National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ant-eden ald en-lanc

  1. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  2. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full2% of34,929.0 36,104.5 L81 § ¨

  3. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full2% of34,929.0 36,104.5 L81 §

  4. ALDS 1980 panel review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. L. [ed.] [ed.

    1981-11-01

    The overall goal of PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Applied Mathematical Sciences Research is development of a DOE (Department of Energy) capability for Analysis of Large Data Sets (ALDS) and transfer of this capability to other DOE laboratories and contractors. This capability is needed to satisfy DOE's increasing requirements for handling and analyzing large volumes of diverse energy and environmental data. The integrated statistics and computer science research includes the development of improved methodologies in data definition, data management, data analysis, and visual display. The purpose of this document is three-fold. First, the document is the permanent record of the ALDS 1979 panel review. Second, the document provides the PNL staff with a benchmark of where we were at the end of the second year of ALDS. Third, the document is available to laboratories, universities, and DOE headquarters as detailed description of the ALDS project, as well as an example of the new direction of AMS-funded research.

  5. Atomic Layer DepositionAtomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Conformality in(ALD) Conformality in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Atomic Layer DepositionAtomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Conformality in(ALD) Conformality in Nanopores, removal of template, and subsequent TEM analysis. Significance Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is widely in Nanopores Intellectual merit While atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables unprecedented control of atomic

  6. ALD Nanosolutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram |RecentSulfonateAFVAGO AG EnergieALD Nanosolutions

  7. Surface preparation for ALD of High-k dielectrics on InGaAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melitz, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    As Arsenic ALD Atomic Layer Deposition AES Auger ElectronTMA), to replicate atomic layer deposition (ALD). The LL isgate oxides, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is employed to

  8. Usage Policies Notebook for Cambridge Nanotech ALD System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    of the system for which they have been trained. Training The users must have received direct training from of the tool to avoid the direct touch of the high-temperature ALD lid. #12;5 Standard equipment and materials Please clean substrates prior to use Waste disposal Dispose of broken glass and broken wafers

  9. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical...

  10. Impact of ALD Coating on Mn-rich Cathode Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2013-06-01

    LG Chem Power Inc. (LGCPI) and NREL have collaborated to demonstrate the scalability of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating process over the last 6 months, and the benefits of ALD coatings for long-term cycling and calendar life are being quantified. The objectives of this work are two-fold: 1) to evaluate the scalability of the process to coat LGCPI cathodes with alumina using the ALD technique, and 2) to demonstrate improvements in rate capability and life of ALD-coated LGCPI electrodes. NREL received samples of baseline material to be coated from LGCPI. NREL carried out ALD coating of the samples with help from a subcontractor, ALD Nanosolutions. NREL fabricated cells from those samples for quick screening and feedback to ALD Nanosolutions. LGCPI is currently fabricating larger-format cells for further evaluation.

  11. ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram |RecentSulfonateAFVAGO AG EnergieALD

  12. Final Report: Novel ALD-Coated Nanoparticle Anodes for Enhanced Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groner, Markus

    2009-04-16

    The Phase I effort is described in detail in the Phase I report given below. The key accomplishments of the Phase I project were (1) the demonstration of high stability LiCoO2 cathodes using ALD-coated LiCoO2 particles, as well as on ALD-coated LiCoO2 electrodes and (2) the demonstration of high stability of graphite anodes using ALD-coated graphite electrodes.

  13. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    1 1.2. Atomic layer deposition... 2cell for atomic layer deposition26 2.8.Scheme process of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of copper(

  14. ALD Functionalized Nanoporous Gold: Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Wichmann, A; Wittstock, A; Baumann, T F; Baeumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2011-03-24

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only one-nm-thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1000 C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO{sub 2} ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  15. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  16. http://tinyurl.com/ald-michigan For more information, please email Dr. Khaled Mnaymneh at kmnay@lnf.umich.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly, Samantha

    for numerous opportunities in the fields of semiconductor devices and memory, energy conversion and storage, and quantum confinement structures for energy conversion and storage devices. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD aspect ratios (above 2000:1), allowing for 3-dimensional engineering of complex nanostructured

  17. Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    storage come into sight. Introduction Electrochemical energy storage devices with simultaneously high nanostructures.5 As a result, there has been fast growing interest in using ALD materials for energy storage energy storage3 Received 23rd November 2012, Accepted 21st January 2013 DOI: 10.1039/c3ra23031g www

  18. Novel Volatile Precursors of Palladium For ALD and CVD Deo V. Shenai,1 Qing Min Wang,1 Jean-Sbastien Lehn,1 and Roy G. Gordon2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Volatile Precursors of Palladium For ALD and CVD Deo V. Shenai,1 Qing Min Wang,1 Jean@dow.com Introduction Homoleptic Palladium Amidinate (Pd-3) Vapor Pressure of Pd-3 Deposition of Palladium Thin FilmsAccelerated Rate Calorimetry (ARC) Study on Pd-3 Conclusions Heteroleptic Palladium Amidinate and Formamidinate (Pd

  19. ALD Produced B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} Coatings on Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} Burnable Poison Nanoparticles and Carbonaceous TRISO Coating Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Alan

    2012-11-26

    This project will demonstrate the feasibility of using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to apply ultrathin neutron-absorbing, corrosion-resistant layers consisting of ceramics, metals, or combinations thereof, on particles for enhanced nuclear fuel pellets. Current pellet coating technology utilizes chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a fluidized bed reactor to deposit thick, porous layers of C (or PyC) and SiC. These graphitic/carbide materials degrade over time owing to fission product bombardment, active oxidation, thermal management issues, and long-term irradiation effects. ALD can be used to deposit potential ceramic barrier materials of interest, including ZrO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}, or neutron-absorbing materials, namely B (in BN or B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Gd (in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}). This project consists of a two-pronged approach to integrate ALD into the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) fuel pellet manufacturing process:

  20. Chapter 6.24 Picosun Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    be reported on the WAND. 5.4 Emergency shutdown: In case of an emergency, shut down the whole system by pressing the red emergency button on the machine. 6.0 Process Data 6.1 Process Monitor (SPC): Available

  1. Chapter 6.25 Cambridge Fiji F200 Plasma ALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    manual for information on source changes and maintenance. 2.0 Material Controls & Compatibility 2 during pump down and loading cycles. 4.4.2 Substrate Holder: Stainless steel plate designed to allow 8

  2. ALD: Adaptive Layer Distribution for Scalable Video Jason J. Quinlan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreenan, Cormac J.

    University College Cork, Ireland j.quinlan@cs.ucc.ie Ahmed H. Zahran Electronics and Electrical Communications Department Cairo University, Egypt azahran@eece.cu.edu.eg Cormac J. Sreenan Department of Computer

  3. 100GHz Integrated All-Optical Switch Enabled by ALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moille, Gregory; Morgenroth, Laurence; Lehoucq, Galle; Neuilly, Franois; Hu, Bowen; Decoster, Didier; de Rossi, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The carrier lifetime of a photonic crystal all-optical switch is optimized by controlling the surface of GaAs by Atomic Layer Deposition. We demonstrate an all optical modulation capability up to 100GHz at Telecom wavelengths, with a contrast as high as 7dB. Wavelength conversion has also been demonstrated at a repetition rate of 2.5GHz with average pump power of about 0.5mW

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Preparation of Noble Metal Catalysts - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass and BiofuelsPhysicist47JulyInnovation Portal

  5. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    is produced by its thermal activation, but the remainingthe surface upon thermal activation of the adsorbed copperfirst monolayer. After thermal activation of the precursor-

  6. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    110) surfaces is described; butane and a small amidine were110) surface. No butene is produced at lower butane, 3 L;only some butane is desorption observed (58 amu). However,

  7. ALD high-k and higher-k integration on GaAs Ozhan Koybasi 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (N,N'-diisopropylformidinate), and lutetium tris(N,N'-diethylformamidinate) reacted with water vapor at 350 o C. The dielectric structures

  8. Impact of ALD Coating on Li/Mn-rich Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  9. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (TechnicalTransmission,Textit Chandra HETGS,SciTech Connect(Conference)

  10. NOIJLVaiSINIWaV NOIlVlAldOdNI AOU3N3 Z661

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e b r61- NOIJLVaiSINIWaV

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Copper(I) Amidinates as Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Copper Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Mater. Sci. 2000, 30, 229-262. (2) Ritala, M.; Leskela, M. In Handbook of Thin Film Materials; Nalwa, H. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 5548-5554. (9) International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 2003

  12. Metal Optics Based nanoLEDs: In Search of a Fast, Efficient, Nanoscale Light Emitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggleston, Michael Scott

    2015-01-01

    is loaded into an atomic layer deposition (ALD) machine andis loaded into an atomic layer deposition (ALD) machine andsample into an atomic layer deposition (ALD) machine (such

  13. Synergistic experimental and theoretical approach to atomic-level surface and interface science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grassman, Tyler J.

    2007-01-01

    usually grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Theseusually grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Theseconfiguration models atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth in

  14. Engineering Optical Antenna for Efficient Local Field Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seok, Tae Joon

    2012-01-01

    is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which hascan be deposited by atomic layer deposition. The materialdeposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In ALD process,

  15. Nanoscale interfacial structure for Novel Opto-electronic and Ion-trapping Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulin-Avila, Erick

    2013-01-01

    is deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Graphenedeposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). This layeris deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) process.

  16. Optofluidic Devices for Droplet and Cell Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Shao Ning

    2015-01-01

    constant. Advances in atomic layer deposition (ALD), widelyis then deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (Picosunlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (Picosun

  17. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenberg, DA; Yu, M; Lam, CW; Ogunseitan, OA; Schoenung, JM

    2013-01-01

    deposition; ALD, atomic layer deposition; ILGAR, ion layerdeposition; ALD, atomic layer deposition. D.A. Eisenberg et

  18. High Voltage GaN-on-Si Field-Effect Transistors for Switching Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    layer quality, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is recentlyfollowed by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Al 2 O 3 as the

  19. PLUS: FAT, BUT NOT SICK HOW TO SPOT QUACKERY GREEN BUSINESS MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J. AND DOROTHY R.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    ? SMARTPHONE BODY BY #12;I understand that coconut oil has several benefits. I've heard about studies that show., Medford, MA 02155 or email julie.flaherty@tufts.edu. Don't Go Cuckoo for Coconut Oil For this installment that I am aware of to indicate that coconut oil has documented specific beneficial effects; hence

  20. Conductance Quantization of Massless Dirac Fermions and the Synthesis, Characterization, and Manipulation of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girit, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    bilayer graphene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (a,b) andfilm deposition is atomic-layer deposition (ALD), which isbilayer graphene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (a,b) and

  1. Monolayer passivation of semiconductor surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joon Sung

    2011-01-01

    spectroscopy ALD atomic layer deposition o degree Celsius CBsurface prior to the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al 2 Oof nitridation (e.g. atomic layer deposition (ALD)) would be

  2. Development of ZnO Based Light Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Jieying

    2012-01-01

    PLD), [54-57] atomic layer deposition, [58,59] reactiveALD deposition Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a self-transferred on the atomic layer deposition ( ALD) furnace

  3. The ADependence of J=/ and / 0 Production at 800 GeV/c D. M. Alde, H. W. Baer, T. A.Carey, G. T. Garvey, A. Klein, C. Lee,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Hsiung, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 M. R. Adams, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60680 R. Guo, D. M. Kaplan, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 R. L. Mc as a signature of quark­gluon plasma formation[2], has generated renewed interest in the subject of hadron

  4. Beyond A/B/A/B... Unorthodox Pulse Sequences in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition Group Develop ALD technology Apply ALD to emerging applications: Solar Cells Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Heaters Flow Tube N2 Flow H2OTMA Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS

  5. Novel Nanocrystal Floating Gate Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Huimei

    2012-01-01

    were formed using atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 beforewere deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as shell of2 layer by ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition). An ultra-thin (~

  6. Physical Mechanism and Fundamental Performance Limits on Graphene Non-Volatile Memory Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Emil Beom

    2012-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 by atomic layer deposition (Cambridge Nanotech).deposition by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (e) Electrodeof Al 2 O 3 by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Finally, an Al

  7. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature atomic layer deposition of titania thin2 O 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used asSUNALE R150 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) tool provided the

  8. Study of Nanocrystal Structures and Their Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olmedo, Mario Jesus

    2012-01-01

    for Ultrathin Atomic Layer Deposition of High K DielectricsThin Films Grown by Atomic-Layer Deposition. J. Appl. Phys.ALD deposition Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a self-

  9. To be the leader in research, development, and education, concentrating on laser and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stack engineering; atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology of electronic thin film materials FABRICATION Atomic layer deposition (ALD) Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) Pulsed laser deposition (PLD deposition; semiconductor surface preparation and characterization; electron emitters and electron gun design

  10. R&D PROPOSAL FOR THE NATIONAL MUON ACCELERATOR PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    surface treatments (i.e. , atomic layer deposition, ALD) arecopper cavities using atomic layer deposition or Be walls toInitial tests of atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques 14

  11. Micro-analysis of orientation in polymers by X-ray microscopy XRM-polymer-orientation-studies.doc Last changed 16-Sep-08 (aph)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Polyimides", Macromolecules 31, 4957 (1998). I. Koprinarov, M. Demirors, T. Tyliszczak, A.L.D. Kilcoyne, A

  12. Study of Nickel Oxide Composites as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Photoanodic Water Splitting /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Ritala, M. Atomic layer deposition (ALD): from precursors tosputtering 19 , and atomic layer deposition 20 . These are

  13. DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506377 Atomic Layer Deposition of Praseodymium Aluminum Oxide for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and lutetium oxide,[8] the ALD of Pr2O3 presented some difficulties in achieving the excellent electrical

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route to Transparent Conducting Oxide Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route we present a new method for depositing In2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using-15 and atomic layer deposition (ALD).16-20 Of these techniques, ALD shows significant promise as this method

  15. High-performance pentacene field-effect transistors using Al2O3 gate dielectrics prepared by atomic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    fabricated using Al2O3 as a gate dielectric material grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Hole mobility is also desirable to allow for fabri- cation on plastic substrates. Atomic layer deposition (ALD layer deposition (ALD) Xiao-Hong Zhang a , Benoit Domercq a , Xudong Wang b , Seunghyup Yoo a , Takeshi

  16. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide films using tetrakis,,dimethylamino... tin Jeffrey W. Elam,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide films using tetrakis,,dimethylamino... tin Jeffrey W. Elam for preparing thin films of SnO2 by atomic layer deposition ALD using alternating exposures to tetrakis sputtering,5 chemi- cal vapor deposition,15 spray pyrolysis,11 and atomic layer deposition ALD .1618 ALD

  17. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com SiliconPV: 17-20 April 2011, Freiburg, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passivated with plasma-assisted and thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminium oxide (Al2O3) films (Al2O3) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown to provide an outstanding level passivation layer deposited by ALD and a SiNx capping layer deposited by PECVD. Our experiments show

  18. MAgA ZiNE oF thE gER ALD j. AND DoRothY R. FRiEDMAN SchooL oF NUtRitioN SciENcE AND PoLicY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    ., Medford, MA 02155 or email julie.flaherty@tufts.edu. Can Probiotics Keep My Gastrointestinal System postings say probiotics are effective for treating asthma, dermatitis and irritable bowel syndrome. At best, there is mar- ginal evidence that probiotics help these conditions. Where they have been convincingly shown

  19. Resistive switching characteristics of polycrystalline SrTiO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong Choi, Hyung; Won Park, Suk; Deok Han, Gwon; Hyung Shim, Joon; Na, Junhong; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2014-06-16

    Strontium titanate (STO) thin films 90?nm in thickness were grown on a Pt substrate through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The as-deposited ALD STO grown with an ALD cycle ratio of 1:1 (Sr:Ti) was in an amorphous phase, and annealing at 800?C in air crystallized the films into the perovskite phase. This phase change was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as-deposited ALD STO exhibited no discernible switching mechanism, whereas unipolar switching behavior was reproducibly observed with a high resistance ratio (10{sup 8}10{sup 9}) and strict separation of the set/reset voltages and currents in the annealed ALD STO. Mechanisms for charge transport in both the low- and high-resistance states and for resistive switching in the annealed ALD STO are also proposed.

  20. Assessment of the applicability of an anoxic limestone drain for a surface mine in east central Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, T.W. [Skelly and Loy, Inc., Harrisburg, PA (United States); Hedin, R.S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lorello, P.R. [Kennecott Energy Company, Gillette, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Anoxic limestone drains (ALDs) are a cost-effective technique for adding alkalinity to acid mine drainage. However, the applicability of an ALD is limited to a rather narrow range of mine drainage chemical conditions due to concerns about the armoring of limestone with ferric hydroxide, the plugging of flow paths with aluminum hydroxide, and the limited solubility of calcite. While the armoring and plugging potentials can be assessed with careful water quality analyses, the solubility of limestone in a particular mine water cannot, at this time, be predicted from mine water chemistry. Thus, the danger always exists that the ALD will generate insufficient alkalinity to completely neutralize the acidic water, resulting in either insufficiently treated discharge or a need for additional treatment. In order to remove uncertainty from the design of a 4,000-ton ALD, we conducted limestone incubation tests and pilot-scale ALD tests. Incubation tests were done using a modified version of the {open_quotes}cubitainer{close_quotes} procedure developed by the United States Bureau of Mines. The pilot ALD consisted of 65 tons of limestone. Hydrologic loading experiments were conducted that provided an assessment of the ALD performance under design flow conditions and flow rates four times higher than the design flow. Under design flow conditions, the pilot ALD discharged water with alkalinity concentrations similar to that predicted by the cubitainer tests (360 parts per million). With increased flow, concentrations of alkalinity in the pilot ALD effluent decreased, with the water becoming net acidic at a flow rate of 15 gallons per minute. The results of the pilot ALD were used to size a full-scale ALD and model ALD performance under a variety of flow conditions.

  1. Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid flexible...

  2. A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qinglin; Xiao, Xingcheng Verbrugge, Mark W.; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2014-08-11

    The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

  3. Environmental Performance Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    and data collection consume 20.79% of total energy. EnergyALD processes consume a total of 4.09 MJ energy, with 14%

  4. Planning Amid Abundance: Alaskas FY 2013 Budget Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBeath, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    the two branches did not spar over the size of the budget.and legislative houses) did not spar over the size (ALD,

  5. Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

    2010-01-01

    for improving the sustainability performance of the ALDimprove the sustainability performance of the ALD technologyperformance. In this pa- per, we present an integrated sustainability

  6. III-V Multigate Non-Planar Channel Transistor Simulations and Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Kun-Huan

    2012-01-01

    layer deposited by atomic layer deposition for graphene-R. G. Gordon, Atomic layer deposition on suspended single-of Acronyms ALD Atomic layer deposition AM Accumulation mode

  7. Advanced Relay Design and Technology for Energy-Efficient Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Jaeseok

    2011-01-01

    Surface Chemistry of Atomic Layer Deposition: a Case Study2 O 3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon anddeposited using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor (

  8. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of which are crucial for evaluating performance in the proverbial vacuum. Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), researchers can create highly specific nanobowls, controlling...

  9. Nitrogen-passivated dielectric/InGaAs interfaces with sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness and low interface trap densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Son, Junwoo; Law, Jeremy; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Huang, Cheng-Ying; Stemmer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As by atomic layer deposition, after in-situmethods other than atomic layer deposition (ALD) have shown

  10. Surface Chemistry in Chemical Deposition of Manganese-Based Thin Films on Silicon Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Huaxing

    2013-01-01

    1.2 Atomic layer deposition3 especially atomic layer deposition, to deposit Cu CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) from the

  11. Influence of plasma-based in-situ surface cleaning procedures on HfO2/In0.53Ga0.47As gate stack properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mates, Thomas E.; Mitchell, William J.; Zhang, Jack Y.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    0.53 Ga 0.47 As by atomic layer deposition. We discuss thetreatment prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of gate

  12. Microlattices as architected thin films: Analysis of mechanical properties and high strain elastic recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, Kevin J; Roper, Christopher S; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2013-01-01

    synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of amorphousvapor deposition Atomic layer deposition Chemical vaporm MPa kg 2 /m 6 Atomic layer deposition 5 mm Polymer etch

  13. Using Solution Phase Self-Assembly to Control the Properties of Magnetic and Magnetoelectric Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schelhas, Laura Theresa

    2013-01-01

    lithography and atomic layer deposition. Nanotechnology 22,dimensions via atomic layer deposition on block copolymers.ion etching, atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina is

  14. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polyakov, Aleksandr N.

    2012-01-01

    ALD Atomic Layer Deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . .Temperature Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition. Chem. Mater. 16,Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and

  15. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    12] Short et al. , Atomic Layer Deposition of Zinc SulfideAlannah Myers, On Atomic Layer Deposition: Tin Sulfide fordepositing CZTS. Atomic layer deposition (known as ALD, a

  16. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were created by combining evaporation-induced self- assembly of nanopores with atomic layer deposition (ALD), allowing specific tuning of both pore size and surface chemistry. By...

  17. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  18. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TCO) coatings are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Provides uniform coating of complex, 3D nanostructures such as electrodes for next-generation PV cells...

  19. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 1(1400) IG (JPC ) = 1-(1 -+)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 1323.1 4.6 2 AOYAGI 93 BKEI - p - p 1406 20 3 ALDE

  20. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 1(1400) IG (JPC ) = 1-(1 -+)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 1323.1 4.6 2 AOYAGI 93 BKEI - p - p 1406 20 3 ALDE

  1. Alan S. Icenhour | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    development to national security. As ALD, Dr. Icenhour leads three research divisions (Fusion and Materials for Nuclear Systems, Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology, and...

  2. Metallapyrimidines and Metallapyrimidiniums from Oxidative Addition of Pyrazolate N-N Bonds to Niobium(III), Niobium(IV), and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    of tetranuclear uranium complexes that were obtained upon treatment of UI3(THF)4 with potassium 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate (KMe2pz).6 These uranium clusters contain Me2pz and 4- ketimidopent-2-en-2-imide ligands to atomic layer deposition (ALD) film growth precursors containing pyrazolate ligands7 and the ALD growth

  3. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 ; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Meiling; Jia, Dongwei; Gu, Jianxin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  4. Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Self--Aligned Processing,Aligned Processing, and Atomic Layerand Atomic Layerand Atomic Layerand Atomic Layer Deposition synthesis by atomic layer deposition (ALD) Significance Realizing nanotechnology benefits requires new combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

  5. Electrochemical Monitoring of TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition by Chronoamperometry and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Electrochemical Monitoring of TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition by Chronoamperometry and Scanning) was used to characterize the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). KEYWORDS: atomic layer deposition (ALD), scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), nanoporous films

  6. Published: February 22, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 4333 dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp110203x |J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 43334339

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 43334339 ARTICLE pubs.acs.org/JPCC Atomic Layer Deposition of Fe2O3 Using relevant temperature range of 170-350 C. Here, we elucidate a self-limiting atomic layer deposition (ALD-limiting surface reactions, atomic layer deposi- tion (ALD) offers a general route to thin films that is uniquely

  7. Characteristics of SiO2 Film Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition as the Gate Insulator of Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin-Film Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Characteristics of SiO2 Film Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition as the Gate Insulator of Low a Corresponding author: skrha@hanbat.ac.kr Keywords: atomic layer deposition (ALD), silicon dioxide (SiO2), dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2), ozone (O3) Abstract. SiO2 films were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD

  8. Fabrication of Transparent-Conducting-Oxide-Coated Inverse Opals as Mesostructured Architectures for Electrocatalysis Applications: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -doped indium oxide (ITO) via atomic layer deposition (ALD). We demonstrate the utility of the resulting, photocatalysis, and dye- sensitized solar cells. KEYWORDS: nickel oxide, water oxidation, atomic-layer deposition- layer deposition (ALD); the advantage of this protocol is that it is not necessary to devise ways

  9. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com SiliconPV: 17-20 April 2011, Freiburg, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -rate atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 for the surface passivation of Si solar cells Florian Wernera *, Walter Hannover, Germany Abstract High-rate spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables an industrially relevant) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides an outstanding level of surface passivation on both n

  10. Energy Procedia 27 (2012) 379 384 1876-6102 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the Centro de Micro Anlisis de Materiales,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    The deposition rate of the standard (i.e. sequential) atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is very low compared layer consisting of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has shown/min. In order to implement the Al2O3 layer into an industrial process, higher deposition rates are required

  11. Systematic Modulation of Quantum (Electron) Tunneling Behavior by Atomic Layer Deposition on Nanoparticulate SnO2 and TiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Systematic Modulation of Quantum (Electron) Tunneling Behavior by Atomic Layer Deposition were conformally created on SnO2 and TiO2 photo- electrodes via atomic layer deposition (ALD undesired, additional conduits for ET.13 In contrast, atomic layer deposition (ALD),14-19 which typically

  12. Theoretical analysis of initial adsorption of high-metal oxides on InxGa1-xAs,,0 0 1...-,,42... surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    are molecular beam deposition MBE and atomic layer deposition ALD . The importance of the struc- ture of the first oxide layer has been demonstrated for both MBE and ALD gate oxides deposition. For example, Hale et al. showed that the first layer of Ga2O deposition is critical in unpinning the oxide

  13. 21.7 % EFFICIENT PERC SOLAR CELLS WITH ALOX TUNNELING LAYER , J.H.Petermann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hanover, Germany ABSTRACT: A plasma-assisted atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (Al. Keywords: contact, passivation, solar cell 1 INTRODUCTION Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al-AlOx layer in a commercial ALD reactor (FlexALTM, Oxford Instruments) at 200 C. The deposition of Al

  14. In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on GaAs using trimethyaluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on Ga 26 June 2008; published online 21 July 2008 In situ atomic-layer deposition ALD of Al2O3 on p4 Recently, many ex situ methods such as atomic-layer deposition ALD of high-k on GaAs have achieved success

  15. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 2AO.1.6 INDUSTRIALLY RELEVANT Al2O3 DEPOSITION TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    confirmed efficiencies of 21.4% for PERC cells with plasma-assisted atom- ic-layer-deposited (plasma ALD) Al deposited by various techniques, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD), plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited by various deposition techniques. Atomic layer deposition performed in lab reactors (plasma

  16. SILICON SURFACE PASSIVATION BY ULTRATHIN Al2O3 FILMS AND Al2O3/SiNx STACKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by thermal as well as by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) are very well suited for the effec, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been identified as a di- electric Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal, Germany ABSTRACT We show that aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers depo- sited

  17. SPATIALLY-SEPARATED ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF Al2O3, A NEW OPTION FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT Si SOLAR CELL PASSIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPATIALLY-SEPARATED ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF Al2O3, A NEW OPTION FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT Si SOLAR material for surface passivation of crystalline Si is atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3. However for the development of high-efficiency solar cells. It has been shown that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Guang; Han, Catherine Y.; Wang, H. Hau; Birrell, James P.; Welp, Ulrich; Hryn, John N.; Pellin, Michael J.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Poco, John F.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition ( ALD ) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ? 40 nm and pore length L ? 70 microns. The AAO membranes were coated by ALD to fabricatemorecatalytic membranes that demonstrate remarkable selectivity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane. Additional AAO membranes coated with ALD Pd films show promise as hydrogen sensors. Silica aerogels have the lowest density and highest surface area of any solid material. Consequently, these materials serve as an excellent substrate to fabricate novel catalytic materials and gas sensors by ALD . less

  19. Palladium catalysts synthesized by atomic layer deposition for methanol decomposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Stair, P. C.; Libera, J. A.; Setthapun, W.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-05-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) palladium films were deposited at 200 C on various ALD metal oxide surfaces using sequential exposures to Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)2) and formalin. In situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements as well as ex situ measurements performed on planar substrates revealed that the Pd growth begins with a relatively slow nucleation process and accelerates once an adequate amount of Pd has deposited on the surface. Furthermore, the Pd nucleation is faster on ALD ZnO surfaces compared to ALD Al2O3 surfaces. ALD was utilized to synthesize highly dispersed, uniform Pd nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm in diameter) on ALD ZnO and Al2O3 coated mesoporous silica gel, and the catalytic performances of these samples were compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The ALD Pd-Al2O3 showed high activity and hydrogen selectivity at relatively low temperatures while the ALD Pd-ZnO showed very low activity as well as quick deactivation. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement revealed that the Pd supported on ZnO 'dissolves' into the substrate during the methanol decomposition reaction which accounts for the gradual disappearance of its catalytic activity. By applying one cycle of ALD Al2O3 on top of the Pd-ZnO catalyst, the activity was enhanced and the catalyst deactivation was mitigated. This Al2O3 overcoating method stabilizes the Pd-ZnO and effectively prevents the dissolution of Pd into the ZnO substrate.

  20. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  1. In situ study of atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaP (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Qin, X.; Hinkle, C. L.; Kim, J.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-09-16

    The interfacial chemistry of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on chemically treated GaP (100) has been studied using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A self-cleaning effect for Ga-oxide upon exposure to trimethylaluminum is seen to be efficient on the native oxide and chemically treated surfaces. The phosphorus oxide chemical states are seen to change during the ALD process, but the total concentration of P-oxides is seen to remain constant throughout the ALD process.

  2. In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

  3. CHUVA reveals very diverse cloud processes in tropical continental regions and contributes to improving satellite precipitation estimation, nowcasting,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    MAn, ALAn J. P. cALheiroS, ThiAGo biScAro, chriSTiAn KuMMerow, JuLiA cohen, dAvid FiTzJArrALd, ernAni L. n

  4. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Soumyadeep; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-15

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200?C. Growth rate of 1.3 per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films.

  5. Stereochemical Studies on the Addition of Allylsilanes to Aldehydes. The SE' Component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denmark, Scott

    of Illinois, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, Phone:(217) 333-0066, Fax: (217) 333-3984, sdenmark@illinois. The reaction of a substituted allylmetal with an alde- hyde will result in the formation of a mixture

  6. Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Findings on Ultrasound and CT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berona, Kristin; Hardiman, Kevin; Mailhot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Berona et al. Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Findings onJ, Yazbeck T, et al. Hepatic portal venous 5. Nelson AL,D, et al. Hepatic portal venous gas: gas: physiopathology,

  7. These Tiny Windmills Work, and Ten Will Fit in a Grain of Rice #Manufacturing Monday #MEMs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    supply project packs projects propeller prototyping python random ald Raspberry Pi reverse engineering midisense minipov mintyboost music NeoPixels netduino NYC open source hardware photos Pi Plates pic power

  8. Essays on financial analysts' forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Marius del Giudice

    2006-01-01

    Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Exxon Mobil Corp Ticker AA AIG ALD AXPMotors, IBM, 3M and Exxon Mobil. Most revisions are quiteChase, General Motors and Exxon Mobil. This high proportion

  9. Standingstone folio, Tennessee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Marius R. (Marius Robinson), 1858-1940.

    1899-01-01

    Winograd, Its Happening (Santa Barbara, 1966); Roy Ald, The Youth Communes (New York, 1970); Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective (Cambridge, 1972); Keith Melville, Communes in the Counter...

  10. Selective Chemistry of Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition on Si Based Substrate Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the silylated IBM 2 and 4 wafers returns theirCHAPTER 4. SELECTIVE ALD ON IBM WAFERS SURFACE BY COMBINING71 FIGURE 4.1 ATR trace for native IBM 1, 2, 3 and 4

  11. A Parallelized Hash Generator System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EDA385 A Parallelized Hash Generator System Niklas Ald´en ael10nal@student.lu.se Gabriel J cracker uses the MD5 hash function to generate a hash from a random generated character sequence

  12. Experimental Studies of Oxide Magnetic Tunnel Junctions and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xinfei

    2012-01-01

    grown ex-situ by Atomic Layer Deposition as well as LSMO/40 III-2-2 Atomic Layer Depositionand PLD etc Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is well-known

  13. 196 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 34, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2013 High-Speed E-Mode InAs QW MOSFETs With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jess A.

    -frequency and logic performance. These devices feature a 3-nm Al2O3 layer grown by atomic layer deposition Identifier 10.1109/LED.2012.2229107 atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been dramatically im- proved [5

  14. Engineer Nanocrystal Floating Gate Memory Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Jingjian

    2012-01-01

    deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Fig. 3.1(a)XPS). By employing atomic layer deposition, 36nm Al 2 O 3was deposited by atomic layer deposition to cover the nano-

  15. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

    2012-01-01

    2 O 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition. Source and drainthe nanowire by atomic layer deposition (ALD), followed bydevices, by atomic layer deposition carried at 250 C. The

  16. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HWANG, YUN JEONG

    2012-01-01

    Dependence of Length and Atomic Layer Deposition Coating 2.1grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiOon the Dependence of Length and Atomic Layer Deposition

  17. Spatially DistributedSpatially Distributed Experimentation toExperimentation to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    : Spatially distributed atomic layer deposition Spatially Distributed Atomic LayerSpatially Distributed Atomic properties Significance Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is widely sought for its atomic-scale thickness control, MKS Instruments #12;Rubloff: Spatially distributed atomic layer deposition Spatially Distributed

  18. Artificial Photosynthesis on TiO2-Passivated InP Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of TiO 2 by atomic layer deposition. The role of theseof TiO 2 by atomic layer deposition. Plane wave-densitycontaminants. 8 Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO 2 was

  19. Sensitive Detection of CMB B-Mode Polarization : : Instrumentation and Systematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyerman, Stephanie

    pt electrodes for atomic layer deposition of ultrathin high-M. Ritala. Atomic layer deposition (ald): from precursors toS. M. George. Atomic layer deposition: An overview. Chem.

  20. Flexible and Transparent Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, SUNG MIN

    2012-01-01

    for subsequent atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of the oxidedeposited through atomic layer deposition and transparent15-nm-thick Al 2 O 3 by atomic-layer-deposition, oxygen ion-

  1. Numerical simulation of a single wafer atomic layer deposition process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, A. Andrew D., III (Akhenaton-Andrew Dhafir)

    2010-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a process used to deposit nanometer scale films for use in nano electronics. A typical experimental reactor consist of a warm wall horizontal flow tube, a single disc mounted halfway down ...

  2. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD: a structural,Paul C. McIntyre, "Atomic Layer Deposition of Y 2 O 3 /ZrO 2rate-determining step Atomic layer Deposition Ammonium

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Synthesis of Multiferroic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Calvin Dinh-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition." Advanced FunctionalPlasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of HfO 2 and ZrO 2et al. (2003). "Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Bismuth

  4. Nanomaterials processing toward large-scale flexible/stretchable electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Toshitake

    2013-01-01

    formed, followed by atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 (~8layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) sandwichedand lift-off. Atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 (~70 nm)

  5. 2014 EFRC NEES KICKOFF MEETING AGENDA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4:30pm LAB TOURS RUBLOFF ALD LAB, NISP LAB BY CUMINGS, GHODSSI MSAL BY KOSTAS (MSAL, MEMS SENSORS & ACTUATORS LAB) 5:30pm 7 O'CLOCK DINNER RESERVATION @ AGORA, DUPONT CIRCLE,...

  6. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longrie, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.longrie@asm.com; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.detavernier@ugent.be [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-01-15

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  7. Selective Chemistry of Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition on Si Based Substrate Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    and M. Ritala, ALD precursor chemistry: Evolution and futureCells. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2009. 113(31): p.Cells. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2010. 114(21): p.

  8. In situ study of the role of substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Santosh, K.C.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; McDonnell, S.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Hinkle, C. L.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-10-21

    The dependence of the self cleaning effect of the substrate oxides on substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} on various chemically treated and native oxide InP (100) substrates is investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The removal of In-oxide is found to be more efficient at higher ALD temperatures. The P oxidation states on native oxide and acid etched samples are seen to change, with the total P-oxide concentration remaining constant, after 10 cycles of ALD HfO{sub 2} at different temperatures. An (NH{sub 4}){sub 2} S treatment is seen to effectively remove native oxides and passivate the InP surfaces independent of substrate temperature studied (200 C, 250 C and 300 C) before and after the ALD process. Density functional theory modeling provides insight into the mechanism of the changes in the P-oxide chemical states.

  9. In situ study of HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition on InP(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-04-29

    The interfacial chemistry of the native oxide and chemically treated InP samples during atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO{sub 2} growth at 250 Degree-Sign C has been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The In-oxide concentration is seen to gradually decrease on the native oxide and acid etched samples. No significant changes of the P-oxide concentrations are detected, while the P-oxides chemical states are seen to change gradually during the initial cycles of ALD on the native oxide and the chemically treated samples. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S treatment strongly decreases In-oxide and P-oxide concentrations prior to ALD and maintains low concentrations during the ALD process.

  10. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot, Alan J., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu; Malek, Gary A.; Lu, Rongtao; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Yu, Haifeng; Zhao, Shiping [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ?1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.

  11. Arsenic decapping and half cycle reactions during atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As,,001...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Arsenic decapping and half cycle reactions during atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0 of a protective As layer and subsequent atomic layer deposition ALD of Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As 001 . H2O dosing such as InxGa1-xAs.1 Atomic layer deposition ALD has been the technique of choice for the deposition of high

  12. Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

    2009-03-09

    This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

  13. Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jlich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jlich (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

  14. Enhanced photoresponse of conformal TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanorod array-based Schottky photodiodes fabricated via successive glancing angle and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet Fatih; Karabacak, Tansel; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate a proof of concept nanostructured photodiode fabrication method via successive glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated metal-semiconductor nanorod (NR) arrays offer enhanced photoresponse compared to conventional planar thin-film counterparts. Silver (Ag) metallic NR arrays were deposited on Ag-film/Si templates by utilizing GLAD. Subsequently, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was deposited conformally on Ag NRs via ALD. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the successful formation of vertically aligned Ag NRs deposited via GLAD and conformal deposition of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs via ALD. Following the growth of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs, aluminum metallic top contacts were formed to complete the fabrication of NR-based Schottky photodiodes. Nanostructured devices exhibited a photo response enhancement factor of 1.49??10{sup 2} under a reverse bias of 3 V.

  15. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  16. Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh-cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn; Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup ?} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  17. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H. S. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Yum, J. H. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Johnson, D. W. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Harris, H. R. [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)] [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Oh, J. [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)] [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C. [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)] [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Lee, H. D. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-25

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  18. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  19. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Li, Tao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yuan, Chris, E-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice BhatnagarGrossKrook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  20. Fluorine contamination in yttrium-doped barium zirconate film deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An Jihwan; Beom Kim, Young; Sun Park, Joong; Hyung Shim, Joon; Guer, Turgut M.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-01-15

    The authors have investigated the change of chemical composition, crystallinity, and ionic conductivity in fluorine contaminated yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). It has been identified that fluorine contamination can significantly affect the conductivity of the ALD BYZ. The authors have also successfully established the relationship between process temperature and contamination and the source of fluorine contamination, which was the perfluoroelastomer O-ring used for vacuum sealing. The total removal of fluorine contamination was achieved by using all-metal sealed chamber instead of O-ring seals.

  1. Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Han; Fu, Kan

    2013-11-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

  2. Surface and interfacial reaction study of InAs(100)-crystalline oxide interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Laukkanen, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland); Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Galatage, R. V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Oktyabrsky, S. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-05-27

    A crystalline oxide film on InAs(100) is investigated with in situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction before and after in situ deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as well as upon air exposure. The oxidation process leads to arsenic and indium trivalent oxidation state formation. The grown epitaxial oxide-InAs interface is stable upon ALD reactor exposure; however, trimethyl aluminum decreases oxidation states resulting in an unreconstructed surface. An increase in oxide concentration is also observed upon air exposure suggesting the crystalline oxide surface is unstable.

  3. DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606485 Thin, Continuous, and Conformal Copper Films by Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of less than 50 X/ , a value low enough to serve as seed layers for advanced electroplating techniques to generate Cu spots on Cu3N films.[9] Cu3N films can also be reduced to copper-seed layers for electroplating nonuniform coatings inside narrow holes. Atomic layer de- position (ALD) is known to make uniform films even

  4. Meet the trillions of tiny allies that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    & A n WALKABLE TOWNS n IS GLUTEN-FREE FOR ME? MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J. AND DOROTHY R. FRIEDMAN SCHOOL the masses moving. By Julie Flaherty 17 Gluten Free-for-All Why avoiding wheat protein isn't necessarily

  5. DOI: 10.1002/ente.201((will be filled in by the editorial staff)) Ultrathin surface modification by atomic layer deposition on high voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    , lithium ion batteries have been widely recognized as highly efficient power source and energy storage of developing high energy and long life lithium ion batteries with highly scalable LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 preparation and broadly applicable ALD process. Introduction Since first commercialized by Sony in the early 1990s

  6. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees; Feinerman, Alan; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1??0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175300?C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  7. The Bait Minnow Industry Great Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and to stoc k storage ponds and tanks for sal e when they are not found in shoal water. Spottail Shiner in shallow water than do e s the eme r ald shiner; therefore, the spot- tail shine r contributes to the bait

  8. Directory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09-765 Technical Abstract 09-765 Technical Abstract ALD Produced B2O3, Al2O3 and TiO2 Coatings on Gd2O3 Burnable Poison Nanoparticles (Properties) 61915 10:12 AM 61915 10:12 AM...

  9. Public sentiment in the United States towards the tariff, 1816-1828

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, John Francis

    1968-01-01

    ly a:". footed. -"-. pl esentative eorm, -ul*' ert of 'asachuse' ta ap '-e au ';"~eainat 't:le mo lon 3 ayi ~C; that in orner to aava;Dan ' a t' ' rs i't 'w'aa n'cease- y ta ". ct pramptl; . ". 'hc ;hqa ?iau is nat van ed, " a'ld:. 'ulbert, 'ter...

  10. Fabrication of ZnO/Cu2O heterojunctions in atmospheric conditions: improved interface quality and solar cell performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ievskaya, Y.; Hoye, R. L. Z.; Sadhanala, A.; Musselman, K.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    ZnO/Cu2O 1.46 0.49 AALD ITO/Zn0.79Mg0.21O/Cu2O 2.2 0.65 AALD PLD pulsed laser deposition, ALD atomic layer deposition, ECD electrochemi- cal deposition, IBS ion beam sputtering, VAPE vacuum arc plasma evaporation, dc-MSP direct current...

  11. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Bui, Hao, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl; Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y., E-mail: A.Y.Kovalgin@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup }0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  12. Mechanisms of Atomic Layer Deposition on Substrates with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a very promising method for controlled coating of the inner surfaces of monolithic nanoporous aerogel (AG suited for coating substrates with ultrahigh aspect ratios (J103), including nanoporous solids. Here, we study the ALD of Cu and Cu3N on the inner surfaces of low-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths

  13. Efficient and Seamless Volumetric Fracturing Mihai Alden Gustav Melich Ken Museth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient and Seamless Volumetric Fracturing Mihai Alden Gustav Melich Ken Museth DreamWorks Animation Introduction We present a novel framework for seamless volumetric fracturing that offers and fast parallel algorithms that, for the first time, make seamless volumetric fracturing practical

  14. Received 1 May 2013 | Accepted 26 Jul 2013 | Published 3 Sep 2013 Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    and high throughput. Here we introduce a new patterning technology based on atomic layer deposition lithography, combines atomic layer deposition (ALD) with `plug-and-peel' metal patterning using adhesive tapeARTICLE Received 1 May 2013 | Accepted 26 Jul 2013 | Published 3 Sep 2013 Atomic layer lithography

  15. Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium By Gregory A. Ten Eyck,* Jay J. Senkevich, Fu Tang, Deli Liu, Samuk Pimanpang, Tansel Karaback, Gwo-Ching Wang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Full Paper Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium By Gregory A. Ten Eyck,* Jay J Jezewski, and William A. Lanford A method is presented for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of palladium, Plasma-assisted 1. Introduction Self-limiting chemistries that result in atomic layer control

  16. Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self each atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycle to an analytical island-growth model that enables moderately optimized conditions. KEYWORDS: atomic layer deposition, self-assembled monolayers, quartz crystal

  17. Josephson Junctions with Tunnel Barriers Grown Via In Situ Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot, Alan Jesson

    2014-12-31

    in the thermally oxidized tunnel barrier. In order to realize the full potential of JJ qubits, an alternative method to thermal oxidation must be found for tunnel barrier growth. This work explores using atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the growth of ultrathin...

  18. The following contribution was presented at the 28. European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) deposited by various deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) [1], plasma ALUMINUM-OXIDE-BASED INVERSION LAYER SOLAR CELLS ON N-TYPE C-SI F. Werner,1 Y. Larionova,1 D. Zielke,1 T introduce a rear-emitter inversion layer (IL) solar cell on n-type crystalline silicon (n-Si). The hole IL

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of ZnO on Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Its Use for Synthesis of CNTZnO Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-08-07

    Abstract In this article, direct coating of ZnO on PECVD-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Transmission electron microscopy investigation shows that the deposited ZnO shell is continuous...

  20. Published: August 31, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 4134 dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl2019068 |Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 41344137

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    , Al2O3, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). When the top gate inverts the carrier type under electron beam lithography, and a functionalization layer based on NO2 was deposited by atomic layer demonstrated photo- response near metallic contacts,48 at the interface between single- layer and bilayer

  1. Directed inorganic modification of bi-component polymer fibers by selective vapor reaction and atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    and atomic layer deposition Bo Gong, Joseph C. Spagnola, Sara A. Arvidson, Saad A. Khan, Gregory N. Parsons Accepted 8 August 2012 Available online 21 August 2012 Keywords: Atomic layer deposition Bi-controlled composition can be formed using vapor-phase atomic layer deposition (ALD) on bi-component polymer fibers

  2. Atomic imaging of the monolayer nucleation and unpinning of a compound semiconductor surface during atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    atomic layer deposition Jonathon B. Clemens,1 Evgueni A. Chagarov,1 Martin Holland,2 Ravi Droopad,3 Jian American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3487737 Atomic layer deposition ALD has received attention dueAtomic imaging of the monolayer nucleation and unpinning of a compound semiconductor surface during

  3. InGaAs surface preparation for atomic layer deposition by hydrogen cleaning and improvement with high temperature anneal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    InGaAs surface preparation for atomic layer deposition by hydrogen cleaning and improvement channel III-V MOS devices can be fabricated with atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-K gate-first proc atomic scale imaging with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, a combination of atomic hydrogen

  4. Surface passivation of c-Si by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of Al2O3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passivation has to date been mostly deposited by conventional atomic layer deposition (ALD), a technique-effect transistors subjected to on-state bias stress J. Appl. Phys. 111, 084504 (2012) Atomic imaging of atomic layerSurface passivation of c-Si by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of Al2O3 Lachlan E

  5. Electron Microscopy Observation of TiO2 Nanocrystal Evolution in High-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xudong

    ABSTRACT: Understanding the evolution of amorphous and crystalline phases during atomic layer deposition nanorods via the principle of vapor-phase oriented attachment. KEYWORDS: TiO2, atomic layer deposition, Ostwald-Lussac law, oriented attachment Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a unique thin film growth

  6. Published on Web Date: May 04, 2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 1611 DOI: 10.1021/jz100361f |J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 16111615

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Significant Improvements in Photovoltage via Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition of ultrathin layers of Al2O3 deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SnO2 photoanodes used in dye, as well as pinholes that reach the surface of the semiconductor.15 In contrast, atomic layer deposition

  7. Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Nonhalogenated Jeffrey W. Elam,*, David A. Baker, Alex B. F. Martinson,, Michael J. Pellin, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Nonhalogenated Precursors Jeffrey W: NoVember 8, 2007 This article describes a new atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for preparing,2 sol-gel methods,3 chemical vapor deposition,4 pulsed laser deposition,5 and atomic layer

  8. Subscriber access provided by Northwestern Univ. Library The Journal of Physical Chemistry C is published by the American Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modification via Atomic Layer Deposition Thomas W. Hamann, Omar K. Farha, and Joseph T. Hupp J. Phys. Chem. C Based on Photoelectrode Modification via Atomic Layer Deposition Thomas W. Hamann, Omar K. FarhaVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 10, 2008 Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been used to create conformal TiO2

  9. Reversible and irreversible reactions of three oxygen precursors on InAs(0 0 1)-(42)/c(82)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    area of research [18]. Of the many thin film deposition techniques, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has substrate oxidation and disruption of the (42)/c(82) surface of InAs(0 0 1). Atomic layer deposition layer deposition Oxidants The substrate reactions of three common oxygen sources for gate oxide

  10. Density functional theory study of first-layer adsorption of ZrO2 and HfO2 on Ge(100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    in this manuscript), usually grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). These oxides, under normal Ge process- ingDensity functional theory study of first-layer adsorption of ZrO2 and HfO2 on Ge(100) T.J. Grassman

  11. Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal- Organic Framework Joseph E. Mondloch introduce a new synthetic strategy capable of metallating MOFs from the gas phase: atomic layer deposition and in some instances host- guest interactions may lead to unstable metal@MOFs. Atomic layer deposition (ALD

  12. Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamilov, Alexey

    Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A templates using a low-temperature atomic layer deposition process. The polystyrene is removed by firing into opal or inverted opal backbones.3,5,13,14 Recently, atomic layer deposition ALD has been pro- posed

  13. Mechanism for zirconium oxide atomic layer deposition using bis,,methylcyclopentadienyl...methoxymethyl zirconium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanism for zirconium oxide atomic layer deposition using bis.1063/1.2824814 Atomic layer deposition ALD is a thin film growth method using alternating, self-limiting reactions between gaseous precursors and a solid surface to deposit materials in an atomic layer-by-layer fashion.1

  14. Molecular Caulk: A Pore Sealing Technology for Ultra-low k Dielectrics Jay J. Senkevich1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    chemical vapor (CVD) or atomic layer (ALD) deposition of the barrier layer, the gas-phase precursors have issues of the barrier layer/dielectric interface. Molecular Caulk is deposited via chemical vapor Caulk deposition on surface topology was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental

  15. Atomically abrupt and unpinned Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As interfaces: Experiment and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    an In0.53Ga0.47As 100 channel and an Al2O3 dielectric layer grown by atomic layer deposition ALD when at the end of epitaxial growth of the channel was thermally desorbed in situ in an atomic layer deposition 100 channel from oxidation and contamina- tion during exposure to air. An As2 capping layer deposited

  16. TRANSIENT ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION IN MICRON SCALE FEATURES Matthias K. Gobbert*, Samuel G. Webster*, and Timothy S. Cale y1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    are related to those that might occur during the adsorption and purge steps in an atomic layer deposition estimates for processing times. 1 #12; INTRODUCTION In an ideal atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the deposition of solid material on the substrate is accomplished one atomic or molecular layer at a time

  17. Nanoscale NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging of Multiple Nuclear Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    /v) for more than 1 hour. Using atomic layer deposition (ALD, Savannah Atomic Layer Deposition S200), a 3 nm.999% 12 C high-purity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chip from Element 6 with an unpolished surface.999% 12 C high-purity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chip from Element 6 with an unpolished surface

  18. Energy Procedia 27 (2012) 319 324 1876-6102 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the Centro de Micro Anlisis de Materiales,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    oxide (Al2O3) surface passivation layer deposited by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD section; inversion layer solar cell 1. Introduction Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) deposited by atomic layer passivation by Al2O3: Recombination parameters and inversion layer solar cells F. Wernera *, A. Cosceevb

  19. Scanning probe microscopy imaging before and after atomic layer oxide deposition on a compound semiconductor surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Scanning probe microscopy imaging before and after atomic layer oxide deposition on a compound fabricated using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the Al2O3 gate oxide level (Fig 2) suggesting that an ordered monolayer layer might be a requirement for unpinning

  20. DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606508 Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606508 Full Paper Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium, and Gwo-Ching Wang In this paper, a method for the plasma-enhanced (PE) atomic layer deposition (ALD is successfully deposited on PPX at 80 C using a remote, in- ductively coupled, hydrogen/nitrogen plasma

  1. TRANSIENT ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION IN MICRON SCALE FEATURES Matthias K. Gobbert*, Samuel G. Webster*, and Timothy S. Cale1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    are related to those that might occur during the adsorption and purge steps in an atomic layer deposition estimates for processing times. 1 #12;INTRODUCTION In an ideal atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the deposition of solid material on the substrate is accomplished one atomic or molecular layer at a time

  2. Impact of ultrathin Al2O3 barrier layer on electrical properties of LaLuO3 metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Lanthanum lutetium oxide LaLuO3 is identified as one of the most promising high- candidates. It fulfills lanthanum tris N,N -diisopropylformamidinate , lutetium tris N,N -diethylformamidinate , and H2O lutetium precursor was kept at 115 C. The temperature window for ALD growth was between 250 and 350 C

  3. Carbon Nanosheets and Nanostructured Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon nanosheet thin films were employed as nanostructured electrodes in organic solar cells. Due to the nanostructured texture of the carbon nanosheet electrodes, there was an increase in performance over standard ITO electrodes with very thick active layers. ZnO deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as a hole blocking layer to provide for carrier selectivity of the carbon nanosheets.

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition on Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and mechanical properties of the nanotubes. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) on single-walled carbon nanotubesAtomic Layer Deposition on Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Gas-Phase Noncovalent, 2005; Revised Manuscript Received February 6, 2006 ABSTRACT Alternating exposures of nitrogen dioxide

  5. Supercritical-carbon dioxide-assisted cyclic deposition of metal oxide and metal thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    by a cyclic adsorption/reaction processes using supercritical CO2 solvent. Precursors included Al hfac 3, Al applications.14 Most pre- vious work from supercritical CO2 sc CO2 has been per- formed in a continuous growth typical ALD processes. Because the density of sc CO2 critical temperature 31 C and critical pressure 7

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors Dennis M (ALD) of smooth and highly conformal films of hafnium and zirconium oxides was studied using six metal alkylamide precursors for hafnium and zirconium. Water was used as an oxygen source during these experiments

  7. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Keasling, Jay

    2013-05-29

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  8. R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Functional improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reduce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    ; acetic acid; spoilage. Abstract Control of volatile acidity (VA) is a major issue for wine quality deleted for AAF1 reduced acetic acid levels in wine by up to 39.2% without increasing the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6 also reduced acetic acid levels dramatically, but increased the acetalde- hyde levels

  9. Coating Strategies to Improve Lithium-ion Battery Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, Jonathan; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2015-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of Al2O3 ALD coatings on the performance and thermal abuse tolerance of graphite based anodes and Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) based cathodes. It was found that 5 cycles of Al2O3 ALD on the graphite anode increased the onset temperature of thermal runaway by approximately 20 C and drastically reduced the anodes contribution to the overall amount of heat released during thermal runaway. Although Al2O3 ALD improves the cycling stability of NMC based cathodes, the thermal abuse tolerance was not greatly improved. A series of conductive aluminum oxide/carbon composites were created and characterized as potential thicker protective coatings for use on NMC based cathode materials. A series of electrodes were coated with manganese monoxide ALD to test the efficacy of an oxygen scavenging coating on NMC based cathodes.

  10. COMMUNICATION www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -oxide thin-film solar cell device architecture (ZnO:Al/a-ZTO/Cu2O). During the past decade, ALD has heterojunction thin-film solar cells.[1,2] Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is considered a promising Earth-abundant semiconductor for thin-film solar cells compatible with terawatt-level deployment.[35] However, the power

  11. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  12. Energy Technology Division research summary - 1999.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-31

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization, or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book.

  13. Waterless TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition using titanium tetrachloride and titanium tetraisopropoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Abdulagatov, Aziz I.; Gibbs, Zachary M.; George, Steven M.

    2014-01-15

    The surface chemistry for TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD) typically utilizes water or other oxidants that can oxidize underlying substrates such as magnetic disks or semiconductors. To avoid this oxidation, waterless or oxidant-free surface chemistry can be used that involves titanium halides and titanium alkoxides. In this study, waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD was accomplished using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). In situ transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were employed to study the surface species and the reactions during waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD. At low temperatures between 125 and 225??C, the FTIR absorbance spectra revealed that the isopropoxide species remained on the surface after TTIP exposures. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then removed the isopropoxide species and deposited additional titanium species. At high temperatures between 250 and 300??C, the isopropoxide species were converted to hydroxyl species by ?-hydride elimination. The observation of propene gaseous reaction product by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) confirmed the ?-hydride elimination reaction pathway. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then easily reacted with the hydroxyl species. QMS studies also observed the 2-chloropropane and HCl gaseous reaction products and monitored the self-limiting nature of the TTIP reaction. Additional studies examined the waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD growth at low and high temperature. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements observed growth rates of ?3?ng/cm{sup 2} at a low temperature of 150??C. Much higher growth rates of ?15?ng/cm{sup 2} were measured at a higher temperature of 250??C under similar reaction conditions. X-ray reflectivity analysis measured a growth rate of 0.55 0.05?/cycle at 250??C. X-ray photoelectron depth-profile studies showed that the TiO{sub 2} films contained low Cl concentrations <1 at. %. This waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD process using TiCl{sub 4} and TTIP should be valuable to prevent substrate oxidation during TiO{sub 2} ALD on oxygen-sensitive substrates.

  14. Resistive switching phenomena in TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers for memory applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goren, Emanuelle; Tsur, Yoed; Ungureanu, Mariana; Zazpe, Raul; Rozenberg, Marcelo; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Flix; Stoliar, Pablo

    2014-10-06

    Electrical characteristics of a Co/ TiO{sub x}/Co resistive memory device, fabricated by two different methods, are reported. In addition to crystalline TiO{sub 2} layers fabricated via conventional atomic layer deposition (ALD), an alternative method has been examined, where TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers were fabricated via sol-gel. The different devices have shown different hysteresis loops with a unique crossing point for the sol-gel devices. A simple qualitative model is introduced to describe the different current-voltage behaviours by suggesting only one active metal-oxide interface for the ALD devices and two active metal-oxide interfaces for the sol-gel devices. Furthermore, we show that the resistive switching behaviour could be easily tuned by proper interface engineering and that despite having a similar active material, different fabrication methods can lead to dissimilar resistive switching properties.

  15. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-05-29

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  16. Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1??10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1??10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that HfOH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

  17. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  18. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University] [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  19. Compositional characterization of atomic layer deposited alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Anu; Thomas, Subin; Kumar, K. Rajeev [Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    As the microelectronic industry demands feature size in the order of few and sub nanometer regime, the film composition and other film properties become critical issues and ALD has emerged as the choice of industry. Aluminum oxide is a material with wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and protective and ion barrier layers. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an excellent dielectric because of its large band gap (8.7eV), large band offsets with silicon. We have deposited thin layers of alumina on silicon wafer (p-type) for gate dielectric applications by ALD technique and compositional characterizations of the deposited thin films were done using EDS, XPS and FTIR spectra.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of zinc sulfide with Zn(TMHD){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, Andrew; Jewell, Leila; Doshay, Sage; Church, Carena; Keiber, Trevor; Bridges, Frank; Carter, Sue; Alers, Glenn

    2013-01-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnS films with Zn(TMHD){sub 2} and in situ generated H{sub 2}S as precursors was investigated, over a temperature range of 150-375 Degree-Sign C. ALD behavior was confirmed by investigation of growth behavior and saturation curves. The properties of the films were studied with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectroscopy, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. The results demonstrate a film that can penetrate a porous matrix, with a local Zn structure of bulk ZnS, and a band gap between 3.5 and 3.6 eV. The ZnS film was used as a buffer layer in nanostructured PbS quantum dot solar cell devices.

  1. Ultra-low loading Pt nanocatalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition on carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J S; Wittstock, A; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; Baumann, T F; Giri, S; Hamza, A V; Baeumer, M; Bent, S F

    2008-04-21

    Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), we show that Pt nanoparticles can be deposited on the inner surfaces of carbon aerogels (CA). The resultant Pt-loaded materials exhibit high catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO even at loading levels as low as {approx}0.05 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}. We observe a conversion efficiency of nearly 100% in the temperatures range 150-250 C, and the total conversion rate seems to be only limited by the thermal stability of our CA support in ambient oxygen. Our ALD approach described here is universal in nature, and can be applied to the design of new catalytic materials for a variety of applications, including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, pollution control, green chemistry, and liquid fuel production.

  2. Investigation of arsenic and antimony capping layers, and half cycle reactions during atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaSb(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernokletov, Dmitry M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Dong, Hong; Brennan, Barry; Kim, Jiyoung; Wallace, Robert M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, Michael; Tokranov, Vadim; Oktyabrsky, Serge [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at AlbanySUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at AlbanySUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In-situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, ion scattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the GaSb(100) surfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy after thermal desorption of a protective As or Sb layer and subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. An antimony protective layer is found to be more favorable compared to an arsenic capping layer as it prevents As alloys from forming with the GaSb substrate. The evolution of oxide free GaSb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface is investigated by half-cycle ALD reactions of trimethyl aluminum and deionized water.

  3. Displacement of Hexanol by the Hexanoic Acid Overoxidation Product in Alcohol Oxidation on a Model Supported Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchbinder, Avram M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Ray, Natalie A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Lu, Junling [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy System Division; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Weitz, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Geiger, Franz M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes

    2011-11-09

    This work characterizes the adsorption, structure, and binding mechanism of oxygenated organic species from cyclohexane solution at the liquid/solid interface of optically flat alumina-supported palladium nanoparticle surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The surface-specific nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy, sum-frequency generation (SFG), was used as a probe for adsorption and interfacial molecular structure. 1-Hexanoic acid is an overoxidation product and possible catalyst poison for the aerobic heterogeneous oxidation of 1-hexanol at the liquid/solid interface of Pd/Al?O? catalysts. Single component and competitive adsorption experiments show that 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs to both ALD-prepared alumina surfaces and alumina surfaces with palladium nanoparticles, that were also prepared by ALD, more strongly than does 1-hexanol. Furthermore, 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs with conformational order on ALD-prepared alumina surfaces, but on surfaces with palladium particles the adsorbates exhibit relative disorder at low surface coverage and become more ordered, on average, at higher surface coverage. Although significant differences in binding constant were not observed between surfaces with and without palladium nanoparticles, the palladium particles play an apparent role in controlling adsorbate structures. The disordered adsorption of 1-hexanoic acid most likely occurs on the alumina support, and probably results from modification of binding sites on the alumina, adjacent to the particles. In addition to providing insight on the possibility of catalyst poisoning by the overoxidation product and characterizing changes in its structure that result in only small adsorption energy changes, this work represents a step toward using surface science techniques that bridge the complexity gap between fundamental studies and realistic catalyst models.

  4. Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

  5. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungk, John Michael (University of Minnesota); Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M. (University of Colorado); Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W. (University of Minnesota)

    2005-10-01

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  6. Dispersion engineered high-Q silicon Nitride Ring-Resonators via Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riemensberger, Johann; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. All results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  7. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metalsemiconductormetal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  8. Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

    2012-08-20

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

  9. Bump formation in the runaway electron tail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decker, J; Flp, T

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electrons are generated in a magnetized plasma when the parallel electric field exceeds a critical value. For such electrons with energies typically reaching tens of MeV, the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) radiation force, in reaction to the synchrotron emission, is significant and can be the dominant process limiting the electron acceleration. The effect of the ALD-force on runaway electron dynamics in a homogeneous plasma is investigated using the relativistic finite-difference Fokker-Planck codes LUKE [Decker & Peysson, Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA, (2004)] and CODE [Landreman et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 185, 847 (2014)]. Under the action of the ALD force, we find that a bump is formed in the tail of the electron distribution function if the electric field is sufficiently large. We also observe that the energy of runaway electrons in the bump increases with the electric field amplitude, while the population increases with the bulk electron temperature. The presence of the bump divides the elec...

  10. High Gradient Accelerator Cavities Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Parsons, Gregory; Williams, Philip; Oldham, Christopher; Mundy, Zach; Dolgashev, Valery

    2014-12-09

    In the Phase I program, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR), in collaboration with North Carolina State University (NCSU), fabricated copper accelerator cavities and used Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to apply thin metal coatings of tungsten and platinum. It was hypothesized that a tungsten coating would provide a robust surface more resistant to arcing and arc damage. The platinum coating was predicted to reduce processing time by inhibiting oxides that form on copper surfaces soon after machining. Two sets of cavity parts were fabricated. One was coated with 35 nm of tungsten, and the other with approximately 10 nm of platinum. Only the platinum cavity parts could be high power tested during the Phase I program due to schedule and funding constraints. The platinum coated cavity exhibit poor performance when compared with pure copper cavities. Not only did arcing occur at lower power levels, but the processing time was actually longer. There were several issues that contributed to the poor performance. First, machining of the base copper cavity parts failed to achieve the quality and cleanliness standards specified to SLAC National Accelerator Center. Secondly, the ALD facilities were not configured to provide the high levels of cleanliness required. Finally, the nanometer coating applied was likely far too thin to provide the performance required. The coating was ablated or peeled from the surface in regions of high fields. It was concluded that the current ALD process could not provide improved performance over cavities produced at national laboratories using dedicated facilities.

  11. Atomic layer deposited lithium aluminum oxide: (In)dependency of film properties from pulsing sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miikkulainen, Ville Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvg, Helmer; Li, Han; King, Sean W.; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds markedly high potential of becoming the enabling method for achieving the three-dimensional all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery (LiB). One of the most crucial components in such a battery is the electrolyte that needs to hold both low electronic conductivity and at least fair lithium ion conductivity being at the same time pinhole free. To obtain these desired properties in an electrolyte film, one necessarily has to have a good control over the elemental composition of the deposited material. The present study reports on the properties of ALD lithium aluminum oxide (Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z}) thin films. In addition to LiB electrolyte applications, Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} is also a candidate low dielectric constant (low-k) etch stop and diffusion barrier material in nanoelectronics applications. The Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films were deposited employing trimethylaluminum-O{sub 3} and lithium tert-butoxide-H{sub 2}O for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, respectively. The composition was aimed to be controlled by varying the pulsing ratio of those two binary oxide ALD cycles. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity and phase, electrical properties, hardness, porosity, and chemical environment. Regardless of the applied pulsing ratio of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, all the studied ALD Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films of 200 and 400 nm in thickness were polycrystalline in the orthorhombic ?-LiAlO{sub 2} phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition and other studied properties. The results are discussed in the context of both fundamental ALD chemistry and applicability of the films as thin-film LiB electrolytes and low-k etch stop and diffusion barriers.

  12. Energy Technology Division research summary 1997.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-21

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book. This Overview highlights some major trends. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water nuclear reactors (LWRS) is funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In addition to our ongoing work on environmentally assisted cracking and steam generator integrity, a major new multiyear program has been initiated to assess the performance of high-burnup fuel during loss-of-coolant accidents. The bulk of the NRC research work is carried out in four ET sections: Corrosion: Mechanics of Materials; Irradiation Performance: and Sensors, Instrumentation, and Nondestructive Evaluation. The Transportation of Hazardous Materials Section is the other main contributor; staff from that Section have worked closely with NRC staff to draft a new version of the NRC Standard Review Plan that will be used to provide guidance to NRC reviewers of applications for the renewal of nuclear plant licenses.

  13. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and etching of high-k gadolinium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Steven A.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Hodson, Chris J.

    2012-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality gadolinium oxide thin films is achieved using Gd(iPrCp){sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth is observed from 150 to 350 deg. C, though the optical properties of the film improve at higher temperature. True layer-by-layer ALD growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in a relatively narrow window of temperature and precursor dose. A saturated growth rate of 1.4 A/cycle was observed at 250 deg. C. As the temperature increases, high-quality films are deposited, but the growth mechanism appears to become CVD-like, indicating the onset of precursor decomposition. At 250 deg. C, the refractive index of the film is stable at {approx}1.80 regardless of other deposition conditions, and the measured dispersion characteristics are comparable to those of bulk Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XPS data show that the O/Gd ratio is oxygen deficient at 1.3, and that it is also very hygroscopic. The plasma etching rate of the ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film in a high-density helicon reactor is very low. Little difference is observed in etching rate between Cl{sub 2} and pure Ar plasmas, suggesting that physical sputtering dominates the etching. A threshold bias power exists below which etching does not occur; thus it may be possible to etch a metal gate material and stop easily on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a dielectric constant of about 16, exhibits low C-V hysteresis, and allows a 50 x reduction in gate leakage compared to SiO{sub 2}. However, the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process causes formation of an {approx}1.8 nm SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, and generates a fixed charge of -1.21 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, both of which may limit use of PE-ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric.

  14. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. Final report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D. C.

    2011-04-11

    Argonne National Laboratory carried out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry-specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it was desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It was desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The original goal was to produce shape-selective catalysts that had the potential to limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' This cage would also restrict their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity and strength was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. Since there was no improvement, the program plan was modified as discussed below. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. An effective FT catalyst consisting of ALD-deposited Co and Pt on a silica support has been prepared and demonstrated. This catalyst was more effective than a similar catalyst deposited upon a support of ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silica. This result implies that the deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to form a support is not as effective as desired. The addition of Pt as a Co-containing catalyst promoter has been demonstrated; it appears to primarily affect the catalyst pre-conditioning step. Co on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is more effective than Argonne-prepared ALD-deposited Co on ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The FT activity of ALD-coated Co catalyst on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is about linear with Co level from about 9 to 25%. A cooperative research effort was undertaken to test the deposition of platinum on Co FT catalysts; this Pt influences the effectiveness of catalyst conditioning and its continuing activity. In summary, the ALD Pt at a low concentration (0.1 wt %) was as effective as that of the wet chemical deposition technique of CAER (specifically incipient deposition on a Co catalyst that had been prepared and calcined before the Pt deposition.) The ALD technique appeared to be nominally better than the incipient wetness technique that involved co-deposition of

  15. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on blown polyethylene films with plasma-treated surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beom Lee, Gyeong; Sik Son, Kyung; Won Park, Suk; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    In this study, a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on blown polyethylene films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures, and the surface characteristics of these Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were analyzed. In order to examine the effects of the plasma treatment of the surfaces of the blown polyethylene films on the properties of the films, both untreated and plasma-treated film samples were prepared under various processing conditions. The surface characteristics of the samples were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as by measuring their surface contact angles. It was confirmed that the surfaces of the plasma-treated samples contained a hydroxyl group, which helped the precursor and the polyethylene substrate to bind. ALD of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was performed through sequential exposures to trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O at 60 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphologies of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were observed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Further, it was confirmed that after ALD, the surface of the plasma-treated film was covered with alumina grains more uniformly than was the case for the surface of the untreated polymer film. It was also confirmed via the focused ion beam technique that the layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} conformed to the surface of the blown polyethylene film.

  16. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kriinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Sderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostaticisobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5??10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5??10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  17. High-performance self-aligned inversion-channel In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors by in-situ atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, T. D.; Chang, W. H.; Chang, Y. C.; Hong, M., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chu, R. L.; Chang, Y. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, M. Y.; Hong, P. F.; Chen, Min-Cheng [National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)] [National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kwo, J., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-16

    Self-aligned inversion-channel In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated using the gate dielectrics of in-situ directly atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) HfO{sub 2} followed by ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. There were no surface pretreatments and no interfacial passivation/barrier layers prior to the ALD. TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (4?nm)/HfO{sub 2} (1?nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP MOS capacitors exhibited well-behaved capacitance-voltage characteristics with true inversion behavior, low leakage current densities of ?10{sup ?8}?A/cm{sup 2} at 1?MV/cm, and thermodynamic stability at high temperatures. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3?nm)/HfO{sub 2} (1?nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOSFETs of 1 ?m gate length, with 700?C800?C rapid thermal annealing in source/drain activation, have exhibited high extrinsic drain current (I{sub D}) of 1.5?mA/?m, transconductance (G{sub m}) of 0.84 mS/?m, I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} of ?10{sup 4}, low sub-threshold swing of 103?mV/decade, and field-effect electron mobility of 1100 cm{sup 2}/V??s. The devices have also achieved very high intrinsic I{sub D} and G{sub m} of 2?mA/?m and 1.2?mS/?m, respectively.

  18. Radio frequency plasma power dependence of the moisture permeation barrier characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Lee, Sanghun [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-07

    In the present study, we investigated the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethersulfone films (PES) by capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) type Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (RPALD) at Radio Frequency (RF) plasma powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W in 100 W increments using Trimethylaluminum [TMA, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] as the Al source and O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. To study the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of 100-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at various plasma powers, the Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) was measured using an electrical Ca degradation test. WVTR decreased as plasma power increased with WVTR values for 400 W and 100 W of 2.6 10{sup ?4} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1} and 1.2 10{sup ?3} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1}, respectively. The trends for life time, Al-O and O-H bond, density, and stoichiometry were similar to that of WVTR with improvement associated with increasing plasma power. Further, among plasma power ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the highest power of 400 W resulted in the best moisture permeation barrier properties. This result was attributed to differences in volume and amount of ion and radical fluxes, to join the ALD process, generated by O{sub 2} plasma as the plasma power changed during ALD process, which was determined using a plasma diagnosis technique called the Floating Harmonic Method (FHM). Plasma diagnosis by FHM revealed an increase in ion flux with increasing plasma power. With respect to the ALD process, our results indicated that higher plasma power generated increased ion and radical flux compared with lower plasma power. Thus, a higher plasma power provides the best gas and moisture permeation barrier properties.

  19. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 ?mol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  20. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  1. Magnetic Forces, and Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    element. 2111 BldIFd = 2 21 22 2 4 ^ 21 R aldI Bd Ro = I1 I2 R21 F1 = oI1I2 4 L2 L1 d l1 d l2 ^aR12( ) R12 2 z F1 F2 F3 F4 z Divide loop into 4 segments. o o aI B 2 ^1 1 = Since I1 is infinite long wire: 12 0 21 BldIF b z = = F1 I1 I2 a b z ( ) a Ib IF o o ^ 2 1 21

  2. Methods for simultaneous control of lignin content and composition, and cellulose content in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Vincent Lee C.; Li, Laigeng

    2005-02-15

    The present invention relates to a method of concurrently introducing multiple genes into plants and trees is provided. The method includes simultaneous transformation of plants with multiple genes from the phenylpropanoid pathways including 4CL, CAld5H, AldOMT, SAD and CAD genes and combinations thereof to produce various lines of transgenic plants displaying altered agronomic traits. The agronomic traits of the plants are regulated by the orientation of the specific genes and the selected gene combinations, which are incorporated into the plant genome.

  3. Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T.

    2012-08-27

    Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The products recovered from both the ALD and other processes were water-white (even those from the low temperature, low residence time (high space velocity), low conversion runs). These results indicate that highly upgraded recycle lube oils can be produced using ALD-deposited active metal catalysts. The use of H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR for the characterization of the treated lube oils has been shown to be effective.

  4. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x} gate stack on germanium substrate fabricated by in situ cycling ozone oxidation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xu; Zeng, Zhen-Hua [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Sheng-Kai, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn; Sun, Bing; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Hu-Dong; Liu, Honggang, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Xiong, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x}/Ge gate stack fabricated by an in situ cycling ozone oxidation (COO) method in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) system at low temperature is systematically investigated. Excellent electrical characteristics such as minimum interface trap density as low as 1.9??10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?2?}eV{sup ?1} have been obtained by COO treatment. The impact of COO treatment against the band alignment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with respect to Ge is studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Based on both XPS and SE studies, the origin of gate leakage in the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the sub-gap states, which may be correlated to the OH-related groups in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network. It is demonstrated that the COO method is effective in repairing the OH-related defects in high-k dielectrics as well as forming superior high-k/Ge interface for high performance Ge MOS devices.

  5. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K., E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave., Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitancevoltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1?s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18??10{sup ?8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (?10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800?C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of TiN for the fabrication of nanomechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathan; Guthy, Csaba; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Evoy, Stephane [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, 2nd Floor ECERF (9107-116 Street), Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Finley, Eric; Harris, Kenneth D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2M9 (Canada); Worfolk, Brian J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11227 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Films of titanium nitride were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a range of temperatures from 120 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C, and their deposition rates were characterized by ellipsometry and reflectometry. The stress state of the films was evaluated by interferometry using a wafer bowing technique and varied from compressive (-18 MPa) to tensile (650 MPa). The crystal structure of the films was assessed by x-ray diffraction. The grain size varied with temperature in the range of 2-9 nm. The chemical composition of the films was ascertained by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and showed the presence of O, Cl, and C contaminants. A mildly tensile (250 MPa) stressed film was employed for the fabrication (by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching) of doubly clamped nanoresonator beams. The resonance frequency of resonators was assayed using an interferometric resonance testing apparatus. The devices exhibited sharp mechanical resonance peaks in the 17-25 MHz range. The uniformity and controllable deposition rate of ALD films make them ideal candidate materials for the fabrication of ultranarrow (<50 nm) nanobeam structures.

  7. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  8. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  9. High aspect ratio iridescent three-dimensional metalinsulatormetal capacitors using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metalinsulatormetal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.

  10. Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties between GaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Gang; Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Geok Ng, Serene Lay; Ji, Rong [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Liu, Zhi Hong [Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties related to the formation/annihilation of interfacial GaO{sub x} layer of ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on GaN is studied. ZrO{sub 2} films were annealed in N{sub 2} atmospheres in temperature range of 300?C to 700?C and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio decreases in the samples annealed at temperatures lower than 500?C, which could be attributed to the thinning of GaO{sub x} layer associated with low surface defect states due to clean up effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on GaN. However, further increase in annealing temperature results in deterioration of interface quality, which is evidenced by increase in Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio and the reduction of Ga-N binding energy.

  11. Epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Hu, Chengqing; Yu, Edward T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bruley, John [IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, New York 10593 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on Si(001) using a thin (1.6?nm) buffer layer of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The ALD growth of crystalline BTO films at 225??C used barium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl), titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as co-reactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a high degree of crystallinity and c-axis orientation of as-deposited BTO films. Crystallinity is improved after vacuum annealing at 600??C. Two-dimensional XRD confirms the tetragonal structure and orientation of 720-nm thick films. The effect of the annealing process on the BTO structure is discussed. A clean STO/Si interface is found using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confirmed by cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of 720?nm-thick BTO films are examined and show an effective dielectric constant of ?660 for the heterostructure.

  12. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  13. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesim, Yunus E. Battal, Enes; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (415 ?m) infrared absorber.

  14. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  15. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alloatti, Luca; Froelich, Andreas; Lauermann, Matthias; Frenzel, Tobias; Koehnle, Kira; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Wegener, Martin; Koos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Structuring optical materials on a nanometer scale can lead to artificial effective media, or metamaterials, with strongly altered optical behavior. Metamaterials can provide a wide range of linear optical properties such as negative refractive index, hyperbolic dispersion, or magnetic behavior at optical frequencies. Nonlinear optical properties, however, have only been demonstrated for patterned metallic films which suffer from high optical losses. Here we show that second-order nonlinear metamaterials can also be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. In our proof-of-principle experiments, we have iterated atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of three different constituents, A = Al$_2$O$_3$, B = TiO$_2$ and C = HfO$_2$. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent - a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first realizati...

  16. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-12-20

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  17. Epitaxial Growth of GaN-based LEDs on Simple Sacrificial Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Ferguson; Chris Summers

    2009-12-31

    The objective of this project is to produce alternative substrate technologies for GaN-based LEDs by developing an ALD interlayer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on sacrificial substrates such as ZnO and Si. A sacrificial substrate is used for device growth that can easily be removed using a wet chemical etchant leaving only the thin GaN epi-layer. After substrate removal, the GaN LED chip can then be mounted in several different ways to a metal heat sink/reflector and light extraction techniques can then be applied to the chip and compared for performance. Success in this work will lead to high efficiency LED devices with a simple low cost fabrication method and high product yield as stated by DOE goals for its solid state lighting portfolio.

  18. On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xuwen, E-mail: xuwen.liu@aalto.fi; Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    The interest in applying thin films on Si-wafer substrate for microelectromechanical systems devices by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) has raised the demand on reliable mechanical property data of the films. This study aims to find a quick method for obtaining nanoindentation hardness of thin films on silicon with improved reliability. This is achieved by ensuring that the film hardness is determined under the condition that no plastic deformation occurs in the substrate. In the study, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having thickness varying from 10 to 600?nm were deposited on a single-side polished silicon wafer at 300?C. A sharp cube-corner indenter was used for the nanoindentation measurements. A thorough study on the Si-wafer reference revealed that at a specific contact depth of about 8?nm the wafer deformation in loading transferred from elastic to elasticplastic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of this transition was associated with a sharp increase of the power-law exponent, m, when the unloading data were fitted to a power-law relation. Since m is only slightly material dependent and should fall between 1.2 and 1.6 for different indenter geometry having elastic contact to common materials, it is proposed that the high m values are the results from the inelastic events during unloading. This inelasticity is linked to phase transformations during pressure releasing, a unique phenomenon widely observed in single crystal silicon. Therefore, it is concluded that m could be used to monitor the mechanical state of the Si substrate when the whole coating system is loaded. A suggested indentation depth range can then be assigned to each film thickness to provide guidelines for obtaining reliable property data. The results show good consistence for films thicker than 20?nm and the nanoindentation hardness is about 11?GPa independent of film thickness.

  19. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

  20. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Summers; Hisham Menkara; Brent Wagner

    2011-09-30

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the ??anti-quenching? behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, ??large? nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material systems, the encapsulation of ZnSeS particle phosphors and ZnSeS screens with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} using ALD was shown to improve the stability by >8X and also increased the luminescence efficiency due to improved surface passivation and optical coupling. A large-volume fluidized bed ALD system was designed that can be adapted to a commercial ALD or vapor deposition system. Throughout the program, optical simulations were developed to evaluate and optimize various phosphor mixtures and device configurations. For example, to define the scattering properties of nanophosphors in an LED device or in a stand-off screen geometry. Also this work significantly promoted and assisted in the implementation of realistic phosphor material models into commercial modeling programs.

  1. Impact of composition and crystallization behavior of atomic layer deposited strontium titanate films on the resistive switching of Pt/STO/TiN devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslam, N.; Rodenbcher, C.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S., E-mail: su.hoffmann@fz-juelich.de [Peter-Grnberg Institute (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Jlich and JARA-FIT, 52425 Jlich (Germany); Longo, V.; Roozeboom, F.; Kessels, W. M. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-08-14

    The resistive switching (RS) properties of strontium titanate (Sr{sub 1+x}Ti{sub 1+y}O{sub 3+(x+2y)}, STO) based metal-oxide-metal structures prepared from industrial compatible processes have been investigated focusing on the effects of composition, microstructure, and device size. Metastable perovskite STO films were prepared on Pt-coated Si substrates utilizing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) from cyclopentadienyl-based metal precursors and oxygen plasma at 350?C, and a subsequent annealing at 600?C in nitrogen. Films of 15?nm and 12?nm thickness with three different compositions [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) of 0.57 (Sr-rich STO), 0.50 (stoichiometric STO), and 0.46 (Ti-rich STO) were integrated into Pt/STO/TiN crossbar structures with sizes ranging from 100??m{sup 2} to 0.01??m{sup 2}. Nano-structural characterizations revealed a clear effect of the composition of the as-deposited STO films on their crystallization behavior and thus on the final microstructures. Local current maps obtained by local-conductivity atomic force microscopy were in good agreement with local changes of the films' microstructures. Correspondingly, also the initial leakage currents of the Pt/STO/TiN devices were affected by the STO compositions and by the films' microstructures. An electroforming process set the Pt/STO/TiN devices into the ON-state, while the forming voltage decreased with increasing initial leakage current. After a RESET process under opposite voltage has been performed, the Pt/STO/TiN devices showed a stable bipolar RS behavior with non-linear current-voltage characteristics for the high (HRS) and the low (LRS) resistance states. The obtained switching polarity and nearly area independent LRS values agree with a filamentary character of the RS behavior according to the valence change mechanism. The devices of 0.01??m{sup 2} size with a 12?nm polycrystalline stoichiometric STO film were switched at a current compliance of 50??A with voltages of about 1.0?V between resistance states of about 40?k? (LRS) and 1 M? (HRS). After identification of the influences of the films' microstructures, i.e., grain boundaries and small cracks, the remaining RS properties could be ascribed to the effect of the [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) composition of the ALD STO thin films.

  2. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  3. Memristive behavior in a junctionless flash memory cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orak, Ikram; rel, Mustafa; Dana, Aykutlu; Bakan, Gokhan

    2015-06-08

    We report charge storage based memristive operation of a junctionless thin film flash memory cell when it is operated as a two terminal device by grounding the gate. Unlike memristors based on nanoionics, the presented device mode, which we refer to as the flashristor mode, potentially allows greater control over the memristive properties, allowing rational design. The mode is demonstrated using a depletion type n-channel ZnO transistor grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), with HfO{sub 2} as the tunnel dielectric, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the control dielectric, and non-stoichiometric silicon nitride as the charge storage layer. The device exhibits the pinched hysteresis of a memristor and in the unoptimized device, R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios of about 3 are presented with low operating voltages below 5?V. A simplified model predicts R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios can be improved significantly by adjusting the native threshold voltage of the devices. The repeatability of the resistive switching is excellent and devices exhibit 10{sup 6?}s retention time, which can, in principle, be improved by engineering the gate stack and storage layer properties. The flashristor mode can find use in analog information processing applications, such as neuromorphic computing, where well-behaving and highly repeatable memristive properties are desirable.

  4. Cathode encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuning, W.; Weijer, P. van de; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, P.O. Box WAG12, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (25 deg. C) have been tested as water vapor permeation barriers for organic light emitting diode devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiN{sub x}:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition served as reference and were used to develop Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks. On the basis of Ca test measurements, a very low intrinsic water vapor transmission rate of {<=} 2 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} (20 deg. C/50% relative humidity) were found for 20-40 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 300 nm a-SiN{sub x}:H films, respectively. The cathode particle coverage was a factor of 4 better for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films compared to the a-SiN{sub x}:H films and an average of 0.12 defects per cm{sup 2} was obtained for a stack consisting of three barrier layers (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}).

  5. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Mller, Johannes

    2015-06-08

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 420?nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P{sub r} of up to 10??C?cm{sup ?2} as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6??10{sup 5} cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems.

  6. Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy: A dose-dependent subchronic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2012-11-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup ?}) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179188]. However, ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH{sup ?} and ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton ({sup 1}H) and {sup 31}phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH{sup ?} deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH{sub 2}-) and FAMEs) were also mildly increased in ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 1 or 2% ethanol. Only small increases were observed for allylic and diallylic protons, FAMEs and unsaturations in ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls. PCA of NMR data showed increased clustering by gradual separation of ethanol-fed ADH{sup ?} deer mice groups from their respective pair-fed control groups and corresponding ethanol-fed ADH{sup +} deer mice groups. Our data indicate that dose of ethanol and hepatic ADH deficiency are two key factors involved in initiation and progression of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Further studies on characterization of individual lipid entities and associated metabolic pathways altered in our deer mouse model after different durations of ethanol feeding could be important to delineate mechanism(s) and identify potential biomarker candidate(s) of early stage ALD. -- Highlights: ? Dose-dependent ethanol-induced fatty liver was studied in deer mouse model. ? A NMR-based lipidomic approach with histology and dry lipid weights was used. ? We used principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze the NMR lipidomic data. ? Dose-dependent clustering patterns by PCA were compared among the groups.

  7. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney,J.P.; Fox, K.

    2009-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that maintains a primary mission focus the physical sciences, energy sciences, and life sciences, with additional expertise in environmental sciences, energy technologies, and national security. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal year 2008 budget was $531.6 million. There are about 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Developlnent at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. Accordingly, this is our Annual Report in which we describe the Purpose, Approach, Technical Progress and Results, and Specific Accomplishments of all LDRD projects that received funding during Fiscal Year 2008. BNL expended $12 million during Fiscal Year 2008 in support of 69 projects. The program has two categories, the annual Open Call LDRDs and Strategic LDRDs, which combine to meet the overall objectives of the LDRD Program. Proposals are solicited annually for review and approval concurrent with the next fiscal year, October 1. For the open call for proposals, an LDRD Selection Committee, comprised of the Associate Laboratory Directors (ALDs) for the Scientific Directorates, an equal number of scientists recommended by the Brookhaven Council, plus the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning, review the proposals submitted in response to the solicitation. The Open Can LDRD category emphasizes innovative research concepts with limited management filtering to encourage the creativity of individual researchers. The competition is open to all BNL staff in programmatic, scientific, engineering, and technical support areas. Researchers submit their project proposals to the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning. A portion of the LDRD budget is held for the Strategic LDRD (S-LDRD) category. Projects in this category focus on innovative R&D activities that support the strategic agenda of the Laboratory. The Laboratory Director entertains requests or articulates the need for S-LDRD funds at any time. Strategic LDRD Proposals also undergo rigorous peer review; the approach to review is tailored to the size and scope of the proposal. These Projects are driven by special opportunities, including: (1) Research project(s) in support of Laboratory strategic initiatives as defined and articulated by the Director; (2) Research project(s) in support of a Laboratory strategic hire; (3) Evolution of Program Development activities into research and development activities; and (4) ALD proposal(s) to the Director to support unique research opportunities. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred fronl the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. We explicitly indicate that research conducted under the LDRD Program should be highly innovative, and an element of high risk as to success is acceptable. To be one of the premier DOE National Laboratories, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and d

  8. Towards MQGP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansi Dhuria; Aalok Misra

    2015-03-19

    For the Ouyang embedding we calculate the chemical potential mu_C due to a U(1) gauge field on the w.v. of N_f D7-branes wrapped around a 4-cycle in a resolved warped deformed conifold with (M)N (fractional)D3-branes of [1], and show the possible thermodynamical stability up to linear order in the embedding parameter. In the spirit of [2] we obtain the local type IIA mirror using SYZ mirror symmetry near (theta_{1,2},psi)=(,{0,2pi,,4pi}) and then oxidize the same to M theory. We take two limits of this uplift:(i)g_s,g_sN_f,g_sM^2/N,g_s^2M N_f>1 similar to [1] effected by M eps^{-3d/2}, N eps^{-19d},g_s epsn^d,d>0 and eps>1 for finite g_s,M, effected by: g_s eps, M eps^{-3d/2},N eps^{-39d},d>0, epsuplift gives a black M3-brane solution whose near-horizon geometry near theta_{1,2}=0,pi-branches, preserves 1/8 SUSY. We obtain eta/s=1/4pi for the uplift and the diffusion constant for types IIB/IIA backgrounds comes out to be ~1/T, for both limits. The D=11 SUGRA action up to O(R^4,|G_4|^2) is expected to receive dominant contributions near =0,pi due to poles. Introducing a small-angle cut-off c and using the =c,(pi-c)-local uplift the specific heat from the IR-finite part of the action (c-independent) turns out to be positive indicative of the thermodynamical stability of the uplift. An ALD-gravity-type interpretation can be given to the counter-terms for(i). Its verified that the black M3-brane entropy S r_h^3 from M-theoretic thermodynamical methods and the horizon areas of types IIB/IIA/M3-brane solutions.

  9. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  10. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Shakeel Ansari, G.A.

    2013-02-01

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a LieberDeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (? 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (? 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (? 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (13) and 3 (46) months. C and E represent pair-fed control and ethanol-fed rats, respectively. Highlights: ? Proteins related to ethanol-induced steatosis and mild steatohepatitis are identified. ? ADH1C and ALDH2 involved in alcohol metabolism are differentially expressed at 1 and 3 months. ? Discovery proteomics identified a group of proteins to serve as potential biomarkers. ? Using nonparametric analysis DDT is identified as a possible marker for liver damage.

  11. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : iron-containing particulate catalysts. Activity report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-05-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry--specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It is desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The goal is to produce shape-selective catalysts that have the potential to limit the formation of longchain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage'. This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. This activity report centers upon this first stage of experimentation with particulate FT catalysts. (For reference, a second experimental stage is under way to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes.) To date, experimentation has centered upon the evaluation of a sample of iron-based, spray-dried catalyst prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER) and samples of his catalyst onto which inorganic 'shells' were deposited. The reference CAER catalyst contained a high level of dispersed fine particles, a portion of which was removed by differential settling. Reaction conditions have been established using a FT laboratory unit such that reasonable levels of CO conversion can be achieved, where therefore a valid catalyst comparison can be made. A wide range of catalytic activities was observed with SiO{sub 2}-coated FT catalysts. Two techniques were used for SiO{sub 2}coating. The first involved a caustic precipitation of SiO{sub 2} from an organo-silicate onto the CAER catalyst. The second was the acidic precipitation of an organo-silicate with aging to form fractal particles that were then deposited onto the CAER catalyst. Several resulting FT catalysts were as active as the coarse catalyst on which they were prepared. The most active ones were those with the least amount of coating, namely about 2.2 wt% SiO{sub 2}. In the case of the latter acid technique, the use of HCl and HNO{sub 3} was much more effective than that of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe and analyze as-received and treated FT catalysts. It was observed that (1) spherical particles of CAER FT catalyst were made up of agglomerates of particles that were, in turn, also agglomerates; (2) the spray drying process of CAER apparently concentrated the Si precursor at the surface during drying; (3) while SEM pointed out broad differences in the appearance of the prepared catalyst particles, there was little indication that the catalysts were being uniformly coated with a cage-like protective surface, with perhaps the exception of HNO{sub 3}-precipitated catalyst; and (4) there was only a limited penetration of carbon (i.e., CO) into the FT catalyst during the conditioning and FT reaction steps.