gaining attention in policy circles. In particular, it is viewed as a potential way to help accelerate the deployment ...

Toukan, Ibrahim (Ibrahim Khaled)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes T. Novakov, T.W.indicator of anthropogenic aerosols – with observed surfacetemperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends

Novakov, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Microbially induced magnesium carbonation reactions as a strategy for carbon sequestration in ultramafic mine tailings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion, causing higher global temperatures and other negative environmental effects. CO2 sequestration… (more)

McCutcheon, Jenine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Climate response of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equilibrium climate response to the total effects (direct, indirect and semi-direct effects) of aerosols arising from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on the South Asian summer monsoon system is studied using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean model. Our results suggest that anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols generally induce a reduction in mean summer monsoon precipitation over most parts of the Indian subcontinent, strongest along the western coastline of the Indian peninsula and eastern Nepal region, but modest increases also occur over the north western part of the subcontinent. While most of the noted reduction in precipitation is triggered by increased emissions of aerosols from anthropogenic activities, modest increases in the north west are mostly associated with decreases in local emissions of aerosols from forest fire and grass fire sources. Anthropogenic aerosols from outside Asia also contribute to the overall reduction in precipitation but the dominant contribution comes from aerosol sources within Asia. Local emissions play a more important role in the total rainfall response to anthropogenic aerosol sources during the early monsoon period, whereas both local as well as remote emissions of aerosols play almost equally important roles during the later part of the monsoon period. While precipitation responses are primarily driven by local aerosol forcing, regional surface temperature changes over the region are strongly influenced by anthropogenic aerosols from sources further away (non-local changes). Changes in local anthropogenic organic and black carbon emissions by as much as a factor of two (preserving their ratio) produce the same basic signatures in the model's summer monsoon temperature and precipitation responses.

Ganguly, Dilip; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

17

A toolbox for calculating net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ''Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Input'' (NANI) to a region represents an estimate of anthropogenic net nitrogen (N) fluxes across its boundaries, and is thus a measure of the effect of human activity on the regional nitrogen cycle. NANI accounts for ... Keywords: Anthropogenic, Nitrogen, Synthesis, Toolbox, Watershed

Bongghi Hong; Dennis P. Swaney; Robert W. Howarth

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

--No Title--  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

in the atmosphere, has two major anthropogenic (human-caused) sources: combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land use. Net releases of carbon dioxide from these two...

19

Anthropogenic impacts on global storage and emissions of mercury from terrestrial soils: Insights from a new global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We develop a mechanistic global model of soil mercury storage and emissions that ties the lifetime of mercury in soils to the lifetime of the organic carbon pools it is associated with. We explore the implications of considering terrestrial mercury cycling in the framework of soil carbon cycling and suggest possible avenues of future research to test our assumptions and constrain this type of model. In our simulation, input of mercury to soil is by atmospheric deposition, in part through leaf uptake and subsequent litter fall, and is moderated by surface photoreduction and revolatilization. Once bound to organic carbon, mercury is transferred along a succession of short?lived to long?lived carbon pools and is ultimately reemitted by respiration of these pools. We examine the legacy of anthropogenic influence on global mercury storage and emissions and estimate that storage of mercury in organic soils has increased by ?20 % since preindustrial times, while soil emissions have increased by a factor of 3 (2900 Mg yr ?1 versus 1000 Mg yr ?1). At steady state, mercury accumulates in the most recalcitrant soil carbon pools and has an overall lifetime against respiration of 630 years. However, the impact of anthropogenic emissions since preindustrial times has been concentrated in more labile pools, so that the mean lifetime of present?day anthropogenic mercury in all pools is ?80 years. Our analysis suggests that reductions in anthropogenic emissions would lead to immediate and large reductions in secondary soil mercury emissions.

Nicole V Smith?downey; Elsie M. Sunderl; Daniel J. Jacob

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Possible Influence of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Cirrus Clouds and Anthropogenic Forcing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cirrus clouds have a net warming effect on the atmosphere and cover about 30% of the Earth’s area. Aerosol particles initiate ice formation in the upper troposphere through modes of action that include homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, heterogeneous nucleation on solid particles immersed in a solution, and deposition nucleation of vapor onto solid particles. Here, we examine the possible change in ice number concentration from anthropogenic soot originating from surface sources of fossil fuel and biomass burning, from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, and from aircraft that deposit their aerosols directly in the upper troposphere. We find that fossil fuel and biomass burning soot aerosols exert a radiative forcing of -0.68 to 0.01 Wm-2 while anthropogenic sulfate aerosols exert a forcing of -0.01 to 0.18 Wm-2. Our calculations show that the sign of the forcing by aircraft soot depends on the model configuration and can be both positive or negative, ranging from -0.16 to 0.02 Wm-2. The magnitude of the forcing in cirrus clouds can be comparable to the forcing exerted by anthropogenic aerosols on warm clouds, but this forcing has not been included in past assessments of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate.

Penner, Joyce E.; Chen, Yang; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong

2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010 Title Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010 Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Newman, Sally, Seongeun Jeong, Marc L. Fischer, Xiaomei Xu, Christine L. Haman, Barry Lefer, Sergio Alvarez, Bernhard Rappenglueck, Eric A. Kort, Arlyn E. Andrews, Jeffrey Peischl, Kevin R. Gurney, Charles E. Miller, and Yuk L. Yung Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 13 Pagination 4359-4372 Abstract Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008) ground campaign of 15 May-15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to deduce the diurnally varying anthropogenic component of observed CO2 in the megacity of Los Angeles (LA). This affordable and simple technique, validated by carbon isotope observations and WRF-STILT (Weather Research and Forecasting model - Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model) predictions, is shown to robustly attribute observed CO2 variation to anthropogenic or biogenic origin over the entire diurnal cycle. During CalNex-LA, local fossil fuel combustion contributed up to ~50% of the observed CO2 enhancement overnight, and ~100% of the enhancement near midday. This suggests that sufficiently accurate total column CO2 observations recorded near midday, such as those from the GOSAT or OCO-2 satellites, can potentially be used to track anthropogenic emissions from the LA megacity.

22

Year-round observations of carbon biomass and flux variability in the Southern Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon flux through the ocean's twilight zone. Science 316,et al. (2005). Anthropogenic ocean acidification over thethe northeastern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 419, 603-607.

Bishop, James K.B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Modeled Impact of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change on Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory’s climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, ...

Kirsten L. Findell; Elena Shevliakova; P. C. D. Milly; Ronald J. Stouffer

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Incorporating Anthropogenic Water Regulation Modules into a Land Surface Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic activities have been significantly perturbing global freshwater flows and groundwater reserves. Despite numerous advances in the development of land surface models (LSMs) and global terrestrial hydrological models (GHMs), relatively ...

Yadu Pokhrel; Naota Hanasaki; Sujan Koirala; Jaeil Cho; Pat J.-F. Yeh; Hyungjun Kim; Shinjiro Kanae; Taikan Oki

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Comparison of Statistically Optimal Approaches to Detecting Anthropogenic Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three statistically optimal approaches, which have been proposed for detecting anthropogenic climate change, are intercompared. It is shown that the core of all three methods is identical. However, the different approaches help to better ...

Gabriele C. Hegerl; Gerald R. North

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Where to Look for Anthropogenic Climate Change in the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled climate model has been used to provide preliminary guidance on which ocean observations will be most useful for early detection of anthropogenic climate change. Given the sparsity of historical ocean measurements, early detection may ...

Helene Banks; Richard Wood

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

The Carbon Cycle Response to ENSO: A Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is significant interannual variability in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) even when the effect of anthropogenic sources has been accounted for. This variability is well correlated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (...

Chris D. Jones; Matthew Collins; Peter M. Cox; Steven A. Spall

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN COAL: CHARACTERIZATION OF MATRIX DEFORMATION, SORPTION CAPACITY AND DYNAMIC PERMEABILITY AT IN-SITU STRESS CONDITIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formation is one of the climate change mitigation options. The successful application of this technology is dependent on… (more)

Pone, Jean Denis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

A technical and economic analysis of a natural gas combined cycle power plant with carbon dioxide capture using membrane separation technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the potential effects of climate… (more)

Ducker, Michael Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The whitehouse effect: shortwave radiative forcing of climate by anthropogenic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Increases in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other infrared active gases over the industrial period are thought to have increased the average flux of longwave (thermal infrared) radiation between the surface of the earth and the lower atmosphere, leading to an increase in global mean temperature. Over the same period it is though that concentrations of aerosol particles in the troposphere have similarly increased as a consequence of industrial emissions and that these increased concentrations of particles have increased the earth`s reflectivity of shortwave (solar) radiation incident on the planet both directly, by scattering radiation, and indirectly, by increasing the reflectivity of clouds. The term ``whitehouse effect`` is introduced to refer to this increased scattering of shortwave radiation by analogy to the term ``greenhouse effect,`` which refers to the enhanced trapping of longwave radiation resulting from increased concentrations of infrared active gases. Each of these phenomena is referred to as a ``forcing`` of the earth`s climate, that is a secular change imposed on the system; such a forcing is to be distinguished from a ``response`` of the system, such as a change in global mean temperature or other index of global climate. The forcing due to the direct and indirect effects induced by anthropogenic aerosols has been estimated to be comparable in global- average magnitude to that due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, but it is of opposite direction, that is exerting a cooling influence. The shortwave radiative influence of anthropogenic aerosols may thus be considered to be offsetting some, perhaps a great fraction, of the longwave radiative influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases.

Schwartz, S.E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] This study simulates the direct radiative forcing of organic aerosol using the GFDL AM2 GCM. The aerosol climatology is provided by the MOZART chemical transport model (CTM). The approach to calculating aerosol optical properties explicitly considers relative humidity–dependent hygroscopic growth by employing a functional group– based thermodynamic model, and makes use of the size distribution derived from AERONET measurements. The preindustrial (PI) and present-day (PD) global burdens of organic carbon are 0.17 and 1.36 Tg OC, respectively. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) forcings (PI to PD) are estimated as 0.34 and 0.71 W m 2, respectively. Geographically the radiative cooling largely lies over the source regions, namely part of South America, Central Africa, Europe and South and East Asia. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky surface forcings are 0.63 and 0.98 W m 2, respectively. A series of sensitivity analyses shows that the treatments of hygroscopic growth and optical properties of organic aerosol are intertwined in the determination of the global organic aerosol forcing. For example, complete deprivation of water uptake by hydrophilic organic particles reduces the standard (total-sky) and clearsky TOA forcing estimates by 18 % and 20%, respectively, while the uptake by a highly soluble organic compound (malonic acid) enhances them by 18 % and 32%, respectively. Treating particles as non-absorbing enhances aerosol reflection and increases the total-sky and clear-sky TOA forcing by 47 % and 18%, respectively, while neglecting the scattering brought about by the water associated with particles reduces them by 24% and 7%, respectively.

Yi Ming; V. Ramaswamy; Paul A. Ginoux; Larry H. Horowitz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

33

The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refinements in the spatial and temporal resolution of North American fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions provide additional information about anthropogenic aspects of the carbon cycle. In North America, the seasonal and spatial patterns ...

J. S. Gregg; L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres; T. J. Blasing; G. Marland

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Mechanisms-Based Approach to Detecting Recent Anthropogenic Hydroclimate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both naturally occurring La Niña events and model-projected anthropogenic-driven global warming are associated with widespread drying in the subtropics to midlatitudes. Models suggest anthropogenic drying should already be underway but climate ...

Richard Seager; Naomi Naik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation in Mine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation in Mine Wastes Christopher S. Kim,1 James J. Rytuba,2 Gordon E. Brown, Jr.3 1Department of Physical Sciences, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 2U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 3Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Introduction Figure 1. Dr. Christopher Kim collects a mine waste sample from the Oat Hill mercury mine in Northern California. The majority of mercury mine wastes at these sites are present as loose, unconsolidated piles, facilitating the transport of mercury-bearing material downstream into local watersheds. Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that poses considerable health risks to humans, primarily through the consumption of fish which

36

Carbon-14 Background, Pathway, and Dose Calculation Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants: A Sourcebook for Accurate Carbon-14 Dose Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) generate carbon-14 during operation, and release it in power plant effluents. This report explores the current state of carbon and carbon-14 science and understanding to identify and recommend any enhancements to carbon-14 dose calculation methodologies.BackgroundWhile the amount of carbon-14 released by NPPs is small compared to natural and other anthropogenic sources, it is important to accurately document it, along ...

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

37

NETL: Carbon Storage - Knowledge Sharing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Sharing Carbon Storage Knowledge Sharing Outreach Efforts at SECARB's Anthropogenic Test Site in Alabama Outreach Efforts at SECARB's Anthropogenic Test Site in Alabama In order to achieve the commercialization of CO2 storage technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acknowledges that knowledge sharing between various entities is essential. Distribution of the results and lessons learned from both field projects and Core R&D efforts will provide the foundation for future, large-scale CCS field tests across North America and in addressing future challenges associated with public acceptance, infrastructure (pipelines, compressor stations, etc.), and regulatory framework. DOE promotes information and knowledge sharing through various avenues including the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP)

38

Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on Indian summer monsoon  

SciTech Connect

Using an interactive aerosol-climate model we find that absorbing anthropogenic aerosols, whether coexisting with scattering aerosols or not, can significantly affect the Indian summer monsoon system. We also show that the influence is reflected in a perturbation to the moist static energy in the sub-cloud layer, initiated as a heating by absorbing aerosols to the planetary boundary layer. The perturbation appears mostly over land, extending from just north of the Arabian Sea to northern India along the southern slope of the Tibetan Plateau. As a result, during the summer monsoon season, modeled convective precipitation experiences a clear northward shift, coincidently in agreement with observed monsoon precipitation changes in recent decades particularly during the onset season. We demonstrate that the sub-cloud layer moist static energy is a useful quantity for determining the impact of aerosols on the northward extent and to a certain degree the strength of monsoon convection.

Wang, Chien; Kim, Dongchul; Ekman, Annica; Barth, Mary; Rasch, Philip J.

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

39

Towards the detection and attribution of an anthropogenic effect on climate  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized recently that cooling caused by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may be obscuring a warming signal associated with changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Here the authors use results from model experiments in which sulfate and carbon dioxide have been varied individually and in combination in order to determine whether the simulated surface temperature change patterns are increasingly evident in observed records of temperature change. They use centered [R(t)] and uncentered [C(t)] pattern correlation statistics in order to compare observed time-evolving surface temperature change patterns with the model-predicted equilibrium signal patterns. They show that in the case of temperature signals from the ``CO{sub 2}-only`` and ``sulfate-only`` experiments, the C(t) statistic essentially reduces to a measure of observed global-mean temperature changes, and cannot be used to uniquely attribute observed climate changes to a specific causal mechanism. For the signal from the experiment with combined CO{sub 2}/sulfate aerosol forcing, C(t) provides information on pattern congruence, but trends in C(t) are difficult to interpret without decomposing the statistic into pattern similarity and global-mean change components. They therefore focus on R(t), which is a more useful statistic for discriminating between forcing mechanisms with different pattern signatures but similar rates of global mean change.

Santer, B.D.; Taylor, K.E.; Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wigley, T.M.L. [UCAR Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P.D. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit; Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Hamburg (Germany)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Carbon Scanning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Carbon Scanning System Background Earth generates and emits an enormous amount of carbon dioxide into the atmos- phere from its deep energy resources, its near-surface processes, and biotic activi- ties. Although anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions increase global warming, global warming is also alleviated by human activities in sequestering carbon into the terrestrial ecosystem and injecting carbon dioxide deep into geological formations,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Analysis of the carbon dioxide concentration in the lowest atmospheric layers and the factors affecting China based on satellite observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide CO2 is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY on board ENVISAT launched in 2002 is the first satellite instrument to monitor the changes in CO2 concentration ...

Yanfang Hou; Shixin Wang; Yi Zhou; Fuli Yan; Jinfeng Zhu

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effect of Observational Sampling Error on the Detection of Anthropogenic Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of sampling error in surface air temperature observations is assessed for detection and attribution of an anthropogenic signal. This error arises because grid-box values are based on varying densities of station and marine data. An ...

Gabriele C. Hegerl; Philip D. Jones; Tim P. Barnett

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Distinguishing the Roles of Natural and Anthropogenically Forced Decadal Climate Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given that over the course of the next 10–30 years the magnitude of natural decadal variations may rival that of anthropogenically forced climate change on regional scales, it is envisioned that initialized decadal predictions will provide ...

Amy Solomon; Lisa Goddard; Arun Kumar; James Carton; Clara Deser; Ichiro Fukumori; Arthur M. Greene; Gabriele Hegerl; Ben Kirtman; Yochanan Kushnir; Matthew Newman; Doug Smith; Dan Vimont; Tom Delworth; Gerald A. Meehl; Timothy Stockdale

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Simulating the Regional Impacts of Urbanization and Anthropogenic Heat Release on Climate across China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Together with economic development and accelerated urbanization, the urban population in China has been increasing rapidly, and anthropogenic heat released by large-scale energy consumption in cities is expected to be a vital factor affecting the ...

Jin-Ming Feng; Yong-Li Wang; Zhu-Guo Ma; Yong-He Liu

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

An “A-Train” Strategy for Quantifying Direct Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document outlines a practical strategy for achieving an observationally based quantification of direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols. The strategy involves a four-step program for shifting the current assumption-laden estimates ...

Theodore L. Anderson; Robert J. Charlson; Nicolas Bellouin; Olivier Boucher; Mian Chin; Sundar A. Christopher; Jim Haywood; Yoram J. Kaufman; Stefan Kinne; John A. Ogren; Lorraine A. Remer; Toshihiko Takemura; Didier Tanré; Omar Torres; Charles R. Trepte; Bruce A. Wielicki; David M. Winker; Hongbin Yu

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the climate response to changing US anthropogenic aerosol sources over the 1950–2050 period by using the NASA GISS general circulation model (GCM) and comparing to observed US temperature trends. Time-dependent ...

Leibensperger, Eric Michael

47

Carbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban areas are home to more than half of the world’s people, responsible for 470 % of anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide and 76 % of wood used for industrial purposes. By 2050 the proportion of the urban population is expected to increase to 70 % worldwide. Despite fast rates of change and potential value for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions, the organic carbon storage in human settlements has not been well quantified. Here, we show that human settlements can store as much carbon per unit area (23–42 kg C m 2 urban areas and 7–16 kg C m 2 exurban areas) as tropical forests, which have the highest carbon density of natural ecosystems (4–25 kg C m 2). By the year 2000 carbon storage attributed to human settlements of the conterminous United States was 18 Pg of carbon or 10 % of its total land carbon storage. Sixty-four percent of this carbon was attributed to soil, 20 % to vegetation, 11 % to landfills, and 5 % to buildings. To offset rising urban emissions of carbon, regional and national governments should consider how to protect or even to increase carbon storage of human-dominated landscapes. Rigorous studies addressing carbon budgets of human settlements and vulnerability of their carbon storage are needed.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

Stallinga, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

NETL: Carbon Capture FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How is CO2 captured? How is CO2 captured? Chilled Ammonia CO2 Capture Process Facility at American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Plant Chilled Ammonia CO2 Capture Process Facility at American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Plant Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture involves separating CO2 from other gases generated by industrial processes or burning fossil fuels. CO2 capture can remove as much as 95% of the CO2 from these processes. There are two major types of anthropogenic CO2 sources: mobile and stationary. Mobile sources include things like cars, trucks, trains, boats, and aircrafts that burn fossil fuels and generate CO2. Capturing CO2 from mobile sources is currently impractical. Stationary sources include power plants and industrial facilities that burn fossil fuels, as

50

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

human-produced (anthropogenic) CO2 could be gradually increasing the Earth's greenhouse effect. While about half of this anthropogenic CO2 can be reabsorbed by vegetation or...

51

Challenges for improving estimates of soil organic carbon stored in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Challenges for improving estimates of soil organic carbon stored in Challenges for improving estimates of soil organic carbon stored in permafrost regions September 30, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint One of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century lies in predicting the impacts of anthropogenic activities on Earth's carbon cycle. Soil is a significant component of the carbon cycle, because it contains at least two-thirds of the world's terrestrial carbon and more than twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. Although soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks were built over millennial time scales, they are susceptible to a far more rapid release back to the atmosphere due to climatic and land use change. If environmental perturbations negatively impact the processes regulating the storage of SOC, significant amounts of this carbon could be decomposed

52

Anthropogenic NO2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anthropogenic NO Anthropogenic NO 2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing A. N. Rublev Institution of Molecular Physics Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia N Chubarova Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University Moscow, Russia G. Gorchakov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction The work summarizes the different methodical aspects, firstly, the use of atmosphere optical depths presented in Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for NO 2 column retrievals, and, secondly, its radiative forcing calculated as difference between integral solar fluxes absorbed in the atmosphere with and without NO 2 under given air mass or the sun zenith angle.

53

Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use  

SciTech Connect

This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings across multiple scales in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated based on a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land cover, land surface temperature, albedo, and meteorological data. Building energy use was estimated using a GIS-based building energy simulation model in conjunction with Department of Energy/ Energy Information Administration survey data, Assessor's parcel data, GIS floor areas data, and remote sensing-derived building height data.

Zhou, Yuyu; Weng, Qihao; Gurney, Kevin R.; Shuai, Yanmin; Hu, Xuefei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Anthropogenic moisture production and its effect on boundary layer circulations over New York City  

SciTech Connect

A heat and moisture excess over New York City is shown to exist by the analysis of helicopter soundings of temperature and wet bulb depression. The magnitude of the temporal and spatial distribution of anthropogenic moisture emissions in New York City were estimated from fuel usage data. The URBMET urban boundary layer model was used to evaluate the effects on the dynamics of the urban boundary layer resulting from the observed urban moisture excess. Work is currently in progress which seeks to determine the fraction of the observed moisture excess over New York that is due to anthropogenic sources. (auth)

Bornstein, R.D.; Tam, Y.T.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Recent trends in anthropogenic mercury emission in the northeast United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

] We note that the consumption data included in our study represent the entire energy sector% decrease in emission between 1999/2000 and 2003/2004, although the rate has increased since 2001/2002. Air United States is characterized by the highest regional anthropogenic Hg flux density in the country, due

Lee, Xuhui

56

Abstract The savannas (cerrado) of south-central Brazil are currently subjected to frequent anthropogenic burning,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anthropogenic burning, causing widespread reduction in tree density. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 could reduce the im- pact of such frequent burning by increasing the availabili- ty CO2 and at two nutrient levels. To simulate burning, the plants were either clipped at 15 weeks

Jackson, Robert B.

57

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2010 Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2007, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 17 percent. In the IEO2010 Reference case, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from non-OECD countries in 2035 are about double those from OECD countries. Overview Because anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, world energy use continues to be at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2010 Reference case, world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions29 grow from 29.7 billion metric tons in 2007 to 33.8 billion metric tons in 2020 and 42.4 billion metric tons in 2035 (Table 18).30

58

Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical emissions developed in support of the simulations for the IPCC AR5 assessment. Emissions for 2005 and 2010 from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are also included. Large discrepancies between the global and regional emissions are identified, which shows that there is still no consensus on the best estimates for surface emissions of atmospheric compounds. At the global scale, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 show the best agreement in most years. The agreement is low for BC emissions, particularly in the period prior to 2000. The best consensus is for NOx emissions for all periods and all regions, except for China where emissions in 1980 and 1990 need to be better defined. Emissions of CO need a better quantification in the USA for all periods; in Central Europe, the evolution of emissions during the past two decades needs to be better determined. The agreement between the different SO2 emissions datasets is rather good for the USA, but better quantification is needed elsewhere, particularly for Central Europe and China. The comparisons performed in this study show that the use of RCP8.5 for the extension of the ACCMIP inventory beyond 2000 is reasonable, until more global or regional estimates become available. Concerning biomass burning emissions, most inventories agree within 50-80%, depending on the year and season. The large differences are due to differences in the estimates of burned areas from the different available products, as well as in the amount of biomass burnt.

Granier, Claire; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Bond, Tami C.; D'Angiola, Ariela; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Frost, G. J.; Heil, Angelika; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kinne, Stefan; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, Jean; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, Catherine; Masui, Toshihiko; Meleux, Frederik; Mieville, Aude; Ohara, Toshimasa; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Riahi, Keywan; Schultz, Martin; Smith, Steven J.; Thomson, Allison M.; van Aardenne, John; van der Werf, Guido R.; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

59

Anthropogenic Disturbance of Western Gray Whale Behavior Off Sakhalin Island, Russia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

he western North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) is critically endangered of extinction. The population size is estimated to be 131 individuals with 31 reproductive females. Throughout their potential home range, the western gray whale population face several threats to their future survival. On their only known feeding grounds off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia, anthropogenic activity has increased in the past decade due to oil and gas exploration and platform/pipeline construction. This dissertation examines the influences of geophysical seismic surveys (pulse sounds) and platform/pipeline installation (continuous sounds). Each chapter progressively improves upon behavioral models that assess changes in gray whale movements and respirations relative to anthropogenic activity. Theodolite tracking and focal follow methodologies were employed to collect gray whales' movement and respiration information during and in the absence of anthropogenic activity. Spatial, temporal, environmental, and acoustic (pulse and/or continuous) sound levels and non-sound related anthropogenic variables were included as explanatory variables to examine their influence on movement and respiration response variables, such as speed, orientations, dive/surface time, breathing rates, etc. During the 3-D seismic activity, gray whales traveled faster, changed directions of movement less, were recorded farther from shore and stayed underwater longer between respirations as the received sound level exposure increased. During platform/pipeline installations, western gray whales increased their distance from shore with indicators of stress (rapid breathing) and observed to be sensitive to close distance of approach by vessels. No acoustic influence on western gray whale behavior was found during a 4-D seismic survey; however, sample sizes were small in this study to sufficiently detect more subtle to moderate changes in gray whale behavior. These studies illustrate short-term influences anthropogenic activity had on western gray whale behavior which could lead to longer-term responses that may be detrimental to the survival of certain individuals and/or the population. A comprehensive analyses are proposed to increase sample sizes to identify subtle to moderate behavioral changes as well as examine alternative hypotheses to the null hypothesis of no impact used in this dissertation. With the potential to displace individuals/population out of critical feeding habitats needed for their annual survival and the expected increase of anthropogenic activity in the future, this dissertation highlights the importance to monitor and identify problems and suggest alternatives to development/activities that may be impacting this endangered population of gray whales.

Gailey, Glenn Andrew

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Carbon Scanning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous, non-invasive, in-Field soil Continuous, non-invasive, in-Field soil Carbon sCanning system Background Vegetation and soils serve as carbon storage sinks for the approximately 2 billion tons of carbon absorbed annually by the global biosphere. While global warming is promoted by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions into the atmosphere, it is partially mitigated by carbon sequestration in the terrestrial ecosystem. However, a better understanding and monitoring of the underground carbon processes is necessary for evaluating various strategies for terrestrial carbon sequestration and quantification of the carbon stores for carbon credits. Description Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a multi-elemental scanning instrument for determining carbon analysis in soil. The method is based on inelastic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EFRC Carbon Capture and EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be present in only trace proportions in our atmosphere but it has a leading role in the cast of greenhouse gases, with a thermal radiative effect nearly three times as large as the next biggest contributor. Energy related processes are the biggest sources of atmospheric CO2, especially the burning of fossil fuels and the production of hydrogen from methane. Since both human-caused CO2 concentrations and global average temperatures have been increasing steadily since the mid-20th century it could very well be that our energy future depends on our ability to effectively remove CO2

62

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership U.S Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships: Sharing Knowledge from Two Field Tests  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Presented to: Carbon Storage Program Infrastructure Annual Review Meeting November 15, 2011 Presented by: Gerald R. Hill, Ph.D. Senior Technical Advisor Southern States Energy Board Acknowledgements  This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory.  Cost share and research support provided by SECARB/SSEB Carbon Management Partners.  CO 2 Capture Unit funded separately by Southern Company and partners. 2 Presentation Outline  Overview  Characterization Studies  Early Test - Cranfield, MS  Anthropogenic Test - Citronelle, AL - Capture Unit Status - Pipeline Status - Injection Well Status 3 SECARB Characterization: CO 2 Sources & Saline Reservoirs

63

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush

Rollins, Andrew M.

64

Heterogeneous nucleation of ice on anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City  

SciTech Connect

This study reports on heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of predominantly organic (or coated with organic material) anthropogenic particles sampled within and around the polluted environment of Mexico City. The onset of heterogeneous ice nucleation was observed as a function of particle temperature (Tp), relative humidity (RH), nucleation mode, and particle chemical composition which is influenced by photochemical atmospheric aging. Particle analyses included computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). In contrast to most laboratory studies employing proxies of organic aerosol, we show that anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City can potentially induce ice nucleation at experimental conditions relevant to cirrus formation. The results suggest a new precedent for the potential impact of organic particles on ice cloud formation and climate.

Knopf, D.A.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Moffet, R.C.; Gilles, M.K.

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

65

Significance of Pre-Industrial and Older Anthropogenic Sources of Mercury in Ichawaynochaway Creek Watershed, Georgia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to concerns about elevated levels of mercury in fish tissue, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL), which is a calculation of the maximum amount of mercury a waterbody can assimilate without exceeding the applicable water quality standard. These calculations assume that >99% of mercury load to the aquatic systems is derived from recent atmospheric deposition and that older anthropogenic mercury or mercury from terrestrial sources...

2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fast and Slow Responses of the South Asian Monsoon System to Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a global climate model with fully predictive aerosol life cycle, we investigate the fast and slow responses of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Our results show that the feedbacks associated with sea surface temperature (SST) change caused by aerosols play a more important role than the aerosol's direct impact on radiation, clouds and land surface (rapid adjustments) in shaping the total equilibrium climate response of the monsoon system to aerosol forcing. Inhomogeneous SST cooling caused by anthropogenic aerosols eventually reduces the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient and the easterly shear of zonal winds over the region, slowing down the local Hadley cell circulation, decreasing the northward moisture transport, and causing a reduction in precipitation over South Asia. Although total responses in precipitation are closer to the slow responses in general, the fast component dominates over land areas north of 25°N. Our results also show an east-west asymmetry in the fast responses to anthropogenic aerosols causing increases in precipitation west of 80°E but decreases east of it.

Ganguly, Dilip; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

67

Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Benson, S.M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A high-resolution estimate of monthly 3D aerosol solar heating rates and surface solar fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2004 is described here. This product stems from an Asian aerosol assimilation project, in which a) the PNNL regional model bounded by the NCEP reanalyses was used to provide meteorology, b) MODIS and AERONET data were integrated for aerosol observations, c) the Iowa aerosol/chemistry model STEM-2K1 used the PNNL meteorology and assimilated aerosol observations, and d) 3D (X-Y-Z) aerosol simulations from the STEM-2K1 were used in the Scripps Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR) model to produce total and anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing for average cloudy skies. The MACR model and STEM both used the PNNL model resolution of 0.45º×0.4º in the horizontal and of 23 layers in the troposphere. The 2001–2004 averaged anthropogenic all-sky aerosol forcing is ?1.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +7.3 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?8.6 Wm-2 (surface) averaged in Asia (60?138°E & Eq. ?45°N). In the absence of AERONET SSA assimilation, absorbing aerosol concentration (especially BC aerosol) is much smaller, giving ?2.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +4.5 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?6.8 Wm-2 (surface), averaged in Asia. In the vertical, monthly forcing is mainly concentrated below 600hPa with maxima around 800hPa. Seasonally, low-level forcing is far larger in dry season than in wet season in South Asia, whereas the wet season forcing exceeds the dry season forcing in East Asia. The anthropogenic forcing in the present study is similar to that in Chung et al.’s [2005] in overall magnitude but the former offers fine-scale features and simulated vertical profiles. The interannual variability of the computed anthropogenic forcing is significant and extremely large over major emission outflow areas. In view of this, the present study’s estimate is within the implicated range of the 1999 INDOEX result. However, NCAR/CCSM3’s anthropogenic aerosol forcing is much smaller than the present study’s estimate at the surface, and is outside of what the INDOEX findings can support.

Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V.; Carmichael, Gregory; Kulkarni, S.; Tang, Youhua; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

69

Exploring the Interplay between Natural Decadal Variability and Anthropogenic Climate Change in Summer Rainfall over China. Part I: Observational Evidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summer rainfall over China has experienced substantial variability on longer time scales during the last century, and the question remains whether this is due to natural, internal variability or is part of the emerging signal of anthropogenic ...

Yonghui Lei; Brian Hoskins; Julia Slingo

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Regression-based estimates of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean: A fresh look  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

those from repeated hydro- graphic surveys, such as might be provided by appropriately instrumented, as oceanic car- bon's natural spatial and temporal variability is larger than the expected anthropogenic

71

Evolution of Anthropogenic Pb and Pb isotopes in the deep North Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pb and Pb isotopes in the ocean have varied on decadal to centennial time scales due to anthropogenic Pb inputs. Thus, tracing the temporal variation of Pb and Pb isotopes in the ocean provides information on the major ...

Lee, Jong-Mi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The effect of anthropogenic development on sediment loading to bays on St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to assess the impact of anthropogenic development on sediment delivery rates to bays on St. John, U.S.V.I., I developed a sediment loading prediction model. Based on the modified universal soil loss equation, this ...

McCreery, Helen F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

General Circulation Model Calculations of the Direct Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate and Fossil-Fuel Soot Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different ...

J. M. Haywood; D. L. Roberts; A. Slingo; J. M. Edwards; K. P. Shine

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Decadal-Scale SST and Salinity Variations in the Central Tropical Pacific: Signatures of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate projections of future temperature and precipitation patterns in many regions of the world depend on quantifying anthropogenic signatures in tropical Pacific climate against its rich background of natural variability. ...

Nurhati, Intan Suci

75

Simulation of Late-Twenty-First-Century Changes in Wintertime Atmospheric Circulation over Europe Due to Anthropogenic Causes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented, based on an ensemble of climate change scenarios performed with a global general circulation model of the atmosphere with high horizontal resolution over Europe, to suggest that the end-of-century anthropogenic climate ...

Laurent Terray; Marie-Estelle Demory; Michel Déqué; Gaelle de Coetlogon; Eric Maisonnave

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model combined with the GISS general circulation model to calculate the aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 ...

Leibensperger, Eric Michael

77

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about carbon tetrachloride.

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

CDIAC::Carbon Emission::Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction Introduction Each year the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) generates estimates of carbon releases from fossil-fuel consumption and cement production. Emissions from fossil-fuel burning represent the largest anthropogenic source of carbon to the atmosphere and are an important contributor to elevated atmospheric CO2 levels. CDIAC produces annual fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series at global and national scales and these time series serve as building blocks for other data products including gridded (1 x 1) emission time series. Details regarding the methods used to produce these time series and data products may be found on the CDIAC website. This new interface allows users to query, visualize, and download the latest CDIAC fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates. In the future, additional

79

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Programmatic Points of Contact Carbon Storage Program Infrastructure Coordinator Carbon Storage...

80

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Frequency and amplitude shifts in the whistle vocalizations of bottlenose dolphins in response to anthropogenic noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthropogenic noise can have a number of negative effects on cetaceans including the masking of biologically important sounds. Although many observational studies are found in the literature, few data have been published on the effects of low frequency anthropogenic noise on odontocetes. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the effect of shipping and industrial noise on the whistle vocalizations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Galveston Bay, Texas. Dolphin whistles were recorded in different types of noise environments. Vocalization characteristics such as whistle mean frequency, frequency of peak energy, and sound pressure level were examined as functions of total background noise. Findings indicated that whistle mean frequencies were significantly lower in noisier areas. Whistles were also significantly louder in noisier environments. Combined frequency and amplitude results indicate that lower whistle frequencies had higher sound pressure levels. It may be, that given a specific amount of energy available for vocalization, a dolphin can produce a louder whistle at a lower frequency. Postulating a situation in which a dolphin has the option of more than one behavioral adaptation to avoid masking in a noisy site, the animal may implement the behavior that would require the least amount of energy. Energetic studies are needed to further investigate the relationship between vocalization frequency and amplitude. In addition, since large gaps in our knowledge of the effects of noise pollution still exist, more quantified, long-term data on a variety of species in different acoustic environments is needed.

Candelaria-Ley, Roxanne Inez

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Enhanced Carbonate Dissolution as a Means of Capturing and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rau et al., pg. 1 Rau et al., pg. 1 First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington D.C., May 14-17, 2001 Enhanced Carbonate Dissolution as a Means of Capturing and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide Greg H. Rau 1,2 , Ken Caldeira 2 , Kevin G. Knauss 2 , Bill Downs 3 , and Hamid Sarv 3 1 Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (L-103, LLNL, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550; 925-423-7990, rau4@llnl.gov) 2 Energy and Environment Directorate, LLNL, Livermore, CA 94550 3 McDermott Technology, Inc., 1562 Beeson Str., Alliance, OH 44601 Introduction Various methods have been proposed for mitigating anthropogenic CO 2 release to the atmos- phere, including storage via enhanced biological uptake on land or in the ocean and via sub- terranean or -marine injection of captured CO

83

INCCA: Integrated Climate and Carbon  

SciTech Connect

The INCCA (Integrated Climate and Carbon) initiative will develop and apply the ability to simulate the fate and climate impact of fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and aerosols on a global scale. Coupled climate and carbon cycle modeling like that proposed for INCCA is required to understand and predict the future environmental impacts of fossil fuel burning. At present, atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are prescribed, not simulated, in large climate models. Credible simulations of the entire climate system, however, need to predict time-evolving atmospheric greenhouse forcing using anthropogenic emissions as the fundamental input. Predicting atmospheric COS concentrations represents a substantial scientific advance because there are large natural sources and sinks of carbon that are likely to change as a result of climate change. Both terrestrial (e.g., vegetation on land) and oceanic components of the carbon cycle are known to be sensitive to climate change. Estimates of the amount of man-made CO{sub 2} that will accumulate in the atmosphere depend on understanding the carbon cycle. For this reason, models that use CO{sub 2} emissions, not prescribed atmospheric concentrations, as fundamental inputs are required to directly address greenhouse-related questions of interest to policymakers. INCCA is uniquely positioned to make rapid progress in this high-priority area of global change modeling and prediction because we can leverage previous and ongoing LLNL developments, and use existing component models that are well-developed and published. The need for a vastly improved carbon dioxide prediction capability is appreciated by the DOE. As the US Accelerated Climate Prediction Initiative (ACPI) progresses, we expect the DOE will emphasize the carbon cycle as the next major department-level earth science focus. INCCA will position LLNL for substantial additional funding as this new focus is realized. In the limited time since our LDRD funding was first received (1 November 2000) we have made good progress in acquisition and testing of component models, applications of the terrestrial biosphere model, enhancements to the ocean carbon cycle model and development of the fossil fuel aerosol model.

Thompson, S L

2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

84

Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

85

Carbon Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

86

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V. J. Fabry

2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHAPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V. J.Fabry

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

94

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

2002-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V. J. Fabry

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

2002-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

97

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids ? single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate ? to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V. J. Fabry

2005-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

98

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

2002-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

100

Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Agency/Company /Organization: Voluntary Carbon Standard Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.v-c-s.org/docs/Methodology%20for%20REDD,%20grouped%20mosaic,%20TGC Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Screenshot References: Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects[1] "This methodology sets out the project conditions and carbon accounting procedures for activities aimed at reducing unplanned anthropogenic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

recovery (EOR). Conducted by the Southeast Regional Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recovery (EOR). Conducted by the Southeast Regional Carbon recovery (EOR). Conducted by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), one of seven DOE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs), the "Anthropogenic Test" uses CO 2 from the newly constructed post-combustion CO 2 -capture facility at Alabama Power's 2,657-megawatt (MW) Barry Electric Generating Plant. Located in southwest Alabama, the project will help demonstrate the feasibility of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) by diverting a small amount of flue gas from Plant Barry (equivalent to amount produced when generating 25 MW of electricity) and capturing it using Mitsubishi Heavy Industries' advanced amine process to produce a nearly pure stream of CO

102

SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION THE UNITED  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION THE UNITED S T A T E S 2012 ATLAS CARBON UTILIZATION AND STORAGE Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is investigating the CO 2 storage potential of the abundant oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal, and saline formations within the southwestern United States. In 2010, field-scale pilot injection tests were completed, paving the way for larger scale commercial projects, including an EOR project in Texas using an anthropogenic source of CO 2 . SWP draws on the experience of professionals within the fields of geology, engineering, economics, public policy, public outreach, and education. Stakeholders in SWP projects include private industry,

103

Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotubes. Sponsored by: TMS Electronic, Magnetic and Photonic Materials Division Date and Time: Sunday, February 13, 2005 ~ 8:30 am-5:00 pm

104

Carbon Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... The graphene film was spin-coated using carbon nanotubes to form the cathode of the field emission device. A phosphor coated graphene-PET ...

105

Measurement of carbon for carbon sequestration and site monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 2 to 6 degree C increase in global temperature by 2050 has been predicted due to the production of greenhouse gases that is directly linked to human activities. This has encouraged an increase in the international efforts on ways to reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as evidence for the link between atmospheric greenhouse gases and climate change has been established. Suggestion that soils and vegetation could be managed to increase their uptake and storage of CO{sub 2}, and thus become 'land carbon sinks' is an incentive for scientists to undertake the ability to measure and quantify the carbon in soils and vegetation to establish base-line quantities present at this time. The verification of the permanence of these carbon sinks has raised some concern regarding the accuracy of their long-term existence. Out of the total percentage of carbon that is potentially sequestered in the terrestrial land mass, only 25% of that is sequestered above ground and almost 75% is hypothesized to be sequestered underground. Soil is composed of solids, liquids, and gases which is similar to a three-phase system. The gross chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) consists of 65% humic substances that are amorphous, dark-colored, complex, polyelectrolyte-like materials that range in molecular weight from a few hundred to several thousand Daltons. The very complex structure of humic and fulvic acid makes it difficult to obtain a spectral signature for all soils in general. The humic acids of different soils have been observed to have polymeric structure, appearing as rings, chains and clusters as seen in electron microscope observations. The humification processes of the soils will decide the sizes of their macromolecules that range from 60-500 angstroms. The percentage of the humus that occurs in the light brown soils is much lower than the humus present in dark brown soils. The humus of forest soils is characterized by a high content of fulvic acids while the humus of peat and grassland soils is high in humic acids. Similarly it is well known that the amount of carbon present in forest soils is lower than the amount present in grassland soils.

Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Climatic Effects of 1950-2050 Changes in US Anthropogenic Aerosols -1 Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory, Argonne, IL USA18 N. Kumar19 Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA USA20 D. Rind21 anthropogenic sources over the 1950-2050 period, based on historical31 emission inventories and future declining post-2010 but at a41 much slower rate since US SO2 emissions have already declined by almost 60

Jacob, Daniel J.

107

Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 sources and sinks of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Fuels Iron and Steel Production & Metallurgical Coke Production Natural Gas Systems Cement with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere the latest information on U.S. anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission trends from 1990 through 2010. To ensure

Little, John B.

108

Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a 'carbon neutral' flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and forest carbon modeling communities is necessary.

Newell, Joshua P., E-mail: jpnewell@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Vos, Robert O., E-mail: vos@usc.edu [Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

NETL: Carbon Storage - Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSLF Carbon Storage Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum CSLF Logo The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) is a voluntary climate initiative of industrially developed and...

110

Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO2 uptake, transport, and storage by the ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 inventory of the Indian Ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles,of carbon dioxide: Key ocean/atmosphere/land ana- lyses,in the upper Pacific Ocean, Nature, 415, 603 – 608. Mikaloff

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Assessment of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs using PAHs as tracers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

........................................................... 14 Biomass Pyrolysis to Hydrogen and Carbon or Methanol................................. 17-Derived Pyrolysis Oils............................................ 18 Hydrogen from Biomass-Derived Methanol coal (30%), pyrolysis plays a larger role in biomass gasification than in coal gasification. Gas phase

112

Sonar imaging of bay bottom sediments and anthropogenic impacts in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge of surface sediment distribution in Galveston Bay is important because it allows us to better understand how the bay works and how human activities impact the bay and its ecosystems. In this project, six areas of bay bottom were surveyed using acoustic techniques to make maps of bay bottom types and to investigate the types and extent of anthropogenic impacts. A total of 31 km2 was surveyed in six areas, one in Bolivar Roads (6.1 km2), one near Redfish Bar (3.1 km2), two in East Bay (12 km2), one southeast of the Clear Lake entrance (5.3 km2), and one in Trinity Bay (4.3 km2). Sidescan sonars (100 kHz and 600 kHz) were used to image the bay bottom, and a chirp sonar (2-12 kHz) was used to image subsurface sediment layers and bottom topography. In the side-scan records, objects as small as a few meters in extent were visible, whereas the chirp sonar records show a vertical resolution of a few tens of centimeters. The sidescan images display strong backscatter in some areas due to coarse sediments in addition to weak backscatter in areas of fine sediment. The bay bottom was classified using three levels of sonar backscatter ranging from high to low. Areas of differing sonar backscatter intensity were sampled with cores and grab-samples. High backscatter corresponded to coarse shell debris and oyster reefs, medium backscatter corresponded to a sand-silt-shell mixture, and low backscatter corresponded to silty loam. Chirp sonar records were classified as one of nine different bottom reflection types based on changes in amplitude and stratigraphy. Parallel, layered sediments are seen filling the bay valley and resting atop a sharp contact at which the acoustic signal fades out. Along the flanks of the valley fill the acoustic response revealed an absent or weakly laminated stratigraphy, whereas areas of high oyster productivity produced mounds, strong surface returns, and strong, shallow subsurface reflectors surrounding current oyster reefs. Anthropogenic features imaged with the sonar included sediment disruptions, such as the ship channels, dredge holes, gouges, and trawl marks, as well as debris, such as submerged boats, pipes, and unidentified objects.

Maddox, Donald Shea

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Ewing Symposium in Honor of Taro Takahashi: The controversial aspects of the contemporary [carbon] cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Ewing Symposium in honor of Taro Takahashi's work on the carbon cycle was held at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, on October 26-27, 2000. A program and set of abstracts are appended to this report. A summary of the meeting (included in this report) will be published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles. The theme of the symposium was the magnitude and cause of excess carbon storage on the north temperate continents. Disagreement exists on the relative roles of forest regrowth and fertilization by excess fixed nitrogen and carbon dioxide, as well as the distribution of this storage. Phenomena playing important roles include pre-anthropogenic gradients in carbon dioxide, the so-called rectification effect, uptake and release of carbon dioxide by the ocean, soil nitrogen dynamics, atmospheric carbon-13 gradients, and the role of fire.

Broecker, Wallace Smith

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Integrated measures of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using publicly available, pre-existing spatial datasets, we developed a geographic information system database of 86 variables related to five classes of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes basin: agriculture, atmospheric deposition, human population, land cover, and point source pollution. The original variables were quantified by a variety of data types over a broad range of spatial and classification resolutions. We summarized the original data for 762 watershed-based units that comprise the U.S. portion of the basin and then used principal components analysis to develop overall stress measures within each stress category. We developed a cumulative stress index by combining the first principal component from each of the five stress categories. Maps of the stress measures illustrate strong spatial patterns across the basin, with the greatest amount of stress occurring on the western shore of Lake Michigan, southwest Lake Erie, and southeastern Lake Ontario. We found strong relationships between the stress measures and characteristics of bird communities, fish communities, and water chemistry measurements from the coastal region. The stress measures are taken to represent the major threats to coastal ecosystems in the U.S. Great Lakes. Such regional-scale efforts are critical for understanding relationships between human disturbance and ecosystem response, and can be used to guide environmental decision-making at both regional and local scales.

Danz, Nicholas; Niemi, Gerald; Regal, Ronald (and others) [University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

The whitehouse effect: Shortwave radiative forcing of climate by anthropogenic aerosols, an overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstraet--Loadings of tropospheric aerosols have increased substantially over the past 150 yr as a consequence of industrial activities. These aerosols enhance reflection of solar radiation by the Earth-atmosphere system both directly, by scattering light in clear air and, indirectly, by increasing the reflectivity of clouds. The magnitude of the resultant decrease in absorption of solar radiation is estimated to be comparable on global average to the enhancement in infrared forcing at the tropopause due to increases in concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases over the same time period. Estimates of the aerosol shortwave forcing are quite uncertain, by more than a factor of two about the current best estimates. This article reviews the atmospheric chemistry and microphysical processes that govern the loading and light scattering properties of the aerosol particles responsible for the direct effect and delineates the basis for the present estimates of the magnitude and uncertainty in the resultant radiative forcing. The principal sources of uncertainty are in the loading of anthropogenic aerosols, which is highly variable spatially and temporally because of the relatively short residence time of these aerosols (ca. 1 week) and the episodic removal in precipitation, and in the dependence of light scattering on particle size, and in turn on relative humidity. Uncertainty in aerosol forcing is the greatest source of uncertainty in radiative forcing of climate

Stephen E. Schwartz

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Print E-mail U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program The U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, in consultation with the Carbon Cycle...

117

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.gov andrew chizmeshya Arizona State University Center for Solid State Science Tempe, AZ 85287-1704 480-965-6072 chizmesh@asu.edu A Novel ApproAch to MiNerAl cArboNAtioN: eNhANciNg cArboNAtioN While AvoidiNg MiNerAl pretreAtMeNt process cost Background Carbonation of the widely occurring minerals of the olivine group, such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), is a potential large-scale sequestration process that converts CO 2 into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO 3 ). Because the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is the key to economic viability. Previous

118

NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil-carbon analysis; however, these also are invasive and destructive techniques. The INS approach permits quantification in a relatively large volume of soil without disrupting the measurement site. The technique is very fast and provides nearly instantaneous results thereby reducing the cost, and speeding up the rate of analysis. It also has the potential to cover large areas in a mobile scanning mode. These capabilities will significantly advance the tracking carbon sequestration and offer a tool for research in agronomy, forestry, soil ecology and biogeochemistry.

WIELOPOLSKI,L.MITRA,S.HENDREY,G.ORION,I.ROGERS,H.TORBERT,A.PRIOR,S.RUNION,B.

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Anthropogenic and natural contributions to regional trends in aerosol optical depth, 1980-2006.  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the roles of human and natural sources in contributing to aerosol concentrations around the world is an important step toward developing efficient and effective mitigation measures for local and regional air quality degradation and climate change. In this study we test the hypothesis that changes in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over time are caused by the changing patterns of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursors. We present estimated trends of contributions to AOD for eight world regions from 1980 to 2006, built upon a full run of the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model for the year 2001, extended in time using trends in emissions of man-made and natural sources. Estimated AOD trends agree well (R > 0.5) with observed trends in surface solar radiation in Russia, the United States, south Asia, southern Africa, and East Asia (before 1992) but less well for Organization for Economic Co-operative Development (OECD) Europe (R < 0.5). The trends do not agree well for southeast Asia and for East Asia (after 1992) where large-scale inter- and intraannual variations in emissions from forest fires, volcanic eruptions, and dust storms confound our approach. Natural contributions to AOD, including forest and grassland fires, show no significant long-term trends (<1%/a), except for a small increasing trend in OECD Europe and a small decreasing trend in South America. Trends in man-made contributions to AOD follow the changing patterns of industrial and economic activity. We quantify the average contributions of key source types to regional AOD over the entire time period.

Streets, D. G.; Yan, F.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Mahowald, N.; Schultz, M.; Wild, M.; Wu, Y.; Yu, C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois; NASA; Cornell Univ.; Forschungszentrum; Inst.for Atmospheric and Climate Science; Tsinghua Univ.

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

120

CO2 Snow Deposition in Antarctica to Curtail Anthropogenic Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scientific plan is presented that proposes the construction of carbon dioxide (CO2) deposition plants in the Antarctic for removing CO2 gas from Earth’s atmosphere. The Antarctic continent offers the best environment on Earth for CO2 deposition ...

Ernest Agee; Andrea Orton; John Rogers

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

122

Carbon supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect

Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

Delnick, F.M.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Carbon particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal February 16, 2012 - 4:48pm Addthis The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Over the past 20 years, nearly three-fourths of human-caused emissions came

125

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal February 16, 2012 - 4:48pm Addthis The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Over the past 20 years, nearly three-fourths of human-caused emissions came

126

Carbon microtubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

MCNP ESTIMATE OF THE SAMPLED VOLUME IN A NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN SITU SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Global warming, promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emission into the atmosphere, is partially mitigated by the photosynthesis processes of the terrestrial echo systems that act as atmospheric CO{sub 2} scrubbers and sequester carbon in soil. Switching from till to no till soils management practices in agriculture further augments this process. Carbon sequestration is also advanced by putting forward a carbon ''credit'' system whereby these can be traded between CO{sub 2} producers and sequesters. Implementation of carbon ''credit'' trade will be further promulgated by recent development of a non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring system based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Volumes and depth distributions defined by the 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 90 percent neutron isofluxes, from a point source located at either 5 or 30 cm above the surface, were estimated using Monte Carlo calculations.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.; DIOSZEGI, I.; MITRA, S.

2004-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

129

Potential multiple steady-states in the long-term carbon cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelers of the long term carbon cycle in Earth history have previously assumed there is only one stable climatic steady state. Here we investigate the possibility of multiple steady states. We find them in Abiotic World, lacking any biotic influence, resulting from possible variations in planetary albedo in different temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide level regimes, with the same weathering forcing balancing a volcanic source to the atmosphere, ocean pool. In Plant World modeling relevant to the Phanerozoic, we include the additional effects of biotic enhancement of weathering on land, organic carbon burial, oxidation of reduced organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and the variation of biotic productivity with temperature, finding a second stable steady state appearing between twenty and fifty degrees C. The very warm early Triassic climate may be the prime candidate for an upper temperature steady state. Given our results, the anthropogenic driven rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide could potentially...

Tennenbaum, Stephen; Schwartzman, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

The potential of U.S. cropland to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

The book describes the greenhouse processes and global trends in emissions as well as the three principal components of anthropogenic global warming potential; presents data on US emissions and agriculture`s related role; examines the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in soils of the US and its loss due to cultivation; provides a reference for the magnitude of carbon sequestration potential; analyzes the primary processes governing greenhouse gas emission from the pedosphere; establishes a link between SOC content and soil quality; and outlines strategies for mitigating emissions from US cropland.

Lal, R.; Kimble, J.M.; Follett, R.F.; Cole, C.V. [eds.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Carbon dioxide and climate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning research, observations, and analyses of the relationship between changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and changes in climate. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. Monitoring of carbon dioxide is reported for global observations and special polar region observations. Some studies examine the differences in climatic variations caused by anthropogenic causes versus natural causes, such as plants and the ocean reservoir. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Carbon dioxide and climate. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning research, observations, and analyses of the relationship between changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and changes in climate. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. Monitoring of carbon dioxide is reported for global observations and special polar region observations. Some studies examine the differences in climatic variations caused by anthropogenic causes versus natural causes, such as plants and the ocean reservoir. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCarbon&oldid271960" Categories: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

134

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

135

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Kevin o'Brien Principal Investigator SRI International Materials Research Laboratory 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, AK 94025 650-859-3528 kevin.obrien@sri.com Fabrication and Scale-Up oF polybenzimidazole - baSed membrane SyStem For pre - combUStion captUre oF carbon dioxide Background In order to effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a gasification plant, there must be an economically viable method for removing the CO 2 from other gases. While CO 2 separation technologies currently exist, their effectiveness is limited. Amine-based separation technologies work only at low temperatures, while pressure-swing absorption and cryogenic distillation consume significantly

136

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

andrea Mcnemar andrea Mcnemar National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-2024 andrea.mcnemar@netl.doe.gov Gregory J. Elbring Principal Investigator Sandia National Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 505-844-4904 gjelbri@sandia.gov GeoloGic SequeStration of carbon DioxiDe in a DepleteD oil reServoir: a comprehenSive moDelinG anD Site monitorinG project Background The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is a familiar and frequently used technique in the United States. The oil and gas industry has significant experience with well drilling and injecting CO 2 into oil-bearing formations to enhance production. While using similar techniques as in oil production, this sequestration field

137

Studies of the terrestrial O{sub 2} and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O{sub 2} composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

Severinghaus, J.P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Nanostructuring of Microporous Carbons with Carbon Nanotubes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Nanostructuring of Microporous Carbons with Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture. Author(s), Stephen C. Hawkins,  ...

139

Carbon Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations...Vancouver Island, BC, Canada Rural marine 13 0.5 Detroit, MI Industrial 14.5 0.57 Fort Amidor Pier, CZ Marine 14.5 0.57 Morenci, MI Urban 19.5 0.77 Potter County, PA Rural 20 0.8 Waterbury, CT Industrial 22.8 0.89 State College, PA Rural 23 0.9 Montreal, QC, Canada Urban 23 0.9 Durham, NH Rural 28 1.1...

140

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The Role of Hydrate Films in the Effectiveness of Direct CO2 Injection as an Ocean Carbon Sequestration Strategy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

About one-third of the carbon dioxide (2 Pg C/yr of 6 Pg C/yr) we emit into the atmosphere is already being sequestered naturally by the ocean by the process of CO{sub 2} gas transfer across the air-sea interface. Over twenty years ago Brewer (1978) and Chen and Millero (1979) presented the first fundamental estimates of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the ocean based the hypothesis of CO{sub 2} penetration along isopycnal surfaces and observations of total inorganic carbon (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TA). At that time the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} signal was not as large as today and given the uncertainty of the approach, the uncertainties of the results were generally regarded as relatively large. However, since then, variations of this approach have been used to estimate anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in many areas of the world ocean. A recent modeling study using the DOCS model, confirms that penetration along isopycnal surfaces is the dominate mode of natural carbon sequestration by the ocean.

Goyet, C

2004-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

142

Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE  

SciTech Connect

All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in the global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N{sub 2}O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO{sub 2}, roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N{sub 2}O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone. (B204)

Weiss, R.F.

1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-system resolving simulations with the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model are used to quantify the impacts of regional anthropogenic and oceanic emissions on changes in aerosol properties, cloud macro- and microphysics, and cloud radiative forcing over the Southeast Pacific (SEP) during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) (15 Oct–Nov 16, 2008). The effects of oceanic aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and the shortwave forcing counteract those of anthropogenic aerosols. Despite the relatively small changes in Na concentrations (2-12%) from regional oceanic emissions, their net effect (direct and indirect) on the surface shortwave forcing is opposite and comparable or even larger in magnitude compared to those of regional anthropogenic emissions over the SEP. Two distinct regions are identified in the VOCALS-REx domain. The near-coast polluted region is characterized with strong droplet activation suppression of small particles by sea-salt particles, the more important role of the first than the second indirect effect, low surface precipitation rate, and low aerosol-cloud interaction strength associated with anthropogenic emissions. The relatively clean remote region is characterized with large contributions of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN, number concentration denoted by NCCN) and droplet number concentrations (Nd) from non-local sources (lateral boundaries), a significant amount of surface precipitation, and high aerosol-cloud interactions under a scenario of five-fold increase in anthropogenic emissions. In the clean region, cloud properties have high sensitivity (e.g., 13% increase in cloud-top height and a 9% surface albedo increase) to the moderate increase in CCN concentration (?Nccn = 13 cm-3; 25%) produced by a five-fold increase in regional anthropogenic emissions. The increased anthropogenic aerosols reduce the precipitation amount over the relatively clean remote ocean. The reduction of precipitation (as a cloud water sink) more than doubles the wet scavenging timescale, resulting in an increased aerosol lifetime in the marine boundary layer. Therefore, the aerosol impacts on precipitation are amplified by the positive feedback of precipitation on aerosol. The positive feedback ultimately alters the cloud micro- and macro-properties, leading to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The higher sensitivity of clouds to anthropogenic aerosols over this region is also related to a 16% entrainment rate increase due to anthropogenic aerosols. The simulated aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are stronger at night over the clean marine region, while during the day, solar heating results in more frequent decoupling, thinner clouds, reduced precipitation, and reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The simulated high sensitivity to the increased anthropogenic emissions over the clean region suggests that the perturbation of the clean marine environment with anthropogenic aerosols may have a larger effect on climate than that of already polluted marine environments.

Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Berg, Larry K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Morrison, H.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

144

Is Carbon Capture and Storage Really Needed?  

SciTech Connect

Two of the greatest contemporary global challenges are anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and energy sustainability. A popular proposed solution to the former problem is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Unfortunately, CCS has little benefit for energy sustainability and introduces significant long-term costs and risks. Thus, we propose the adoption of 'virtual CCS' by directing the resources that would have been spent on CCS to alternative energy technologies. (The term 'virtual' is used here because the concept described in this work satisfies the Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of virtual: 'being such in essence or effect though not formally recognized or admitted.') In this example, we consider wind and nuclear power and use the funds that would have been required by CCS to invest in installation and operation of these technologies. Many other options exist in addition to wind and nuclear power including solar, biomass, geothermal, and others. These additional energy technologies can be considered in future studies. While CCS involves spending resources to concentrate CO{sub 2} in sinks, such as underground reservoirs, low-carbon alternative energy produces power, which will displace fossil fuel use while simultaneously generating revenues. Thus, these alternative energy technologies achieve the same objective as that of CCS, namely, the avoidance of atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions.

Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Aaron, D [Georgia Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Carbon Storage 2011 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Table of Contents CARBON STORAGE OVERVIEW Carbon Storage Program Contacts [PDF-26KB] Carbon Storage Projects National Map [PDF-169KB] State Projects Summary Table [PDF-39KB] Carbon Storage Program Structure [PDF-181KB] Selected Carbon Sequestration Program Papers and Publications The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Beneficial Uses of Carbon Dioxide (2011) [PDF-3.3MB] Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources (2011) [PDF-445KB]

146

Photophysics of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

Samsonidze, Georgii G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

148

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon ...  

This technology describes methods to fabricate supercapacitors using aligned carbon nanotubes that are decorated with metal oxide or nitride ...

150

DOE Carbon Sequestration Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Program Charles E. Schmidt Carbon Sequestration Product Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory David J. Beecy Director, Office of Environmental Systems...

151

Carbon dioxide and climate. January 1970-August 1988 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-August 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning research, observations, and analyses of the relationship between changes in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and changes in the climate. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. Monitoring of carbon dioxide is reported for global observations and special polar-region observations. Some studies relate to identifying anthropogenic causes of the variations from those due to natural sources, such as plants and the ocean reservoir. (This updated bibliography contains 92 citations, 20 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

153

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July of group schemes 8 2.6 Monitoring 9 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 9 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon

154

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.1 July.6 Monitoring 8 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 8 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code trademark 9 3. Carbon sequestration 10 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 10 3.2 Carbon baseline 10 3.3 Carbon leakage 11 3.4 Project

155

Composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effect of anthropogenic land-use and land cover changes on climate and land carbon storage in CMIP5 projections for the 21st century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of land-use changes on climate are assessed using specified-concentration simulations complementary to the RCP2.6 and 8.5 scenarios performed for the fifth coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5). This analysis focuses on ...

V. Brovkin; L. Boysen; V. K. Arora; J. P. Boisier; P. Cadule; L. Chini; M. Claussen; P. Friedlingstein; V. Gayler; B. J. J. M. van den Hurk; G. C. Hurtt; C. D. Jones; E. Kato; N. de Noblet-Ducoudré; F. Pacifico; J. Pongratz; M. Weiss

158

Effect of Anthropogenic Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes on Climate and Land Carbon Storage in CMIP5 Projections for the Twenty-First Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of land-use changes on climate are assessed using specified-concentration simulations complementary to the representative concentration pathway 2.6 (RCP2.6) and RCP8.5 scenarios performed for phase 5 of the Coupled Model ...

V. Brovkin; L. Boysen; V. K. Arora; J. P. Boisier; P. Cadule; L. Chini; M. Claussen; P. Friedlingstein; V. Gayler; B. J. J. M. van den Hurk; G. C. Hurtt; C. D. Jones; E. Kato; N. de Noblet-Ducoudré; F. Pacifico; J. Pongratz; M. Weiss

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 7, PAGES 1231-1234, APRIL 1, 2001 Anthropogenic emission of mercury to the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at a regional scale in the northeast United States. This region has the highest Hg emission of the country [US by fossil fuel consumption [US EPA, 1997]. Third, anthropogenic C source strength is well understood measurement, we only use observations made in the daytime, convective conditions when the sur- face values

Lee, Xuhui

160

Effect of anthropogenic emissions in East Asia on regional ozone levels during spring cold continental outbreaks near Taiwan: A case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical simulation study to quantify the effect of upstream transport and fossil-fuel and biomass-burning emissions from East Asia on the surface ozone near Taiwan has been performed based on data taken April 8-13, 2001, when a cold air outbreak ... Keywords: Anthropogenic emission, Cold air outbreak, Numerical simulation, Surface ozone

Chung-Ming Liu; Ming-Te Yeh; Sahana Paul; Y. -C. Lee; D. J. Jacob; M. Fu; J. -H. Woo; G. R. Carmichael; D. G. Streets

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

162

Mechanomutable Carbon Nanotube Arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Polymer Nanocomposites. Presentation Title, Mechanomutable Carbon ...

163

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

Lagow, R.J.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Neutralizing Carbonis Acid in Deep Carbonate Strata Below the North Atlantic Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Road Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4132 heino.beckert@netl.doe.gov Daniel schrag Principal Investigator Harvard University 20 Oxford Street Cambridge, MA 02138 617-495-7676 schrag@eps.harvard.edu NeutraliziNg CarboNiC aCid iN deep CarboNate Strata below the North atlaNtiC oCeaN Background The eastern seaboard of the United States is the most densely populated region in the country and generates a large fraction of all U.S. anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Disposal options for this large volume of CO 2 are limited, and land transport and disposal are difficult due to high population density. From geographical considerations, offshore disposal might seem a reasonable approach. However, a number of technical uncertainties and environmental concerns make

167

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Carbon Sequestration: The fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a carbon sink through biological or physical processes. Carbon Sink: ...

168

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Carbon Capture and Storage Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration...

169

Electron Microscopy of Carbon Nanotube Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron Microscopy of Carbon Nanotube Composites. Summary: Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs ...

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the marginal seas of Siberia: implications for the fate and removal of pollutants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides have been widely used to trace the sources and fate of radioactive pollutants in the marine environment. In this study, particle-reactive radionuclides such as ... Ph and 214 Th have been employed for scavenging studies. The inventories of Pu and radiocesium and activity ratios of Pu (such as 238PU/239,24OPu) have been utilized to determine the sources and transport of anthropogenic pollutants. Water soluble tracers such as Ra isotopes and radiocesium have been used to determine the water mass movements as well as residence time of water masses. This will help to define the processes related to estuarine mixing over the continental shelf which control radioactive and other pollutants entering surface waters of the Arctic Ocean. 21OPb and 214 Th concentrations were measured in a suite of water samples (dissolved and particulate phases) from the marginal seas of the Russian Arctic (Pechora, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas) in order to better understand scavenging within the water column. To elucidate the sources of Pu and 131CS to the study area, Pu and "'Cs concentrations and 238PU/239,240puactivity ratios were measured in water samples. Concentrations of Ra isotopes were also determined for the estimation of the residence time of river water entering the Kara Sea. The model-derived scavenging parameters for 114 Th and "OPb clearly indicate particle concentrations, influenced by resuspension, ice melt, and continental runoff, primarily control the removal of these nuclides. Concentrations and inventories of Pu and "'Cs as well the activity ratio of "IpU/219,l4OpU suggest two main sources of Pu and "'Cs to the waters over the Siberian shelf. an oceanic source, likely from Sellafield and La Hague nuclear reprocessing plants, and a riverine source emanating from estuarine sediments . 21lpU/219,24OPu activity ratios suggest all of the Pu entering into shelf waters by way of Siberian rivers is from Global Fallout. The Pu concentrations are also primarily controlled by the particle concentrations in the water column. River water residence times for the surface and subsurface waters of the Kara Sea were estimated, using2l'Ra/22'Ra activity ratios, to be on the order of one year and 30 years, respectively.

Schwantes, Jon Michael

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Michael Heine, SGL Group - The Carbon Company, Carbon Fibers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Fibers in Lightweight Systems for Wind Energy and Automotive Applications: Availability and Challenges for the Future Michael Heine, SGL Group - The Carbon Company, Carbon...

172

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Developmen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction...

173

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

174

Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

175

Carbon Management and Carbon Dioxide Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Gas Stream Component Analysis Techniques and Strategies for Carbon Capture Systems from Oxy-Fuel Combustion (An Overview).

176

Metallic carbon materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Anthropogenic SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} committee summary of current status--annual inventory  

SciTech Connect

At the First GEIA Workshop on Global Emissions Inventories, held in Baltimore, MD on December 1--2, 1991, data on anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen developed by Dignon (1992) were selected to form the basis for the GEIA SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} annual inventories. The Dignon data include emissions from fuel combustion only and currently extend to 1980. The methodology used was detailed in Dignon and Hameed (1985) and consists of statistical regression models based on available emissions data from the U.S and some other member countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes Australia, Canada, Japan and western European countries. Control regulations are incorporated via the use of different statistical parameter The grid definition from these inventories was also adopted for the GEIA grid: origin at 180{degree}W, 90{degree}S, 1{degree} {times} 1{degree} resolution (i.e., 360 cells in the longitude direction, 180 cells in the latitude direction). To upgrade the basic GEIA inventories, data for the different geographic regions being solicited from researchers located within these areas. This paper contains the upgrades which have been accomplished to date.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

NETL: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RCSP Carbon Storage Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded cooperative agreements to seven Regional Carbon Sequestration...

179

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

Sarkar, Tapan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

CDIAC::Carbon Emission::Time Series Global Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The 2013 version of this database presents a time series recording 1° The 2013 version of this database presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2010. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional, and national annual estimates for 1751 through 2010 were published earlier (Boden et al. 2013). Those national, annual CO2 emission estimates were based on statistics about fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption, and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty (1984). The national annual estimates were combined with gridded 1° data on

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black Carbon Reference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous Atmospheric Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anthropogenic and biomass burn combustion is evident in theanthropogenic combustion and biomass burns, thus allowingAnthropogenic combustion and biomass burn particles can be

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist.

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

185

NETL: Carbon Storage Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Carbon Storage Newsletter PDF-571KB has been posted. 08.27.2013 Publications August 2013 Carbon Storage Newsletter PDF-1.1MB has been posted. 08.15.2013 News Ancient...

186

Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

187

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

188

Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

2005-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Carbon Footprint and Carbon Deficit Analysis of Iron and Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management. Presentation Title ... Study on Capture, Recovery and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide.

190

Carbon Fibers and Carbon Nanotubes - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2010 ... Polymer Nanocomposites: Carbon Fibers and Carbon Nanotubes Sponsored by: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society Program ...

191

Carbon Dioxide Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. © C opyright 2009 Carbon Dioxide Compression DOE – EPRI – NIST ... Greenhouse gas sequestration Page 5. 5 © C opyright 2009 ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

Carbon Mitigation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sustainable technologies such as CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS ... property diagnostic tools (under realistic conditions for carbon capture from ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

193

Big Sky Carbon Atlas  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

(Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership, Big Sky [BSCSP; ,

194

Electrocatalysts on Carbon Nanoparticles  

Carbon nanostructures offer extremely high surface areas and so are attractive candidates to support dispersed catalysts. These nanostructures, ...

195

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

land-use changes. When biofuel production increases, land ison carbon releases. If biofuel production does not result in

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Top-down estimate of anthropogenic emission inventories and their interannual variability in Houston using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique  

SciTech Connect

The 2000 and 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000 and 2006) field campaigns took place in eastern Texas in August-October of 2000 and 2006. Several flights of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) research aircraft were dedicated to characterizing anthropogenic emissions over Houston. Houston is known for having serious problems with non-attainment of air quality standards. We present a method that uses three models and aircraft observations to assess and improve existing emission inventories using an inverse modeling technique. We used 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional variational (3D-VAR and 4D-VAR) inverse modeling techniques based on a least-squares method to improve the spatial and temporal distribution of CO, NOy (sum of all reactive nitrogen compounds), and SO2 emissions predicted by the 4-km-resolution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) for 2005. Differences between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed in detail. We found that in 2006 the prior daytime emissions in the urban area of Houston have to be reduced by 40% {+-} 12% for CO and 7% {+-} 13% for NOy. Over the Houston Ship Channel, where industrial emissions are predominant, the prior emissions have to be reduced by 41% {+-} 15% for CO and 51% {+-} 9% for NOy. Major ports around Houston have their NOy emissions reduced as well, probably due to uncertainties in near-shore ship emissions in the EPA NEI inventory. Using the measurements from the two field campaigns, we assessed the interannual emission variability between 2000 and 2006. Daytime CO emissions from the Houston urban area have been reduced by 8% {+-} 20%, while the NOy emissions have increased by 20% {+-} 12% from 2000 to 2006. In the Houston Ship Channel, the daytime NOy emissions have increased by 13% {+-} 17%. Our results show qualitative consistencies with known changes in Houston emissions sources.

Brioude, J.; Kim, S. W.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S. H.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, Michael; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Petron, Gabrielle; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Formation of Carbon Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

continental shlef oil and gas exploration, development, andal. 2004). Offshore oil and gas exploration and constructionshipping, off- shore oil and gas exploration and drilling,

Hildebrand, John A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the chapter. Underwater nuclear tests and ship-shock trials1963 all nuclear states signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty,testing nuclear weapons underwater. The Comprehensive Test

Hildebrand, John A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

Das, Suman

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Carbon Cycling and Biosequestration Integrating Biology and Climate Through Systems Science Report from the March 2008 Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most daunting challenges facing science in the 21st Century is to predict how Earth's ecosystems will respond to global climate change. The global carbon cycle plays a central role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and thus Earth's climate, but our basic understanding of the myriad of tightly interlinked biological processes that drive the global carbon cycle remains limited at best. Whether terrestrial and ocean ecosystems will capture, store, or release carbon is highly dependent on how changing climate conditions affect processes performed by the organisms that form Earth's biosphere. Advancing our knowledge of biological components of the global carbon cycle is thus crucial to predicting potential climate change impacts, assessing the viability of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, and informing relevant policy decisions. Global carbon cycling is dominated by the paired biological processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic plants and microbes of Earth's land-masses and oceans use solar energy to transform atmospheric CO{sub 2} into organic carbon. The majority of this organic carbon is rapidly consumed by plants or microbial decomposers for respiration and returned to the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Coupling between the two processes results in a near equilibrium between photosynthesis and respiration at the global scale, but some fraction of organic carbon also remains in stabilized forms such as biomass, soil, and deep ocean sediments. This process, known as carbon biosequestration, temporarily removes carbon from active cycling and has thus far absorbed a substantial fraction of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

Graber, J.; Amthor, J.; Dahlman, R.; Drell, D.; Weatherwax, S.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Recovery of Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor Ashok S. Damle * Research Triangle Institute P.O. Box 12194 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Phone: (919) 541-6146 Fax: (919) 541-6965 E-mail: adamle@rti.org Thomas P. Dorchak National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, Mail Stop C04 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Phone: (304) 285-4305 E-mail: tdorch@netl.doe.gov Abstract Increased awareness of the global warming trend has led to worldwide concerns regarding "greenhouse gas" emissions, with CO 2 being the single greatest contributor to global warming. Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) currently supply over 85% of the world's energy needs, and their utilization is the major source of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of

204

Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (NDP-058) data Data image ASCII Text Documentation PDF file PDF file Contributors R. J. Andres, G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews (contributors) DOI DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058 This data package presents data sets recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

205

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

206

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

207

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

208

Mesoporous carbon materials  

SciTech Connect

The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation

210

Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S., Final Report  

SciTech Connect

As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance.

Beverly E. Law

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

211

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Recanati, Catherine

212

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D Overview R&D Overview Office of Fossil Energy Justin "Judd" R. Swift Asst. Secretary for International Affairs Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy 2 nd U.S/China CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology Symposium May 28-29, 2008 Hangzhou, China Office of Fossil Energy Technological Carbon Management Options Improve Efficiency Sequester Carbon  Renewables  Nuclear  Fuel Switching  Demand Side  Supply Side  Capture & Store  Enhance Natural Sinks Reduce Carbon Intensity All options needed to:  Affordably meet energy demand  Address environmental objectives Office of Fossil Energy DOE's Sequestration Program Structure Infrastructure Regional Carbon Sequestration

213

Activated carbon material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

Evans, A. Gary (North Augusta, SC)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cement Production Refineries Etc.... C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 Carbon Sequestration Program Goals * Deliver technologies & best practices that validate:...

215

Carbon Sequestration - Public Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Public Meeting Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Public Meeting May 18, 2004 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Scott Klara Carbon Sequestration Technology Manager Carbon Sequestration Program Overview * What is Carbon Sequestration * The Fossil Energy Situation * Greenhouse Gas Implications * Pathways to Greenhouse Gas Stabilization * Sequestration Program Overview * Program Requirements & Structure * Regional Partnerships * FutureGen * Sources of Information What is Carbon Sequestration? Capture can occur: * at the point of emission * when absorbed from air Storage locations include: * underground reservoirs * dissolved in deep oceans * converted to solid materials * trees, grasses, soils, or algae Capture and storage of CO 2 and other Greenhouse Gases that

216

NETL: Carbon Storage - Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Infrastructure Carbon Storage Infrastructure The Infrastructure Element of DOE's Carbon Storage Program is focused on research and development (R&D) initiatives to advance geologic CO2 storage toward commercialization. DOE determined early in the program's development that addressing CO2 mitigation on a regional level is the most effective way to address differences in geology, climate, population density, infrastructure, and socioeconomic development. This element includes the following efforts designed to support the development of regional infrastructure for carbon capture and storage (CCS). Click on Image to Navigate Infrastructure Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) - This

217

Carbon Capture & Sequestration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Learn about the Energy Department's work to capture and transport CO2 into underground geologic formations, also known as carbon capture and sequestration.

218

Carbon Storage Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel power plants as viable, clean sources of electric power. The program is focused on developing technologies that can achieve 99 percent of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage...

219

Carbon Fiber Electronic Interconnects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon fiber is an emerging material in electrical and electronics industry. It has been used as contact in many applications, such as switch, potentiometer, and… (more)

Deng, Yuliang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Carbon Nanomaterials and Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... This presentation aims to capture those recent research efforts in synthesis and applications of carbon nanotubes in Li-ion battery, bioelectronic ...

222

NETL: Carbon Storage FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Does CCS really make a difference for the environment? Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several options, including the use of renewables, nuclear energy, alternative...

223

NETL: Carbon Storage - Reference Shelf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage Reference Shelf Below are links to Carbon Storage Program documents and reference materials. Each of the 10 categories has a variety of documents posted for easy access to current information - just click on the category link to view all related materials. RSS Icon Subscribe to the Carbon Storage RSS Feed. Carbon Storage Collage 2012 Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas IV Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap Public Outreach and Education for Carbon Storage Projects Carbon Storage Technology Program Plan Carbon Storage Newsletter Archive Impact of the Marcellus Shale Gas Play on Current and Future CCS Activities Site Screening, Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geologic Formations Carbon Storage Systems and Well Management Activities Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations

224

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Historical (1850-2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols:methodology and application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present and discuss a new dataset of gridded emissions covering the historical period (1850-2000) in decadal increments at a horizontal resolution of 0.5° in latitude and longitude. The primary purpose of this inventory is to provide consistent gridded emissions of reactive gases and aerosols for use in chemistry model simulations needed by climate models for the Climate Model Intercomparison Program #5 (CMIP5) in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment report. Our best estimate for the year 2000 inventory represents a combination of existing regional and global inventories to capture the best information available at this point; 40 regions and 12 sectors were used to combine the various sources. The historical reconstruction of each emitted compound, for each region and sector, was then forced to agree with our 2000 estimate, ensuring continuity between past and 2000 emissions. Application of these emissions into two chemistry-climate models is used to test their ability to capture long-term changes in atmospheric ozone, carbon monoxide and aerosols distributions. The simulated long-term change in the Northern mid-latitudes surface and mid-troposphere ozone is not quite as rapid as observed. However, stations outside this latitude band show much better agreement in both present-day and long-term trend. The model simulations consistently underestimate the carbon monoxide trend, while capturing the long-term trend at the Mace Head station. The simulated sulfate and black carbon deposition over Greenland is in very good agreement with the ice-core observations spanning the simulation period. Finally, aerosol optical depth and additional aerosol diagnostics are shown to be in good agreement with previously published estimates.

Lamarque, J. F.; Bond, Tami C.; Eyring, Veronika; Granier, Claire; Heil, Angelika; Klimont, Z.; Lee, David S.; Liousse, Catherine; Mieville, Aude; Owen, Bethan; Schultz, Martin; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Steven J.; Stehfest, Eike; van Aardenne, John; Cooper, Owen; Kainuma, M.; Mahowald, Natalie; McConnell, J.R.; Naik, Vaishali; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

226

Lead carbonate scintillator materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Carbon Precursors ...  

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ...

228

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion ...  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; ... Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures United States Patent ...

229

Fiber Bridging Model for Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Professor K. K. Chawla Honorary Symposium on Fibers, Foams and ... fiber bridging and resistance-curve behavior in reinforced-carbon-carbon (

230

Stabilization and carbonization studies of polyacrylonitrile /carbon nanotube composite fibers .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon fibers contain more than 90 wt. % carbon. They have low density, high specific strength and modulus, and good temperature and chemical resistance. Therefore,… (more)

Liu, Yaodong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon nanofilaments were grown on the surface of microscale carbon-fibers at relatively low temperature using palladium as a catalyst to create multiscale fiber reinforcing structures… (more)

Garcia, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Synthesis of Carbon-Carbon Composite via Infiltration Process of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carbon frame was first pyrolyzed from the wood template. The final composites were then obtained by infiltrating molten coal tar pitch into the carbon frame ...

233

Carbon-free generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon-free generation Carbon-free generation Carbon-free central generation of electricity, either through fossil fuel combustion with carbon dioxide capture and storage or development of renewable sources such as solar, wind, and/or nuclear power, is key to our future energy portfolio. Brookhaven also provides tools and techniques for studying geological carbon dioxide sequestration and analyzing safety issues for nuclear systems. Our nation faces grand challenges: finding alternative and cleaner energy sources and improving efficiency to meet our exponentially growing energy needs. Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory are poised to meet these challenges with basic and applied research programs aimed at advancing the effective use of renewable energy through improved conversion,

234

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

235

Extrasolar Carbon Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that some extrasolar planets carbon compounds. Pulsar planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

236

carbon | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

carbon Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2002) Super contributor 9 January, 2014 - 13:12 Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities carbon cities CO2...

237

Nonlinearity of Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled climate–carbon models have shown the potential for large feedbacks between climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and global carbon sinks. Standard metrics of this feedback assume that the response of land and ocean carbon uptake ...

Kirsten Zickfeld; Michael Eby; H. Damon Matthews; Andreas Schmittner; Andrew J. Weaver

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Presented to: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Annual Review Meeting Development Phase Field Tests Pittsburgh, PA October 5, 2010...

239

Nanostructured Carbide Derived Carbon (CDC)  

... can be grown at rates up to 100 micrometers per hour and is composed of graphite, diamond, amorphous carbon and carbon "nano-onions" ...

240

Microfluidic Analysis for Carbon Management.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focuses on applying microfluidic techniques to analyze two carbon management methods; underground carbon sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. The small scale nature of… (more)

Sell, Andrew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Carbon International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Place London, United Kingdom Zip NW1 8LH Sector Carbon Product London-based energy and communications agency specialising in low carbon energy and climate change....

242

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale carbon dioxide...

243

Carbon Trust | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

company funded by the UK government to help business and the public sector cut carbon emissions and capture the commercial potential of low carbon technologies....

244

Carbon Capture Research and Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

245

Choosing Carbon Mitigation Strategies Using Ethical Deliberation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions change earth’s climate by altering the planet’s radiative balance. An important first step in mitigation of climate change is to reduce annual increases in these emissions. However, the many suggested means ...

Rebecca Bendick; Kyla M. Dahlin; Brian V. Smoliak; Lori Kumler; Sierra J. Jones; Athena Aktipis; Ezekiel Fugate; Rachel Hertog; Claus Moberg; Dane Scott

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Carbonate Mineralization of Volcanic Province Basalts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flood basalts are receiving increasing attention as possible host formations for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2, with studies underway in the United States, India, Iceland, and Canada. As an extension of our previous experiments with Columbia River basalt, basalts from the eastern United States, India, and South Africa were reacted with aqueous dissolved CO2 and aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixtures under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions to study the geochemical reactions resulting from injection of CO2 in such formations. The results of these studies are consistent with cation release behavior measured in our previous experiments (in press) for basalt samples tested in single pass flow through dissolution experiments under dilute solution and mildly acidic conditions. Despite the basalt samples having similar bulk chemistry, mineralogy and apparent dissolution kinetics, long-term static experiments show significant differences in rates of mineralization as well as compositions and morphologies of precipitates that form when the basalts are reacted with CO2-saturated water. For example, basalt from the Newark Basin in the United States was by far the most reactive of any basalt tested to date. Carbonate reaction products for the Newark Basin basalt were globular in form and contained significantly more Fe than the secondary carbonates that precipitated on the other basalt samples. In comparison, the post-reacted samples associated with the Columbia River basalts from the United States contained calcite grains with classic dogtooth spar morphology and trace cation substitution (Mg and Mn). Carbonation of the other basalts produced precipitates with compositions that varied chemically throughout the entire testing period. Examination of polished cross sections of the reacted grains by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show precipitate overgrowths with varying chemical compositions. Compositional differences in the precipitates suggest changes in fluid chemistry unique to the dissolution behavior of each basalt sample reacted with CO2-saturated water. The Karoo basalt from South Africa appeared the least reactive, with very limited mineralization occurring during the testing with CO2-saturated water. The relative reactivity of different basalt samples were unexpectedly different in the experiments conducted using aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixtures versus those reacted with aqueous dissolved CO2 mixtures. For example, the Karoo basalt was highly reactive in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S, as evident by small nodules of carbonate coating the basalt grains after 181 days of testing. However the most reactive basalt in CO2-H2O, Newark Basin, formed limited amounts of carbonate precipitates in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixture. Basalt reactivity in CO2-H2O mixtures appears to be controlled by the composition of the glassy mesostasis, which is the most reactive component in the basalt rock. With the addition of H2S to the CO2-H2O system, basalt reactivity appears to be controlled by precipitation of coatings of insoluble Fe sulfides.

Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National been identified by carbon fiber manufacturers as a market with substantial growth potential. When manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able

249

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

250

Baseline Carbon Storage, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baseline Carbon Storage, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Benjamin M. Sleeter Chapter 5 of Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of the Western United States

Fleskes, Joe

251

Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by mineral carbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study investigates the technologies that have the potential to provide feasible reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a reference power plant. Particular focus has been given to mineral carbonation (at 1 bar) in which magnesium (Mg) and/or ... Keywords: carbon dioxide, emissions, mineral carbonation

C. J. Sturgeon; M. G. Rasul; Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are the primary sources of CO2? are the primary sources of CO2? Natural CO2 sources account for the majority of CO2 released into the atmosphere Natural CO2 sources account for the majority of CO2 released into the atmosphere. It is important to note that there are both natural CO2 sources and manmade (anthropogenic) CO2 sources. The primary natural CO2 sources include ocean release, animal and plant respiration, organic matter decomposition, forest fires, and volcanic eruptions, while the primary anthropogenic CO2 sources include fossil fuel burning, cement production, and farmland plowing. Natural CO2 sources account for the majority of CO2 released into the atmosphere. Oceans sometimes release dissolved CO2 into the atmosphere to maintain equilibrium between the two media. Oceans provide the greatest

253

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of graphitized carbon fibers. Carbon, 1976. 14 (2): p. 133-chemical vapor deposited carbon fiber. Carbon, 2001. 39 : p.G.G. , Lengths of Carbon Fibers Grown from Iron Catalyst

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

CYCLIC CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) Cyclic CO 2 stimulation is a single-well operation that is developing as a method of rapidly producing oil....

255

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Review Meeting October 12-14, 2005 Table of Contents Agenda PDF-1438KB Phase I Program Review Meeting Phase II Kick-Off Meeting Phase...

256

SRD 134 Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. CARBON DIOXIDE. MW [1]. 44.010. NBP [1]. 194.75 K. TP [1]. 216.59 K. CO 2. Pc [1]. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

257

Carbon Storage Review 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23,...

258

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth’s utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

259

Carbon nanotube zoom lenses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that convergent or divergent zoom lenses with focal length variations up to approximately 100% can be implemented by growing arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on curved templates. Unique lenses, which can change their character from divergent ...

D. Dragoman; M. Dragoman

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Carbon Nanofibers for Intracellular Manipulation  

Carbon Nanofibers for Intracellular Manipulation Tim McKnight CM: Greg Flickinger. Presenter: John Morris

262

Research Report Forests and carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry, baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FC

263

Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

Fan, Hongyou

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

264

Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C tagged NH4HCO3 (ABC) was used. Products of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC) were tagged with 14C when they were synthesized in the laboratory. An indoor greenhouse was built and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral and acid), and three types of underground water (different Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source is absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC fertilizer and LEABC fertilizer. These findings answer the question how carbon is distributed after synthesized fertilizer is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate post-experiment on fertilizer carbon forms that exist in the soil was made. It was found that the up to 88% of the trapped carbon exists in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO3) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized fertilizer from exhausted CO2.

Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

2006-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

265

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reduction of carbon dioxide. IR-SpectroelectrochemicalElectrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide mediated by Re(Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Mediated by (

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

268

NETL: Carbon Storage - Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BSCSP BSCSP Carbon Storage Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing BSCSP efforts can be found on their website. The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is led by Montana State University-Bozeman and represents a coalition of more than 60 organizations including universities, national laboratories, private companies, state agencies, Native American tribes, and international collaborators. The partners are engaged in several aspects of BSCSP projects and contribute to the efforts to deploy carbon storage projects in the BSCSP region. The BSCSP region encompasses Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, South Dakota, and eastern Washington and Oregon. BSCSP Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region

269

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

270

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

271

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

273

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Extrasolar Carbon Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that some extrasolar planets ? 60 M ? will form substantially from silicon carbide and other carbon compounds. Pulsar planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk’s C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptunemass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures. Subject headings: astrobiology — planets and satellites, individual (Mercury, Jupiter) — planetary systems: formation — pulsars, individual (PSR 1257+12)

Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

WESTCARB Carbon Atlas  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas (NATCARB). (Acknowledgement to the WESTCARB web site at http://www.westcarb.org/index.htm)

276

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

277

Success Stories: Carbon Explorer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon Imagine waking up each morning and discovering that twenty percent of all plants in your garden had disappeared over night. They had been eaten. Equally astonishing would be the discovery in the afternoon that new plants had taken their place. This is the norm of life in the ocean. Without the ability to accurately observe these daily changes in ocean life cycles, over vast spatial scales, we lack the ability to predict how the ocean will respond to rising CO2 levels, crippling our ability to develop accurate models of global warming or devise strategies to prevent it. The Carbon Explorer, conceived by Berkeley Lab's James K. Bishop in collaboration with Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, California) and WET labs, Inc. (Philomath, Oregon), bridges this

278

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

279

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage - Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Capture and Storage November 13-15, 2007 Austin, Texas C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 U.S. Fossil Fuel Reserves / Production Ratio 250+ Year Supply at Current Demand Levels ! 258 11.7 9.7 0 100 200 300 Coal Oil Natural Gas Anthracite & Bituminous Sub- Bituminous & Lignite Sources: BP Statistical Review, June 2004, - for coal reserves data - World Energy Council; EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2003 Annual Report, September 22, 2004 - for oil and gas reserves data. C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 80 120 160 200 240 1970 1975 1980

280

Carbon Storage Review 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin - Phase III DE-FC26-05NT42588 Robert J. Finley and the MGSC Project Team Illinois State Geological Survey (University of Illinois) and Schlumberger Carbon Services U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23, 2012 * The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) via the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program (contract number DE-FC26-05NT42588) and by a cost share agreement with the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, Office of Coal Development through the Illinois Clean Coal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

RMOTC - Testing - Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Management Carbon Management Ten Sleep Time Structure, 2nd Wall Creek Formation at RMOTC Notice: As of July 15th 2013, the Department of Energy announced the intent to sell Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR3). The sale of NPR-3 will also include the sale of all equipment and materials onsite. A decision has been made by the Department of Energy to complete testing at RMOTC by July 1st, 2014. RMOTC will complete testing in the coming year with the currently scheduled testing partners. For more information on the sale of NPR-3 and sale of RMOTC equipment and materials please join our mailing list here. RMOTC has the field setting, infrastructure, and expertise to play an important role in carbon management testing, demonstration, and research. The unique combination of a publicly-owned and DOE-operated oil field,

282

Carbon-particle generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, A.J.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

283

Carbon Materials Breakout Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Breakout Group Process Materials Breakout Group Process * Day 2, Thursday - Review results of Day 1 and modify if needed - Identify critical R&D needs - Outline R&D plan with key milestones - Report results to plenary Carbon Materials Breakout Group * Key Results - Target: get the science right to engineer carbon materials for hydrogen storage * Integrate theory, experiment, engineering * Understand mechanisms, effects, and interactions ranging from physisorption to chemisorption - Theory * Provide "directional" guidance for experiments (and vice- versa) * Provide baseline theory to elucidate parameters affecting the number and type of binding sites and the heat of their interaction with H2 (∆H ) for a broad range of (highly) modified carbon materials

284

Fluid dynamics of sinking carbon dioxide hydrate particle releases for direct ocean carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One strategy to remove anthropogenic CO? from the atmosphere to mitigate climate change is by direct ocean injection. Liquid CO? can react with seawater to form solid partially reacted CO? hydrate composite particles (pure ...

Chow, Aaron C. (Aaron Chunghin), 1978-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Carbon microstructures for electrochemical studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin layers of photoresist were spin coated onto silicon wafers, and then carbonized to form smooth carbon films by heating in nitrogen for 1 hour at temperatures between 600 to 1100 C. Well-defined carbon microstructures on Si wafers that are being considered for electrodes in a microbattery concept were obtained by additional processing steps involving patterning and lithography of the photoresist prior to carbonization. The status of the fabrication of carbon microelectrodes obtained by pyrolysis of photoresist, characterization of the carbons by surface-sensitive techniques and electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry of the I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} redox reaction is described.

Kostecki, Robert; Song, Xiang Yun; Kinoshita, Kim

2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

286

Carbon Capture and Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SECARB's SECARB's Mississippi SalineTest Site: A Field Project Update Robert C. Trautz (rtrautz@epri.com) Electric Power Research Institute Senior Project Manager DOE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Annual Review Meeting October 6-8, 2008 Pittsburgh, PA 2 1. Introduction 2. Well Drilling & Completion 3. Reservoir Characterization 4. CO 2 Injection Operations 5. Monitoring and Verification Outline 3 Key Organizations and Acknowledgments SOUTHERN STATES ENERGY BOARD Dr. Gerald (Jerry) R. Hill OTHER FIELD PROJECTS AND SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES * Advanced Resources * Alabama Geological Survey/ SCS * Gulf Coast Carbon Center (TXBEG) * EPRI * Virginia Tech University * Mississippi State University * Others Richard Esposito MISSISSIPPI POWER CO. Rick Berry Richard (Dick) Rhudy Robert (Rob) Trautz

287

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

Friedmann, S

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

288

NETL: 2010 - Carbon Sequestration Peer Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Peer Review Carbon Sequestration Peer Review During March 15 - 19, 2010, a total of 16 projects from NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program were peer reviewed....

289

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Equinox Carbon Equities LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Equinox Carbon Equities LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Equinox Carbon Equities, LLC Place Newport Beach, California Zip 92660 Sector Carbon Product Investment firm focused on...

291

GS Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GS Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name GS Carbon Corporation Place New York, New York Zip 10119 Sector Carbon Product The company offsets emissions output with...

292

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Carbon Emission Estimates image image Global Per Capita Carbon Emission Estimates...

293

Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of CNTs in a protective carbon fiber coating enables theencapsulation in a carbon fiber coating [9]. This coatingembedded in an amorphous carbon fiber coating that is not

Chai, G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Key resources related to carbon cycle and climate change research Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Illustration of the Global Carbon...

295

Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

296

Preparation and Microstructure of Carbon/Carbon Composites ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, C. Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials ... Carbon fiber felts were firstly densified by carbon using chemical vapor infiltration to ... Character Distribution on Oxidation Resistance of ZG30Cr20Ni10 Heat Resistant Steel.

297

The carbon dioxide dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burning fossil fuels on the global climate is discussed. It may be that as we produce carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels, we create a greenhouse effect which causes temperatures on earth to rise. Implications of changes in global temperatures are discussed.

Edelson, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Carbon Jungle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jungle Jungle Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Jungle Place El Segundo, California Zip 90246 Sector Carbon Product Carbon Jungle's mission is to decrease CO2 in the atmosphere by planting and managing tree plantations, increasing awareness of the facts behind increased CO2 in the atmosphere, and giving companies a means to participate in carbon credit trading. References Carbon Jungle[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon Jungle is a company located in El Segundo, California . References ↑ "Carbon Jungle" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Carbon_Jungle&oldid=343237" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

299

Asset Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Asset Carbon Place United Kingdom Product UK-based startup looking to invest in CDMJI projects. References Asset Carbon1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase...

300

Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

Rushfeldt, Scott I

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

302

Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Activities  

SciTech Connect

In its 'Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan 2007' the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified as a major objective extended field tests to fully characterize potential carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites and to demonstrate the long-term storage of sequestered carbon (p. 5). Among the challenges in this area are 'improved understanding of CO{sub 2} flow and trapping within the reservoir and the development and deployment of technologies such as simulation models and monitoring systems' (p. 20). The University of Wyoming (UW), following consultations with the NETL, the Wyoming State Geological Survey, and the Governor's office, identified potential for geologic sequestration of impure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep reservoirs of the Moxa Arch. The Moxa Arch is a 120-mile long north-south trending anticline plunging beneath the Wyoming Thrust Belt on the north and bounded on the south by the Uinta Mountains. Several oil and gas fields along the Moxa Arch contain accumulations of natural CO{sub 2}. The largest of these is the La Barge Platform, which encompasses approximately 800 square miles. Several formations may be suitable for storage of impure CO{sub 2} gas, foremost among them the Madison Limestone, Bighorn Dolomite, and Nugget Sandstone. This project responded to the challenges described above by preparing a geological site characterization study on the Moxa Arch. The project included four priority research areas: (A) geological characterization of geologic structure of the Arch, the fault, and fracture patterns of the target formations and caprocks, (B) experimental characterization of carbon dioxide-brine-rock reactions that may occur, (C) optimization of geophysical and numerical models necessary for measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV), and (D) a preliminary performance assessment. Research work to accomplish these goals was coordinated by one administrative task under the direction of Dr. Carol Frost, Professor of Geology and Geophysics (Task 1.0), and one task devoted to designing and creating an interdisciplinary, project-specific carbon cyberinfrastructure to support collaborative carbon dioxide sequestration research among University of Wyoming scientists and their collaborators, performed by Jeff Hammerlinck, Director of the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center at the University of Wyoming (Task 1.5). The results of these tasks are presented in the Introduction and in Chapter 1, respectively.

Carol Frost

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

303

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

304

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: I: Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: Session I: Petroleum Coke. Sponsored by: LMD Aluminum Committee Program Organizer: Jean-Claude Thomas , Aluminium ...

305

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Partnerships Carbon Fiber Consortium Manufacturing Industrial Partnerships Staff Partnerships Home | Connect with ORNL | For Industry | Partnerships | Industrial...

306

Carbon Nanotubes Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... John Bonevich. Laser Applications Heat Up for Carbon Nanotubes. Longer is Better for Nanotube Optical Properties. Modeling ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

307

4th Carbon Nanotube Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... measurments, and disseinate this summary to the nanotube community. ... RM) for length separated single-wall carbon nanotubes in aqueous ...

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

308

Carbon Dioxide Utilization Archived Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Utility Mercury Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation Western Kentucky University 9292003 Enhanced Practical Photosynthesis Carbon Sequestration ORNL...

309

NETL: Gasifipedia - Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration, also termed carbon storage, is the permanent storage of CO2, usually in deep geologic formations. Industrially-generated CO2 -- resulting from fossil fuel combustion, gasification, and other industrial processes -- is injected as a supercritical fluid into geologic reservoirs, where it is held in place by natural traps and seals. Carbon storage is one approach to minimizing atmospheric emissions of man-made CO2. As discussed above, the main purpose of CO2 EOR such as the Weyburn Project is tertiary recovery of crude oil, but in effect substantial CO2 remains sequestered/stored as a result. Current Status of CO2 Storage CO2 storage is currently underway in the United States and around the world. Large, commercial-scale projects, like the Sleipner CO2 Storage Site in Norway and the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project in Canada, have been injecting CO2 into geologic storage formations more than a decade. Each of these projects stores more than 1 million tons of CO2 per year. Large-scale efforts are currently underway in Africa, China, Australia, and Europe, as well. These commercial-scale projects are demonstrating that large volumes of CO2 can be safely and permanently stored. In addition, a number of smaller pilot projects are underway in different parts of the world to determine suitable locations and technologies for future long-term CO2 storage. To date, more than 200 small-scale CO2 storage projects have been carried out worldwide. A demonstration project that captures CO2 from a pulverized coal power plant and pipes it to a geologic formation for storage recently came online in Alabama.

310

5, 40834113, 2005 Black Carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area J. C and Physics Discussions Measurements of Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area License. 4083 #12;ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Carbon Accounting in Forest Ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Carbon Pools: Above ground biomass Belowground BiomassBelowground Biomass Soil Organic Carbon Dead: · Aboveground biomassAboveground biomass · Belowground biomass · Soil Organic Carbon · Litter · Dead Wood· Dead Wood · (Wood Products) T�V S�D Industrie Service GmbH #12;Principles · Biomass is usually measured

Pettenella, Davide

312

Research Report Forests and carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management #12;#12;Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management Gregory Valatin Forestry Commission: Edinburgh-0-85538-815-7 Valatin, G. (2010). Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management. Forestry Commission

313

NETL: Carbon Storage - Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing SECARB efforts can be found on their website. The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), managed by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), represents a 13-State region, including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, and portions of Kentucky and West Virginia. SECARB is comprised of over 100 participants representing Federal and State governments, industry, academia, and non-profit organizations. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region The primary goal of SECARB is to develop the necessary framework and

314

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

SciTech Connect

Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

EIA - Forecasts and Analysis of Energy Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, responses to environmental issues could affect patterns of energy use around the world. Actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 67. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2002-2025 (Gigawatts). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, and as a result world energy use has emerged at the center of the climate change debate. In the International Energy Outlook 2005 (IEO2005) reference case, world

316

Available Technologies: Acceleration of Carbon Dioxide ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; ADVANTAGES: Accelerated capture of carbon dioxide; Effective at extremely dilute (nanomolar ...

317

Vertically Aligned and Periodically Distributed Carbon Nanotube  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vertically Aligned and Periodically Distributed Carbon Nanotube (CNT) ... Application of Carbon Nanotubes – Energy to Bioelectronic Sensor.

318

MESOPOROUS CARBON MATERIALS - Energy Innovation Portal  

Building Energy Efficiency ... Solar Thermal; ... wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for ...

319

6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Carbon Cycle 2.0  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Cycle 2.0 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Pioneering science for sustainable energy solutions Artificial Photosynthesis Energy Storage Combustion Carbon Capture & Storage Developing World Efficiency Photovoltaics Biofuels Energy Analysis Climate Modeling Carbon Cycle 2.0 is... 1. A vision for * a global energy system integrated with the Earth's natural carbon cycles * an interactive Berkeley Lab environment with a shared sense of purpose 2. A program development plan that will allow us to deepen our capabilities and provide more opportunities to have impact 3. An attempt to integrate our basic research with applications using models of technology deployment constraints 4. Set of internal activities aimed at priming the effort

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nanoporous Materials for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global climate change is one of the most challenging problems that human beings are facing. The large anthropogenic emission of CO2 in the atmosphere is one of the major causes for the climate change. Coal-fired power plants are the single-largest anthropogenic emission sources globally, accounting for approximately one third of the total CO2 emissions. It is therefore necessary to reduce CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. Current technologies for the post-combustion CO2 capture from flue gas streams can be broadly classified into the three categories: absorption, adsorption, and membrane processes. Despite challenges, CO2 capture by adsorption using solid sorbents and membranes offers opportunities for energy-efficient capture and storage of CO2. Nanoporous materials have attracted tremendous interest in research and development due to their potential in conventional applications such as catalysis, ion-exchange, and gas separation as well as in advanced applications such as sensors, delivery, and micro-devices. In the first part of this dissertation, we will study the synthesis of membranes using an emerging class of nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for carbon dioxide (CO2) separations. Due to the unique chemistry of MOFs which is very different from that of zeolites, the techniques developed for the synthesis of zeolite membranes cannot be used directly. In order to overcome this challenge, a couple of novel techniques were developed: 1) "thermal seeding" for the secondary growth and 2) "surface modification" for the in situ growth. Membranes of HKUST-1 and ZIF-8, two of the most important MOFs, were prepared on porous ?-alumina supports using thermal seeding and the surface modification techniques, respectively. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates a simple and commercially viable application of nanoporous materials (zeolite 5A and amine-functionalized mesoporus silica), storing CO2 as a micro-fire extinguishers in polymers. Materialist is observed that by dispersing these highly CO2-philic nanoporous materials in polymer matrices, the propagation of flame was greatly retarded and extinguished. This flame retarding behavior is attributed to the fact that CO2 released from the sorbents (zeolite 5A and mesoporous silica), blocks the flow of oxygen, therefore causing the fire to be effectively extinguished. Our results suggest that the binding strength of CO2 on sorbents play an important role. If the binding strength of CO2 is too low, CO2 releases too early, thereby ineffective in retarding the flame.

Varela Guerrero, Victor

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

CARBON7510.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Author's personal copy Author's personal copy NMR a critical tool to study the production of carbon fiber from lignin Marcus Foston a , Grady A. Nunnery b , Xianzhi Meng a , Qining Sun a , Frederick S. Baker b , Arthur Ragauskas a, * a BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, United States b Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6087, United States A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 7 April 2012 Accepted 6 September 2012 Available online 14 September 2012 A B S T R A C T The structural changes occurring to hardwood Alcell TM lignin as a result of fiber devolatiliza- tion/extrusion, oxidative thermo-stabilization and carbonization are investigated in this study by solid-state and solution nuclear magnetic resonance

323

CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION LEADERSHIP FORUM (CSLF): A CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE The undersigned national governmental entities (collectively the "Members") set forth the following Terms of Reference for the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), a framework for international cooperation in research and development for the separation, capture, transportation and storage of carbon dioxide. The CSLF will seek to realize the promise of carbon capture and storage over the coming decades, making it commercially competitive and environmentally safe. 1. Purpose of the CSLF To facilitate the development of improved cost-effective technologies for the separation and capture of carbon dioxide for its transport and long-term safe storage; to make these

324

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

325

Carbonate fuel cell matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

326

Carbonate fuel cell matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Carbon taxes and India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Credits in Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities K. Thomas Klasson and Brian H. Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6226 Presentation First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 14-17, 2001 Washington, DC "The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 1 Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities

329

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE Lucia M. Petkovic, Harry W. Rollins, Daniel M. Ginosar, and Kyle C. Burch Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas often associated with global warming, have increased considerably since the beginning of the industrial age.1 In the U.S., stationary CO2 sources, such as electricity generation plants, produce about one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 generation. Reports2 indicate that the power required to recover 90% of the CO2 from an integrated coal-fired power-plant is about 10% of the power-plant capacity. This energy requirement can be reduced to less than 1% if the recovered CO2 is applied to the production of synthetic fuels. However, the lack of efficient catalysts along with the costs of energy and hydrogen has prevented the development of technologies for direct hydrogenation of CO2.3 Although the cost of hydrogen for hydrogenating CO2 is not economically attractive at present, the future production of hydrogen by nuclear power sources could completely change this scenario.2 Still, an efficient catalyst will be essential for commercial application of those processes. The objective of the work presented here was the development of hybrid catalysts for one-step carbon dioxide hydrogenation to liquid fuels. The hybrid catalysts, which were prepared by two novel techniques, included a copper/zinc oxide catalytic function distributed within an acidic zeolitic matrix. Results of catalyst activity and selectivity studies at atmospheric pressure are presented in this contribution. Experimental Catalysts were prepared by two novel techniques and under several different conditions to produce copper/zinc oxide/zeolite materials. Once synthesized, samples were pelletized and the fraction between 40-60 mesh was utilized for the experiments. Two hundred milligrams of catalyst were loaded in a U-tube stainless steel reactor and a flow of 100 cm3/min of a 10:90 H2:Ar mixture was passed through the catalyst bed while the temperature was increased from room temperature to 513 K at 1.8 K/min and held at 513 K for 15 h. A reactant gas mixture composed by 10 cm3/min of CO2 and 30 cm3/min of H2 was then passed through the catalyst bed and the reaction products monitored by on-line gas chromatographic analyses using an SRI Multiple Gas Analyzer #2 equipped with 3 columns (MoleSieve 13X, Hayesep-D, and MXT-1) and 3 detectors (TCD, FID, and FID-methanizer). This GC system allowed for quantification of inert gases, CO, CO2, methanol, dimethylether, higher alcohols, water, and hydrocarbons up to C20. One hundred milligrams of a commercial syngas-to-methanol catalyst along with the same amount of a commercial zeolite catalyst was utilized under the same reaction conditions for comparison purposes. These catalysts were utilized either in two-layers (Com1) or mixed together (Com2). Results and Discussion Under the conditions applied in this study, the main reaction products were CO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, and H2O. Methanol and dimethylether production rates and selectivities with respect to CO formation are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Although the activity of the synthesized catalysts did not surpass the commercial catalysts, the selectivity to oxygenates with respect to CO on most of the synthesized catalysts were better than on the commercial catalysts. For example, cat

Licia M. Petkovic; Harry W. Rollins; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Monitoring soil carbon will prepare growers for a carbon trading system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

they obtain a soil carbon sequestration amount over 10 yearsLal R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climateto estimate soil carbon sequestration based on estimates of

Suddick, Emma C; Ngugi, Moffatt K; Paustian, Keith; Six, Johan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B v + B d ) C T = Total carbon B v = biomass contained indevelopment through carbon sequestration: experiences in2000) Rural livelihoods and carbon management, IIED Natural

Osborne, Tracey Muttoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOAA/ESRL. Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Annual Mean Data.H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalanalysis of black carbon in soils. Global Biogeochem. Cycle.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

ON CALCULATING THE TRANSFER OF CARBON-13 IN RESERVOIR MODELS OF THE CARBON CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7. Keeling. C. D. 1973. The carbon dioxide cycle: reservoirexchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide with the oceans andmodel to study the carbon dioxide exchange in nature. Tellus

Tans, Pieter P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Tensile testing and stabilization/carbonization studies of polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube composite fibers .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focuses on the processing, structure and properties of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ carbon nanotube (CNT) composite carbon fibers. Small diameter PAN/CNT based carbon fibers have… (more)

Lyons, Kevin Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

NETL: Carbon Storage - Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MRCSP MRCSP Carbon Storage Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing MRCSP efforts can be found on their website. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) was established to assess the technical potential, economic viability, and public acceptability of carbon storage within a region consisting of nine contiguous states: Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. A group of leading universities, state geological surveys, non-governmental organizations and private companies, led by Battelle Memorial Institute, has been assembled to carry out this research. The MRCSP currently consists of nearly 40 members; each contributing technical knowledge, expertise and cost sharing.

336

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation ...  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

337

Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Project Type Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more...

339

Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

NETL: Carbon Storage - North American Carbon Atlas Partnership...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Carbon Atlas Partnership (NACAP) NACAP Logo NACAP Logo The United States, Canada, and Mexico participate in a joint CO2 mapping initiative called the North American...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Program on Technology Innovation: Novel Carbon Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach has been developed for making activated carbons and catalytic carbons with high surface areas. A novel carbonization process using alkali organic and metal salt precursors can yield carbons with a narrow, customized, pore size distribution as well as high adsorption capacity and catalytic activity. This report summarizes initial attempts to produce high-surface-area carbons with porous structure and carbons with added nanoscale catalyst using the novel carbonization process.

2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

ARM - Field Campaign - Aircraft Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAircraft Carbon govCampaignsAircraft Carbon Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aircraft Carbon 2006.07.01 - 2008.09.30 Lead Scientist : Margaret Torn For data sets, see below. Description Airborne trace-gas measurements at ARM-SGP provided valuable data for addressing carbon-cycle questions highlighted by the US Climate Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program. A set of carbon-cycle instruments and sample collection systems were added to an ARM-managed aircraft at ARM-SGP user facility. A separate (in-place) grant covered the cost of developing the instrument systems, analyzing the data, and ingesting all data to the ARM data archives. In the short-term (~1 y) we had two priorities. The first was to acquire

343

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, and Coleman K. 2000. Meeting Europe's climate change commitments: Quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Climate Change 6:525-539. Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92% of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, land-use / land-management change and forestry activities that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels can be included in the Kyoto targets. These activities include afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (article

344

SWP Carbon Sequestration Training Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Training Center Presentation, October 2010 SWP Carbon Sequestration Training Center Principal Investigators: New Mexico Tech, Andrew Campbell and Peter Mozley University of Utah,...

345

Carbon Sequestration in European Soils  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments...

346

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Presented to: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Annual Review Meeting Development Phase Field Tests Pittsburgh, PA October 5, 2010 Presented by: Gerald R. Hill, Ph.D. Senior Technical Advisor Southern States Energy Board Acknowledgements  This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory.  Cost share and research support provided by SECARB/SSEB Carbon Management Partners Through innovations in energy and environmental policies, programs and technologies, the Southern States Energy Board enhances economic development and the quality of life in the South. - SSEB Mission Statement SSEB Carbon Management Program  Established 2003  Characterizing Southeast Region

347

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI) Background The ICMI project is part of a larger program called Carbon Capture Simulation and Storage Initiative (C2S2I). The C2S2I has a goal of expanding the DOE's focus on Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) for advanced coal power systems and other applications, including the use of petroleum coke as a feedstock for the industrial sector. The American Recovery and Re-Investment Act (ARRA)-funded

348

ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Campaign Instruments AEROSCARBON : Aerosol Carbon Analyzer AETH : Aethalometer DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments SP2 : Single Particle...

349

Extra Low Carbon Alloy 718  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

of carbon content, magnesium add itions, thermomechan processing, and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Allvac ical. 718 have been investigated

350

Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

Leonard, F. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Carbon microtubes - Energy Innovation Portal  

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 ...

352

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for the Petroleum and Coal Products Industry, 1994. Petroleum refining is by far the largest component of the petroleum and ...

353

Carbon Encapsulated Platinum Nanoparticles: Growth ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Such patterned assembly of carbon encapsulated nanoparticles was further studied for .... Silica Nanoparticles for His-tagged Proteins Capture and Separation.

354

Carbon-assisted flyer plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

Stahl, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Paisley, Dennis L. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Lignin-Based Carbon Fiber.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study was undertaken in support of the Biorefinery concept applicable to hardwood Kraft mills. The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” uses sodium carbonate and… (more)

Luo, Jie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Geologic Carbon Storage Archived Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Corporation 9302005 Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale Western Research Institute 1012005 Carbon Sequestration for Existing Power Plants...

357

carbon emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords capacity carbon emissions energy demand Energy Generation fossil fuels GHG emissions UK Data applicationvnd.openxmlformats-office...

358

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a way to understand and control magnetism in nanodevices such as graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes. Ferromagnetism is an "ordering phenomenon" in which the spins of...

359

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STORAGE IN CARBON NANOTUBES JOHN E. FISCHER UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA * SOME BASIC NOTIONS * BINDING SITES AND ENERGIES * PROCESSING TO ENHANCE CAPACITY: EX: ELECTROCHEMICAL Li...

360

Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Industrial Carbon Capture Project SelectionsSeptember 2, 2010These projects have been selected for negotiation of awards; final award amounts may vary.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volume 1 Start Page 1176 Issue 8 Pagination 1176-1180 Keywords anode, diffusion, graphene, lithium ion battery, transport Abstract Graphitic carbon is currently considered the...

362

Sonochemical reduction of carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production are responsible for approximately 75% of the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the… (more)

Koblov, Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Carbon Capture & Storage in Canada  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Canada - Carbon Storage Program Infrastructure Annual Review Meeting Pittsburgh, PA November 16, 2011 Dr. Frank Mourits Office of Energy Research and Development Natural...

364

Statistical and Realistic Numerical Model Investigations of Anthropogenic and Climatic Factors that Influence Hypoxic Area Variability in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hypoxic area in the Gulf of Mexico is the second largest in the world, which has received extensive scientific study and management interest. Previous modeling studies have concluded that the increased hypoxic area in the Gulf of Mexico was caused by the increased anthropogenic nitrogen loading of the Mississippi River; however, the nitrogen-area relationship is complicated by many other factors, such as wind, river discharge, and the ratio of Mississippi to Atchafalaya River flow. These factors are related to large-scale climate variability, and thus will not be affected by regional nitrogen reduction efforts. In the research presented here, both statistical (regression) and numerical models are used to study the influence of anthropogenic and climate factors on the hypoxic area variability in the Gulf of Mexico. The numerical model is a three-dimensional, coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model (ROMS-Fennel). Results include: (1) the west wind duration during the summer explain 55% of the hypoxic area variability since 1993. Combined wind duration and nitrogen loading explain over 70% of the variability, and combined wind duration and river discharge explain over 85% of the variability. (2) The numerical model captures the temporal variability, but overestimates the bottom oxygen concentrations. The model shows that the simulated hypoxic area is in agreement with the observations from the year 1991, as long as hypoxia is defined as oxygen concentrations below 3 mg/L rather than below 2 mg/L. (3) The first three modes from an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the numerical model output results explain 62%, 8.1% and 4.9% of the variability of the hypoxic area. The Principle Component time series is cross-correlated with wind, dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration and river discharge. (4) Scenario experiments with the same nitrogen loading, but different duration of upwelling favorable wind, indicate that the upwelling favorable wind is important for hypoxic area development. However, a long duration of upwelling wind decreases the area. (5) Scenario experiments with the same nitrogen loading, but different discharges, indicate that increasing river discharge by 50% increases the area by 42%. Additionally, scenario experiments with the same river discharge, but different nitrogen concentrations, indicate that reducing the nitrogen concentration by 50% decreases the area by 75%. (6) Scenario experiments with the same nitrogen loading, but different flow diver- sions, indicate that if the Atchafalaya River discharges increased to 66.7%, the total hypoxic area increases the hypoxic area by 30%, and most of the hypoxic area moved from east to west Louisiana shelf. Additionally, if the Atchafalaya River discharge decreased to zero, the total hypoxic area increases by 13%. (7) Scenario experiments with the same nitrogen loading, but different nitrogen forms, indicate that if all the nitrogen was in the inorganic forms, the hypoxic area increases by 15%. These results have multiple implications for understanding the mechanisms that control the oxygen dynamics, reevaluating management strategies, and improving the observational methods.

Feng, Yang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Carbon Sequestration Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science July 2001 Focus Area Overview Presentation Mission and Scope Program Relationships Scientific Challenges Research Plans Facility Plans Princeton.ppt 7/16/01 Carbon Sequestration Science Focus Area New Projects Contribute to Sequestration Science Systems Integration Virtual Simulation of CO 2 Capture Technologies Cleanup Stream Gas Gasification Gasification MEA CO 2 Capture Facility Oxygen Membrane 3 km 2 inch tube 800m - 20 °C, 20 atm Liquid CO 2 , 100 tons ~1 kg CO 2 / s = 5 MW ^ CO 2 Coal Other Fuels Coal Other Fuels CO 2 Sequestration Aquifer H 2 O Flue gas H 2 O CH 4 CH 4 CO 2 Oil field Oil well Power plant CH 4 Coal - bed Aquiclude H 2 O CO 2 /N 2 CO 2 N 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 Water Rock , 2 Coal Other Fuels Coal Other Fuels Combustor Oxygen Membrane Princeton.ppt 7/16/01 Carbon Sequestration Science Focus Area

366

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Agency/Company /Organization: Asian Development Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Case studies/examples Website: www.adb.org/documents/studies/carbon-efficiency-prc/carbon-efficiency- Country: China UN Region: Eastern Asia Coordinates: 35.86166°, 104.195397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.86166,"lon":104.195397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

368

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more common fluid for extracting volatile oil and fragrance compounds from various raw materials that are used in perfumery. Furthermore, its use as a heat transmission fluid is very attractive because of the greater uptake capability of heat from hot reservoir rock, compared with that of water. However, one concern was the reactivity of CO2 with clay and rock minerals in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. So if this reaction leads to the formation of water-soluble carbonates, such formation could be detrimental to the integrity of wellbore infrastructure.

369

Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation. The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) under ambient temperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaCO{sub 3} was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Deborah N. Huntzinger; John S. Gierke; S. Komar Kawatra; Timothy C. Eisele; Lawrence L. Sutter [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Carbon Dioxide Carbonates in the Earth;s Mantle: Implications to the Deep Carbon Cycle  

SciTech Connect

An increase in the ionic character in C-O bonds at high pressures and temperatures is shown by the chemical/phase transformation diagram of CO{sub 2}. The presence of carbonate carbon dioxide (i-CO{sub 2}) near the Earth's core-mantle boundary condition provides insights into both the deep carbon cycle and the transport of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to anhydrous silicates in the mantle and iron core.

Yoo, Choong-Shik; Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob (Princeton); (WSU)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

371

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

372

Natural and anthropogenic climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the project progress of grant DE-FG02-86ER60422 for the period March 1, 1990--October 1, 1990. The research program includes three tasks: General Circulation Models (GCM) intercomparison and improvement, climate data-model statistics, and China project science coordination. This work has been performed in collaboration with our subcontractor, Dr. Wei-Chyung Wang, SUNY/Albany. 8 refs.

Gutowski, W.J.; Portman, D.A.; Iacono, M.J. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Wang, W.C. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center)

1990-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Intermediate Temperature Carbon - Carbon Composite Structures. CRADA Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Synterials, Inc. (the "Participant") was to demonstrate promising processing methods, which can lead to producing Carbon-Carbon Composites (CCC), with tensile and interlaminar properties comparable to those of organic matrix composites and environmental stability at 1200 F for long periods of time. The participant synthesized carbon-carbon composites with two different fiber coatings and three different matrices. Both parties evaluated the tensile and interlaminar properties of these materials and characterized the microstructure of the matrices and interfaces. It was found that fiber coatings of carbon and boron carbide provided the best environmental protection and resulted in composites with high tensile strength.

Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Plasmachemical Synthesis of Carbon Suboxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nonthermal carbon monoxide plasma is known to produce a solid deposition which is thought to be a polymer of carbon suboxide (C3O2); however there are very few investigations of this deposition in the literature. This thesis contains an analysis of the theoretical thermodynamics and kinetics of carbon suboxide formation as well as experimental results. The theoretical analysis suggests that carbon suboxide may be an equilibrium product even at ambient conditions but favors lower temperatures; furthermore if solid carbon is considered to be kinetically limited, and therefore not a product, then carbon suboxide is more likely to be a product under these pseudo-equilibrium conditions. Experimentally, solid films were produced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) containing pure carbon monoxide. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the plasma and models of the emission spectra were created to determine the plasma temperatures. Deposition rates were determined to be on the order of 0.2 mg/min at a power of about 10W; it is expected however that these conditions are not optimized. The overall kinetics of carbon suboxide was analyzed and optimal conditions for operation can be estimated. Characterization of the solid depositions were carried out using Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS), and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-MS). The characteristics of the film are very comparable to hydrolyzed carbon suboxide polymer suggesting that carbon suboxide polymer were in fact created in the carbon monoxide plasma at atmospheric conditions.

Geiger, Robert

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

376

LOW CARBON & 570 million GVA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,240 PEOPLE, CONTRIBUTING £570 MILLION IN GVA. Across Sheffield City Region, the low carbon and renewable sec nuclear, wind, solar, geo-thermal and tidal power. The total market value of the low carbon environmental goods and services sector for Sheffield City Region is estimated at £1,620 million. Independent research

Wrigley, Stuart

377

Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Field-project designs for carbon dioxide sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Worldwide concerns about global warming and possible contributions to it from anthropogenic carbon dioxide have become important during the past several years. Coal seams may make excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration; coal-seam sequestration could enhance methane production and improve sequestration economics. Reservoir-simulation computations are an important component of any engineering design before carbon dioxide is injected underground. We have performed such simulations for a hypothetical pilot-scale project in representative coal seams. In these simulations we assume four horizontal production wells that form a square, that is, two wells drilled at right angles to each other forming two sides of a square, with another pair of horizontal wells similarly drilled to form the other two sides. Four shorter horizontal wells are drilled from a vertical well at the center of the square, forming two straight lines orthogonal to each other. By modifying coal properties, especially sorption rate, we have approximated different types of coals. By varying operational parameters, such as injector length, injection well pressure, time to injection, and production well pressure, we can evaluate different production schemes to determine an optimum for each coal type. Any optimization requires considering a tradeoff between total CO{sub 2} sequestered and the rate of methane production. Values of total CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced are presented for multiple coal types and different operational designs. 30 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

W. Neal Sams; Grant Bromhal; Sinisha Jikich; Turgay Ertekin; Duane H. Smith [EG& G Technical Services, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Organic Carbon Concentration The concentration of carbon bound in organic compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments ACSM : Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Field Campaign Instruments AEROSCARBON : Aerosol Carbon Analyzer AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Datastreams AOS : Aerosol Observing System Datastreams

380

Method for producing carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Natural materials for carbon capture.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

NETL: Carbon Storage FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Where is CO2 storage happening today? Where is CO2 storage happening today? Sleipner Project (Norway) Sleipner Project (Norway) Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is currently happening across the United States and around the world. Large, commercial-scale projects, like the Sleipner CO2 Storage Site in Norway, the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project in Canada, and the In Salah project in Algeria, have been injecting CO2 for many years. Each of these projects stores more than 1 million tons of CO2 per year. Large-scale efforts are currently underway in Africa, China, Australia, and Europe, too. These commercial-scale projects are demonstrating that large volumes of CO2 can be safely and permanently stored. Additionally, a multitude of pilot efforts are underway in different parts of the world to determine suitable locations and technologies for future

383

NETL Mineral Carbonation Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview Overview Mineral Carbonation Workshop August 8, 2001 Carl O. Bauer, Associate Laboratory Director Descriptor - include initials, /org#/date We Are: * One of DOE's 15 national laboratories * Government owned and operated * Sites in Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia * Over 1,100 federal and support contractor employees * FY01 budget of $774 million July 2001 Descriptor - include initials, /org#/date Sites in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Oklahoma Morgantown, WV Pittsburgh, PA Tulsa, OK Descriptor - include initials, /org#/date Our Mission * Resolve the environmental, supply, and reliability constraints of producing and using fossil resources to provide Americans with a stronger economy, healthier environment, and more secure future * Support development and deployment of environmental technologies that reduce

384

Carbon management in assembly manufacturing logistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present the IBM Carbon Analyzer Tool, a software solution that models and quantifies carbon emissions and explores ways to reduce emissions through advanced analytics. The tool is designed to manage carbon emissions associated with ...

K. Sourirajan; P. Centonze; M. E. Helander; K. Katircioglu; M. Ben-Hamida; C. Boucher

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

2e Carbon Access | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Access Jump to: navigation, search Name 2e Carbon Access Place New York, New York Zip 10280 Sector Carbon Product 2E Carbon Access is an enterprise focused solely on bringing...

386

Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Electromechanics of Carbon Nanotube Resonators 2.1 Basic3.4.2 Capacitance of a Carbon Nanotube Field-Emission Tunnel5 Parametric Ampli?cation in Carbon Nanotube Resonators 5.1

Aleman, Benjamin Jose

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Carbon Capital Markets | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Capital Markets Place London, United Kingdom Zip W1J 8DY Sector Carbon Product London-based fund manager and trader specialising in the carbon and clean energy markets....

388

Who Pays a Price on Carbon?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a per-capita basis a carbon price is much more regressiveadverse distributional effects of a carbon emissions policy.Distributional incidence · Carbon tax · Tradable permits Q52

Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Carbon Capture and Storage | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture and Storage Carbon Capture and Storage Through Office of Fossil Energy R&D the United States has become a world leader in carbon capture and storage science and...

390

Nanocharacterization of electrocoated polymers on carbon fibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electropolymerization of carbazole and its copolymers onto carbon fibers were performed by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic methods. Electrocoated polymer thin films on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) were characterized by combination of a variety ... Keywords: Carbon fibers, Electropolymerization, Nanomodification

A. Sezai Sarac

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This symposium will pave the way to accomplish an efficient use of energy and manage ... such as establish carbon footprints and life cycle analysis; develop carbon ... develop carbon credits and offsets for mandatory & voluntary markets, etc.

392

Process for making hollow carbon spheres  

SciTech Connect

A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

393

Carbon Sequestration Conference | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Sequestration Conference Carbon Sequestration Conference May 9, 2006 - 10:37am Addthis Remarks Prepared for Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman Thank you. It's a pleasure for me...

394

DOE Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration DOE Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration January 18, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - There is considerable...

395

Carbon Sequestration Risks and Risk Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Risks and Risk Management Title Carbon Sequestration Risks and Risk Management Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2008 Authors Price, Phillip N.,...

396

Progress Summary: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the in the Illinois Basin Illinois Basin for geological carbon for geological carbon sequestration sequestration Small Small - - scale (a few thousand tons, truck scale...

397

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Validation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership-Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon...

398

Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol was investigated. The procedure for the carbon dioxide conversion was carried out using a small scale… (more)

Okpo, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

Dai, Sheng; Guiohon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

400

Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in three cases, 2005-2040 (million metric tons carbon dioxide ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Grain boundary segregation of carbon in iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess carbon was present near grain boundaries in specimens equilibrated at ... the amount of carbon near the grain boundaries was found to decrease as the

402

Accelerated Technique for Carbon Mesoporous Materials - Energy ...  

Patent 8,114,510: Mesoporous carbon materials The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method ...

403

Carbon Credit Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capital Place New York, New York Zip 10012 Sector Carbon, Services Product Project Advisory Services and Carbon Financial Services to sustainable energy companies and governments....

404

Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure ...  

ORNL 2010-G00384/jcn UT-B ID 200702020 Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure Sensors Possible Technology Summary Carbon nanotubes ...

405

NETL: Carbon Storage - Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MVA Carbon Storage Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) Focus Area An MVA program is designed to confirm permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations...

406

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces Title China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and...

407

Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Place Germany...

408

Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd. Place London,...

409

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 January Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important...

410

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

411

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2003. “Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource TechnologyATIONAL L ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for CarbonFirestone 5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Thermoplastic Composite with Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) is a new class of highly graphitic carbon nanofiber and offers advantages of economy and simpler processing over continuous-fiber composites.… (more)

Lee, Jaewoo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Reclamation Practices and Procedures for Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Carbon Sequestration Coordinator, Jim Burger, Virginia Tech Pamla Wood Clark Dorman Pennie DuBarry I. How can current reclamation practices be modified to enhance carbon...

414

Reclamation Practices and Procedures for Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Carbon Sequestration Coordinator: Jim Burger Facilitators: Pamela Wood Clark Dorman Pennie DuBarry How can current reclamation practices be modified to enhance carbon storage...

415

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

Information Center

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BTRIC CNMS CSMB CFTF Working with CFTF HFIR MDF NTRC OLCF SNS Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Home | User Facilities | CFTF CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility SHARE Oak...

417

Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Guiochon, Georges A. (Farragut, TN); Liang, Chengdu (Knoxville, TN)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Carbon Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place California...

419

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for purposes other than their energy value) create carbon dioxide emissions and also sequester carbon in nonfuel products, ...

420

Hydrogen Storage on Carbon Nanaotubes.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on Carbon Nanotubes Bradley Bockrath Fuels and Process Chemistry Division National Energy Technology Laboratory Single-walled carbon nanotubes are remarkable forms of elemental...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Carbon NanoTube Digital Electronics Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon NanoTube Digital Electronics Workshop. Purpose: To review and discuss the current status and potential benefits of carbon nanotubes in ...

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

422

NETL: 2011 - Carbon Capture Peer Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Capture Peer Review During July 18 - 21, 2011, a total of 16 projects from NETL's Innovations for Existing Plants and Carbon Sequestration Programs were peer reviewed....

423

NETL: 2013 - Carbon Capture Peer Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 - Independent Peer Reviews of NETL Technology Programs NETL: 2013 - Carbon Capture Peer Review Carbon Storage Peer Review During October 22 - 26, 2012, a total of 16 projects...

424

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government StateProvincial Govt Utility Program Information Kentucky Program Type...

425

Speeding Up Zeolite Evaluation for Carbon Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Speeding Up Zeolite Evaluation for Carbon Capture Speeding Up Zeolite Evaluation for Carbon Capture Zeolite.png Schematic of an important class of porous materials known as...

426

The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors which determined the rate at which carbon dioxidefactor in the experiments designed to discover tha complex pro- cess by which carbon dioxide

Calvin, M.

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

available free of charge - include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon...

428

Carbon Dioxide Emission Pathways Avoiding Dangerous Ocean Impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases could lead to undesirable effects on oceans in coming centuries. Drawing on recommendations published by the German Advisory Council on Global Change, levels of unacceptable global marine change (so-...

K. Kvale; K. Zickfeld; T. Bruckner; K. J. Meissner; K. Tanaka; A. J. Weaver

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

430

Black carbon snow albedo reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black carbon snow albedo reduction Black carbon snow albedo reduction Title Black carbon snow albedo reduction Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Nature Climate Change Volume 2 Pagination 437-440 Abstract Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black-carbon contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice1, 2. In this study, we generated and characterized pure and black-carbon-laden snow in the laboratory and verified that black-carbon contamination appreciably reduces snow albedo at levels that have been found in natural settings1, 3, 4. Increasing the size of snow grains in our experiments decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, our data provide an extensive verification of the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model1, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change5.

431

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

432

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

433

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

434

Gas permeability of carbon aerogels  

SciTech Connect

Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

NETL: Carbon Storage - West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WESTCARB WESTCARB Carbon Storage West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing WESTCARB efforts can be found on their website. The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is led by the California Energy Commission and represents a coalition of more than 90 organizations from state and provincial resource management and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and research institutions; colleges and universities; conservation non-profits; oil and gas companies; power companies; pipeline companies; trade associations; vendors and service firms; and consultants. The partners are engaged in several aspects of WESTCARB projects and contribute to the efforts to deploy carbon storage projects on the west coast of North America. WESTCARB

436

NETL: Carbon Storage - Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing SWP efforts can be found on their website. The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is led by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and represents a coalition composed of a diverse group of experts in geology, engineering, economics, public policy, and outreach. The 50 SWP partners represent state and federal agencies, universities, electric utilities, non-governmental organizations, coal, oil and gas companies, and the Navajo Nation. The partners are engaged in several aspects of SWP projects and contribute to the efforts to deploy carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects in the southwestern region of the United States. SWP encompasses Arizona,

437

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Direct Mineral Carbonation: Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration by Direct Mineral Carbonation: Results from Recent Studies and Current Status W.K. OConnor (oconnor@alrc.doe.gov) D.C. Dahlin (dahlin@alrc.doe.gov) D.N Nilsen...

438

Workshop on Carbon Sequestration Science - Ocean Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Carbon Ocean Carbon Sequestration Howard Herzog MIT Energy Laboratory May 24, 2001 Ocean Carbon Sequestration Options * The direct injection of a relatively pure CO 2 stream that has been generated, for example, at a power plant or from an industrial process * The enhancement of the net oceanic uptake from the atmosphere, for example, through iron fertilization The DOE Center for Research on Ocean Carbon Sequestration (DOCS) * Established July 1999 * Centered at LBNL and LLNL * Participants S Eric Adams MIT S Jim Barry MBARI S Jim Bishop DOCS Scientific Co-director LBNL S Ken Caldeira DOCS Scientific Co-director LLNL S Sallie Chisholm MIT S Kenneth Coale Moss Landing Marine Laboratory S Russ Davis Scripps Institution of Oceanography S Paul Falkowski Rutgers S Howard Herzog MIT S Gerard Nihous Pacific International Center for High Technology Research

439

NETL: Carbon Storage - NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Database  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CCS Database CCS Database Carbon Storage NETL's Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Database - Version 4 Welcome to NETL's Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) Database. The database includes active, proposed, canceled, and terminated CCUS projects worldwide. Information in the database regarding technologies being developed for capture, evaluation of sites for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, estimation of project costs, and anticipated dates of completion is sourced from publically available information. The CCUS Database provides the public with information regarding efforts by various industries, public groups, and governments towards development and eventual deployment of CCUS technology. As of November 2012, the database contained 268 CCUS projects worldwide. The 268 projects include 68 capture, 61 storage, and 139 for capture and storage in more than 30 countries across 6 continents. While most of the projects are still in the planning and development stage, or have recently been proposed, 37 are actively capturing and injecting CO2

440

Measuring supply chain carbon efficiency : a carbon label framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the near term, efficiency improvements represent a key option for reducing the impacts of climate change. The growing awareness of climate change has increased the attention regarding the carbon emissions "embedded" in ...

Craig, Anthony (Anthony J.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

442

PlaneCarbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PlaneCarbon PlaneCarbon Jump to: navigation, search Name PlaneCarbon Address 9149 N. 109th Place Place Scottsdale, Arizona Zip 85259 Sector Carbon Product PlaneCarbon Year founded 2002 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 480-205-0881 Website http://iteknowledgies.com/tran References Iteknowledgies[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! TODO: Determine if all of this content is appropriate and has a neutral point of view. PlaneCarbon, a division of Iteknowledgies International, is a company based in Scottsdale, Arizona. PlaneCarbon purchases carbon credits to achieve carbon neutral operation of your aircraft based on the average utilization of a specific aircraft in hours per year and then calculating the amount of fuel burned and purchasing offsetting carbon credits to achieve carbon

443

Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method for fabricating composite carbon foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

446

Aluminum-carbon composite electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

447

Primordial origins of Earth's carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this chapter we review the astrophysical origins of Earth's carbon, starting from the products of the Big Bang and culminating with the Earth's formation. We review the measured compositions of different primitive objects including comets, various classes of meteorites and interstellar dust particles. We discuss the composition of the Solar Nebula, especially with regards to the distribution of volatiles such as carbon. We discuss dynamical models of planetary formation from planetesimals and planetary embryos, and the timescale for volatile delivery to the growing Earth from different sources. Finally, we review Earth's carbon reservoirs. Throughout the chapter we highlight open questions related to planet formation, meteoritics, and geochemistry.

Marty, Bernard; Raymond, Sean N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A Brief Review of the Application of 14C in Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Studies  

SciTech Connect

An over-arching goal of the DOE TCP program is to understand the mechanistic controls over the fate, transport, and residence time of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. Many of the modern process and modeling studies focus on seasonal to interannual variability. However, much of the carbon on the landscape and in soils is in separate reservoirs with turnover times that are multi-decadal to millennial. It is the controls on these longer term pools or reservoirs that is a critical unknown in the face of rising GHGs and climate change and uncertainties of the terrestrial biosphere as a future global sink or source of atmospheric CO{sub 2} [eg., Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Govindasamy et al., 2005; Thompson et al., 2004]. Radiocarbon measurements, in combination with other data, can provide insight into, and constraints on, terrestrial carbon cycling. Radiocarbon (t{sub 1/2} 5730yrs) is produced naturally in the stratosphere when secondary neutrons generated by cosmic rays collide with {sup 14}N atoms [Libby 1946; Arnold and Libby, 1949]. Upon formation, {sup 14}C is rapidly oxidized to CO and then to CO{sub 2}, and is incorporated into the carbon cycle. Due to anthropogenic activities, the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere doubled in the mid/late 1950s and early 1960s from its preindustrial value of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of 1.18 x 10{sup -12} [eg., Nydal and Lovseth, 1983]. Following the atmospheric weapons test ban in 1963, the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio, has decreased due to the net isotopic exchange between the ocean and terrestrial biosphere [eg., Levin and Hessheimer, 2000] and a dilution effect due to the burning of {sup 14}C-free fossil fuel carbon, the 'Suess Effect' [Suess, 1955]. In the carbon cycle literature, radiocarbon measurements are generally reported as {Delta}{sup 14}C, which includes a correction for mass dependent fractionation [Stuiver and Polach, 1977]. In the context of carbon cycle studies radiocarbon measurements can be used to determine the 'age' and rate of change of carbon stocks or as a biogeochemical tracer to elucidate processes and pathways. It is this dual nature that can be exploited across scales in space (individual plant, plot or research site, ecosystem, regional, and global) and time (days to millennia). For example, across regional scales, {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements of atmosphere CO{sub 2} can be used to attribute carbon dioxide to sources (e.g., respiration vs. fossil fuel emissions) or sinks ( e.g,. photosynthesis), which cannot be readily inferred from concentration, net flux measurements, or {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} [eg. Graven et al., 2009; Levin and Hessheimer, 2000; Turnbull et al., 2007]. At smaller scales, similar analyses can be used to elucidate the source, and 'age' of the below ground component undergoing heterotrophic respiration. Net (biome or ecosystem) uptake of carbon is the difference of two large fluxes: photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon fixation by photosynthesis is, to a large extent, a single process with theoretical underpinnings. On the other-hand, net ecosystem or biome respiration integrates microbial (heterotrophic) and plant (autotrophic) respiration. Eddy covariance methods can be used to estimate bulk CO{sub 2} fluxes but they cannot discriminate the process nor the source of the respired CO{sub 2}. It is these processes that are parameterized in predictive models and contribute to the uncertainty in the climate forcing effect of the carbon cycle in the future [Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Heimann and Reichstein, 2008].

Guilderson, T; Mcfarlane, K

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

449

International Energy Outlook 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic (human- caused) emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, and as a result world energy use has emerged at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2006 reference case, world carbon dioxide emissions increase from 25,028 million metric tons in 2003 to 33,663 million metric tons in 2015 and 43,676 million metric tons in 2030 (Figure 65). 14 The Kyoto Protocol, which requires participating "Annex I" countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions collectively to an annual

450

NETL: Carbon Storage FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

different options for CO2 storage? different options for CO2 storage? Oil and gas reservoirs, many containing carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as natural deposits of almost pure CO2, can be found in many places in the United States and around the world. These are examples of long-term storage of CO2 by nature, where "long term" means millions of years. Their existence demonstrates that naturally occurring geologic formations and structures of various kinds are capable of securely storing CO2 deep in the subsurface for very long periods of time. Because of the economic importance of oil and gas, scientists and engineers have studied these natural deposits for many decades in order to understand the physical and chemical processes which led to their formation. There are also many decades of engineering experience in subsurface operations similar to those needed for CO2 storage. The most directly applicable experience comes from the oil industry, which, for 40 years, has injected CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs for the recovery of additional product through enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additional experience comes from natural gas storage operations, which have utilized depleted gas reservoirs, as well as reservoirs containing only water. Scientists and engineers are now combining the knowledge obtained from study of natural deposits with experience from analogous operations as a basis for studying the potential for large-scale storage of CO2 in the deep subsurface.

451

Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ?fG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than approximately one-third of these compounds. Because the temperatures of host formations that will be used for CO2 injection and sequestration will be at tempera¬tures in the range of 50ºC to 100ºC or greater, the lack of high temperature thermodynamic values for key carbonate compounds especially minerals, will impact the accuracy of some modeling calculations.

Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

452

Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shallow Carbon SequeStration Shallow Carbon SequeStration DemonStration ProjeCt Background The Shallow Carbon Sequestration Pilot Demonstration Project is a cooperative effort involving City Utilities of Springfield (CU); Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR); Missouri State University (MSU); Missouri University of Science & Technology (MS&T); AmerenUE; Aquila, Inc.; Associated Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Empire District Electric Company; and Kansas City Power & Light. The purpose of this project is to assess the feasibility of carbon sequestration at Missouri power plant sites. The six electric utilities involved in the project account for approximately 90 percent of the electric generating capacity in Missouri. Description The pilot demonstration will evaluate the feasibility of utilizing the Lamotte and

453

Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Laboratory Battelle Memorial Institute CARBON CAPTURE & SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES J. Edmonds, J.J. Dooley, and S.H. Kim Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Battelle Memorial Institute Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Battelle Memorial Institute THE ROADMAP * Greenhouse gas emissions may not control themselves. * Climate policy may happen.--There are smart and dumb ways to proceed. The smart ways involve getting both the policy and the technology right--the GTSP. * There are no silver bullets--Expanding the set of options to include carbon capture and sequestration can help limit the cost of any ceiling on CO 2 concentrations. * Managing greenhouse emissions means managing carbon. * Carbon can be captured, transported, and sequestered in many ways.

454

Emerging Applications of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the basis of their unique electrical and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great attention in recent years. A diverse array of methods has been developed to modify CNTs and to assemble them ...

Schnorr, Jan Markus

455

Low density carbonized composite foams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm{sup 3} and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 {mu}m in diameter is described, and the process of making it. 3 figs.

Kong, Fung-Ming.

1989-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

456

Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

458

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon-assisted flyer plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

1994-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

460

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Catching Carbon with Computer Simulations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CRD and Material Sciences Researchers Receive 2 Million to Develop Efficient Carbon Capture Simulation Tools Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov , 510-495-2402 Share September 30,...

462

Carbon Dioxide Compression and Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of the art regarding carbon dioxide CO2 compression and transportation in the United States and Canada. The primary focus of the report was on CO2 compression because it is a significant cost and energy penalty in carbon capture and storage CCS. The secondary focus of the report was to document the state of the art of CO2 pipeline transportation in the United States and Canada.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

463

Carbon Nanomaterials II & Computational Studies on Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

2014 Functional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications: Carbon Nanomaterials II & Computational Studies on Nanomaterials Sponsored by: ...

464

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

465

Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East of England #12;Low Carbon Innovation Centre Report for EEDA Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective 20/04/2009 ii Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East

Everest, Graham R

466

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proof of Ferromagnetic Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism, which repels an external magnetic field, or paramagnetism, which attracts it. However, take away the external magnetic field, and the material is no longer magnetized. So-called real magnets like refrigerator and horseshoe magnets are ferromagnets. They're stronger because of long-range ordering, which allows domains of aligned electrons to have a high degree of magnetization. Left on their own, these domains cancel each other out. But when even a small magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic material, these domains line up with each other, and the material becomes fully magnetized. In addition, once magnetized, it retains some of its magnetism.

467

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism, which repels an external magnetic field, or paramagnetism, which attracts it. However, take away the external magnetic field, and the material is no longer magnetized. So-called real magnets like refrigerator and horseshoe magnets are ferromagnets. They're stronger because of long-range ordering, which allows domains of aligned electrons to have a high degree of magnetization. Left on their own, these domains cancel each other out. But when even a small magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic material, these domains line up with each other, and the material becomes fully magnetized. In addition, once magnetized, it retains some of its magnetism.

468

Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Press Release 29 May 2007 Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club summary written by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communication Office The exclusive club of magnetic elements officially has a new member-carbon. Using a proton beam and advanced x-ray techniques, SLAC researchers in collaboration with colleagues from LBNL and the University of Leipzig in Germany have finally put to rest doubts about carbon's ability to be made magnetic. "In the past, some groups thought they had discovered magnetic carbon," said Hendrik Ohldag, the paper's lead author and SSRL staff scientist. "Unfortunately, they realized later that they were misled by small amounts of iron, cobalt or nickel in their samples." In Leipzig, Ohldag's team applied a beam of protons to disrupt and align a portion of the electrons in samples of pure carbon, magnetizing tiny, measurable spots within the carbon. The team then used the x-ray microscope at ALS to obtain images of the magnetized portions-a measurement only possible with a state-of-the-art microscope that uses the brilliant x-ray beams generated when electrons accelerate around the ring of a synchrotron. The x-ray beam also enabled the team to verify beyond doubt that the sample remained free of impurities during the experiments, unlike the case in previous studies.

469

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism, which repels an external magnetic field, or paramagnetism, which attracts it. However, take away the external magnetic field, and the material is no longer magnetized. So-called real magnets like refrigerator and horseshoe magnets are ferromagnets. They're stronger because of long-range ordering, which allows domains of aligned electrons to have a high degree of magnetization. Left on their own, these domains cancel each other out. But when even a small magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic material, these domains line up with each other, and the material becomes fully magnetized. In addition, once magnetized, it retains some of its magnetism.

470

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism, which repels an external magnetic field, or paramagnetism, which attracts it. However, take away the external magnetic field, and the material is no longer magnetized. So-called real magnets like refrigerator and horseshoe magnets are ferromagnets. They're stronger because of long-range ordering, which allows domains of aligned electrons to have a high degree of magnetization. Left on their own, these domains cancel each other out. But when even a small magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic material, these domains line up with each other, and the material becomes fully magnetized. In addition, once magnetized, it retains some of its magnetism.

471

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism, which repels an external magnetic field, or paramagnetism, which attracts it. However, take away the external magnetic field, and the material is no longer magnetized. So-called real magnets like refrigerator and horseshoe magnets are ferromagnets. They're stronger because of long-range ordering, which allows domains of aligned electrons to have a high degree of magnetization. Left on their own, these domains cancel each other out. But when even a small magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic material, these domains line up with each other, and the material becomes fully magnetized. In addition, once magnetized, it retains some of its magnetism.

472

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism, which repels an external magnetic field, or paramagnetism, which attracts it. However, take away the external magnetic field, and the material is no longer magnetized. So-called real magnets like refrigerator and horseshoe magnets are ferromagnets. They're stronger because of long-range ordering, which allows domains of aligned electrons to have a high degree of magnetization. Left on their own, these domains cancel each other out. But when even a small magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic material, these domains line up with each other, and the material becomes fully magnetized. In addition, once magnetized, it retains some of its magnetism.

473

Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Carbon sequestration research and development  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

476

Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

David P. Haack

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

CarbonSolve | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarbonSolve CarbonSolve Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CarbonSolve Agency/Company /Organization: CarbonSolve Sector: Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.carbonsolve.com Web Application Link: www.carbonsolve.com Cost: Paid CarbonSolve Screenshot References: CarbonSolve[1] Logo: CarbonSolve The CarbonSolve platform is designed to address a broad spectrum of needs, and makes possible for organizations to transform their sustainability objectives - including carbon, water, waste, employee engagement, or supply chain related initiatives into measureable metrics and trackable processes. Overview The CarbonSolve platform is designed to address a broad spectrum of needs, and makes possible for organizations to transform their sustainability

478

Mar., 1955 GASIFICATIONOF CARBONRODSWITH CARBONDIOXIDE 241 GASIFICATION OF CARBON RODS WITH CARBON DIOXIDE1*2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar., 1955 GASIFICATIONOF CARBONRODSWITH CARBONDIOXIDE 241 GASIFICATION OF CARBON RODS WITH CARBON commercial carbons and their gasification rates with carbon dioxide at a series of temperatures between 900. No general correlation between these properties and the carbon gasification rates was found. Introduction

479

Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical drying  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical August 2003) Activated carbon fiber/carbon aerogel (ACF/CA) composites were fabricated by gelling. The ACFs can reinforce the related carbon aerogels when they originally have low mass density and are weak

Liu, Jie

480

Global climate change and pedogenic carbonates  

SciTech Connect

Global Climate Change summarizes what is known about soil inorganic carbon and develops strategies that could lead to the retention of more carbon in the soil. It covers basic concepts, analytical methods, secondary carbonates, and research and development priorities. With this book one will get a better understanding of the global carbon cycle, organic and inorganic carbon, and their roles, or what is known of them, in the greenhouse effect.

Lal, R.; Kimble, J.M.; Stewart, B.A.; Eswaran, H. [eds.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anthropogenic human-caused carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

483

Carbon nanotubes on a substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

484

International Energy Outlook 2007  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions 2004,