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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Polarisation-dependence of anomalous scattering in brominated DNA and RNA molecules, and importance of crystal orientation in SAD and MAD phasing.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the anisotropy of anomalous scattering at the Br K-absorption edge in brominated nucleotides is investigated, and it is shown that this effect can give rise to a marked directional dependence of the anomalous signal strength in X-ray diffraction data. This implies that choosing the correct orientation for crystals of such molecules can be a crucial determinant of success or failure when using single- and multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD or MAD) methods to solve their structure. In particular, polarized absorption spectra on an oriented crystal of a brominated DNA molecule were measured, and were used to determine the orientation that yields a maximum anomalous signal in the diffraction data. Out of several SAD data sets, only those collected at or near that optimal orientation allowed interpretable electron density maps to be obtained. The findings of this study have implications for instrumental choices in experimental stations at synchrotron beamlines, as well as for the development of data collection strategy programs.

Sanishvili, R.; Besnard, C.; Camus, F.; Fleurant, M.; Pattison, P.; Bricogne, G.; Schiltz, M.; Biosciences Division; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; ESRF; Global Phasing Ltd.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction Studies for Photovoltaic Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction (AXRD) has become a useful technique in characterizing bulk and nanomaterials as it provides specific information about the crystal structure of materials. In this project we present the results of AXRD applied to materials for photovoltaic applications: ZnO loaded with Ga and ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The X-ray diffraction data collected for various energies were plotted in Origin software. The peaks were fitted using different functions including Pseudo Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian. This fitting provided the integrated intensity data (peaks area values), which when plotted as a function of X-ray energies determined the material structure. For the first analyzed sample, Ga was not incorporated into the ZnO crystal structure. For the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel Co was found in one or both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The use of anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) provides element and site specific information for the crystal structure of a material. This technique lets us correlate the structure to the electronic properties of the materials as it allows us to probe precise locations of cations in the spinel structure. What makes it possible is that in AXRD the diffraction pattern is measured at a number of energies near an X-ray absorption edge of an element of interest. The atomic scattering strength of an element varies near its absorption edge and hence the total intensity of the diffraction peak changes by changing the X-ray energy. Thus AXRD provides element specific structural information. This method can be applied to both crystalline and liquid materials. One of the advantages of AXRD in crystallography experiments is its sensitivity to neighboring elements in the periodic tables. This method is also sensitive to specific crystallographic phases and to a specific site in a phase. The main use of AXRD in this study is for transparent conductors (TCs) analysis. TCs are considered to be important materials because of their efficiency and low risk of environmental pollution. These materials are important to solar cells as a result of their remarkable combination of optical and electrical properties, including high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency in the spectrum of visible light. TCs provide a transparent window, which allows sunlight to pass through while also allowing electricity to conduct out of the cell. Spinel materials have the chemical form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and are made of a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice of oxygen anions and cations in specific interstitial sites. A normal spinel has all A cations on tetrahedral sites and B cations on octahedral sites. In contrast; an inverse spinel has the A and half of the B cations on octahedral sites and the other half of the B cations on tetrahedral sites; a mixed spinel lies between. In the spinel structure, 8 of 64 possible tetrahedral sites and 16 of 32 possible octahedral sites are filled. Normal spinels have particularly high conduction as the linear octahedral chains of B cations likely serve as conduction paths. In this paper we present how the data obtained with AXRD is used to analyze TCs properties as they apply to photovoltaic applications. One of the materials used for this analysis is zinc oxide. It has been loaded with 5% and 10% of Ga, which has an absorption edge of 10367 eV. The peak (100) was measured for the zinc oxide loaded with 10% Ga. In the case of 5% Ga, we measured peaks (100) and (101). With the information provided by the AXRD we can identify if Ga is being incorporated in the ZnO crystal structure. The analysis of 311 plane in the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel shows if Co is in tetrahedral or octahedral site.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

3

anomalous diffraction method: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD AND OSCILLATIONS IN THE DIFFRACTION CONE CiteSeer Summary: The...

4

Diffraction anomalous fine structure analysis on (Bi,Pb){sub 2}PtO{sub 4} powders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) method can provide site selective and chemical selective structural information. The possibilities of DAFS experimental and data analysis procedures are demonstrated for (Bi{sub 1.67},Pb{sub 0.33}) powder samples. Experiments have been performed at both L{sub III} and K Pt edges (11.56.564keV and 78keV), using several data collection set-ups (analyser crystals, 1D-detector, 2D-detector). Based on this example, a comparison between these experimental procedures and analysis is given and discussed.

Vacinova, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Lab. de Cristallographie; Hodeau, J.L.; Bordet, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

MadGraph/MadEvent 4 SUSY, new models, matching and more!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alwall - MadGraph/MadEvent 4 513 Mar 2007 What is new in MG/ME 4? Web-oriented, modular software banner #12;Johan Alwall - MadGraph/MadEvent 4 713 Mar 2007 Whole chain on web or downloaded and run locally Cards filled on the web or uploaded (reusable) Modular structure ­ easy to interface to other

California at Santa Cruz, University of

6

Structure of the -Al2O3,,0001... surface from low-energy electron diffraction: Al termination and evidence for anomalously large thermal vibrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure of the -Al2O3,,0001... surface from low-energy electron diffraction: Al termination structure of -Al2O3(0001). Sapphire surfaces are prepared in three different ways, and the diffraction, the clearly favored structure has a single Al layer termination and a large first interlayer contraction

Soares, Edmar Avellar

7

Spindle assembly checkpoint robustness requires Tpr-mediated regulation of Mad1/Mad2 proteostasis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tpr is a conserved nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that Tpr is required for normal SAC response by stabilizing Mad1 and Mad2 ...

Schweizer, Nina

8

anomalous behaviours studied: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the diffraction patterns. Several 42 ANOMALOUS ISOTOPE SHIFTS IN Pb NUCLEI IN RMF THEORY CiteSeer Summary: We have studied the anomalous behaviour of isotopic shifts of Pb...

9

MAD Science Demonstration Proposal Title: A MAD view of the M 16 elephant trunks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAD Science Demonstration Proposal Title: A MAD view of the M 16 elephant trunks Investigators of the large gas and dust columns (known as "elephant trunks") in the heart of the Eagle Nebula (M 16 columns, or "elephant trunks". These trunks were famously imaged by Hester et al. (1996, AJ, 111, 2349

Liske, Jochen

10

Automation of the Dipole Subtraction Method in MadGraph/MadEvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the implementation of the dipole subtraction formalism for the real radiation contributions to any next-to-leading order QCD process in the MadGraph/MadEvent framework. Both massless and massive dipoles are considered. Starting from a specific (n+1)-particle process the package provides a Fortran code for all possible dipoles to all Born processes that constitute the subtraction term to the (n+1)-particle process. The output files are given in the usual "MadGraph StandAlone" style using helicity amplitudes.

Rikkert Frederix; Thomas Gehrmann; Nicolas Greiner

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

MadGraph 5 : Going Beyond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MadGraph 5 is the new version of the MadGraph matrix element generator, written in the Python programming language. It implements a number of new, efficient algorithms that provide improved performance and functionality in all aspects of the program. It features a new user interface, several new output formats including C++ process libraries for Pythia 8, and full compatibility with FeynRules for new physics models implementation, allowing for event generation for any model that can be written in the form of a Lagrangian. MadGraph 5 builds on the same philosophy as the previous versions, and its design allows it to be used as a collaborative platform where theoretical, phenomenological and simulation projects can be developed and then distributed to the high-energy community. We describe the ideas and the most important developments of the code and illustrate its capabilities through a few simple phenomenological examples.

Johan Alwall; Michel Herquet; Fabio Maltoni; Olivier Mattelaer; Tim Stelzer

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

12

MadDM v.1.0: Computation of Dark Matter Relic Abundance Using MadGraph5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present MadDM v.1.0, a numerical tool to compute dark matter relic abundance in a generic model. The code is based on the existing MadGraph 5 architecture and as such is easily integrable into any MadGraph collider study. A simple Python interface offers a level of user-friendliness characteristic of MadGraph 5 without sacrificing functionality. MadDM is able to calculate the dark matter relic abundance in models which include a multi-component dark sector, resonance annihilation channels and co-annihilations. We validate the code in a wide range of dark matter models by comparing the relic density results from MadDM to the existing tools and literature.

Mihailo Backovic; Kyoungchul Kong; Mathew McCaskey

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

13

Mad Dash Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay IEOWCCatcher.pngWavemill <MNMabank,formMad Dash

14

Linking SARAH and MadGraph using the UFO format  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/OMEGA. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files have seen further improvement in this version.

Staub, Florian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Designing and recasting LHC analyses with MadAnalysis 5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an extension of the expert mode of the MadAnalysis 5 program dedicated to the design or reinterpretation of high-energy physics collider analyses. We detail the predefined classes, functions and methods available to the user and emphasize the most recent developments. The latter include the possible definition of multiple sub-analyses and a novel user-friendly treatment for the selection criteria. We illustrate this approach by two concrete examples: a CMS search for supersymmetric partners of the top quark and a phenomenological analysis targeting hadronically decaying monotop systems.

Eric Conte; Béranger Dumont; Benjamin Fuks; Chris Wymant

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

16

Anomalous Microwave Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved knowledge of diffuse Galactic emission is important to maximize the scientific return from scheduled CMB anisotropy missions. Cross-correlation of microwave maps with maps of the far-IR dust continuum show a ubiquitous microwave emission component whose spatial distribution is traced by far-IR dust emission. The spectral index of this emission, beta_{radio} = -2.2 (+0.5 -0.7) is suggestive of free-free emission but does not preclude other candidates. Comparison of H-alpha and microwave results show that both data sets have positive correlations with the far-IR dust emission. Microwave data, however, are consistently brighter than can be explained solely from free-free emission traced by H-alpha. This ``anomalous'' microwave emission can be explained as electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The anomalous component at 53 GHz is 2.5 times as bright as the free-free emission traced by H-alpha, providing an approximate normalization for models with significant spinning dust emission.

A. Kogut

1999-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

17

Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: {\\psi}_{\\alpha} (t)~t^(-1-{\\alpha}), 0renewal as all the particles attempt to jump at the same time. It is shown that the mean square displacement (MSD) in a renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous file, , obeys, ~[_{nrml}]^{\\alpha}, where _{nrml} is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

Ophir Flomenbom

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

18

BTA Magnet Field Map Archive and MAD Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This note publishes some and information that has resided in private files. The attached tables were provided by Joseph Skelly from his archives. They show magnetic field measurements versus excitation current for the Booster to AGS transfer line quadrupoles and dipoles based on field measurements [we believe] were done by the Magnet Division. Also given are Ed Blesser's fifth order fits of field versus current. The results are given in 'Tesla' or T-M/M. These tables are attached to provide an archive of this data. The MAD model of the BTA line does have the same values as shown in the attached fits so the transfer was correct. MAD uses as its 'gradient' for quads Tesla per meter normalized to rigidity [B-rho]. The model of the BTA line in use uses the T-M/M given in the tables divided by the length to give T M which is then normalized by Brho. Thus, the input to the model appears to be correct. The original model is also attached as part of a memo by Skelly describing it.

Glenn,J.W.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - activates mad1 target Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: activates mad1 target Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 10, 26072618, August 1999 Summary: is sufficient to activate the...

20

Accelerating and Retarding Anomalous Diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper Gaussian models of retarded and accelerated anomalous diffusion are considered. Stochastic differential equations of fractional order driven by single or multiple fractional Gaussian noise terms are introduced to describe retarding and accelerating subdiffusion and superdiffusion. Short and long time asymptotic limits of the mean squared displacement of the stochastic processes associated with the solutions of these equations are studied. Specific cases of these equations are shown to provide possible descriptions of retarding or accelerating anomalous diffusion.

Chai Hok Eab; S. C. Lim

2012-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Spectroscopy and Diffraction | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Techniques Electron spectroscopy Electron backscatter diffraction Atom probe tomography Ionmolecular beam spectroscopy 57Fe-Mssbauer spectroscopy Optical spectroscopy...

22

ANSI X3H2-97-010 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-245  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANSI X3H2-97-010 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-245 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION and A. Steiner. Adding Valid Time to SQL Temporal. 1996. ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-146r2, ANSI X3H2 Temporal. 1996. ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-147r2, ANSI X3H2-96-502r1. 6 Snodgrass, R.T., Addendum

Snodgrass, Richard T.

23

Anomalous-viscosity current drive  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

1986-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

24

Diffraction Results from CDF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present final results by the CDF II collaboration on diffractive W and Z production, report on the status of ongoing analyses on diffractive dijet production and on rapidity gaps between jets, and briefly summarize results obtained on exclusive production pointing to their relevance to calibrating theoretical models used to predict exclusive Higgs-boson production at the LHC.

Goulianos, Konstantin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Towards a public analysis database for LHC new physics searches using MadAnalysis 5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the implementation, in the MadAnalysis 5 framework, of several ATLAS and CMS searches for supersymmetry in data recorded during the first run of the LHC. We provide extensive details on the validation of our implementations and propose to create a public analysis database within this framework.

B. Dumont; B. Fuks; S. Kraml; S. Bein; G. Chalons; E. Conte; S. Kulkarni; D. Sengupta; C. Wymant

2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

26

Anomalous  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmes Laboratory Site|Andrea4» AnnualCertification |impurity

27

ANSI X3H2-96-582 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-203  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANSI X3H2-96-582 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-203 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: Change Proposal Title: Addendum to Valid- and Transaction-time Proposals Source: ANSI Expert. Steiner Adding Valid Time to SQL Temporal, ANSI X3H2-96-501r2, ISO IEC JTC 1 SC 21 WG 3 DBL-MAD-146r2

Snodgrass, Richard T.

28

Diffraction at collider energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lessons with ``soft`` hadron physics to explain (a) feasibility to observe and to investigate color transparency, color opacity effects at colliders; (b) significant probability and specific features of hard diffractive processes; (c) feasibility to investigate components of parton wave functions of hadrons with minimal number of constituents. This new physics would be more important with increase of collision energy.

Frankfurt, L.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Diffraction at collider energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lessons with soft'' hadron physics to explain (a) feasibility to observe and to investigate color transparency, color opacity effects at colliders; (b) significant probability and specific features of hard diffractive processes; (c) feasibility to investigate components of parton wave functions of hadrons with minimal number of constituents. This new physics would be more important with increase of collision energy.

Frankfurt, L.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Anomalous Emission from HII regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

C. Dickinson

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

Anomalous transport through porous and fractured media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous transport, understood as the nonlinear scaling with time of the mean square displacement of transported particles, is observed in many physical processes, including contaminant transport through porous and fractured ...

Kang, Peter Kyungchul

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argued to be a robust feature common to the finite-capacity turbulence systems. The anomalous exponent is independent of the initial conditions but varies for for different models of the same physical system.

Simon Thalabard; Sergey Nazarenko; Sebastien Galtier; Medvedev Sergey

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

34

anomalous x-ray diffraction: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

35

Testing of the Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation with T-Matrix Calculations for Hexagonal Columns  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2 . Tensile StrainTerry LawLBlogOperationalof

36

Towards an ESL Design Framework for Adaptive and Fault-tolerant MPSoCs: MADNESS or not?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: a.d.pimentel@uva.nl Abstract--The MADNESS project aims at the definition of innovative system.meloni@diee.unica.it Informatik Centrum Dortmund, Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 20, Dortmund, Germany Email: neugebauer@icd.de Computer Systems Architecture Group, Informatics Institute, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Email

Pimentel, Andy D.

37

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous energy exchange Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. and + represent normal anomalous Green's functions superconducting electron ordinary energy electron simple... . gain some insight into relative importance anomalous tree ......

38

Diffractive bremsstrahlung in hadronic collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production of heavy photons (Drell-Yan), gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, heavy flavors, which is treated within the QCD parton model as a result of hard parton-parton collision, can be considered as a bremsstrahlung process in the target rest frame. In this review, we discuss the basic features of the diffractive channels of these processes in the framework of color dipole approach. The main observation is a dramatic breakdown of diffractive QCD factorisation due to the interplay between soft and hard interactions, which dominates these processes. This observation is crucial for phenomenological studies of diffractive reactions in high-energy hadronic collisions.

Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

NLO BFKL and Anomalous Dimensions of Light-Ray Operators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators of twist two are obtained by analytical continuation of the anomalous dimensions of corresponding local operators. I demonstrate that the asymptotics of these anomalous dimensions at the "BFKL point" j ? 1 can be obtained by comparing the light-cone operator expansion with the high-energy expansion in Wilson lines.

Balitsky, Ian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argu...

Thalabard, Simon; Galtier, Sebastien; Sergey, Medvedev

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electrically-programmable diffraction grating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Detonation Diffraction into a Confined Volume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

little attention. Experimental work needs to be conducted on detonation diffraction into a confined volume to better understand how the interaction of the diffracted shock wave with a confining wall impacts the detonation diffraction process. Therefore, a...

Polley, Nolan Lee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

43

Anomalous Cherenkov spin-orbit sound  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cherenkov effect is a well-known phenomenon in the electrodynamics of fast charged particles passing through transparent media. If the particle is faster than the light in a given medium, the medium emits a forward light cone. This beautiful phenomenon has an acoustic counterpart where the role of photons is played by phonons and the role of the speed of light is played by the sound velocity. In this case the medium emits a forward sound cone. Here, we show that in a system with spin-orbit interactions in addition to this normal Cherenkov sound there appears an anomalous Cherenkov sound with forward and backward sound propagation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transition from the normal to anomalous Cherenkov sound happens in a singular way at the Cherenkov cone angle. The detection of this acoustic singularity therefore represents an alternative experimental tool for the measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength.

Smirnov, Sergey [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Anomalous Topological Pumps and Fractional Josephson Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discover novel topological pumps in the Josephson effects for superconductors. The phase difference, which is odd under the chiral symmetry defined by the product of time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries, acts as an anomalous adiabatic parameter. These pumping cycles are different from those in the "periodic table", and are characterized by $Z\\times Z$ or $Z_2\\times Z_2$ strong invariants. We determine the general classifications in class AIII, and those in class DIII with a single anomalous parameter. For the $Z_2\\times Z_2$ topological pump in class DIII, one $Z_2$ invariant describes the coincidence of fermion parity and spin pumps whereas the other one reflects the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers pairs, leading to three distinct fractional Josephson effects.

Fan Zhang; C. L. Kane

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Probing anomalous gauge boson couplings at LEP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We bound anomalous gauge boson couplings using LEP data for the Z {yields} {bar {integral}}{integral} partial widths. We use an effective field theory formalism to compute the one-loop corrections resulting from non-standard model three and four gauge boson vertices. We find that measurements at LEP constrain the three gauge boson couplings at a level comparable to that obtainable at LEPII.

Dawson, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Valencia, G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

High-pressure neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

47

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

G. N. Doyle

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the Coso volcanic region, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

49

The investigation of anomalous magnetization in the Raft River...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

River valley, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: The investigation of anomalous magnetization in the Raft River...

50

The Crystal Structure of a Major Dust Mite Allergen Der p 2, and its Biological Implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

peak SeMet-51 PEG low-energy remote SeMet-11 PEG high-energy remote dp2-as AS frozen hamb-nat AS room Hypersensitivity to house dust mite (Dermato- phagoides sp.) allergens is one of the most common allergic reactions Der p 2; PEG, polyethylene glycol; MAD, multiwavelength anomalous diffraction; NOE, nuclear Overhauser

51

A Possible Explanation of Anomalous Earth Flybys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Doppler shift observations of several spacecrafts during near Earth flybys show an unexplained frequency shift. This shift is interpreted as an unexpected velocity change called Earth flyby anomaly. A theory of non-privileged reference frames is used to study the Doppler shift in such frames which are experimentally justified by the measured dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in the solar system. The system in which the CMB is isotropic defines the privileged reference frame. The calculated frequency shift in non-privileged reference frames may give an explanation of the anomalous Earth flybys.

Walter Petry

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

52

Anomalous Light Absorption by Small Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of resonant light absorption by a small particle (nanocluster) is reported. The problem cannot be described within the commonly used dipole scattering approximation and should be studied with methods based upon the exact Mie solution. It is shown that the absorption cross-section has giant maxima realized at small values of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity of the particle. The maxima are situated in the vicinity of the plasmon (polariton) resonances and correspond to the regions where the dissipative damping equals the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering [PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006)] and exhibits similar peculiarities.

Michael I. Tribelsky

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Anomalous atmospheric hydrologic processes associated with ENSO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the structure of anomalous atmospheric hydrologic processes associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using re-analysis data obtained from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) and outputs from GEOS climate model simulations. Our results show a very pronounced tropospheric warming over the equatorial central Pacific, with a double maxima located in 15{degrees}N and 15{degrees}/S, symmetric about the equator. This anomaly is in agreement with those found in earlier studies based on satellite estimates and is consistent with the predictions of Rossby wave dynamics. Most interestingly, we find a strong stratospheric temperature signal, which is tightly coupled to, but of opposite sign to the tropospheric anomaly. This temperature anomaly pattern is validated by the GCM simulations with respect to anomalous ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. The role of interaction between radiation and hydrologic cycle in producing and maintaining the ENSO anomalies is also investigated. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Lau, K.M.; Ho, C.H. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux The purpose of this tutorial is to model graphene d Pj k px j py k 2 i 1 A Graphene Model Diffraction Pattern #12;

Rioux, Frank

55

Fabrication of extremely smooth blazed diffraction gratings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High efficiency diffraction gratings are important in a variety of applications, such as optical telecommunications, lithography, and spectroscopy. Special interest has been placed on blazed diffraction gratings for their ...

Chang, Chih-Hao, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

ATLAS sensitivity to Wtb anomalous couplings in top quark decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment to Wtb anomalous couplings in top pair production with semileptonic decay, pp -> t tbar -> W+ b W- bbar, with one of the W bosons decaying leptonically and the other hadronically. Several observables are examined, including the W helicity fractions and new quantities recently introduced, such as the ratios of helicity fractions and some angular asymmetries defined in the W rest frame. The dependence on anomalous couplings of all these observables has been previously obtained. In this work we show that some of the new observables also have smaller systematic uncertainties than the helicity fractions, with a dependence on anomalous couplings similar or stronger than for helicity fractions. Consequently, their measurement can significantly improve the limits on anomalous couplings. Moreover, the most sensitive measurements can be combined. In this case, the precision achieved in the determination of Wtb anomalous couplings can be of a few percent in the semileptonic channel alone.

J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; J. Carvalho; N. Castro; A. Onofre; F. Veloso

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous electric conductions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Royal... expression for the anomalous exponent, equation (3.3). Because the electric fields are extremely high... Hot-Carrier Model for an Anomalous Exponent of ... Source:...

58

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous electron transport Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the electron energy equation more re- alistic and thus better behaved. 2.1 Anomalous Transport... -geometry MPD thruster flows including anomalous transport has been de- veloped...

59

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalously interacting extra Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON ANOMALOUS Summary: questionable, if one should study models with a fundamental Higgs boson, but with extra anomalous vector boson... vector bosons via normal standard model...

60

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous pulmonary venous Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

case oF the month Summary: ). There was no anomalous pulmonary venous return. Right heart catheterization demonstrated a step up in mean oxygen... with partial anomalous...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous skin effect Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AT 35 GHZ Summary: us well into the anomalous skin effect regime. To facilitate comparison with the static resistivity... , we have used the the anomalous skin effect formula...

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous specific heat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

be important for redistributing the anomalous heat content in the hot spot region to the remote Tropics... . The anomalous heat content of ... Source: Sobel, Adam - Department of...

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous field effect Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with an anomalous friction torque being driven... by altering both the diabatic heating and surface friction fields. For example, in regions of anomalous... (Fig. 3b) and...

64

Fiber optic diffraction grating maker  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

1991-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fiber optic diffraction grating maker  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Diffractive J/Psi Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents measurements of two diffractive production ratio for heavy flavour physics with the use of a reconstructed J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} sample in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab Tevatron. These events were selected using the Luminosity Monitor detectors, the calorimeter system and the muon system in a pseudo-rapidity region with range 2.7 {le} |{eta}| {le} 4.4. The measured ratio were estimated to be N{sub diff}{sup J/{psi}}/N{sub total}{sup J/{psi}} = (1.74 {+-} 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst))% e N{sub diff}{sup b}/N{sub total}{sup b} = (0.79 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.23(syst))%.

Assis Jesus, Ana Carolina; /Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; ,

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Recent Results in Diffractive ep Scattering at HERA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent Results in Diffractive ep Scattering at HERA Introduction to diffraction in ep Exclusive Diffraction in ep Scattering Matthew Beckingham 2 Diffraction Lepton-hadron (-p) or hadron-hadron (p to interpret in (p)QCD? #12;Lake Louise 06 Diffraction in ep Scattering Matthew Beckingham 3 Diffraction

68

Origin of anomalous atomic vibrations in efficient thermoelectrics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Functional Materials for Energy Origin of anomalous atomic vibrations in efficient thermoelectrics revealed May 06, 2014 Figure 1: Comparison of S(Q,E) measured with INS (left) and...

69

Topological Spin Texture in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has been recently discovered in an experiment using a thin-film topological insulator with ferromagnetic ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we investigate the spin degree ...

Wu, Jiansheng

70

Standard Model Prediction of the Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I review the present Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The discrepancy with its experimental determination is (25.5 +- 8.0) x 10^-10, i.e., 3.2 standard deviations.

Joaquim Prades

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

71

anomalous scattering boosts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are not excluded, but they are constrained to be functions of conformal cross ratios of kinematic variables. Einan Gardi; Lorenzo Magnea 2009-01-08 3 Notes on Anomalous...

72

anomalous coupling limits: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the WWZ couplings. D0 Collaboration 1999-05-04 4 Limits on Anomalous Couplings from Higgs Boson Production at the Tevatron HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: We estimate the...

73

anomalous scattering factor: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

D. Mitra; D. R. Lorimer; A. G. Lyne 2001-11-08 5 Anomalous gauge couplings of the Higgs boson at the CERN LHC: Semileptonic mode in WW scatterings HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv)...

74

anomalously high number: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Baier; M. Dirks; O. Kober 1996-03-13 7 Anomalous behavior of pion production in high energy particle collisions HEP - Experiment (arXiv) Summary: A shape of invariant...

75

Quantum transport, anomalous dephasing, and spin-orbit coupling...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantum transport, anomalous dephasing, and spin-orbit coupling in an open ballistic bismuth nanocavity Home Author: B. Hackens, J. P. Minet, S. Faniel, G. Farhi, C. Gustin, J. P....

76

Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A finely detailed diffraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the diffraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating. 7 figures.

Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

77

Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

Taner, M. Turhan

2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

78

Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S. [TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Physics Division, Ankara (Turkey); TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Physics Division, Ankara, Turkey and Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ankara University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Anomalous neutron Compton scattering from molecular hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Application of neutron Compton scattering, which operates in the attosecond time scale, to (a) the equimolar H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} mixture and (b) the mixed-isotope system HD (liquids, both at 20 K), reveals a strong anomalous shortfall (about 30%) of the ratio R={sigma}{sub H}/{sigma}{sub D} of H and D cross sections. This striking effect is similar to that observed in liquid H{sub 2}O-D{sub 2}O mixtures [C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2839 (1997)]. Crucially, the shortfall of R is equal in both samples (a) and (b). This result demonstrates that quantum exchange correlations of identical nuclei play no significant role in this effect, thus refuting corresponding theoretical models claiming its interpretation. In contrast, our findings are consistent with alternative theoretical models, in which attosecond dynamics of electronic degrees of freedom (via violation of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) is considered to participate significantly in the dynamics of an elementary neutron-proton (-deuteron) scattering process. Possible implications for attosecond chemical dynamics, e.g., the onset of bond breaking, are mentioned.

Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A.; Krzystyniak, M. [Institute of Chemistry, Stranski Laboratory, Technical University of Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Abdul-Redah, T. [Physics Laboratory, The University of Kent at Canterbury, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom)

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Large aperture diffractive space telescope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ultrasonic imaging with limited-diffraction beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limited-diffraction beams are a class of waves that may be localized in space and time. Theoretically, these beams are propagation invariant and can propagate to an infinite distance without spreading. In practice, when these beams are produced with wave sources of a finite aperture and energy, they have a very large depth of field, meaning that they can keep a small beam width over a large distance. Because of this property, limited-diffraction beams may have applications in various areas such as medical imaging and tissue characterization. In this paper, fundamentals of limited-diffraction beams are reviewed and the studies of these beams are put into a unified theoretical framework. Theory of limited-diffraction beams is further developed. New limited-diffraction solutions to Klein-Gordon Equation and Schrodinger Equation, as well as limited-diffraction solutions to these equations in confined spaces are obtained. The relationship between the transformation that converts any solutions to an (-1)-dimensional wave equation to limited-diffraction solutions of an -dimensional equation and the Lorentz transformation is clarified and extended. The transformation is also applied to the Klein-Gordon Equation. In addition, applications of limited-diffraction beams are summarized.

Jian-yu Lu

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

83

Quantifying the Magnitude of Anomalous Solar Absorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The data set from ARESE II, sponsored by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, provides a unique opportunity to understand solar absorption in the atmosphere because of the combination of three sets of broadband solar radiometers mounted on the Twin Otter aircraft and the ground based instruments at the ARM Southern Great Plains facility. In this study, we analyze the measurements taken on two clear sky days and three cloudy days and model the solar radiative transfer in each case with two different models. On the two clear days, the calculated and measured column absorptions agree to better than 10 Wm-2, which is about 10% of the total column absorption. Because both the model fluxes and the individual radiometer measurements are accurate to no better than 10 Wm-2, we conclude that the models and measurements are essentially in agreement. For the three cloudy days, the model calculations agree very well with each other and on two of the three days agree with the measurements to 20 Wm-2 or less out of a total column absorption of more than 200 Wm-2, which is again agreement at better than 10%. On the third day, the model and measurements agree to either 8% or 14% depending on which value of surface albedo is used. Differences exceeding 10% represent a significant absorption difference between model and observations. In addition to the uncertainty in absorption due to surface albedo, we show that including aerosol with an optical depth similar to that found on clear days can reduce the difference between model and measurement by 5% or more. Thus, we conclude that the ARESE II results are incompatible with previous studies reporting extreme anomalous absorption and can be modeled with our current understanding of radiative transfer.

Ackerman, Thomas P.; Flynn, Donna M.; Marchand, Roger T.

2003-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Element-and site-specific oxidation state and cation distribution in manganese ferrite films by diffraction anomalous fine structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Element- and site-specific oxidation state and cation distribution in manganese ferrite films Received 2 April 2008; accepted 9 July 2008; published online 8 August 2008 Epitaxial manganese ferrite.1063/1.2969406 Spinel ferrites represent an important class of materials that provide high permeability, moderate

Haskel, Daniel

85

New diffractive results from the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results in diffractive processes are summarized and a few notable characteristics described in terms of Quantum Chromodynamics. Exclusive dijet production is used to establish a benchmark for future experiments in the quest for diffractive Higgs production at the Large Hadron Collider. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Stringent upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented. The quark/gluon composition of dijet final states is used to provide additional hints on exclusive dijet production.

Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Visualizations of the Exclusive Central Diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The case of the low invariant mass exclusive central diffractive production is considered in the general theoretical framework. It is shown that diffractive patterns (differential cross-sections on variables like transfer momenta squared, the azimuthal angle between final hadrons and their combinations) can serve as a unique tool to explore the picture of the $pp$ interaction and falsify theoretical models. Basic kinematical and dynamical properties of the process are considered in detail. As an example, visualizations of diffractive patterns in the model with three pomerons for processes $p+p\\to p+R+p$ and $p+p\\to p+\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}+p$ are presented.

R. A. Ryutin

2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

87

Phenomenology of single and double diffraction dissociation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predictions of the gap-probability renormalization model for single and double diffraction dissociation cross sections in proton-proton collisions at the LHC are presented and compared with recent CMS measurements.

Konstantin Goulianos

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Current distribution in systems with anomalous diffusion: renormalisation group approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the asymptotic properties of the large deviation function of the integrated particle current in systems, in or out of thermal equilibrium, whose dynamics exhibits anomalous diffusion. The physical systems covered by our study include mutually repelling particles with a drift, a driven lattice gas displaying a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition, and particles diffusing in a anisotropic random advective field. It is exemplified how renormalisation group techniques allow for a systematic determination of power laws in the corresponding current large deviation functions. We show that the latter are governed by known universal scaling exponents, specifically, the anomalous dimension of the noise correlators.

Vivien Lecomte; Uwe C. Tauber; Frederic van Wijland

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - apparent anomalous weak Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between the two cases. As is apparent from equation 17, the anomalous... anomalous transport. It is again appar- ent that this decrease is greatest near the root of the...

91

On the Tropospheric Response to Anomalous Stratospheric Wave Drag and Radiative Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Tropospheric Response to Anomalous Stratospheric Wave Drag and Radiative Heating DAVID W. J of anomalous diabatic heating in the polar stratosphere as stratospheric temperatures relax to climatology

92

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous gauge couplings Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IN p Zb... . Anomalous neutral triple gauge couplings (NTGC), which are not present at tree level in the SM, may induce... .07 0.96 12;Probing Anomalous ... Source: Magiera,...

93

Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous left external Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 47 Ris National Laboratory Optics and Plasma Research Department Summary: diffusion and anomalous turbulent transport. Several...

95

Anomalous emissions of 103mRh biphoton transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this report, the anomalous emissions, centered on the one half transition energy 39.76/2 keV, are observed from the long-lived Mossbauer state of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung exposure. Strong coupling with identical nuclei in Rh crystals opens cascade channels for biphoton transitions.

Yao Cheng; Bing Xia

2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

96

Anomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as well as interpenetrating and bicontinu- ous networks.7,8 Phase inversion occurs when the mi- norityAnomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying Archie P strategies for producing highly dis- persed multicomponent polymer blends. By their very nature

97

Climatic regime shift and decadal anomalous events in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climatic regime shift and decadal anomalous events in China Weihong Qian & Xiang Lin & Yafen Zhu from China showed temporal and regional patterns in the last two to three centuries, including two. The coldest event occurred in the decade of 1965­1975 in eastern China, while the periods of 1920­1930, 1940

Qian, Weihong

98

anomalous energy dependence: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

anomalous energy dependence First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Scale-dependent mass...

99

Diffractive Higgs boson photoproduction in $?p$ process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore an alternative process for the diffractive Higgs boson production in peripheral pp collisions arising from Double Pomeron Exchange in photon-proton interaction. We introduce the impact factor formalism in order to enable the gluon ladder exchange in the photon-proton subprocess, and to permit the central Higgs production. The event rate for the diffractive Higgs production in central rapidity is estimated to be about 0.6 pb at Tevatron and LHC energies. This result is higher than predictions from other approaches for diffractive Higgs production, showing that the alternative production process leads to an enhanced signal for the detection of the Higgs boson at hadron colliders. Our results are compared to those obtained from a similar approach proposed by the Durham group. In this way we may examine the future developments in its application to pp and AA collisions.

M. B. Gay Ducati; G. G. Silveira

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

100

X-Ray Diffraction The X-Ray Diffraction facility is equipped with state-of-the-art  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Diffraction The X-Ray Diffraction facility is equipped with state-of-the-art diffractometers offering both single crystal and powder X-Ray diffraction. Powder X-Ray Diffraction High resolution data For more details on powder X-Ray analysis contact Dr J Hriljac on 0121 414 4458 or email: j

Birmingham, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF ICE Alexe BOSAK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ic 28o halo observed at least 7 times since 1629 octahedral particles of ice Ic! #12;Cooling downDIFFRACTION STUDIES OF ICE Alexeï BOSAK European Synchrotron Radiation Facility #12;Ice as the mild threat ice Ih the only ice in the crust #12;Ice as the absolute weapon Ice IX : melting point 45.8°C

Titov, Anatoly

102

X-Ray Diffraction on NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently a 192 beam, 1.6 MJ laser. NIF Ramp-Compression Experiments have already made the relevant exo-planet pressure range from 1 to 50 Mbar accessible. We Proposed to Study Carbon Phases by X-Ray Diffraction on NIF. Just a few years ago, ultra-high pressure phase diagrams for materials were very 'simple'. New experiments and theories point out surprising and decidedly complex behavior at the highest pressures considered. High pressures phases of aluminum are also predicted to be complex. Recent metadynamics survey of carbon proposed a dynamic pathway among multiple phases. We need to develop diagnostics and techniques to explore this new regime of highly compressed matter science. X-Ray Diffraction - Understand the phase diagram/EOS/strength/texture of materials to 10's of Mbar. Strategy and physics goals: (1) Powder diffraction; (2) Begin with diamond; (3) Continue with metals etc.; (4) Explore phase diagrams; (5) Develop liquid diffraction; and (6) Reduce background/improve resolution.

Eggert, J H; Wark, J

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Near-field diffractive elements Daniel Marks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by a near-field diffractive element (NDE) that scatters the high-spatial-frequency components of the field susceptibility r , and the NDE is described by the susceptibilty r . The field obeys the equation 2 U r +k0 2 U r to first order in both the NDE and the sample susceptibilities. It is assumed that the background terms

Bhargava, Rohit

104

Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics.

Degrande, Céline, E-mail: cdegrand@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Greiner, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Kilian, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Siegen, Fachbereich Physik, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Mattelaer, Olivier [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Cen [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Anomalous spin of the Chern-Simons-Georgi-Glashow model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the Coulomb gauge, the Chern-Simons-Georgi-Glashow (CSGG) model is quantized in the Dirac formalism for the constrained system. Combining the Gauss law and Coulomb gauge consistency condition, the difference between the Schwinger angular momentum and canonical angular momentum of the system is found to be an anomalous spin. The reason for this result lies in that the Schwinger energy momentum tensor and the canonical one have different symmetry properties in presence of the Chern-Simons term.

Huo Qiu-Hong; Jiang Yunguo

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

112

A structural framework for anomalous change detection and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a spatially adaptive scheme for automatically searching a pair of images of a scene for unusual and interesting changes. Our motivation is to bring into play structural aspects of image features alongside the spectral attributes used for anomalous change detection (ACD). We leverage a small but informative subset of pixels, namely edge pixels of the images, as anchor points of a Delaunay triangulation to jointly decompose the images into a set of triangular regions, called trixels, which are spectrally uniform. Such decomposition helps in image regularization by simple-function approximation on a feature-adaptive grid. Applying ACD to this trixel grid instead of pixels offers several advantages. It allows: (1) edge-preserving smoothing of images, (2) speed-up of spatial computations by significantly reducing the representation of the images, and (3) the easy recovery of structure of the detected anomalous changes by associating anomalous trixels with polygonal image features. The latter facility further enables the application of shape-theoretic criteria and algorithms to characterize the changes and recognize them as interesting or not. This incorporation of spatial information has the potential to filter out some spurious changes, such as due to parallax, shadows, and misregistration, by identifying and filtering out those that are structurally similar and spatially pervasive. Our framework supports the joint spatial and spectral analysis of images, potentially enabling the design of more robust ACD algorithms.

Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Anomalous Lagrangians and the radiative muon capture in hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure of an anomalous Lagrangian of the pi-rho-omega-a_1 system is investigated within the hidden local SU(2)_R x SU(2)_L symmetry approach. The interaction of the external electromagnetic and weak vector and axial-vector fields with the above hadron system is included. The Lagrangian of interest contains the anomalous Wess-Zumino term following from the well known Wess-Zumino-Witten action and six independent homogenous terms. It is characterized by four constants that are to be determined from a fit to the data on various elementary reactions. Present data allows one to extract the constants with a good accuracy. The homogenous part of the Lagrangian has been applied in the study of anomalous processes that could enhance the high energy tail of the spectrum of photons, produced in the radiative muon capture in hydrogen. It should be noted that recently, an intensive search for such enhancement processes has been carried in the literature, in an attempt to resolve the so called "g_P puzzle": an about 50 % difference between the theoretical prediction of the value of the induced pseudoscalar constant g_P and its value extracted from the high energy tail of the photon spectrum, measured in the precision TRIUMF experiment. Here, more details on the studied material are presented and new results, obtained by using the Wess-Zumino term, are provided.

J. Smejkal; E. Truhlik; F. C. Khanna

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

114

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) · 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction · 2.0 Basics of Crystallography · 3.0 Production of X-rays · 4.0 Applications of XRD · 5.0 Instrumental Sources of Error · 6.0 Conclusions #12 why the cleavage faces of crystals appear to reflect X-ray beams at certain angles of incidence (theta

Moeck, Peter

115

Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25 R-MAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25, Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Building 3110, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--891-VOL I-Rev. 1, dated July 2003, provides details of demolition, waste disposal, and use restriction (UR) modification for Corrective Action Unit 113, Area 25 R-MAD Facility. Demolition was completed on July 15, 2010, when the last of the building debris was disposed. Final field activities were concluded on August 30, 2010, after all equipment was demobilized and UR signs were posted. This work was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

116

Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

Medecki, Hector (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Diffractive and exclusive measurements at CDF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results from the CDF experiment at the Tevatron in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented on the diffractive structure function at different values of the exchanged momentum transfer squared in the range 0 < Q{sup 2} < 10,000 GeV{sup 2}, on the four-momentum transfer |t| distribution in the region 0 < |t| < 1 GeV{sup 2} for both soft and hard diffractive events up to Q{sup 2} {approx} 4,500 GeV{sup 2}, and on the first experimental evidence of exclusive production in both dijet and diphoton events. A novel technique to align the Roman Pot detectors is also presented.

Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

Medecki, H.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

119

QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an introduction to QCD at the LHC the author gives an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q{sup 2} frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors the author discusses high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. The author introduces the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420m downstream of ATLAS and CMS.

Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous conductance oscillations Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spatial conductivity distribution... .1 Numerical simulation of anomalous horizontal fields from conductance distribution map In case the nature... , contain information on the...

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous diffusion dynamics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Based on this finding, we... is used to derive a linear anomalous transport-diffusion equation ... Source: Mathematical Physics Preprint Archive Collection: Mathematics 19 Thesis...

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous fine structure Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

structure derives micr PDF f elementary cell (with... 2005 Understanding anomalous transport intermittent maps: From ... Source: Klages, Rainer - School of Mathematical...

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous equilibrium fractionation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics 98 Anomalous Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Thin Films in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Summary: on the same line since the system is at equilibrium and...

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous temperature dependence Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

polarity of the forcing. The deeper vertical penetration of anomalous heating compared to cooling... surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover in the North Atlantic have...

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous temperature reversal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

polarity of the forcing. The deeper vertical penetration of anomalous heating compared to cooling... surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover in the North Atlantic have...

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous heat conduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

parallel studies of the upper ocean heat budget have been conducted... of the anomalous heat ... Source: Kelly, Kathryn A. - Air-Sea Interaction and Remote Sensing Department,...

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous critical behavior Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carlos III de Madrid Collection: Physics 31 Ris National Laboratory Optics and Plasma Research Department Summary: . argued that the ensuing anomalous transport is dominated by...

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous thermal conductivity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering, University of Tokyo Collection: Materials Science 3 MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING COLLOQUIUM SERIES Summary: on heat transfer. To inform a debate on anomalous...

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous dimension matrix Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

misregistration), and to focus instead on the "anomalous Source: Theiler, James - Nonproliferation and International Security Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Collection:...

131

anomalous low-temperature behavior: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Investigation on Reliability and Anomalous Degradation of Low Temperature Poly-Si Thin-Film Transistor. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??In this thesis, we will...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous situations actuacion Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics 45 Graph-Based Anomaly Detection Caleb C. Noble Summary: the Subdue system. The first, anomalous substructure detection, looks for specific, unusual substructures... within...

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous microwave emission Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sources, all detectable... We confirm the anomalous long-term behavior of the non-flare solar ... Source: Hudson, Hugh - Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at...

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous physical effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

advection (including the effect of ocean waves) and evaporational cooling... ) and the remote and local impact of the anomalous monsoon (Fig. 12d). The ... Source: Chang,...

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous dielectric absorption Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: anomalous dielectric absorption Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 PHY 7097--Optical Effects in Solids 2011 Course Syllabus Summary: dielectric function, . 3....

136

Anomalous effects due to the inertial anti-gravitational potential of the sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is introduced inertial anti-gravitational potential into the theory of gravity to stop gravitational collapse at the nuclear density and thus prevent singularities. It is considered effective gravity which includes Newtonian potential and inertial anti-gravitational potential. It is investigated footprints of the effective gravity in the solar system. The inertial anti-gravitational potential of the sun allows to explain the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11, the anomalous increase in the lunar semi-major axis, the residuals of the seasonal variation of the proper angular velocity of the earth, the anomalous increase of the Astronomical Unit, the anomalous shift of the perihelion of mercury.

D. L. Khokhlov

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalously strong lines Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PRODUCTION IN THE TROPICS Celina A. Hernandez*, and Courtney Schumacher Summary: wind shear regimes propagate downward, an anomalous meridional circulation is induced...

138

Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer grating designs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, by sending the zeroth-order diffraction to the reference pinhole of the mask and the first-order diffraction to the test beam window of the mask, the test and reference beam intensities can be balanced and the fringe contrast improved. Additionally, using a duty cycle of the diffraction grating other than 50%, the fringe contrast can also be improved.

Naulleau, Patrick (Oakland, CA); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (Berkeley, CA); Tejnil, Edita (San Carlos, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Method of collecting and processing electron diffraction data  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of using electron diffraction to obtain PDFs from crystalline, nanocrystalline, and amorphous inorganic, organic, and organometallic compound.

Billinge, Simon; Farrow, Christopher; Gorelik, Tatiana E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Schmidt, Martin U

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

In-situ mechanical testing during X-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforming metals during recording X-ray diffraction patterns is a useful tool to get a deeper understanding of the coupling between microstructure and mechanical behaviour. With the advances in flux, detector speed and focussing techniques at synchrotron facilities, in-situ mechanical testing is now possible during powder diffraction and Laue diffraction. The basic principle is explained together with illustrative examples.

Van Swygenhoven, Helena, E-mail: helena.vanswygenhoven@psi.ch; Van Petegem, Steven

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Charm production in diffractive DIS and PHP at ZEUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ZEUS experiment has measured charm production in diffractive DIS and in photoproduction. The data are in agreement with perturbative QCD calculations based on various parameterisations of diffractive parton distribution functions. The results are consistent with QCD factorisation in diffractive DIS and direct photoproduction.

Isabell-Alissandra Melzer-Pellmann; for the ZEUS collaboration

2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

142

Anomalous diffusion for inertial particles under gravity in parallel flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the bounds between normal or anomalous effective diffusion for inertial particles transported by parallel flows. The infrared behavior of the fluid kinetic-energy spectrum, i.e. the possible presence of long-range spatio-temporal correlations, is modeled as a power law by means of two parameters, and the problem is studied as a function of these latter. Our results, obtained in the limit of weak relative inertia, extend well-known results for tracers and apply to particles of any mass density, subject to gravity and Brownian diffusion. We consider both steady and time-dependent flows, and cases of both vanishing and finite particle sedimentation.

Marco Martins Afonso

2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

143

Dirt Softens Soap: Anomalous Elasticity of Disordered Smectics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that a smectic in a disordered medium (e.g., aerogel) exhibits anomalous elasticity, with the compression modulus B(k) vanishing and the bend modulus K(k) diverging as k --> 0. In addition, the effective disorder develops long ranged correlations. These divergences are much stronger than those driven by thermal fluctuations in pure smectics, and are controlled by a zero temperature glassy fixed point, which we study in an $\\epsilon=5-d$ expansion. We discuss the experimental implications of these theoretical predictions.

Leo Radzihovsky; John Toner

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Anomalous magnetic behavior at the graphene/Co interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An intensive theoretical study on the interaction between graphene and transition metal atom has been carried out; however, its experimental verification is still lacking. To explore the theoretical prediction of antiferromagnetic coupling due to charge transfer between graphene and cobalt, epitaxial layer of cobalt is grown on graphene surface. Predicted antiferromagnetic interaction with Neel temperature (T{sub N}???32?K) which anomalously shifts to higher temperature (34?K) and becomes more prominent under application of magnetic field of 1 T is reported. Lowering of magnetoresistance as a consequence of this antiferromagnetic coupling at the interface is also observed.

Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

Sopori, B.L.

1982-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When an electromagnetic wave is obliquely incident on the interface between two homogeneous media with different refractive indices, the requirement of phase continuity across the interface generally leads to a shift in the trajectory of the wave. When a linearly position dependent phase shift is imposed at the interface, the resulting refraction may be described using a generalized version of Snell's law. In this Letter, we establish a formal equivalence between generalized refraction and blazed diffraction gratings, further discussing the relative merits of the two approaches.

Larouche, Stéphane

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Lessons from LHC elastic and diffractive data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the light of LHC data, we discuss the global description of all high energy elastic and diffractive data, using a one-pomeron model, but including multi-pomeron interactions. The LHC data indicate the need of a $k_t(s)$ behaviour, where $k_t$ is the gluon transverse momentum along the partonic ladder structure which describes the pomeron. We also discuss tensions in the data, as well as the $t$ dependence of the slope of $d\\sigma_{el}/dt$ in the small $t$ domain.

A. D. Martin; V. A. Khoze; M. G. Ryskin

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

Elastic and diffractive scattering at D0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first search for diffractively produced Z bosons in the muon decay channel is presented, using a data set collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV between April and September 2003, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 110 pb{sup -1}. The first dN/d|t| distribution for proton-antiproton elastic scattering at this c.o.m. energy is also presented, using data collected by the D0 Forward Proton Detector between January and May 2002. The measured slope is reproduced by theoretical predictions.

Edwards, Tamsin; /Manchester U.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Zemax simulations of diffraction and transition radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffraction Radiation (DR) and Transition Radiation (TR) are produced when a relativistic charged particle moves in the vicinity of a medium or through a medium respectively. The target atoms are polarised by the electric field of the charged particle, which then oscillate thus emitting radiation with a very broad spectrum. The spatialspectral properties of DR/TR are sensitive to various electron beam parameters. Several projects aim to measure the transverse (vertical) beam size using DR or TR. This paper reports on how numerical simulations using Zemax can be used to study such a system.

Aumeyr, T; Bobb, L M; Bolzon, B; Lefevre, T; Mazzoni, S; Billing, M G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

New Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations - On the Anomalous Gyromagnetic Ratio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I propose three new curved spacetime versions of the Dirac Equation. These equations have been developed mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of Fermions. The derived equations suggest that particles including the Electron which is thought to be a point particle do have a finite spatial size which is the reason for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. A serendipitous result of the theory, is that, two of the equation exhibits an asymmetry in their positive and negative energy solutions the first suggestion of which is clear that a solution to the problem as to why the Electron and Muon - despite their acute similarities - exhibit an asymmetry in their mass is possible. The Mourn is often thought as an Electron in a higher energy state. Another of the consequences of three equations emanating from the asymmetric serendipity of the energy solutions of two of these equations, is that, an explanation as to why Leptons exhibit a three stage mass hierarchy is possible.

G. G. Nyambuya

2008-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

151

Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources.

Giuseppe Levi; Evelyn Foschi; Torbjörn Hartman; Bo Höistad; Roland Pettersson; Lars Tegnér; Hanno Essén

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

152

Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be fa...

Levi, Giuseppe; Hartman, Torbjörn; Höistad, Bo; Pettersson, Roland; Tegnér, Lars; Essén, Hanno

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey and Dismantling of Building 3126. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors, and the preferred CAA chosen on technical merit was Alternative 2. This CAA was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated and applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, and reduce the potential for future exposure pathways.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Oceanic processes associated with anomalous events in the Indian Ocean with relevance to 19971998  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oceanic processes associated with anomalous events in the Indian Ocean with relevance to 1997 Abstract. An anomalous climatic event occurred in the Indian Ocean (IO) region during 1997­1998, which 1997, warm SSTAs appeared in the western IO, and they peaked in February 1998. An ocean general

Wang, Yuqing

155

Apparent anomalous fading of thermoluminescence associated with competition with radiationless transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a thermoluminescence (TL) peak for its application in TL dosimetry and even more so, in TL dating is its stability; accepted 8 March 2000 Abstract Anomalous fading of thermoluminescence (TL) is the eect of a fading whichApparent anomalous fading of thermoluminescence associated with competition with radiationless

Chen, Reuven

156

Single Anomalous Production of the Fourth SM Family Quarks at Future e+e-, ep, and pp Colliders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Possible single productions of fourth SM family u4 and d4 quarks via anomalous interactions at the e+e-, ep, and pp colliders are investigated. Signatures of such anomalous processes are discussed at above colliders comparatively.

Ciftci, A. K. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, R. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Sultansoy, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, H.Cavid Avenue 33, Baku (Azerbaijan); Yildiz, H. Duran [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Dumlupinar University, Merkez Kampus, Ankara (Turkey)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Single Anomalous Production of the Fourth SM Family Leptons at Future e+e-, ep and pp Colliders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Possible single productions of fourth SM family charged and neutral leptons via anomalous interactions at the future e+e-, ep, and pp colliders are studied. Signatures of such anomalous processes are argued at above colliders comparatively.

Ciftci, A. K. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, R.; Karadeniz, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Sultansoy, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, H. Cavid Avenue 33, Baku (Azerbaijan); Yildiz, H. Duran [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Dumlupinar University, Merkez Campus, Kutahya (Turkey)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Realizing in-plane surface diffraction by x-ray multiple-beam diffraction with large incidence angle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on rigorous dynamical-theory calculations, we demonstrate the principle of an x-ray multiple-beam diffraction (MBD) scheme that overcomes the long-lasting difficulties of high-resolution in-plane diffraction from crystal surfaces. This scheme only utilizes symmetric reflection geometry with large incident angles but activates the out-of-plane and in-plane diffraction processes simultaneously and separately in the continuous MBD planes. The in-plane diffraction is realized by detoured MBD, where the intermediate diffracted waves propagate parallel to the surface, which corresponds to an absolute Bragg surface diffraction configuration that is extremely sensitive to surface structures. A series of MBD diffraction and imaging techniques may be developed from this principle to study surface/interface (misfit) strains, lateral nanostructures, and phase transitions of a wide range of (pseudo)cubic crystal structures, including ultrathin epitaxial films and multilayers, quantum dots, strain-engineered semiconductor or (multi)ferroic materials, etc.

Huang, Xian-Rong, E-mail: xiahuang@aps.anl.gov; Gog, Thomas; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Peng, Ru-Wen, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Siddons, D. P. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

Diffraction in Time of Polymer Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the quantum dynamics of a suddenly released beam of particles using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that, in the first order of approximation, the low-energy polymer distribution converges to the standard quantum-mechanical result in a clear fashion, but also arises an additional small polymer correction term. We find that the high-energy polymer behaviour becomes predominant at short distances and short times. Numerical results are also presented. We find that particles whose wave functions satisfy the polymer wave equation do not exhibit the diffraction in time phenomena. The implementation of a lower bound to the possible resolution of times into the time-energy Heisenberg uncertainty relation is briefly discussed.

A. Martín-Ruiz

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

160

2010 Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in basic methodologies have played a major role in the dramatic progress in macromolecular crystallography over the past decade, both in terms of overall productivity and in the increasing complexity of the systems being successfully tackled. The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology will, as in the past, focus on the most recent developments in methodology, covering all aspects of the process from crystallization to model building and refinement, complemented by examples of structural highlights and complementary methods. Extensive discussion will be encouraged and it is hoped that all attendees will participate by giving oral or poster presentations, the latter using the excellent poster display area available at Bates College. The relatively small size and informal atmosphere of the meeting provides an excellent opportunity for all participants, especially younger scientists, to meet and exchange ideas with leading methods developers.

Dr. Ana Gonzalez

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

Hyde, Roderick Allen

1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

162

Refinements in electroweak contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of strong interactions on the two loop electroweak radiative corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment, $a_\\mu=(g_\\mu-2)/2$, are examined. Short-distance logs are shown to be unaffected. Computation of long-distance contributions is improved by use of an effective field theory approach that preserves the chiral properties of QCD and accounts for constraints from the operator product expansion. Small, previously neglected, two loop contributions, suppressed by a $1-4\\sin^2\\theta_W$ factor, are computed and the complete three loop leading short-distance logs are reevaluated. These refinements lead to a reduction in uncertainties and a slight shift in the total electroweak contribution to $a_\\mu^{\\rm EW} = 154(1)(2)\\times 10^{-11}$ where the first error corresponds to hadronic uncertainties and the second is primarily due to the allowed Higgs mass range.

Andrzej Czarnecki; William J. Marciano; Arkady Vainshtein

2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Running coupling BFKL anomalous dimensions and splitting functions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 01 03 21 0v 2 7 Ju n 20 01 Cavendish-HEP-01/03 The Running Coupling BFKL Anomalous Dimensions and Splitting Functions Robert S. Thorne1 Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, U... that it is is dominated by the NLO corrections at all values of x below about x = 0.01. For example, using the formulae in [11] the first few terms in the power series for P (x) go like xP (x,Q2) =?¯s + 2.4?¯4s?3/6 + 2.1?¯6s?5/120 + · · · ? ?¯s(0.43?¯s + 1.6?¯2s? + 11.7?...

Thorne, Robert S

164

Anomalous skin effects in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma is presented and a graphical comparison is made with the results obtained using relativistic Maxwellian distribution function [G. Abbas, M. F. Bashir, and G. Murtaza, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102115 (2011)]. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves for degenerate case is qualitatively small in comparison with the Maxwellian plasma case. The quantitative reduction due to weak magnetic field in the skin depth in R-wave for degenerate plasma is large as compared to the non-degenerate one. By ignoring the ambient magnetic field, previous results for degenerate field free case are salvaged [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Principles of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1984), p. 90].

Abbas, G., E-mail: gohar.abbas@gcu.edu.pk; Sarfraz, M. [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Forman Christian College University, Farozpur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Precise Measurement of the Positive Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A precise measurement of the anomalous g value, a_mu=(g-2)/2, for the positive muon has been made at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The result a_mu^+=11 659 202(14)(6) X 10^{-10} (1.3 ppm) is in good agreement with previous measurements and has an error one third that of the combined previous data. The current theoretical value from the standard model is a_mu(SM)=11 659 159.6(6.7) X 10^{-10} (0.57 ppm) and a_mu(exp)-a_mu(SM)=43(16) X 10^{-10} in which a_mu(exp) is the world average experimental value. This difference may be due to physics beyond the standard model.

Brown, H N; Carey, R M; Cushman, P B; Danby, G T; Debevec, P T; Deile, M; Deng, H; Deninger, W J; Dhawan, S K; Druzhinin, V P; Duong, L; Efstathiadis, E F; Farley, Francis J M; Fedotovich, G V; Giron, S; Gray, F; Grigoriev, D; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Grossmann, A; Hare, M; Hertzog, D W; Hughes, V W; Iwasaki, M; Jungmann, Klaus; Kawall, D; Kawamura, M; Khazin, B I; Kindem, J; Krienen, F; Kronkvist, I J; Larsen, R; Lee, Y Y; Logashenko, I B; McNabb, R; Meng, W; Mi, J; Miller, J P; Morse, W M; Nikas, D; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlov, Yu F; Ozben, C S; Paley, J M; Polly, C; Pretz, J; Prigl, R; zu Putlitz, Gisbert; Redin, S I; Rind, O; Roberts, B L; Ryskulov, N M; Sedykh, S N; Semertzidis, Y K; Shatunov, Yu M; Sichtermann, E P; Solodov, E P; Sossong, M; Steinmetz, A; Sulak, Lawrence R; Timmermans, C; Trofimov, A V; Urner, D; Von Walter, P; Warburton, D; Winn, D; Yamamoto, A; Zimmerman, D

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of {sup 57}Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2{plus_minus}0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1{1/2} natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

Brown, D.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Ghost Diffraction: Causal Explanation via Correlated Trajectory Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use trajectory calculations to successfully explain two-photon "ghost" diffraction, a phenomenon previously explained via quantum mechanical entanglement. The diffraction patterns are accumulated one photon pair at a time. The calculations are based on initial correlation of the trajectories in the crystal source and a trajectory-wave ordering interaction with a variant generator inherent in its structure. Details are presented in comparison with ordinary diffraction calculated with the same trajectory model.

Bill Dalton

2001-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

168

Ultrafast Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction with Megavolt Electron Beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An rf photocathode electron gun is used as an electron source for ultrafast time-resolved pump-probe electron diffraction. We observed single-shot diffraction patterns from a 160 nm Al foil using the 5.4 MeV electron beam from the Gun Test Facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Excellent agreement with simulations suggests that single-shot diffraction experiments with a time resolution approaching 100 fs are possible.

Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC; Rudakov, F.M.; /Brown U.; Dowell, D.H.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC; Cardoza, J.D.; /Brown U.; Castro, J.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Loos, H.; /SLAC; Weber, P.M.; /Brown U.

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

169

Numerical solution of an inverse diffraction grating problem from ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 5, 2013 ... The diffraction of time- harmonic electromagnetic waves by some periodic material ... patterns [7–10]. Uniqueness results and stability estimates.

2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

170

Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Li-ion batteries Using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program DOE 2011 Vehicle...

171

Neutron Powder Diffraction and Molecular Simulation Study of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Simulation Study of the Structural Evolution of Ammonia Borane from 15 to 340 K. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Molecular Simulation Study of the Structural Evolution of...

172

Chapter 2 Diffractive Optics 2.1 Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffractive optics is an emerging technology with many applications. Some of the important applications include the design and fabrication of optical elements ...

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

173

Anomalous Scaling and Refined Similarity of an Active Scalar in a Model of Homogeneous Turbulent Convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous scaling in the statistics of an active scalar in homogeneous turbulent convection is studied using a dynamical shell model. We extend refined similarity ideas for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence to homogeneous turbulent convection and attribute the origin of the anomalous scaling to variations of the entropy transfer rate. We verify the consequences and thus the validity of our hypothesis by showing that the conditional statistics of the active scalar and the velocity at fixed values of entropy transfer rate are not anomalous but have simple scaling with exponents given by dimensional considerations, and that the intermittency corrections are given by the scaling exponents of the moments of the entropy transfer rate.

Emily S. C. Ching; W. C. Cheng

2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

On method and madness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Through the design of an architecture school for Harvard University on the site presently occupied by Gund Hall, this thesis seeks to address the issue of defining architecture as an expressive endeavor--as a way of naming ...

Nepomechie, Marilys R

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

MADS for periodic variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 19, 2009 ... Abstract: This work analyzes constrained black box optimization in ... ?Work of the first author was supported by NSERC grant 239436-05, ...

Sébastien Le Digabel

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

176

MAD-AIR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with stress- related illness rather than the anwr that spells RELIEF. Air flow in, through ad arourd a house is an important concern in the building we call haw. !lb enhance air flow and change the various corditions or properties of the air, a variety...

Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory Department of Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University College Station, Texas Phone : 979-845-9125 www.chem.tamu.edu/xray xray@tamu.edu X-rayDiffractionLaboratory DepartmentofChemistry 3255TAMU CollegeStation,TX77843-3255 Mission The purpose of our laboratory is to provide X-ray

Meagher, Mary

180

X-ray Diffraction Practicals 1 Graphics Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Practicals 1 Graphics Programs that will read SHELX or CIF files J. Reibenspies, N. Bhuvanesh ver 1.0.0 #12;X-ray Diffraction Practicals 2 Free software. Gretep : Reads SHELX files shelx files or output thermal ellipsoid plots. http://www.umass.edu/microbio/rasmol/ #12;X-ray

Meagher, Mary

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Prospects for Diffractive and Forward Physics at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CMS and TOTEM experiments intend to carry out a joint diffractive/forward physics program with an unprecedented rapidity coverage. The present document outlines some aspects of such a physics program, which spans from the investigation of the low-x structure of the proton to the diffractive production of a SM or MSSM Higgs boson.

Albrow, M; Arneodo, M; Avati, V; Bartalini, P; Berardi, V; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Burtovoy, V; Buzzo, A; Calicchio, M; Capurro, F; Catanesi, M G; Catastini, P; Ciocci, M A; Croft, R; Datsko, K; Deile, M; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; De Jesus Damiao, D; Robutti, E; de Roeck, A; D'Enterria, D G; De Wolf, E A; Eggert, K; Engel, R; Erhan, S; Ferro, F; García-Fuertes, W; Geist, W; Grothe, M; Guillaud, J P; Heino, J; Hees, A; Hilden, T; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Katsas, P; Kim, V; Klyukhin, V; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Kuznetsov, A; Lami, S; Lamsa, J; Latino, G; Lauhakanga, R; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Liu, Y; Loginov, A; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macri, M; Mäki, T; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Mnich, J; Moussienko, I; Murray, M; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Notarnicola, G; Ochesanu, S; Österberg, K; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Ottela, M; Ovyn, S; Palazzi, P; Panagiotou, A D; Paoletti, R; Popov, V; Petrov, V; Pierzchala, T; Piotrzkowski, K; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Rella, G; Reucroft, S; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rouby, X; Ruggiero, G; Rummel, A; Ruspa, M; Ryutin, R; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santoro, A F S; Santroni, A; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sarycheva, L; Schilling, F P; Schlein, P E; Scribano Memoria, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Snow, G R; Sobol, A; Solano, A; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Swain, J; Sznajder, A; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, C C; Torp, F; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Van Der Donckt, M; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vilela-Pereira, A; Whitmore, J; Zaborov, D

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Nature of the Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I summarize recent developments in the magnetar model of the Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, give a critical inventory of alternative models for the AXPs, and outline the improved diagnostics expected from present observational efforts.

Christopher Thompson

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Anomalous positrons from heavy ion collisions: Past results and future plans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current status of the experimental study of anomalous lines observed in the spectra of positrons produced in heavy ion collisions is reviewed. A new experiment to measure positron-electron coincidences is discussed. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Betts, R.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous laser light Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

anomalous laser light Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 July 1, 2001 Vol. 26, No. 13 OPTICS LETTERS 989 Waveguide grating mirror for large-area semiconductor lasers Summary: a...

185

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous quasi-elastic electron Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: anomalous quasi-elastic electron Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Neutron scattering study of the quasi-elastic spectral width in CeMg, CeMg3 and NdMg3...

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalously strong effect Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 4 , providing strong... is strongly damped by the effects of phonons. Because of the energy loss to phonons, the electrons and holes... Hot-Carrier Model for an Anomalous...

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous flux-ratio gravitational Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

57 THE FIRST OBSERVATION OF SULFUR IN ANOMALOUS COSMIC RAYS BY THE GEOTAIL AND THE WIND SPACECRAFTS Summary: that the threshold FIP is at least as small as 10.4 eV. The flux...

188

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous ion transport Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics and Fusion ; Physics 10 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-76CH03073. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Summary: . The anomalous...

189

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous elastic behavior Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Institute, University of Chicago Collection: Materials Science 51 VOLUME 76, NUMBER 16 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 15 APRIL 1996 Anomalous Viscous Loss in...

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous solar chemical Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: anomalous solar chemical Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Grains and gamma-ray observations NICXI371 Stardust Material in the Meteorite SAH 97096 Summary: can be...

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous ultrasound propagation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3, pp. 257-263, 1991 0301-562991 3.00 + .00 Printed in the U.S.A. 1991 Pergamon Press plc Summary: but also that due to beam diffrac- tion and other anomalous behaviors of the...

192

Search for the Anomalous Interactions of Up-Type Heavy Quarks in $? ?$ Collision at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the anomalous interactions of heavy up-type quark t' in a $\\gamma \\gamma$ collision at the LHC. We have obtained 95% confidence level(CL)limit of $t'q \\gamma$ anomalous coupling by taking into account three forward detector acceptances: $0.0015<\\xi<0.15$,$0.0015<\\xi<0.5$, and $0.1<\\xi<0.5$.

M. Köksal; S. C. ?nan

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Final Report: Algorithms for Diffractive Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phenomenal coherence and brightness of x-ray free-electron laser light sources, such as the LCLS at SLAC, have the potential of revolutionizing the investigation of structure and dynamics in the nano-domain. However, this potential will go unrealized without a similar revolution in the way the data are analyzed. While it is true that the ambitious design parameters of the LCLS have been achieved, the prospects of realizing the most publicized goal of this instrument — the imaging of individual bio-particles — remains daunting. Even with 10{sup 12} photons per x-ray pulse, the feebleness of the scattering process represents a fundamental limit that no amount of engineering ingenuity can overcome. Large bio-molecules will scatter on the order of only 10{sup 3} photons per pulse into a detector with 106 pixels; the diffraction “images” will be virtually indistinguishable from noise. Averaging such noisy signals over many pulses is not possible because the particle orientation cannot be controlled. Each noisy laser snapshot is thus confounded by the unknown viewpoint of the particle. Given the heavy DOE investment in LCLS and the profound technical challenges facing single-particle imaging, the final two years of this project have concentrated on this effort. We are happy to report that we succeeded in developing an extremely efficient algorithm that can reconstruct the shapes of particles at even the extremes of noise expected in future LCLS experiments with single bio-particles. Since this is the most important outcome of this project, the major part of this report documents this accomplishment. The theoretical techniques that were developed for the single-particle imaging project have proved useful in other imaging problems that are described at the end of the report.

Elser, Veit

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

194

Diffractive optics for compact flat panel displays. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three years ago LLNL developed a practical method to dramatically reduce the chromatic aberration in single element diffractive imaging lenses. High efficiency, achromatic imaging lenses have been fabricated for human vision correction. This LDRD supported research in applying our new methods to develop a unique, diffraction-based optical interface with solid state, microelectronic imaging devices. Advances in microelectronics have led to smaller, more efficient components for optical systems. There have, however, been no equivalent advances in the imaging optics associated with these devices. The goal of this project was to replace the bulky, refractive optics in typical head-mounted displays with micro-thin diffractive optics to directly image flat-panel displays into the eye. To visualize the system think of the lenses of someone`s eyeglasses becoming flat-panel displays. To realize this embodiment, we needed to solve the problems of large chromatic aberrations and low efficiency that are associated with diffraction. We have developed a graceful tradeoff between chromatic aberrations and the diffractive optic thickness. It turns out that by doubling the thickness of a micro-thin diffractive lens we obtain nearly a two-times improvement in chromatic performance. Since the human eye will tolerate one diopter of chromatic aberration, we are able to achieve an achromatic image with a diffractive lens that is only 20 microns thick, versus 3 mm thickness for the comparable refractive lens. Molds for the diffractive lenses are diamond turned with sub-micron accuracy; the final lenses are cast from these molds using various polymers. We thus retain both the micro- thin nature of the diffractive optics and the achromatic image quality of refractive optics. During the first year of funding we successfully extended our earlier technology from 1 cm diameter optics required for vision applications up to the 5 cm diameter optics required for this application. 3 refs., 6 figs.

Sweeney, D.; DeLong, K.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

195

Optical loss due to diffraction by concentrator Fresnel lenses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fresnel lenses are widely used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems as a primary optical element. They focus sunlight on small solar cells or on the entrance apertures of secondary optical elements. A Fresnel lens consists of several prism rings and diffraction by these prism rings is unavoidable. Some of the light that would reach a designated target area according to geometric optics will miss it due to diffraction. This diffraction loss may be of relevant magnitude for CPV applications. The results of published analytical calculations are evaluated, discussed, and compared to computer simulations and measurements.

Hornung, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.hornung@ise.fraunhofer.de; Nitz, Peter, E-mail: thorsten.hornung@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

196

Design and demonstration of broadband thin planar diffractive acoustic lenses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here two diffractive acoustic lenses with subwavelength thickness, planar profile, and broad operation bandwidth. Tapered labyrinthine unit cells with their inherently broadband effective material properties are exploited in our design. Both the measured and the simulated results are showcased to demonstrate the lensing effect over more than 40% of the central frequency. The focusing of a propagating Gaussian modulated sinusoidal pulse is also demonstrated. This work paves the way for designing diffractive acoustic lenses and more generalized phase engineering diffractive elements with labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials.

Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A., E-mail: cummer@ee.duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

197

LFV decays and anomalous magnetic (electric) moments in a lepton mass matrices ansatz induced by SUSY GUT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton in an effective lagrangian approach to the new physics, we investigate the lepton flavor violation (LFV) decays, $l\\to l'\\gamma$, and $\\mu,\\tau$ anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments in a lepton mass matrices ansatz which induced by SUSY GUT. We put very stringent constraints LFV decays and $\\tau$ anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments.

W. J. Huo

2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

198

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011). Web: http:prl.aps.orgpdfPRLv107i3e033904...

199

Increased Photovoltaic Power Output via Diffractive Spectrum Separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced ...

Kim, Ganghun

200

Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

202

Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin...

203

Diffraction in Two-Photon Collisions at TESLA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article we discuss the possibility to measure diffraction dissociation in collisions of real and weakly virtual photons at a 500 GeV e+e- linear collider.

A. De Roeck; R. Engel; A. Rostovtsev

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Overcoming the far-field diffraction limit via absorbance modulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffraction limits the resolution of far-field lithography and imaging to about half of the wavelength, which greatly limits the capability of optical techniques. The proposed technique with absorbance modulation aims to ...

Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Nanofabrication of Diffractive X-ray Optics for Synchrotrons...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanofabrication of Diffractive X-ray Optics for Synchrotrons and XFELs Wednesday, March 11, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Christian David, Paul...

206

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

207

Quality experimental and calculated powder x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For several years, we have submitted quality powder XRD patterns to the International Centre for Diffraction Data for inclusion as reference standards in their Powder Diffraction File. The procedure followed is described; examples used are {beta}-UH{sub 3}, {alpha}- BaT{sub 2}, alpha-lithium disilicate ({alpha}-Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and 2,2`,4,4`,6,6`hexanitroazobenzene-III (HNAB-III).

Sullenger, D.B.; Cantrell, J.S.; Beiter, T.A.; Tomlin, D.W.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Hybrid Pomeron Model of exclusive central diffractive production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Central diffractive production of heavy states (massive dijets, Higgs boson) is studied in the exclusive mode using a new Hybrid Pomeron Model (HPM). Built from Hybrid Pomerons defined by the combination of one hard and one soft color exchanges, the model describes well the centrally produced diffractive dijet data at the Tevatron. Predictions for the Higgs boson and dijet exclusive production at the LHC are presented.

R. Peschanski; M. Rangel; C. Royon

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Copper Nanopowder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper nanopowder preparation and its X-Ray diffraction studies are reported in this paper. Electrolytic cathode deposition method is simple and cheapest process for its preparation. Copper nanopowder has been prepared from aqueous copper sulphate solution. Wide range of experimental conditions has been adopted in this process and its X-Ray diffraction characterizations have been studied. The results confirming copper nanopowder with size below 30 nm. Uniformed size Copper nanopowder preparation, in normal room temperature is importance of this study.

T. Theivasanthi; M. Alagar

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

Five-degrees-of-freedom diffractive laser encoder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Linear laser encoders have been widely used for precision positioning control of a linear stage. We develop a five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF) laser linear encoder to simultaneously measure the position, straightness, pitch, roll, and yaw errors along one moving axis. This study integrates the circular polarized interferometric technique with the three-dimensional diffracted ray-tracing method to develop a novel laser encoder with 5-DOF. The phases encoded within the +1 and -1 order diffraction lights reflected from the diffraction grating are decoded by the circular polarized interferometric technique to measure the linear displacement when the diffraction grating moves. The three-dimensional diffracted ray tracing of the +1- and -1-order diffraction lights induced by the motion errors of the moved grating were analyzed to calculate the other motion errors based on the detection of light spots on two quadrant photodiode detectors. The period of the grating is 0.83 {mu}m and the experimental results show that the measurement accuracy was better than {+-}0.3 {mu}m/{+-}41 {mu}m for straightness, {+-}1 arc sec.

Liu, Chien-Hung; Huang, Hsueh-Liang; Lee, Hau-Wei

2009-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

211

Atomic Resolution Coherent Diffractive Imaging and Ultrafast Science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major scientific challenge is determining the 3-D atomic structure of small nanostructures, including single molecules. Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is a promising approach. Recent progress has demonstrated coherent diffraction patterns can be recorded from individual nanostructures and phased to reconstruct their structure. However, overcoming the dose limit imposed by radiation damage is a major obstacle toward the full potential of CDI. One approach is to use ultrafast x-ray or electron pulses. In electron diffraction, amplitudes recorded in a diffraction pattern are unperturbed by lens aberrations, defocus, and other microscope resolution-limiting factors. Sub-A signals are available beyond the information limit of direct imaging. Significant contrast improvement is obtained compared to high-resolution electron micrographs. progress has also been made in developing time-resolved electron diffraction and imaging for the study of ultrafast dynamic processes in materials. This talk will cover these crosscutting issues and the convergence of electron and x-ray diffraction techniques toward structure determination of single molecules.

Zuo, Jian-min (University of Illinois) [University of Illinois

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

212

Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine doped tin oxide by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent $\\alpha$ distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent $H$), previously reported [Ferreira \\textit{et al}., Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from a intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with $H\

Angélica S. Mata; Silvio C. Ferreira, Jr.; Igor R. B. Ribeiro; Sukarno O. Ferreira

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

213

Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry "violation" in heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The heavy ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry "violation" phenomena. For example certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible in such domains. We briefly review recent progress in both the theoretical understanding and experimental search of various anomalous transport effects (such as the Chiral Magnetic Effect, Chiral Separation Effect, Chiral Electric Separation Effect, Chiral Electric/Magnetic Waves, etc) in the hot QCD fluid created by such collisions.

Jinfeng Liao

2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

214

Equivalence of the channel-corrected-T-matrix and anomalous-propagator approaches to condensation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Any many-body approximation corrected for unphysical repeated collisions in a given condensation channel is shown to provide the same set of equations as they appear by using anomalous propagators. The ad hoc assumption in the latter theory about nonconservation of particle numbers can be released. In this way, the widespread used anomalous-propagator approach is given another physical interpretation. A generalized Soven equation follows which improves a chosen approximation in the same way as the coherent-potential approximation improves the averaged T matrix for impurity scattering.

Morawetz, K. [Muenster University of Applied Science, Stegerwaldstrasse 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany); International Institute of Physics (IIP), Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, BrazilAvenida Odilon Gomes de Lima, 1722-CEP 59078-400, Natal/RN (Brazil) and Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Enhanced anomalous photo-absorption from TiO{sub 2} nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two dimensional nanostructures have been created on the rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces via ion irradiation technique. Enhanced anomalous photo- absorption response is displayed, where nanostructures of 15?nm diameter with 0.5?nm height, and not the smaller nanostructures with larger surface area, delineate highest absorbance. Comprehensive investigations of oxygen vacancy states, on ion- irradiated surfaces, display a remarkable result that the number of vacancies saturates for higher fluences. A competition between the number of vacancy sites on the nanostructure in conjunction with its size is responsible for the observed anomalous photo-absorption.

Solanki, Vanaraj; Majumder, Subrata; Mishra, Indrani; Varma, Shikha, E-mail: shikha@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Dash, P. [Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India); Singh, C. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi 110067 (India)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

Britten, J

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

217

High precision astrometry with a diffractive pupil telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astrometric detection and mass determination of Earth-mass exoplanets requires sub-microarcsec accuracy, which is theoretically possible with an imaging space telescope using field stars as an astrometric reference. The measurement must however overcome astrometric distortions which are much larger than the photon noise limit. To address this issue, we propose to generate faint stellar diffraction spikes using a two-dimensional grid of regularly spaced small dark spots added to the surface of the primary mirror (PM). Accurate astrometric motion of the host star is obtained by comparing the position of the spikes to the background field stars. The spikes do not contribute to scattered light in the central part of the field and therefore allow unperturbed coronagraphic observation of the star's immediate surrounding. Because the diffraction spikes are created on the PM and imaged on the same focal plane detector as the background stars, astrometric distortions affect equally the diffraction spikes and the backg...

Guyon, Olivier; Milster, Thomas D; Eisner, Josh A; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J; Ammons, Stephen M; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A; Belikov, Ruslan; 10.1088/0067-0049/200/2/11

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Application of Electron Backscatter Diffraction to Phase Identification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The identification of crystalline phases in solids requires knowledge of two microstructural properties: crystallographic structure and chemical composition. Traditionally, this has been accomplished using X-ray diffraction techniques where the measured crystallographic information, in combination with separate chemical composition measurements for specimens of unknown pedigrees, is used to deduce the unknown phases. With the latest microstructural analysis tools for scanning electron microscopes, both the crystallography and composition can be determined in a single analysis utilizing electron backscatter diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. In this chapter, we discuss the approach required to perform these experiments, elucidate the benefits and limitations of this technique, and detail via case studies how composition, crystallography, and diffraction contrast can be used as phase discriminators.

El-Dasher, B S; Deal, A

2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

219

Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; Sayre, D.

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPUSERFD form that can be accessed by the X-ray diffraction webpage. RESPONSIBILITY: The X-ray Diffraction and suggestions in a timely manner. MATERIALS: · Computer Database · Web interface #12;X-ray Diffraction

Meagher, Mary

222

Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.

Ammons, S M; Bendek, E; Guyon, O

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

223

Non-diffracting chirped Bessel waves in optical antiguides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chirped Bessel waves are introduced as stable (non-diffracting) solutions of the paraxial wave equation in optical antiguides with a power-law radial variation in their index of refraction. Through numerical simulations, we investigate the propagation of apodized (finite-energy) versions of such waves, with or without vorticity, in antiguides with practical parameters. The new waves exhibit a remarkable resistance against the defocusing effect of the unstable index potentials, outperforming standard Gaussians with the same full width at half maximum. The chirped profile persists even under conditions of eccentric launching or antiguide bending and is also capable of self-healing like standard diffraction-free beams in free space.

Chremmos, Ioannis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Stratigraphic and structural interpretations by using diffraction seismograms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-dimensional seismic diffraction modeling method has been applied to an east-west cross section of Bay Marchand located 1 1/2 mi north of the Bay Marchand/South Timbalier area boundary in block 2 through block 4 of T23S, R23E. A 20-layer geologic depth model has been constructed from the correlation of SP-induction and sonic well logs. Each layer has been assigned a velocity determined from the corresponding sonic logs and a density approximated from Gardner's rule. A synthetic seismogram has been generated due to the geologic depth model using diffraction modeling computer code.

Snavely, R.K.; Sarwar, A.K.M.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Borman effect in resonant diffraction of X-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamic theory of resonant diffraction (occurring when the energy of incident radiation is close to the energy of the absorption edge of an element in the composition of a given substance) of synchronous X-rays is developed in the two-wave approximation in the coplanar Laue geometry for large grazing angles in perfect crystals. A sharp decrease in the absorption coefficient in the substance with simultaneously satisfied diffraction conditions (Borman effect) is demonstrated, and the theoretical and first experimental results are compared. The calculations reveal the possibility of applying this approach in analyzing the quadrupole-quadrupole contribution to the absorption coefficient.

Oreshko, A. P., E-mail: ap.oreshko@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Anomalous Microfluidic Phonons Induced by the Interplay of Hydrodynamic Screening and Incompressibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous Microfluidic Phonons Induced by the Interplay of Hydrodynamic Screening the acoustic normal modes (``phonons'') of a 1D microfluidic droplet crystal at the crossover between 2D flow.55.Dÿ, 47.60.+i, 47.63.mf, 63.22.+m Microfluidic two-phase flow offers experimental tools to investigate

Tlusty, Tsvi

228

Search for anomalous production of multilepton events in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A search for anomalous production of events with three or more isolated leptons in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 fb[superscript ?1], were collected ...

Bauer, Gerry P.

229

Limits on anomalous WW? and WWZ couplings from WW/WZ? e?jj production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limits on anomalous WW? and WWZ couplings are presented from a study of WW/WZ? e?jj events produced in pp¯ collisions at s?=1.8?TeV. Results from the analysis of data collected using the DØ detector during the 1993–1995 Tevatron collider run...

Baringer, Philip S.; Coppage, Don; Hebert, C.

2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

230

Leading-order hadronic contributions to the electron and tau anomalous magnetic moments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The leading hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moments of the electron and the $\\tau$-lepton are determined by a four-flavour lattice QCD computation with twisted mass fermions. The continuum limit is taken and systematic uncertainties are quantified. Full agreement with results obtained by phenomenological analyses is found.

Florian Burger; Grit Hotzel; Karl Jansen; Marcus Petschlies

2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

Physical causes and modeling challenges of anomalous diffusion of sediment tracers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physical causes and modeling challenges of anomalous diffusion of sediment tracers Douglas Jerolmack Earth & Environmental Science, UPenn [sediment@sas.upenn.edu] "Bridging the Gap", Princeton U., 2" describable by: 1. Particle volume, v [L3 ]. 2.Average velocity, us , of bed load sediment [L/T]. 3. Surface

232

Anomalous electron density events in the quiet summer ionosphere at solar minimum over Millstone Hill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous electron density events in the quiet summer ionosphere at solar minimum over Millstone region ionosphere over Millstone Hill with calculations from the IZMIRAN model for solar minimum layer. This phenomenon occurs frequently in the quiet ionosphere at solar minimum during summer

Boyer, Edmond

233

Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights daylight illuminants were presented on a high-resolution color monitor to 7 deuteranomalous, 7 to the daylight locus rather than along the daylight locus ~Foster & Linnell, 1995; Amano et al., 2003

Foster, David H.

234

Lossless anomalous dispersion and an inversionless gain doublet via dressed interacting ground states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent media exhibiting anomalous dispersion have been of considerable interest since Wang, Kuzmich, and Dogariu [Nature 406, 277 (2000)] first observed light propagate with superluminal and negative group velocities without absorption. Here, we propose an atomic model exhibiting these properties, based on a generalization of amplification without inversion in a five-level dressed interacting ground-state system. The system consists of a {Lambda} atom prepared as in standard electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with two additional metastable ground states coupled to the {Lambda} atom ground states by two rf-microwave fields. We consider two configurations by which population is incoherently pumped into the ground states of the atom. Under appropriate circumstances, we predict a pair of new gain lines with tunable width, separation, and height. Between these lines, absorption vanishes but dispersion is large and anomalous. The system described here is a significant improvement over other proposals in the anomalous dispersion literature in that it permits additional coherent control over the spectral properties of the anomalous region, including a possible 10{sup 4}-fold increase over the group delay observed by Wang, Kuzmich, and Dogariu.

Weatherall, James Owen [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Department of Logic and Philosophy of Science, University of California Irvine, 3151 Social Science Plaza A, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Search, Christopher P. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as temperature anomalies, on NEE and carbon sequestration of ecosystems at interannual timescales have beenLETTERS Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year , Yiqi Luo5 & David S. Schimel6 Terrestrial ecosystems control carbon dioxide fluxes to and from

Cai, Long

236

Search for anomalous heavy-flavor quark production in association with W bosons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We search for anomalous production of heavy-flavor quark jets in association with W bosons at the Fermilab Tevatron p(p) over bar Collider in final states in which the heavy-flavor quark content is enhanced by requiring ...

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Christofek, L.; Coppage, Don; Gardner, J.; Hensel, Carsten; Jabeen, S.; Wilson, Graham Wallace

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PHBV BLENDS: ANOMALOUS ELONGATION AND AGING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PHBV BLENDS: ANOMALOUS ELONGATION AND AGING T. Gérard, T. Noto and T, France tatiana.budtova@mines-paristech.fr INTRODUCTION Polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA the drawbacks of the pure components. In this work, PLA and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Leading-order hadronic contributions to the electron and tau anomalous magnetic moments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The leading hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moments of the electron and the $\\tau$-lepton are determined by a four-flavour lattice QCD computation with twisted mass fermions. The continuum limit is taken and systematic uncertainties are quantified. Full agreement with results obtained by phenomenological analyses is found.

Burger, Florian; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M. Szortyka,1,a) Mauricio Girardi,2,b) Vera B-sphere gas in a solvent modeled as an associating lattice gas. The solution phase diagram for solute at 5

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

240

Oil and Gas CDT Anomalous compaction and lithification during early burial in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas CDT Anomalous compaction and lithification during early burial in sedimentary basins training in a range of skills will mean opportunities for academic, government or Oil and Gas sector (e geoscience for oil and gas). References & Further Reading Neagu, R.C. Cartwright, J., Davies R.J. & Jensen L

Henderson, Gideon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Splenic Artery Aneurysm of the Anomalous Splenomesenteric Trunk: Successful Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization Using Detachable Coils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A splenomesenteric trunk, which involves replacing the splenic artery from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), is rare and occurs in less than 1% of patients. We report a case of an aneurysm involving the origin of the splenic artery that anomalously arose from the SMA, and which was successfully treated using Guglielmi detachable coils.

Sato, Motohiro [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)], E-mail: mo-sato@chubyoin.pref.ibaraki.jp; Anno, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki [Institute of Clinical Medicine University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology (Japan); Iida, Hiroyuki; Orii, Kazuo [Tsukuba Gakuen Hospital, Department of Surgery (Japan)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

RECENT CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATIONS BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION AT OAK RIDGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

469. RECENT CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATIONS BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION AT OAK RIDGE By GEORGE M. BROWN and HENRI A. LEVY, Chemistry Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U. S. A ont été relevées grace au diffractomètre à neutrons d'Oak Ridge position- nant automatiquement les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

CONTROLLED SCATTERING OF LIGHT WAVES: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONTROLLED SCATTERING OF LIGHT WAVES: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS DAVID C. DOBSON 1. Introduction. Di ractive optics is a vigorously growing technol- ogy in which optical components functions unattainable with conventional optics. These devices have great advantages in terms of size

Dobson, David C.

244

Diffracted light from latent images in photoresist for exposure control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In microelectronics manufacturing, an arrangement for monitoring and control of exposure of an undeveloped photosensitive layer on a structure susceptible to variations in optical properties in order to attain the desired critical dimension for the pattern to be developed in the photosensitive layer. This is done by ascertaining the intensities for one or more respective orders of diffracted power for an incident beam of radiation corresponding to the desired critical dimension for the photosensitive layer as a function of exposure time and optical properties of the structure, illuminating the photosensitive layer with a beam of radiation of one or more frequencies to which the photosensitive layer is not exposure-sensitive, and monitoring the intensities of the orders of diffracted radiation due to said illumination including at least the first order of diffracted radiation thereof, such that when said predetermined intensities for the diffracted orders are reached during said illumination of photosensitive layer, it is known that a pattern having at least approximately the desired critical dimension can be developed on the photosensitive layer.

Bishop, Kenneth P. (Rio Rancho, NM); Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gaspar, Susan M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hickman, Kirt C. (Albuquerque, NM); McNeil, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Naqvi, S. Sohail H. (Albuquerque, NM); Stallard, Brian R. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipton, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

246

Space charge effects in ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding space charge effects is central for the development of high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy techniques for imaging material transformation with atomic scale detail at the fs to ps timescales. We present methods and results for direct ultrafast photoelectron beam characterization employing a shadow projection imaging technique to investigate the generation of ultrafast, non-uniform, intense photoelectron pulses in a dc photo-gun geometry. Combined with N-particle simulations and an analytical Gaussian model, we elucidate three essential space-charge-led features: the pulse lengthening following a power-law scaling, the broadening of the initial energy distribution, and the virtual cathode threshold. The impacts of these space charge effects on the performance of the next generation high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging systems are evaluated.

Tao Zhensheng; Zhang He; Duxbury, P. M.; Berz, Martin; Ruan, Chong-Yu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-2320 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH A DIFFRACTIVE PUPIL TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Astrometric detection and mass determination of Earth-mass exoplanets require sub-{mu}as accuracy, which is theoretically possible with an imaging space telescope using field stars as an astrometric reference. The measurement must, however, overcome astrometric distortions, which are much larger than the photon noise limit. To address this issue, we propose to generate faint stellar diffraction spikes using a two-dimensional grid of regularly spaced small dark spots added to the surface of the primary mirror (PM). Accurate astrometric motion of the host star is obtained by comparing the position of the spikes to the background field stars. The spikes do not contribute to scattered light in the central part of the field and therefore allow unperturbed coronagraphic observation of the star's immediate surroundings. Because the diffraction spikes are created on the PM and imaged on the same focal plane detector as the background stars, astrometric distortions affect equally the diffraction spikes and the background stars and are therefore calibrated. We describe the technique, detail how the data collected by the wide-field camera are used to derive astrometric motion, and identify the main sources of astrometric error using numerical simulations and analytical derivations. We find that the 1.4 m diameter telescope, 0.3 deg{sup 2} field we adopt as a baseline design achieves 0.2 {mu}as single measurement astrometric accuracy. The diffractive pupil concept thus enables sub-{mu}as astrometry without relying on the accurate pointing, external metrology, or high-stability hardware required with previously proposed high-precision astrometry concepts.

Guyon, Olivier; Eisner, Josh A.; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bendek, Eduardo A.; Milster, Thomas D. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mark Ammons, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division L-210, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Pitman, Joe [Exploration Sciences, P.O. Box 24, Pine, CO 80470 (United States); Woodruff, Robert A. [2081 Evergreen Avenue, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); Belikov, Ruslan, E-mail: guyon@naoj.org [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Aberration-corrected and energy-filtered precession electron diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure using elastic-only intensities. 1. Introduction Although x-ray and neutron diffraction methods remain the techniques of choice to determine unknown crystal structures, there are a variety of materials, e.g. multi-phase systems, interfacial phases... Hovmöller, to whom this special issue is dedicated, has been at the forefront of this method [5-10]. However, if the sample is relatively thick and composed of strongly scattering species, then the phases derived from images may not be directly...

Eggeman, Alexander S; Barnard, Jonathan S; Midgley, Paul A

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

249

Search for anomalous production of events with a photon, jet, b-quark jet, and missing transverse energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a signature-based search for the anomalous production of events containing a photon, two jets, of which at least one is identified as originating from a b quark, and missing transverse energy (E?[subscript T]). ...

Xie, Si

250

Determination of the polarization state of x rays with the help of anomalous transmission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Besides intensity and direction, the polarization of an electromagnetic wave provides characteristic information on the crossed medium. Here, we present two methods for the determination of the polarization state of x rays by polarizers based on anomalous transmission (Borrmann effect). Using a polarizer-analyzer setup, we have measured a polarization purity of less than 1.5?×?10{sup ?5}, three orders of magnitude better than obtained in earlier work. Using the analyzer crystal in multiple-beam case with slightly detuned azimuth, we show how the first three Stokes parameters can be determined with a single angular scan. Thus, polarization analyzers based on anomalous transmission make it possible to detect changes of the polarization in a range from degrees down to arcseconds.

Schulze, K. S., E-mail: kai.sven.schulze@uni-jena.de; Uschmann, I.; Förster, E. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Marx, B.; Paulus, G. G. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Stöhlker, T. [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

251

Engineering the quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene with uniaxial strains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in graphene by means of the uniaxial strain. The values of Chern number and Hall conductance demonstrate that the strained graphene in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, for vanishing intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, possesses non-trivial topological phase, which is robust against the direction and modulus of the strain. Besides, we also find that the interplay between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings results in a topological phase transition in the strained graphene. Remarkably, as the strain strength is increased beyond approximately 7%, the critical parameters of the exchange field for triggering the quantum anomalous Hall phase transition show distinct behaviors—decrease (increase) for strains along zigzag (armchair) direction. Our findings open up a new platform for manipulation of the QAHE by an experimentally accessible strain deformation of the graphene structure, with promising application on novel quantum electronic devices with high efficiency.

Diniz, G. S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, M. R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, F. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

252

Hadron Optics: Diffraction Patterns in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the Fourier transform of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) amplitude with respect to the skewness variable $\\zeta$ at fixed invariant momentum transfer squared $t$ provides a unique way to visualize the structure of the target hadron in the boost-invariant longitudinal coordinate space. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics. As a specific example, we utilize the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED to obtain the behavior of the DVCS amplitude for electron-photon scattering. We then simulate the wavefunctions for a hadron by differentiating the above LFWFs with respect to $M^2$ and study the corresponding DVCS amplitudes in light-front longitudinal space. In both cases we observe that the diffractive patterns in the longitudinal variable conjugate to $\\zeta$ sharpen and the positions of the first minima move in with increasing momentum transfer. For fixed $t$, higher minima appear at positions which are integral multiples of the lowest minimum. Both these observations strongly support the analogy with diffraction in optics.

S. J. Brodsky; D. Chakrabarti; A. Harindranath; A. Mukherjee; J. P. Vary

2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

253

Global vs local cosmic strings from pseudo-anomalous U(1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the structure of cosmic strings produced at the breaking of an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry present in many superstring compactification models. We show that their coupling with the axion necessary in order to cancel the anomalies does not prevent them from being local, even though their energy per unit length is found to diverge logarithmically. We discuss the formation of such strings and the phenomenological constraints that apply to their parameters.

Binétruy, Pierre; Peter, P

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Anomalous light-by-light scattering at the LHC: recent developments and future perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The installation of forward proton detectors at the LHC will provide the possibility to perform new high-precision measurements, opening a novel window on physics beyond the Standard Model. We review recent simulations and theoretical developments about the measurement of anomalous light-by-light scattering. The search for this process is expected to provide bounds on a wide range of new particles. Future perspectives for precision QED at the LHC are also briefly discussed.

Fichet, Sylvain

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Semiclassical origin of anomalous shell effect for tetrahedral deformation in radial power-law potential model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shell structures in single-particle energy spectra are investigated against regular tetrahedral type deformation using radial power-law potential model. Employing a natural way of shape parametrization which interpolates sphere and regular tetrahedron, we find prominent shell effects at rather large tetrahedral deformations, which bring about shell energies much larger than the cases of spherical and quadrupole type shapes. We discuss the semiclassical origin of these anomalous shell structures using periodic orbit theory.

Ken-ichiro Arita; Yasunori Mukumoto

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

256

Critical Review of Theoretical Models for Anomalous Effects (Cold Fusion) in Deuterated Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as "Cold Fusion" (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.

V. A. Chechin; V. A. Tsarev; M. Rabinowitz; Y. E. Kim

2003-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

257

COMMENTS ON ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN CHARGING OF PD POWDERS WITH HIGH DENSITY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Kitamura, et al, Pd-containing materials are exposed to isotopes of hydrogen and anomalous results obtained. These are claimed to be a replication of another experiment conducted by Arata and Zhang. Erroneous basic assumptions are pointed out herein that alter the derived conclusions significantly. The final conclusion is that the reported results are likely normal chemistry combined with noise. Thus the claim to have proven that cold fusion is occurring in these systems is both premature and unlikely.

Shanahan, K.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Critical Review of Theoretical Models for Anomalous Effects (Cold Fusion) in Deuterated Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as "Cold Fusion" (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.

Chechin, V A; Rabinowitz, M; Kim, Y E

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - aperture diffractive space Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: aperture diffractive space Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 20 May 2011: PHYS 252 Wave Optics (Chapter 22) Summary: -Wesley. Circular-Aperture Diffraction Light of wavelength...

260

X-ray observations during a Her X-1 anomalous low-state  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results of a 1999 July 8-10 BeppoSAX observation during an anomalous low-state of Her X-1 are presented. The standard on-state power-law and blackbody continuum model is excluded at high confidence unless partial covering is included. This gives a power-law photon index of 0.63 +/- 0.02 and implies that 0.28 +/- 0.03 of the flux undergoes additional absorption of (27 +/- 7) 10^22 atom/cm2. 11% of the observed 0.1-10 keV flux is from the 0.068 +/- 0.015 keV blackbody. 1.237747(2) s pulses with a semi-amplitude of 2.1 +/- 0.8% are detected at >99.5% confidence and confirmed by RXTE measurements. This implies that Her X-1 underwent substantial spin-down close to the start of the anomalous low-state. The spectral and temporal changes are similar to those recently reported from 4U1626-67. These may result from a strongly warped disk that produces a spin-down torque. The X-ray source is then mostly viewed through the inner regions of the accretion disk. A similar mechanism could be responsible for the Her X-1 anomalous low-states. Shadowing by such an unusually warped disk could produce observable effects in the optical and UV emission from the companion star.

A. N. Parmar; T. Oosterbroek; D. Dal Fiume; M. Orlandini; A. Santangelo; A. Segreto; S. Del Sordo

1999-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Improvement of Laser Damage Resistance and Diffraction Efficiency of Multilayer Dielectric Diffraction Gratings by HF-Etchback Linewidth Tailoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings for Petawatt-class laser systems possess unique laser damage characteristics. Details of the shape of the grating lines and the concentration of absorbing impurities on the surface of the grating structures both have strong effects on laser damage threshold. It is known that electric field enhancement in the solid material comprising the grating lines varies directly with the linewidth and inversely with the line height for equivalent diffraction efficiency. Here, they present an overview of laser damage characteristics of MLD gratings, and describe a process for post-processing ion-beam etched grating lines using very dilute buffered hydrofluoric acid solutions. This process acts simultaneously to reduce grating linewidth and remove surface contaminants, thereby improving laser damage thresholds through two pathways.

Nguyen, H T; Larson, C C; Britten, J A

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

Chapman, H. N.

263

On the representation of the diffracted field of Hermite-Gaussian modes in an alien basis and the young diffraction principle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical form of expansion coefficients of a diffracted field for an arbitrary Hermite-Gaussian beam in an alien Hermite-Gaussian basis is obtained. A possible physical interpretation of the well-known Young phenomenological diffraction principle and experiments on diffraction of Hermite-Gaussian beams of the lowest types (n = 0 - 5) from half-plane are discussed. The case of nearly homogenous expansion corresponding to misalignment and mismatch of optical systems is also analyzed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Smirnov, V.N.; Strokovskii, G.A. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

NEUTRON DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF CYTOCHROME b5 RECONSTITUTED IN DEUTERATED LIPID MULTILAYERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEUTRON DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF CYTOCHROME b5 RECONSTITUTED IN DEUTERATED LIPID MULTILAYERS E. P centrosymmetric pairs of asymmetric lipid-protein bilayers. Lamellar neutron diffraction data were collected. A neutron diffraction analysis ofcytochrome b5, incorporated into ordered lipid multilayers, promised

265

Neutron diffraction study of the contribution of grain contacts to nonlinear stress-strain behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron diffraction study of the contribution of grain contacts to nonlinear stress-strain behavior performed simultaneous neutron diffraction and quasi-static loading experiments on a selection of rocks to experimentally isolate the response of these contact regions. Neutron diffraction measures strain in the lattice

266

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPLABSEC that will prevent unwanted access to X-ray diffraction laboratory by unauthorized users. POLICY: All entrance to the X-ray Diffraction Laboratory is controlled by magnetic ID cards issued by Texas A & M University

Meagher, Mary

267

Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

Brogan, Michael A. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, Robert W. [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gregory, Duncan H., E-mail: Duncan.Gregory@glasgow.ac.uk [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hybrid shearing and phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new interferometry configuration combines the strengths of two existing interferometry methods, improving the quality and extending the dynamic range of both. On the same patterned mask, placed near the image-plane of an optical system under test, patterns for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry and lateral shearing interferometry coexist. The former giving verifiable high accuracy for the measurement of nearly diffraction-limited optical systems. The latter enabling the measurement of optical systems with more than one wave of aberration in the system wavefront. The interferometry configuration is a hybrid shearing and point diffraction interferometer system for testing an optical element that is positioned along an optical path including: a source of electromagnetic energy in the optical path; a first beam splitter that is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering the first beam splitter in a first position wherein the first beam splitter is in the optical path dividing light from the source into a reference beam and a test beam and in a second position wherein the first beam splitter is outside the optical path: a hybrid mask which includes a first section that defines a test window and at least one reference pinhole and a second section that defines a second beam splitter wherein the hybrid mask is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering either the first section or the second section into the optical path positioned in an image plane that is created by the optical element, with the proviso that the first section of the hybrid mask is positioned in the optical path when first beam splitter is positioned in the optical path; and a detector positioned after the hybrid mask along the optical path.

Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

269

MAD Science Demonstration Proposal Title: MAD Deep Extragalactic Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prosati@eso.org Sune Toft ESO stoft@eso.org Abstract: We propose to use the unprecedented capabilities

Liske, Jochen

270

High-pressure behavior and thermoelastic properties of niobium studied by in situ x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on Nb have been conducted at pressures up to 6.4?GPa and temperatures up to 1073?K. From the pressure-volume-temperature measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for the first time for Nb based on the thermal pressure (?P{sub th}) equation of state (EOS), modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan EOS, and Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K{sub T}{sup ?} fixed at 4.0, we obtained the ambient isothermal bulk modulus K{sub T0}?=?174(5) GPa, the temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure (?K{sub T}/?T){sub P}=?0.060(8) GPa K{sup ?1} and at constant volume (?K{sub T}/?T){sub V}=?0.046(8)?GPa K{sup ?1}, the volumetric thermal expansivity ?{sub T}(T)=2.3(3)×10{sup ?5}+0.3(2)×10{sup ?8}T (K{sup ?1}), as well as the pressure dependence of thermal expansion (??/?P){sub T}=(?2.0±0.4)×10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1?}GPa{sup ?1}. Fitting the present data to the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS with Debye temperature ?{sub 0}?=?276.6?K gives ?{sub 0}?=?1.27(8) and K{sub T0}?=?171(3) GPa at a fixed value of q?=?3.0. The ambient isothermal bulk modulus and Grüneisen parameter derived from this work are comparable to previously reported values from both experimental and theoretical studies. An in situ high-resolution, angle dispersive XRD study on Nb did not indicate any anomalous behavior related to pressure-induced electronic topological transitions at ?5?GPa as has been reported previously.

Zou, Yongtao, E-mail: yongtao.zou@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: yongtaozou6@gmail.com; Li, Baosheng [Mineral Physics Institute, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Qi, Xintong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting [Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Li, Xuefei [Mineral Physics Institute, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Welch, David [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Lithium atom interferometer using laser diffraction : description and experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have built and operated an atom interferometer of the Mach-Zehnder type. The atomic wave is a supersonic beam of lithium seeded in argon and the mirrors and beam-splitters for the atomic wave are based on elastic Bragg diffraction on laser standing waves at 671 nm. We give here a detailed description of our experimental setup and of the procedures used to align its components. We then present experimental signals, exhibiting atomic interference effects with a very high visibility, up to 84.5 %. We describe a series of experiments testing the sensitivity of the fringe visibility to the main alignment defects and to the magnetic field gradient.

Alain Miffre; Marion Jacquey; Matthias Büchner; Gérard Trenec; Jacques Vigue

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

272

Elementary amplitudes in the multiple diffraction theory reexamined  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that, in the context of Glauber{close_quote}s multiple diffraction theory, the square of the correction factor introduced by Bourrely, Soffer, and Wu in a double-pole form factor parametrization, may be interpreted as an elementary (parton-parton) amplitude. The condition concerning the existence of a well-defined Fourier transform is demonstrated, and it is shown that the corresponding profile function comes from an ordinary transform (Bessel function) plus a generalized transform ({delta} distribution). Comparisons with a modified parametrization and results from a model-independent analysis are also presented and discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brasil)] [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brasil); Thober, D.S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Piazza Torricelli 2, I56100 Pisa (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Piazza Torricelli 2, I56100 Pisa (Italy)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

Goldberg, Kenneth A

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

274

Diffractions politiques du march (Cte-d'Ivoire, Vietnam)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

politique, à partir des cas de la Côte-d'Ivoire et du Vietnam. Il s'inscrit contre une autonomisation de la'être burkinabè et empêché de se présenter aux élections. Mots clés Côte d'Ivoire ; Vietnam ; Politique ; �tat/clerse/ ainsi que http://www.tem.ird.fr #12;Bazin & Selim, 2001. Diffractions politiques du marché (Côte- d'Ivoire

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Diffraction crystals for sagittally focusing x-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

1982-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

276

Diffraction crystal for sagittally focusing x-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

Ice, Gene E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sparks, Jr., Cullie J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Diffraction of light by topological defects in liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study light scattering by a hedgehog-like and linear disclination topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal by a metric approach. Light propagating near such defects feels an effective metric equivalent to the spatial part of the global monopole and cosmic string geometries. We obtain the scattering amplitude and the differential and total scattering cross section for the case of the hedgehog defect, in terms of the characteristic parameters of the liquid crystal. Studying the disclination case, a cylindrical partial wave method is developed. As an application of the previous developments, we also examine the temperature influence on the localization of the diffraction patterns.

E. Pereira; F. Moraes

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

278

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 South Place:ReferenceEditWisconsin: EnergyEdison,WindDiffraction (XRD) Jump

279

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug Power Inc Jump to:Venture,149.PopeNewX-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

280

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien,Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Observations of a dynamical-to-kinematic diffraction transition in plastically deformed polycrystalline intermetallic YCu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike most intermetallic compounds, polycrystalline YCu, a B2 (CsCl-type) intermetallic, is ductile at room temperature. The mechanisms for this behavior are not fully understood. In situ neutron diffraction was used to investigate whether a stress-induced phase transformation or twinning contribute to the ductility; however, neither mechanism was found to be active in YCu. Surprisingly, this study revealed that the intensities of the diffraction peaks increased after plastic deformation. It is thought that annealing the samples created nearly perfect crystallinity, and subsequent deformation reduced this high degree of lattice coherency, resulting in a modified mosaic structure that decreased or eliminated the extinction effect. Analysis of changes in diffraction peak intensity showed a region of primary plasticity that exhibits significant changes in diffraction behavior. Fully annealed samples initially contain diffracting volumes large enough to follow the dynamical theory of diffraction. When loaded beyond the yield point, dislocation motion disrupts the lattice perfection, and the diffracting volume is reduced to the point that diffraction follows the kinematic theory of diffraction. Since the sample preparation and deformation mechanisms present in this study are common in numerous material systems, this dynamical to kinematic diffraction transition should also be considered in other diffraction experiments. These measurements also suggest the possibility of a new method of investigating structural characteristics. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.

Williams, Scott H. [Ames Laboratory; Brown, Donald W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Russell, Alan [Ames Laboratory; Gschneidner Jr., Karl A. [Ames Laboratory

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Electron backscatter diffraction of plutonium-gallium alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At Los Alamos National Laboratory a recent experimental technique has been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium arid cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of plutonium and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with plutonium metal. The experimental techniques, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns (EBSPs) and orientation maps for plutonium-gallium alloys are described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. Combining the SEM and EBSD observations, the phase transformation behavior between the {delta} and {var_epsilon} structures was explained. This demonstrated sample preparation and characterization technique is expected to be a powerful means to further understand phase transformation behavior, orientation relationships, and texlure in the complicated plutonium alloy systems.

Boehlert, C. J. (Carl J.); Zocco, T. G. (Thomas G.); Schulze, R. K. (Roland K.); Mitchell, J. N. (Jeremy N.); Pereyra, R. A. (Ramiro A.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Diffractive Electroproduction of rho and phi Mesons at HERA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffractive electroproduction of rho and phi mesons is measured at HERA with the H1 detector in the elastic and proton dissociative channels. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51 pb^-1. About 10500 rho and 2000 phi events are analysed in the kinematic range of squared photon virtuality 2.5 < Q^2 < 60 GeV^2, photon-proton centre of mass energy 35 < W < 180 GeV and squared four-momentum transfer to the proton |t| < 3 GeV^2. The total, longitudinal and transverse cross sections are measured as a function of Q^2, W and |t|. The measurements show a transition to a dominantly "hard" behaviour, typical of high gluon densities and small q\\bar{q} dipoles, for Q^2 larger than 10 to 20 GeV^2. They support flavour independence of the diffractive exchange, expressed in terms of the scaling variable (Q^2 + M_V^2)/4, and proton vertex factorisation. The spin density matrix elements are measured as a function of kinematic variables. The ratio of the longitudinal to transverse cross sections, t...

Aaron, FD; Alexa, C; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Asmone, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

MADNESS | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration -Lowell L. Wood, 1981Future4:~ * MACDoNALD

285

Anomalous sea surface temperatures of the North Pacific Ocean and their relationship to precipitation in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the North Pacific and precip1tation in the ten climatic divisions of Texas, concurrently, and for t1me lags of up to six months. Anomalous sea surface temperatures for the 20 year period, 1947-1966, were correlated to prec1 pi tation totals that were... reported for the ten climatic divisions of Texas. An examination of the levels of significance for each correlat1on coeffic1ent was conducted. Correlation coefficients with high levels of significance were studied for patterns and peak frequencies...

Atkinson, Garey Cecil

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Anomalous triple gauge couplings from $B$-meson and kaon observables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the three CP-conserving dimension-6 operators that encode the leading new-physics effects in the triple gauge couplings. The contributions to the standard-model electromagnetic dipole and semi-leptonic vector and axial-vector interactions that arise from the insertions of these operators are calculated. We show that radiative and rare $B$-meson decays provide, under certain assumptions, constraints on two out of the three anomalous couplings that are competitive with the restrictions obtained from LEP II, Tevatron and LHC data. The constraints arising from the $Z \\to b \\bar b$ electroweak pseudo observables, $K \\to \\pi \

Bobeth, Christoph

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Search for Anomalous Production of Events with Two Photons and Additional Energetic Objects at CDF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present results of a search for anomalous production of two photons together with an electron, muon, {tau} lepton, missing transverse energy, or jets using p{bar p} collision data from 1.1-2.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The event yields and kinematic distributions are examined for signs for new physics without favoring a specific model of new physics. The results are consistent with the standard model expectations. The search employs several new analysis techniques that significantly reduce instrumental backgrounds in channels with an electron and missing transverse energy.

Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U. /Kosice, IEF; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Anomalous behaviour of magnetic coercivity in graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we present the temperature dependence of the magnetic coercivity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). We observe an anomalous decrease in coercivity of GO and RGO with decreasing temperature. The observation could be understood by invoking the inherent presence of wrinkles on graphene oxide due to presence of oxygen containing groups. Scanning electron microscopic image reveals high wrinkles in GO than RGO. We observe higher coercivity in RGO than in GO. At room temperature, we observe antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviours in GO and RGO, respectively. Whereas, at low temperatures (below T?=?60–70?K), both materials show paramagnetic behaviour.

Bagani, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Kaur, J.; Rai Chowdhury, A.; Ghosh, B.; Banerjee, S., E-mail: sangam.banerjee@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Surface Physics Division, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sardar, M. [Material Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

Anomalous Scaling of Structure Functions and Dynamic Constraints on Turbulence Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The connection between anomalous scaling of structure functions (intermittency) and numerical methods for turbulence simulations is discussed. It is argued that the computational work for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulence increases as $Re^{4}$, and not as $Re^{3}$ expected from Kolmogorov's theory, where $Re$ is a large-scale Reynolds number. Various relations for the moments of acceleration and velocity derivatives are derived. An infinite set of exact constraints on dynamically consistent subgrid models for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations, and some problems of principle associated with existing LES models are highlighted.

Victor Yakhot; Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

290

Lattice calculation of the lowest-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic momen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present quenched domain wall fermion and 2+1 flavor improved Kogut-Susskind fermion calculations of the hadronic vacuum polarization which are used to calculate the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha^2)$ hadronic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Together with previous quenched calcuations, the new results confirm that in the quenched theory the hadronic contribution is signifcantly smaller ($\\sim 30%$) than the value obtained from the total cross section of $e^+e^-$ annhilation to hadrons. The 2+1 flavor results show an increasing contribution to $g-2$ as the quark mass is reduced.

T. Blum

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

Preparation and X-Ray diffraction studies of curium hydrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Curium hydrides were prepared by reaction of curium-248 metal with hydrogen and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Several of the syntheses resulted in a hexagonal compound with average lattice parameters of a/sub 0/ = 0.3769(8) nm and c/sub 0/ = 0.6732(12) nm. These products are considere to be CmH/sub 3//sup -//sub 8/ by analogy with the behavior of lanthanide-hydrogen and lighter actinide-hydrogen systems. Face-centered cubic products with an average lattice parameter of a/sub 0/ = 0.5322(4) nm were obtained from other curium hydride preparations. This parameter is slightly smaller than that reported previously for cubic curium dihydride, CmH /SUB 2-x/ (B.M. Bansal and D. Damien. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 6 603, 1970). The present results established a continuation of typical heavy trivalent lanthanidelike behavior of the transuranium actinide-hydrogen systems through curium.

Gibson, J.K.; Maire, R.G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

High Pressure Neutron Powder Diffraction Study of Superhydrated Natrolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron powder diffraction data were collected on a sample of natrolite and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of perdeuterated methanol and water at a pressure of 1.87(11) GPa. The natrolite sample was superhydrated, with a water content double that observed at ambient pressure. All of the water deuterium atoms were located and the nature and extent of the hydrogen bonding elucidated for the first time. This has allowed the calculation of bond valence sums for the water oxygen atoms, and from this, it can be deduced that the key energetic factor leading to loss of the additional water molecule upon pressure release is the poor coordination to sodium cations within the pores.

Colligan,M.; Lee, Y.; Vogt, T.; Celestian, A.; Parise, J.; Marshall, W.; Hriljac, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focusing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data. 18 figs.

Smither, R.K.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

294

3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focussing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the complete characterization of time resolution in an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) instrument based on radio-frequency electron pulse compression. The temporal impulse response function of the instrument was determined directly in pump-probe geometry by performing electron-laser pulse cross-correlation measurements using the ponderomotive interaction. With optimal settings, a stable impulse response of 334{+-}10 fs was measured at a bunch charge of 0.1 pC (6.24 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} electrons/pulse); a dramatic improvement compared to performance without pulse compression. Phase stability currently limits the impulse response of the UED diffractometer to the range of 334-500 fs, for bunch charges ranging between 0.1 and 0.6 pC.

Chatelain, Robert P.; Morrison, Vance R.; Godbout, Chris; Siwick, Bradley J. [Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Center for the Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

Anomalous zones in Gulf Coast Salt domes with special reference to Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anomalous features in Gulf Coast Salt domes exhibit deviations from normally pure salt and vary widely in form from one dome to the next, ranging considerably in length and width. They have affected both conventional and solution mining in several ways. Gas outbursts, insolubles, and potash (especially carnallite) have led to the breakage of tubing in a number of caverns, and caused irregular shapes of many caverns through preferential leaching. Such anomalous features essentially have limited the lateral extent of conventional mining at several salt mines, and led to accidents and even the closing of several other mines. Such anomalous features, are often aligned in anomalous zones, and appear to be related to diapiric processes of salt dome development. Evidence indicates that anomalous zones are found between salt spines, where the differential salt intrusion accumulates other materials: Anhydrite bands which are relatively strong, and other, weaker impurities. Shear zones and fault displacement detected at Big Hill and Weeks Island domes have not yet had any known adverse impacts on SPR oil storage, but new caverns at these sites conceivably may encounter some potentially adverse conditions. Seismic reflection profiles at Big Hill dome have shown numerous fractures and faults in the caprock, and verified the earlier recognition of a major shear zone transecting the entire salt stock and forming a graben in the overlying caprock. Casing that is placed in such zones can be at risk. Knowledge of these zones should create awareness of possible effects rather than preclude the future emplacement of caverns. To the extent possible, major anomalous zones and salt stock boundaries should be avoided. Shear zones along overhangs may be particularly hazardous, and otherwise unknown valleys in the top of salt may occur along shear zones. These zones often can be mapped geophysically, especially with high-resolution seismic techniques.

Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Thoms, R.L. [AGM, Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Autin, W.J.; McCulloh, R.P. [Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Denzler, S.; Byrne, K.O. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Magnetic excitations and anomalous spin-wave broadening in multiferroic FeV2O4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the different roles of two orbital-active Fe2+ at the A site and V3+ at the B site in the magnetic excitations and on the anomalous spin-wave broadening in FeV2O4. FeV2O4 exhibits three structural transitions and successive paramagnetic (PM)–collinear ferrimagnetic (CFI)–noncollinear ferrimagnetic (NCFI)/ferroelectric transitions. The high-temperature tetragonal/PM–orthorhombic/CFI transition is accompanied by the appearance of a large energy gap in the magnetic excitations due to strong spin-orbit-coupling-induced anisotropy at the Fe2+ site. While there is no measurable increase in the energy gap from the orbital ordering of V3+ at the orthorhombic/CFI–tetragonal/NCFI transition, anomalous spin-wave broadening is observed in the orthorhombic/CFI state due to V3+ spin fluctuations at the B site. The spin-wave broadening is also observed at the zone boundary without softening in the NCFI/ferroelectric phase, which is discussed in terms of magnon-phonon coupling. Our study also indicates that the Fe2+ spins without the frustration at the A site may not play an important role in inducing ferroelectricity in the tetragonal/NCFI phase of FeV2O4.

Zhang, Qiang [Ames Laboratory; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet [Ames Laboratory; Chi, Songxue [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Liu, Yong [Ames Laboratory; Lograsso, Thomas A. [Ames Laboratory; Vaknin, David [Ames Laboratory

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Anomalous Flyby in the Non-Prefered Reference Frame of the Rotating Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several spacecrafts show an anomalous flyby. In a previous paper a non-prefered reference frame is studied moving uniformly relative to the prefered one. In this article the Doppler frequency residual is derived. The prefered reference frame is given by the isotropy of the CMB and the non-prefered one is the Earth. The resulting jump is much too small to explain the measured anomalous flybys of the different spacecrafts. Therefore, the transformations from the prefered frame to the non-prefered frame are replaced by the corresponding total differentials. A formula for the Doppler frequency residual is derived. It is applied to the prefered frame of the Earth and the non-prefered frame of the rotating Earth. The resulting Doppler residual depends on the direction of the velocity of the spacecraft and the position of the observer on the rotating Earth. It is similar to the experimental formula of Anderson et al. which is independent of the position of the observer.

Walter Petry

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

299

Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive DT implosions due to 3He addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et aI., Opt. Commun. 133, 495, 1997] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield (i.e., beyond what is predicted) and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas, but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of ICF implosions and capsule performance. A relatively short laser pulse (600 ps) was used to provide some degree of temporal separation between shock and compression yield components for analysis. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the 'factor of two' degradation previously reported by MIT at a 50% {sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg et aI., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT, but consistent with LANL results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He [Wilson, et aI., lml Phys: Conf Series 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression ofcapsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood Equation-of-State (EOS) for gas mixtures, and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

Herrmann, Hans W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mack, Joseph M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Douglas C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Scott C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, Tom J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kyrala, George A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caldwell, Stephen E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Carlton A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nobile, Arthur [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wermer, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Paglieri, Stephen N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcevoy, Aaron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yong Ho [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, Steven H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horsfield, Colin J [AWE, UK; Drew, Dave [AWE, UK; Garbett, Warren [AWE, UK; Rubery, Michael [AWE, UK; Glebov, Vladimir Yu [UNIV OF ROCHESTER; Roberts, Samuel [UNIV OF ROCHESTER; Frenje, Johan A [MIT

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Testing the role of metal hydrolysis in the anomalous electrodeposition of Ni-Fe alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the objective of testing several models of the anomalous codeposition (ACD) encountered in the electrodeposition of nickel-iron alloys, the effects of bath pH and complexing agents on the composition of deposits were examined. When the pH of the base line bath was increased from 3.0 to 5.0, the Ni/Fe mass ratio of the deposit increased (i.e., the deposition became less anomalous). The presence of tartrate ion in the bath produced a slight decrease in the Ni/Fe of the deposit. This complexing agent complexes ferric ion and thus prevents its precipitation but has little interaction with ferrous ion or nickel ion under the electrodeposition conditions examined. The addition of ethylenediamine to the bath produced a significant increase in the Ni/Fe mass ratio. This complexing agent does not interact significantly with ferric ion or ferrous ion under the test conditions. None of these observations are consistent with the Dahms and Croll model of ACD. The effects of pH and tartaric acid on the deposit composition are consistent with the predictions of the Grande and Talbot model and the Matlosz model. The effect of ethylenediamine is not consistent with the Grande and Talbot model, but may be interpreted within the framework of the Matlosz model and the Hessami and Tobias model.

Harris, T.M.; St. Clair, J. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Strange and charm quark contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a new technique to determine the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon coming from the hadronic vacuum polarization using lattice QCD. Our method reconstructs the Adler function, using Pad\\'{e} approximants, from its derivatives at $q^2=0$ obtained simply and accurately from time-moments of the vector current-current correlator at zero spatial momentum. We test the method using strange quark correlators on large-volume gluon field configurations that include the effect of up and down (at physical masses), strange and charm quarks in the sea at multiple values of the lattice spacing and multiple volumes and show that 1% accuracy is achievable. For the charm quark contributions we use our previously determined moments with up, down and strange quarks in the sea on very fine lattices. We find the (connected) contribution to the anomalous moment from the strange quark vacuum polarization to be $a_\\mu^s = 53.41(59) \\times 10^{-10}$, and from charm to be $a_\\mu^c = 14.42(39)\\times 10^{-10}$. These are in good agreement with flavour-separated results from non-lattice methods, given caveats about the comparison. The extension of our method to the light quark contribution and to that from the quark-line disconnected diagram is straightforward.

Bipasha Chakraborty; C. T. H. Davies; G. C. Donald; R. J. Dowdall; J. Koponen; G. P. Lepage; T. Teubner

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

302

Analysis of The Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed in Spacecraft Flybys of Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In March 2008 anomalous behavior in spacecraft flybys of Earth was reported in Physical Review Letters, Volume 100, Issue 9, March 7, 2008, in an article entitled "Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed during Spacecraft Flybys of Earth". The data indicate unaccounted for changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005. The article states that, "All ... potential sources of systematic error .... [have been] modeled. None can account for the observed anomalies.... Like the Pioneer anomaly ... the Earth flybys anomaly is a real effect .... Its source is unknown." In the present article it is shown that the Earth flybys anomaly would be caused by a very small acceleration [in addition to that of natural gravitation], centrally directed and independent of distance, the same effect as that which the Pioneer anomaly exhibits. How that effect operates to produce the observed results is analyzed. A cause of the centrally directed accelerations is presented.

Roger Ellman

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Intrinsic anomalous surface roughening of TiN films deposited by reactive sputtering M. A. Auger,1,5 L. Vzquez,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intrinsic anomalous surface roughening of TiN films deposited by reactive sputtering M. A. Auger,1 manuscript received 1 December 2005; published 31 January 2006 We study surface kinetic roughening of TiN. The TiN films exhibit intrinsic anomalous scaling and multiscaling. The film kinetic roughening

Cuerno, Rodolfo

304

Stoichiometry optimization of homoepitaxial oxide thin films using x-ray diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a “MBE growth window” in which the film stoichiometry iswindow, the best fits of the diffraction patterns were obtained with film

Stemmer, Susanne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

E-Print Network 3.0 - angle diffraction studies Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECTS IN TRANSPARENT 'MEDIA Summary: reported by Auld and Wilson 2 ; Smith 3 has studied the Bragg diffraction by magnetoelastic waves... with the static...

306

Landau damping and anomalous skin effect in low-pressure gas discharges: Self-consistent treatment of collisionless heatinga...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. This system was applied to the calculation of collisionless heating electric field anomalous skin effect . Also for inhomogeneous electric fields another mechanism of heating density profile and a Maxwellian EEDF. In the present study a self-consistent system of equations

Kaganovich, Igor

307

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, PAGES 377-380, FEBRUARY 1, 2000 Anomalous scaling of mesoscale tropospheric humidity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, PAGES 377-380, FEBRUARY 1, 2000 Anomalous scaling will take up to 20 s to respond. In this paper we report the first sci- entific results using the full 20-Hz on the idea of chaotic isentropic lateral mixing [e.g., Emanuel and Pierrehumbert, 1996]. Our present study

Cho, John Y. N.

308

Tracking Waves and Vortex Nucleation in Excitable Systems with Anomalous Dispersion N. Manz, C.T. Hamik, and O. Steinbock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tracking Waves and Vortex Nucleation in Excitable Systems with Anomalous Dispersion N. Manz, C obtained from a chemical reaction-diffusion system in which wave propagation is limited to a finite band of wavelengths and in which no solitary pulses exist. Wave patterns increase their size through repeated

Steinbock, Oliver

309

Relative recovery of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays at 1 AU: Further evidence for modulation in the heliosheath  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the inclination of the heliospheric neutral current sheet decreases from 32° to its minimum value of 8°. INDEX TERMS: 2104 Interplanetary Physics: Cosmic rays; 2124 Interplanetary Physics: Heliopause and solar wind: anomalous cosmic rays, heliosheath, coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks, solar wind, galactic

Reames, Donald V.

310

Neutron diffraction studies of water and aqueous solutions under pressure G. W. Neilson and S. Cummings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Abstract 2014 A summary is given of data obtained from neutron diffraction experiments on heavy water pressures. In fact, the only neutron diffraction work we know of is that concemed with heavy water [5, 6]. (X-ray diffrac- tion experiments have, however, been carried out on water and heavy water

Boyer, Edmond

311

Diffraction and external reflection by dielectric faceted particles Lei Bi a,, Ping Yang b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximate methods; the surface-integral method (SIM), the volume-integral method (VIM), and the diffraction matrix in the SIM and the VIM are presented in an explicit form. Of interest is that diffraction and external reflection are separable in the SIM, whereas they are combined in the VIM. A feature of zero

Baum, Bryan A.

312

Reflection high-energy electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes Jason T. Drotar,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reflection high-energy electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes Jason T. Drotar,1 B. Q. Wei,2 Y of the nanotubes was determined, from the energy-loss spectrum, to be 52 12 nm. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.64-walled carbon nanotubes using reflec- tion high-energy electron diffraction RHEED .9 However, it should

Wang, Gwo-Ching

313

Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser HENRY N. CHAPMAN1 of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 Ã? 1013 W cm-2 pulse by one10 . X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expected to permit diffractive imaging at high

Loss, Daniel

314

Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments A. M pulses used in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments UED . We assume a Gaussian form to characterize the electron pulse, and derive a system of ordinary differential equations that are solved quickly and easily

Sipe,J. E.

315

A pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction at surfaces A. Janzen,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction at surfaces A. Janzen,a B. Krenzer, O The construction of a pulsed electron gun for ultrafast reflection high-energy electron diffraction experiments: a photocathode, consisting of a 10 nm thin Au film deposited onto a sapphire substrate. Electron pulses

von der Linde, D.

316

Limited Diffraction Array Beams Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Clinic and Foundation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limited Diffraction Array Beams Jian-yu Lu Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 ABSTRACT: Limited diffraction beams have a large applications. In this article, new limited diffrac- beam patterns near the cone surface, these devices

Lu, Jian-yu

317

Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to radiation force and torque University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 USA lzhang@chaos.utexas.edu Abstract: Acoustical and optical non-diffracting beams are potentially useful for manipulating particles and larger objects. An extended optical theorem

Texas at Austin. University of

318

Electron diffraction from cylindrical nanotubes Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; accepted 26 April 1994) Electron diffraction intensities from cylindrical objects can be conveniently cylindrical carbon nanotubes are presented in general forms in terms of structural parameters of such diffraction patterns. The validity of the projection approximation is also discussed. I. INTRODUCTION

Qin, Lu-Chang

319

X-ray Diffraction / MSE 603 Spring 2002 Qun Shen / CHESS qs11@cornell.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction / MSE 603 Spring 2002 Qun Shen / CHESS qs11@cornell.edu 1. X-ray production & basic properties ­ common sources for diffraction experiments ­ synchrotron radiation ­ response to x-rays by an electron ­ refraction index ­ total external reflection & evanescent wave, TXRF 2. X-ray scattering basics

Shen, Qun

320

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPDATSMA data collection on the Bruker SMART1000 Single-crystal X-ray Diffractometer. POLICY: Data must. BACKGROUND AND PRECAUTIONS 1. Single-Crystal X-ray diffraction is a method by which investigators can

Meagher, Mary

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPABSSTR for absolute structure determination on the Bruker GADDS Single-crystal X-ray Diffractometer. POLICY: Data must. BACKGROUND AND PRECAUTIONS 1. Single-Crystal X-ray diffraction is a method by which investigators can

Meagher, Mary

322

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPPOWGAD data collection on the Bruker GADDS Powder X-ray Diffractometer. POLICY: Data must be collected AND PRECAUTIONS 1. Powder X-ray diffraction is a method by which investigators can identify the materials

Meagher, Mary

323

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPDATSM1 to facilitate data collection on the Bruker APEXii Single-crystal X-ray Diffractometer. POLICY: Data must. BACKGROUND AND PRECAUTIONS 1. Single-Crystal X-ray diffraction is a method by which investigators can

Meagher, Mary

324

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPDATGAD to facilitate data collection on the Bruker GADDS Single-crystal X-ray Diffractometer. POLICY: Data must. BACKGROUND AND PRECAUTIONS 1. Single-Crystal X-ray diffraction is a method by which investigators can

Meagher, Mary

325

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPPOWD8 Standard Operating Procedure Title: X-ray Powder Diffraction: D8 Advanced Rev No: Issue date: 1.001 12/29/2008 Page: 1 of 3 SOP: SOPPOWD8 Last date revised: December 23 2009 Date approved: December 29 2009 X-ray

Meagher, Mary

326

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPDATAP1 data collection on the Bruker APEXii Single-crystal X-ray Diffractometer. POLICY: Data must. BACKGROUND AND PRECAUTIONS 1. Single-Crystal X-ray diffraction is a method by which investigators can

Meagher, Mary

327

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPDATAP2 to facilitate data collection on the Bruker APEXii Single-crystal X-ray Diffractometer. POLICY: Data must. BACKGROUND AND PRECAUTIONS 1. Single-Crystal X-ray diffraction is a method by which investigators can

Meagher, Mary

328

Topological insulators in silicene: Quantum hall, quantum spin hall and quantum anomalous hall effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicene is a monolayer of silicon atoms forming a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, which shares almost every remarkable property with graphene. The low energy dynamics is described by Dirac electrons, but they are massive due to relatively large spin-orbit interactions. I will explain the following properties of silicene: 1) The band structure is controllable by applying an electric field. 2) Silicene undergoes a phase transition from a topological insulator to a band insulator by applying external electric field. 3) The topological phase transition can be detected experimentally by way of diamagnetism. 4) There is a novel valley-spin selection rules revealed by way of photon absorption. 5) Silicene yields a remarkably many phases such as quantum anomalous Hall phase and valley polarized metal when the exchange field is additionally introduced. 6) A silicon nanotubes can be used to convey spin currents under an electric field.

Ezawa, Motohiko [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [Verma et al., 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron’s thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of Braginskii. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity. 1 1

Mahendra K. Verma

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Entropy of the Nordic electricity market: anomalous scaling, spikes, and mean-reversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electricity market is a very peculiar market due to the large variety of phenomena that can affect the spot price. However, this market still shows many typical features of other speculative (commodity) markets like, for instance, data clustering and mean reversion. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) to the Nordic spot electricity market (Nord Pool). We study the waiting time statistics between consecutive spot price spikes and find it to show anomalous scaling characterized by a decaying power-law. The exponent observed in data follows a quite robust relationship with the one implied by the DEA analysis. We also in terms of the DEA revisit topics like clustering, mean-reversion and periodicities. We finally propose a GARCH inspired model but for the price itself. Models in the context of stochastic volatility processes appear under this scope to have a feasible description.

Perello, J; Montero, M; Palatella, L; Simonsen, I; Masoliver, Jaume; Montero, Miquel; Palatella, Luigi; Perello, Josep; Simonsen, Ingve

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Anomalous dimension of the gluon operator in pure Yang-Mills theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new one loop calculations that confirm the theorems of Joglekar and Lee on the renormalization of composite operators. We do this by considering physical matrix elements with the operators inserted at non-zero momentum. The resulting IR singularities are regulated dimensionally. We show that the physical matrix element of the BRST exact gauge variant operator which appears in the energy- momentum tensor is zero. We then show that the physical matrix elements of the classical energy-momentum tensor and the gauge invariant twist two gluon operator are independent of the gauge fixing parameter. A Sudakov factor appears in the latter cases. The universality of this factor and the UV finiteness of the energy-momentum tensor provide another method of finding the anomalous dimension of the gluon operator. We conjecture that this method applies to higher loops and takes full advantage of the triangularity of the mixing matrix.

B. W. Harris; J. Smith

1994-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

332

Strong coupling of an optomechanical system to an anomalously dispersive atomic medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate a hybrid optomechanical system in which a membrane oscillator is coupled to a collective spin of ground states of an intracavity $\\Lambda$-type three-level atomic medium. The cavity field response is greatly modified by atomic coherence and the anomalous dispersion generated by two Raman pumping beams near two-photon resonance. The optomechanical interaction, therefore radiation pressure force, is substantially enhanced due to superluminal propagation of photons in the cavity. Such improvement facilitates ground-state cooling of the mechanical oscillator with room temperature thermal environment. Moreover, it can greatly improve the sensitivity and bandwidth of displacement measurement. In such system, optically-controlled strong-coupling interaction between the mechanical oscillator and cavity field could be implemented on small intracavity photon number, even at the single quanta level, which is important for weak-light nonlinear photonics and the generation of nonclassical quantum states in the mechanical field.

Haibin Wu; Min Xiao

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

333

Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

Mahendra K. Verma

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fractal Location and Anomalous Diffusion Dynamics for Oil Wells from the KY Geological Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing data available from the Kentucky Geonet (KYGeonet.ky.gov) the fossil fuel mining locations created by the Kentucky Geological Survey geo-locating oil and gas wells are mapped using ESRI ArcGIS in Kentucky single plain 1602 ft projection. This data was then exported into a spreadsheet showing latitude and longitude for each point to be used for modeling at different scales to determine the fractal dimension of the set. Following the porosity and diffusivity studies of Tarafdar and Roy1 we extract fractal dimensions of the fossil fuel mining locations and search for evidence of scaling laws for the set of deposits. The Levy index is used to determine a match to a statistical mechanically motivated generalized probability function for the wells. This probability distribution corresponds to a solution of a dynamical anomalous diffusion equation of fractional order that describes the Levy paths which can be solved in the diffusion limit by the Fox H function ansatz.

Andrew, Keith; Andrew, Kevin A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons was observed in simulation of a high- voltage dc discharge with electron emission from the cathode. An electron beam produced by the emission interacts with the nonuniform plasma in the discharge via a two-stream instability. Efficient energy transfer from the beam to the plasma electrons is ensured by the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The short waves near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. The sheath near the anode reflects some of the accelerated electrons back into the plasma. These electrons travel through the plasma, reflect near the cathode, and enter the accelerating area again but with a higher energy than before. Such particles are accelerated to energies much higher than after the first acceleration. This mechanism plays a role in explaining earlier experimental observations of energetic suprathermal electrons i...

Sydorenko, D; Chen, L; Ventzek, P L G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Anomalous magnetic and electric moments of $?$ and lepton flavor mixing matrix in effective lagrangian approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In an effective lagrangian approach [EM97] to new physics, the authors in ref. [HL99] pushed tau anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments (AMDM and EDM) down to $10^{-11}$ and $10^{-25} e cm$ by using a Fritzsch-Xing lepton mass matrix ansatz. In this note, we find that, in this approach, there exists the connection between $\\tau$ AMDM and EDM and the lepton flavor mixing matrix. By using the current neutrino oscillation experimental results, we investigate the parameter space of lepton mixing angles to $\\tau$ AMDM and EDM. We can obtain the same or smaller bounds of $\\delta a_\\tau$ and $d_\\tau$ acquired in ref. [HL99] and constrain $\\theta_l$ (the mixing angle obtained by long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments) from $\\tau$ AMDM and EDM.

J. Q. Zhang; X. C. Song; W. J. Huo; T. F. Feng

2002-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

337

Anomalous discrete chiral symmetry in the Gross-Neveu model and loop gas simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the discrete chiral transformation of a Majorana fermion on a torus. Depending on the boundary conditions the integration measure can change sign. Taking this anomalous behavior into account we define a chiral order parameter as a ratio of partition functions with differing boundary conditions. Then the lattice realization of the Gross-Neveu model with Wilson fermions is simulated using the recent `worm' technique on the loop gas or all-order hopping representation of the fermions. An algorithm is formulated that includes the Gross-Neveu interaction for N fermion species. The critical line m_c(g) is constructed for a range of couplings at N = 6 and for N = 2, the Thirring model, as examples.

Oliver Bär; Willi Rath; Ulli Wolff

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a?hvp, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring Nf=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Including the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of a ?hvp. Our final result involving an estimate of the systematic uncertainty a ?hvp=6.74 (21)(18) 10-8 shows a good overall agreement with these computations.

Burger, Florian [Humboldt U. Berlin; Feng, Xu [KEK; Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt U. Berlin; Jansen, Karl [DESY, Cyprus; Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute; Renner, Dru B. [JLAB

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

An Instability of the Standard Model Creates the Anomalous Acceleration Without Dark Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a new asymptotic ansatz for spherical perturbations of the Standard Model of Cosmology (SM) which applies during the $p=0$ epoch, and prove that these perturbations trigger instabilities in the SM on the scale of the supernova data. These instabilities create a large, central region of uniform under-density which expands faster than the SM, and this central region of accelerated uniform expansion introduces into the SM {\\it precisely} the same range of corrections to redshift vs luminosity as are produced by the cosmological constant in the theory of Dark Energy. A universal behavior is exhibited because all sufficiently small perturbations evolve to a single stable rest point. Moreover, we prove that these perturbations are consistent with, and the instability is triggered by, the one parameter family of self-similar waves which the authors previously proposed as possible time-asymptotic wave patterns for perturbations of the SM at the end of the radiation epoch. Using numerical simulations, we calculate the unique wave in the family that accounts for the same values of the Hubble constant and quadratic correction to redshift vs luminosity as in a universe with seventy percent Dark Energy, $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}\\approx.7$. A numerical simulation of the third order correction associated with that unique wave establishes a testable prediction that distinguishes this theory from the theory of Dark Energy. This explanation for the anomalous acceleration, based on instabilities in the SM together with simple wave perturbations from the radiation epoch that trigger them, provides perhaps the simplest mathematical explanation for the anomalous acceleration of the galaxies that does not invoke Dark Energy.

Joel Smoller; Blake Temple; Zeke Vogler

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

345

Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we present femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional (2-D) protein crystals using an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). To date it has not been possible to acquire x-ray diffraction from individual 2-D protein crystals due to radiation damage. However, the intense and ultrafast pulses generated by an XFEL permits a new method of collecting diffraction data before the sample is destroyed. Utilizing a diffract-before-destroy methodology at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we observed Bragg diffraction to better than 8.5 Å resolution for two different 2-D protein crystal samples that were maintained at room temperature. These proof-of-principle results show promise for structural analysis of both soluble and membrane proteins arranged as 2-D crystals without requiring cryogenic conditions or the formation of three-dimensional crystals.

Frank, Matthias; Carlson, David B.; Hunter, Mark; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Barty, Anton; Benner, Henry; Chu, Kaiqin; Graf, Alexander; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Kirian, Rick; Padeste, Celestino; Pardini, Tommaso; Pedrini, Bill; Segelke, Brent; Seibert, M. M.; Spence , John C.; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Lane, Steve M.; Li, Xiao-Dan; Schertler, Gebhard; Boutet, Sebastien; Coleman, Matthew A.; Evans, James E.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

Single-particle structure determination by correlations of snapshot X-ray diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 20)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This deposition includes the diffraction images generated by the paired polystyrene spheres in random orientations. These images were used to determine and phase the single particle diffraction volume from their autocorrelation functions.

Starodub, D.

347

Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 degrees C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

2007-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

349

Low missing mass, single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cross sections for single and double diffraction dissociation at low missing masses are calculated for the LHC energies on the basis of the dual (Regge) model under the assumption of a dominant contribution of the exchange of the Pomeron Regge pole. The model reproduces the rich resonance structure in the region of low missing masses M{sub x}. Diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory M{sub x} supplemented with the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing-mass dependence of the differential and integrated single and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

Jenkovszky, L. L., E-mail: jenk@bitp.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Kuprash, O. E., E-mail: oleg.kuprash@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Orava, R., E-mail: risto.orava@cern.ch [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Salii, A., E-mail: saliy.andriy@gmail.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine)

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) Characterization of Uranium and Uranium Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to examine the microstructures of unalloyed uranium, U-6Nb, U-10Mo, and U-0.75Ti. For unalloyed uranium, we used EBSD to examine the effects of various processes on microstructures including casting, rolling and forming, recrystallization, welding, and quasi-static and shock deformation. For U-6Nb we used EBSD to examine the microstructural evolution during shape memory loading. EBSD was used to study chemical homogenization in U-10Mo, and for U-0.75Ti, we used EBSD to study the microstructure and texture evolution during thermal cycling and deformation. The studied uranium alloys have significant microstructural and chemical differences and each of these alloys presents unique preparation challenges. Each of the alloys is prepared by a sequence of mechanical grinding and polishing followed by electropolishing with subtle differences between the alloys. U-6Nb and U-0.75Ti both have martensitic microstructures and both require special care in order to avoid mechanical polishing artifacts. Unalloyed uranium has a tendency to rapidly oxidize when exposed to air and a two-step electropolish is employed, the first step to remove the damaged surface layer resulting from the mechanical preparation and the second step to passivate the surface. All of the alloying additions provide a level of surface passivation and different one and two step electropolishes are employed to create good EBSD surfaces. Because of its low symmetry crystal structure, uranium exhibits complex deformation behavior including operation of multiple deformation twinning modes. EBSD was used to observe and quantify twinning contributions to deformation and to examine the fracture behavior. Figure 1 shows a cross section of two mating fracture surfaces in cast uranium showing the propensity of deformation twinning and intergranular fracture largely between dissimilarly oriented grains. Deformation of U-6Nb in the shape memory regime occurs by the motion of twin boundaries formed during the martensitic transformation. Deformation actually results in a coarsening of the microstructure making EBSD more practical following a limited amount of strain. Figure 2 shows the microstructure resulting from 6% compression. Casting of U-10Mo results in considerable chemical segregation as is apparent in Figure 2a. The segregation subsists through rolling and heat treatment processes as shown in Figure 2b. EBSD was used to study the effects of homogenization time and temperature on chemical heterogeneity. It was found that times and temperatures that result in a chemically homogeneous microstructure also result in a significant increase in grain size. U-0.75Ti forms an acicular martinsite as shown in Figure 4. This microstructure prevails through cycling into the higher temperature solid uranium phases.

McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Ann Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Amy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wenk, H. R. [University of California, Berkeley

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

Experimental results on pp forward elastic scattering and the possibility of universal shrinkage of the hadronic diffraction cone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental results on pp forward elastic scattering and the possibility of universal shrinkage of the hadronic diffraction cone

Burq, J P; Chevallier, M; Denisov, A S; Ekelöf, T J C; Fay, F; Grafström, P; Gustafsson, L; Hagberg, E; Ille, B; Kashchuk, A P; Kulikov, A V; Lambert, M; Martin, J P; Maury, S; Querrou, M; Schegelsky, V A; Tkach, I I; Verbeken, M; Vorobyov, A A

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Thickness monitoring of graphene on SiC using low-energy electron diffraction P. J. Fisher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Thickness monitoring of graphene on SiC using low-energy electron diffraction P. J. Fisher IBM T of epitaxial graphene on SiC is monitored in-situ using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The possibility of using LEED as an in-situ thickness monitor of the graphene is examined. The ratio of primary diffraction

Feenstra, Randall

355

Neutron and X-ray diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modelling of magnesium stabilised amorphous calcium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron and X-ray diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modelling of magnesium online xxxx Keywords: Amorphous calcium carbonate; EPSR modelling; Neutron diffraction; X-ray diffraction Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) plays a key role in biomineralisation processes in sea organisms. Neutron

Benning, Liane G.

356

Comment on the article ``UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects'' by A. Serebrov et al  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present correct solution of the problem about a scattering of the neutron on a point-like defect existing in a medium and show that this mechanism cannot explain anomalous losses of UCN in storage bottles.

A. L. Barabanov; K. V. Protasov

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

357

Rank-1 accelerated illumination recovery in scanning diffractive imaging by transparency estimation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Illumination retrieval in scanning diffractive imaging a.k.a. ptychography is challenging when the specimen is weakly scattering or surrounded by empty space. We describe a rank-1 acceleration method for weakly scattering or piecewise smooth specimens.

Wu, Hau-Tieng

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for determining property of multiphase fluids based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum exhibits peaks whose relative size depends on the properties of the various phases of the multiphase fluid. For example, for particles in a liquid, the peaks exhibit dependence on the particle size and the particle volume fraction. Where the exact relationship is know know a priori, data from different peaks of the same reflection spectrum or data from the peaks of different spectra obtained from different diffraction gratings can be used to resolve the size and volume fraction.

Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

359

SciTech Connect: Coulomb and diffraction dissociation of 16.2...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Search Title: Coulomb and diffraction dissociation of 16.2 Bevc negative pions Nuclear emulsions exposed to a primary beam of 16.2 Bevc negative pions were examined along...

360

Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The post-experiment processing of X-ray Diffraction Microscopy data is often time-consuming and difficult. This is mostly due to the fact that even if a preliminary result has been reconstructed, there is no definitive answer as to whether or not a better result with more consistently retrieved phases can still be obtained. We show here that the first step in data analysis, the assembly of two-dimensional diffraction patterns from a large set of raw diffraction data, is crucial to obtaining reconstructions of highest possible consistency. We have developed software that automates this process and results in consistently accurate diffraction patterns. We have furthermore derived some criteria of validity for a tool commonly used to assess the consistency of reconstructions, the phase retrieval transfer function, and suggest a modified version that has improved utility for judging reconstruction quality.

Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Neutron Diffraction and Optics of a Noncentrosymmetric Crystal. New Feasibility of a Search for Neutron EDM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently strong electric fields (up to 10^9 V/cm) have been discovered, which affect the neutrons moving in noncentrosymmetric crystals. Such fields allow new polarization phenomena in neutron diffraction and optics and provide, for instance, a new feasibility of a search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM). A series of experiments was carried out in a few last years on study of the dynamical diffraction of polarized neutrons in thick (1-10 cm) quartz crystals, using the forward diffraction beam and Bragg angles close to 90^0. As well new neutron optics phenomena were investigated. The feasibility of experiment on a search for neutron EDM using Laue diffraction in crystals without a center of symmetry was tested at the reactors: WWR-M in Gatchina and HFR in Grenoble. It was shown that the sensitivity can reach (3 - 6)\\cdot 10^{-25}e cm per day for the available quartz crystal and cold neutron beam flux.

V. V. Fedorov; V. V. Voronin

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication and Application to EUV Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application to Diffractive Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol.of advanced diffracitve optics,”J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. B,diffusers. ” Applied Optics, 43, 28, 1 (2004). Patrick P.

Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - angle x-ray diffraction Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Materials Science 60 Page 12 CHESS News Magazine 2005 FacilityHighlight Impact of a Future Energy Recovery Linac Summary: -rolled Aluminum SR X-ray diffraction. Map grain...

364

Electron Pulse Compression with a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a powerful method for studying time-resolved structural changes. Currently, space-charge-induced temporal broadening prevents obtaining high-brightness electron pulses with sub-100 ...

Wang, Yihua

365

No Evidence for Coherent Diffractive Radiation Patterns in the Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0437-4715  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An independent analysis of the 326.5 MHz data obtained by Ooty Radio Telescope reveals no evidence for coherent diffractive radiation patterns in the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715.

M. Vivekanand

2001-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

366

On the Indication from Pioneer 10/11 Data of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hubble's law, which states a linear increase in velocities with distances, can physically be understood in terms of an acceleration cH. This work proposes a connection between this "universal" acceleration seen in the solar system and the anomalous acceleration acting on the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft, in which the Hubble constant inferred from Pioneer 10/11 data is ~ 87 km/s/Mpc. Its physical implication is discussed in relation with Mach's principle.

Y. G. Yi

2006-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

367

Astrophysics of the Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the Soft Gamma Repeaters: in particular their spin behavior, persistent emission and hyper-Eddington outbursts. The giant flares on 5 March 1979 and 27 August 1998 provide compelling physical evidence for magnetic fields stronger than 10 B_{QED} = 4.4 x 10^{14} G, consistent with the rapid spindown detected in two of these sources. The persistent X-ray emission and variable spindown of the 6-12 s Anomalous X-ray Pulsars are compared and contrasted with those of the SGRs, and the case made for a close connection between the two types of sources. Their collective properties point to the existence of {\\it magnetars}: neutron stars in which a decaying magnetic field (rather than accretion or rotation) is the dominant source of energy for radiative and particle emissions. Observational tests of the magnetar model are outlined, along with current ideas about the trigger of SGR outbursts, new evidence for the trapped fireball model, and the influence of QED processes on X-ray spectra and lightcurves. A critical examination is made of coherent radio emission from bursting strong-field neutron stars. I conclude with an overview of the genetic connection between neutron star magnetism and the violent fluid motions in a collapsing supernova core.

Christopher Thompson

2000-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

368

Thermodynamically Anomalous Regions and Possible New Signals of Mixed Phase Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using an advanced version of the hadron resonance gas model we have found remarkable irregularities of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at chemical freeze-out. They include an abrupt change of the effective number of degrees of freedom at laboratory energies 8.9-11.6 AGeV and plateaus in the collision-energy dependence of the entropy per baryon, total pion number per baryon, and thermal pion number per baryon at laboratory energies 6.9-11.6 AGeV. Also at chemical freeze-out we observe a sharp peak in the dimensionless trace anomaly at laboratory energy 11.6 AGeV. On the basis of the generalized shock-adiabat model we demonstrate that these observations give evidence for the anomalous thermodynamic properties of the mixed phase at its boundary to the quark-gluon plasma. We argue that the trace anomaly peak and the local minimum of the generalized specific volume observed at a laboratory energy of 11.6 AGeV provide a signal for the formation of a mixed phase between the quark-gluon plasma and the hadron phase.

K. A. Bugaev; A. I. Ivanytskyi; D. R. Oliinychenko; V. V. Sagun; I. N. Mishustin; D. H. Rischke; L. M. Satarov; G. M. Zinovjev

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

On anomalous temporal evolution of gas pressure in inductively coupled plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temporal measurement of gas pressure in inductive coupled plasma revealed that there is an interesting anomalous evolution of gas pressure in the early stage of plasma ignition and extinction: a sudden gas pressure change and its relaxation of which time scales are about a few seconds and a few tens of second, respectively, were observed after plasma ignition and extinction. This phenomenon can be understood as a combined result between the neutral heating effect induced by plasma and the pressure relaxation effect for new gas temperature. The temporal measurement of gas temperature by laser Rayleigh scattering and the time dependant calculations for the neutral heating and pressure relaxation are in good agreement with our experimental results. This result and physics behind are expected to provide a new operational perspective of the recent plasma processes of which time is very short, such as a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition/etching, a soft etch for disposal of residual by-products on wafer, and light oxidation process in semiconductor manufacturing.

Seo, B. H.; Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Seong, D. J. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Resonant cavity mode dependence of anomalous and inverse spin Hall effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct current electric voltage induced by the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and Anomalous Hall Effect (AHE) was investigated in the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The ISHE and AHE components were distinguishable through the fitting of the voltage spectrum. The unwanted AHE was minimized by placing the DUT (Device Under Test) at the center of both the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The voltage of ISHE in the TE{sub 011} cavity was larger than that in the TE{sub 102} cavity due to the higher quality factor of the former. Despite optimized centering, AHE voltage from TE{sub 011} cavity was also higher. The reason was attributed to the E-field distribution inside the cavity. In the case of the TE{sub 011} cavity, the DUT was easily exposed to the E-field in all directions. Therefore, the parasitic AHE voltage in the TE{sub 102} cavity was less sensitive than that in the TE{sub 011} cavity to decentering problem.

Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-young, E-mail: parksy@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

372

Optical properties of metals: Infrared emissivity in the anomalous skin effect spectral region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave in a metal is similar to the mean free path of the conduction electrons, the Drude classical theory is no longer satisfied and the skin effect becomes anomalous. Physical parameters of this theory for twelve metals were calculated and analyzed. The theory predicts an emissivity peak ?{sub peak} at room temperature in the mid-infrared for smooth surface metals that moves towards larger wavelengths as temperature decreases. Furthermore, the theory states that ?{sub peak} increases with the emission angle but its position, ?{sub peak}, is constant. Copper directional emissivity measurements as well as emissivity obtained using optical constants data confirm the predictions of the theory. Considering the relationship between the specularity parameter p and the sample roughness, it is concluded that p is not the simple parameter it is usually assumed to be. Quantitative comparison between experimental data and theoretical predictions shows that the specularity parameter can be equal to one for roughness values larger than those predicted. An exhaustive analysis of the experimental optical parameters shows signs of a reflectance broad peak in Cu, Al, Au, and Mo around the wavelength predicted by the theory for p?=?1.

Echániz, T. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Pérez-Sáez, R. B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es; Tello, M. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Instituto de Síntesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain)

2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Large anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulator-topological insulator heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the van der Waals epitaxy of the topological insulator compound Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on the ferromagnetic insulator Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The layers are oriented with (001)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(001)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and (110)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(100)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation of a sharp interface. At low temperatures, bilayers consisting of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Tilted field studies of the AHE indicate that the easy axis lies along the c-axis of the heterostructure, consistent with magnetization measurements in bulk Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The 61?K Curie temperature of Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and the use of near-stoichiometric materials may lead to the development of spintronic devices based on the AHE.

Alegria, L. D.; Petta, J. R. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Ji, H.; Cava, R. J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Yao, N. [Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Clarke, J. J. [Hitachi High Technologies America, Inc., Clarksburg, Maryland 20871 (United States)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

374

Recent progress in macromolecular phasing, in part stimulated by the high-throughput structural biology initiatives, has made this  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and MAD require the presence of appropriate heavy or anomalous scatterers -- either naturally occurring may become fully automatic. Addresses Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, National Cancer of normally occurring methionine by genetic engineering. Although these approaches are used routinely

375

Experimental observation of acoustic sub-harmonic diffraction by a grating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A diffraction grating is a spatial filter causing sound waves or optical waves to reflect in directions determined by the frequency of the waves and the period of the grating. The classical grating equation is the governing principle that has successfully described the diffraction phenomena caused by gratings. However, in this work, we show experimental observation of the so-called sub-harmonic diffraction in acoustics that cannot be explained by the classical grating equation. Experiments indicate two physical phenomena causing the effect: internal scattering effects within the corrugation causing a phase shift and nonlinear acoustic effects generating new frequencies. This discovery expands our current understanding of the diffraction phenomenon, and it also makes it possible to better design spatial diffraction spectra, such as a rainbow effect in optics with a more complicated color spectrum than a traditional rainbow. The discovery reveals also a possibly new technique to study nonlinear acoustics by exploitation of the natural spatial filtering effect inherent to an acoustic diffraction grating.

Liu, Jingfei, E-mail: benjamin.jf.liu@gatech.edu; Declercq, Nico F., E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu [Laboratory for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation “LUNE,” Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-CNRS UMI2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2, rue Marconi, Metz 57070 (France)

2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

376

Peccei-Quinn invariant singlet extended SUSY with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent discovery of the SM-like Higgs boson with $m_h\\simeq 125$ GeV motivates an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), which involves a singlet Higgs superfield with a sizable Yukawa coupling to the doublet Higgs superfields. We examine such singlet-extended SUSY models with a Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry that originates from an anomalous $U(1)_A$ gauge symmetry. We focus on the specific scheme that the PQ symmetry is spontaneously broken at an intermediate scale $v_{\\rm PQ}\\sim \\sqrt{m_{\\rm SUSY}M_{\\rm Pl}}$ by an interplay between Planck scale suppressed operators and tachyonic soft scalar mass $m_{\\rm SUSY}\\sim \\sqrt{D_A}$ induced dominantly by the $U(1)_A$ $D$-term, $D_A$. This scheme also results in spontaneous SUSY breaking in the PQ sector, generating the gaugino masses $M_{1/2}\\sim \\sqrt{D_A}$ when it is transmitted to the MSSM sector by the conventional gauge mediation mechanism. As a result, the MSSM soft parameters in this scheme are induced mostly by the $U(1)_A$ $D$-term and the gauge mediated SUSY breaking from the PQ sector, so that the sparticle masses can be near the present experimental bounds without causing the SUSY flavor problem. The scheme is severely constrained by the condition that a phenomenologically viable form of the low energy operators of the singlet and doublet Higgs superfields is generated by the PQ breaking sector in a way similar to the Kim-Nilles solution of the $\\mu$ problem, and the resulting Higgs mass parameters allow the electroweak symmetry breaking with small $\\tan\\beta$. We find two minimal models with two singlet Higgs superfields, satisfying this condition with a relatively simple form of the PQ breaking sector, and briefly discuss some phenomenological aspects of the model.

Sang Hui Im; Min-Seok Seo

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

377

Anomalous critical behaviour in the polymer collapse transition of three-dimensional lattice trails  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trails (bond-avoiding walks) provide an alternative lattice model of polymers to self-avoiding walks, and adding self-interaction at multiply visited sites gives a model of polymer collapse. Recently, a two-dimensional model (triangular lattice) where doubly and triply visited sites are given different weights was shown to display a rich phase diagram with first and second order collapse separated by a multi-critical point. A kinetic growth process of trails (KGT) was conjectured to map precisely to this multi-critical point. Two types of low temperature phases, globule and crystal-like, were encountered. Here, we investigate the collapse properties of a similar extended model of interacting lattice trails on the simple cubic lattice with separate weights for doubly and triply visited sites. Again we find first and second order collapse transitions dependent on the relative sizes of the doubly and triply visited energies. However we find no evidence of a low temperature crystal-like phase with only the globular phase in existence. Intriguingly, when the ratio of the energies is precisely that which separates the first order from the second-order regions anomalous finite-sized scaling appears. At the finite size location of the rounded transition clear evidence exists for a first order transition that persists in the thermodynamic limit. This location moves as the length increases, with its limit apparently at the point that maps to a KGT. However, if one fixes the temperature to sit at exactly this KGT point then only a critical point can be deduced from the data. The resolution of this apparent contradiction lies in the breaking of crossover scaling and the difference in the shift and transition width (crossover) exponents.

Andrea Bedini; Aleksander L Owczarek; Thomas Prellberg

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effect of recording condition on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram with magnetic garnet films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A holographic memory has been attracting attention as recording media with high recording density and high data transfer rate. We have studied the magnetic garnets as a rewritable and long life media for magnetic holography. However, since the signal intensity of reconstructed image was relatively low, the effects of recording conditions on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram were investigated with experiments and the numerical simulation using COMSOL multi-physics. The diffraction efficiency tends to decrease as increasing the spatial frequency, and the use of short pulse laser with the pulse width of 50 ps was found to be effective to achieve high diffraction efficiency. This suggests that the formation of clear magnetic fringe similar to interference pattern can be obtained by the use of short pulse laser since undesirable heat diffusion during radiation does not occur. On the other hand, the diffraction efficiency increased as increasing the film thickness up to 3.1??m but was saturated in the garnet film thicker than 3.1??m in the case of spatial frequency of 1500 line pair/mm. The numerical simulation showed that the effective depth of magnetic fringe was limited about 1.8??m irrespective of the garnet film thickness because the fringes were connected by thermal diffusion near the surface of the film, and the effective depth is limited due to this connection of the magnetic fringe. Avoiding this fringe connection, much higher diffraction efficiency will be achieved.

Nakamura, Yuichi, E-mail: nakamura@ee.tut.ac.jp; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

379

Review of High Energy Diffraction in Real and Virtual Photon Proton scattering at HERA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron-proton collider HERA at DESY opened the door for the study of diffraction in real and virtual photon-proton scattering at center-of-mass energies W up to 250 GeV and for large negative mass squared -Q^2 of the virtual photon up to Q^2 = 1600 GeV^2. At W = 220 GeV and Q^2 = 4 GeV^2, diffraction accounts for about 15% of the total virtual photon proton cross section decreasing to ~5% at Q^2 = 200 GeV^2. An overview of the results obtained by the experiments H1 and ZEUS on the production of neutral vectormesons and on inclusive diffraction up to the year 2008 is presented.

G. Wolf

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

Diffractive Dijet Production with a Leading Proton in ep Collisions at HERA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cross section of the diffractive process e^+p -> e^+Xp is measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton p is detected in the H1 Very Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed in photoproduction with photon virtualities Q^2 <2 GeV^2 and in deep-inelastic scattering with 4 GeV^2diffractive parton distribution functions as extracted from measurements of inclusive cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering.

,

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welding: a review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant amounts of residual stresses are often generated during welding and result in critical degradation of the structural integrity and performance of components. Neutron diffraction has become a well established technique for the determination of residual stresses in welds because of the unique deep penetration, three-dimensional mapping capability, and volume averaged bulk measurements characteristic of the scattering neutron beam. Friction stir welding has gained prominence in recent years. The authors reviewed a number of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welds and highlighted examples addressing how the microstructures and residual stresses are correlated with each other. An example of in situ neutron diffraction measurement result shows the evolution of the residual stresses during welding.

Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; David, Stan A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

The early development of neutron diffraction: Science in the wings of the Manhattan Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although neutron diffraction was first observed using radioactive decay sources shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was only with the availability of higher intensity neutron beams from the first nuclear reactors, constructed as part of the Manhattan project, that systematic investigation of Bragg scattering became possible. Remarkably, at a time when the war effort was singularly focused on the development of the atomic bomb, groups working at Oak Ridge and Chicago carried out key measurements and recognized the future utility of neutron diffraction quite independent of its contributions to the measurements of nuclear cross sections. Ernest O. Wollan, Lyle B. Borst, and Walter H. Zinn were all able to observe neutron diffraction in 1944 using the X-10 graphite reactor and the CP-3 heavy water reactor.

Mason, Thom [ORNL] [ORNL; Gawne, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL] [ORNL; Nestor, Margaret Boone {Bonnie} [ORNL; Carpenter, John M [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of +/- 80 degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

Beetz, T.; Howells, M.R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; Shapiro, D.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Role of photonic angular momentum states in nonreciprocal diffraction from magneto-optical cylinder arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical eigenstates in a concentrically symmetric resonator are photonic angular momentum states (PAMSs) with quantized optical orbital angular momentums (OAMs). Nonreciprocal optical phenomena can be obtained if we lift the degeneracy of PAMSs. In this article, we provide a comprehensive study of nonreciprocal optical diffraction of various orders from a magneto-optical cylinder array. We show that nonreciprocal diffraction can be obtained only for these nonzero orders. Role of PAMSs, the excitation of which is sensitive to the directions of incidence, applied magnetic field, and arrangement of the cylinders, are studied. Some interesting phenomena such as a dispersionless quasi-omnidirectional nonreciprocal diffraction and spikes associated with high-OAM PAMSs are present and discussed.

Guo, Tian-Jing; Wu, Li-Ting; Yang, Mu; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Hai-Xu; Chen, Jing, E-mail: jchen4@nankai.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolu- tion limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11–13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of mole- cular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lec- tin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

Nelson, J.; Huang, X.; Steinbrener, J.; Shapiro, D.; Kirz, J.; Marchesini, S.; Neiman, A. M.; Turner, J. J.; Jacobsen, C.

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

388

A BeppoSAX observation of Her X-1 during the first main-on after an anomalous low-state: evidence for rapid spin-down  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results of a BeppoSAX observation of Her X-1 in 2000 October during the first main-on state after the longest recorded anomalous low-state are presented. The 0.1-30 keV spectrum, light curve and pulse profile are all consistent with those measured during previous main on-states, indicating that Her X-1 has resumed its regular 35 day cycle with similar on-state properties as before. However, from a comparison of the measured pulse period with that obtained close to the start of the anomalous low-state, it is evident that Her X-1 continued to spin-down strongly during the anomalous low-state such that the pulse period has returned to a similar value as ~15 years ago. Additionally, the occurrence time of the main-on states after the end of the anomalous low-state indicate that a change in the length, or phasing, of the 35-day cycle occurred during the anomalous low-state.

T. Oosterbroek; A. N. Parmar; M. Orlandini; A. Segreto; A. Santangelo; S. Del Sordo

2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

389

Beyond hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Simultaneous combination with x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful and novel emerging technique for the nondestructive determination of electronic properties and chemical composition of bulk, buried interfaces and surfaces. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons, increasing the information depth up to several tens of nanometers. Complementing HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique (such as x-ray diffraction) opens a new research field with major applications for materials science. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have developed a novel experimental set-up that combines HAXPES and x-ray diffraction (x-ray reflectivity, surface x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space maps). Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a robust 2S + 3D diffractometer hosting a ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with a unique photoelectron spectrometer (few eV < electron kinetic energy < 15 keV), x-ray tube (Mg/Ti), 15 keV electron gun, and auxiliary standard surface facilities (molecular beam epitaxy evaporator, ion gun, low energy electron diffraction, sample heating/cooling system, leak valves, load-lock sample transfer, etc.). This end-station offers the unique possibility of performing simultaneous HAXPES + x-ray diffraction studies. In the present work, we describe the experimental set-up together with two experimental examples that emphasize its outstanding capabilities: (i) nondestructive characterization of the Si/Ge and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interfaces on Ge-based CMOS devices, and (ii) strain study on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ultrathin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate.

Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France) and ICMM-CSIC Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

High Throughput Software for Powder Diffraction and its Application to Heterogeneous Catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis we investigate high throughput computational methods for processing large quantities of data collected from synchrotrons and their application to spectral analysis of powder diffraction data. We also present the main product of this PhD programme, specifically a software called 'EasyDD' developed by the author. This software was created to meet the increasing demand on data processing and analysis capabilities as required by modern detectors which produce huge quantities of data. Modern detectors coupled with the high intensity X-ray sources available at synchrotrons have led to the situation where datasets can be collected in ever shorter time scales and in ever larger numbers. Such large volumes of datasets pose a data processing bottleneck which augments with current and future instrument development. EasyDD has achieved its objectives and made significant contributions to scientific research. It can also be used as a model for more mature attempts in the future. EasyDD is currently in use by a number of researchers in a number of academic and research institutions to process high-energy diffraction data. These include data collected by different techniques such as Energy Dispersive Diffraction, Angle Dispersive Diffraction and Computer Aided Tomography. EasyDD has already been used in a number of published studies, and is currently in use by the High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology project. The software was also used by the author to process and analyse datasets collected from synchrotron radiation facilities. In this regard, the thesis presents novel scientific research involving the use of EasyDD to handle large diffraction datasets in the study of alumina-supported metal oxide catalyst bodies. These data were collected using Tomographic Energy Dispersive Diffraction Imaging and Computer Aided Tomography techniques.

Taha Sochi

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

391

An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Kim, Woo-Hee; Bent, Stacey F., E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Johnson, Richard W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Composite multi-vortex diffraction-free beams and van Hove singularities in honeycomb lattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We find diffraction-free beams for graphene and MoS$_2$-type honeycomb optical lattices. The resulting composite solutions have the form of multi-vortices, with spinor topological charges ($n$, $n\\pm1$). Exact solutions for the spinor components are obtained in the Dirac limit. The effects of the valley degree of freedom and the mass are analyzed. Passing through the van-Hove singularity the topological structure of the solutions is modified. Exactly at the singularity the diffraction-free beams take the form of strongly localized one-dimensional stripes.

Paltoglou, Vassilis; Efremidis, Nikolaos K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 083002 (2014)]. This experiment is the first step toward coherent diffractive imaging of structures and structural dynamics of isolated molecules at atomic resolution, i. e., picometers and femtoseconds, using x-ray free-electron lasers.

Stern, Stephan; Filsinger, Frank; Rouzée, Arnaud; Rudenko, Artem; Johnsson, Per; Martin, Andrew V; Barty, Anton; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Coffee, Ryan N; Epp, Sascha; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Maurer, Jochen; Messerschmidt, Marc; Rudek, Benedikt; Starodub, Dmitri G; Thøgersen, Jan; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Chapman, Henry N; Küpper, Jochen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration, 800 nm center wavelength) is studied experimentally using a transillumination femtosecond time-resolved (0.1 ps-1 ns) pump-probe diffraction approach. This allows to reveal the generation dynamics of near-wavelength-sized LIPSS showing a transient diffraction at specific spatial frequencies even before a corresponding permanent surface relief was observed. The results confirm that the ultrafast energy deposition to the materials surface plays a key role and triggers subsequent physical mechanisms such as carrier scattering into self-trapped excitons.

Hoehm, S.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)] [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und - pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und - pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

395

Reconstruction algorithm for limited-angle diffraction tomography for microwave NDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microwave tomography is becoming a popular imaging modality in nondestructive evaluation and medicine. A commonly encountered challenge in tomography in general is that in many practical situations a full 360° angular access is not possible and with limited access, the quality of reconstructed image is compromised. This paper presents an approach for reconstruction with limited angular access in diffraction tomography. The algorithm takes advantage of redundancies in image Fourier space data obtained from diffracted field measurements and couples it to an error minimization technique using a constrained total variation (CTV) minimization. Initial results from simulated data have been presented here to validate the approach.

Paladhi, P. Roy; Klaser, J.; Tayebi, A.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. [Non-destructive Evaluation Lab, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824-1226 (United States)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

396

Cryptotomography: reconstructing 3D Fourier intensities from randomly oriented single-shot diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 9)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

These 2000 single-shot diffraction patterns include were either background-scattering only or hits (background-scattering plus diffraction signal from sub-micron ellipsoidal particles at random, undetermined orientations). Candidate hits were identified by eye, and the remainder were presumed as background. 54 usable, background-subtracted hits in this set (procedure in referenced article) were used to reconstruct the 3D diffraction intensities of the average ellipsoidal particle.

Loh, Ne-Te Duane

397

Anomalous small angle x-ray scattering studies of amorphous metal-germanium alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation addresses the issue of composition modulation in sputtered amorphous metal-germanium thin films with the aim of understanding the intermediate range structure of these films as a function of composition. The investigative tool used in this work is anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS). The primary focus of this investigation is the amorphous iron-germanium (a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) system with particular emphasis on the semiconductor-rich regime. Brief excursions are made into the amorphous tungsten-germanium (a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) and the amorphous molybdenum-germanium (a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) systems. All three systems exhibit an amorphous structure over a broad composition range extending from pure amorphous germanium to approximately 70 atomic percent metal when prepared as sputtered films. Across this composition range the structures change from the open, covalently bonded, tetrahedral network of pure a-Ge to densely packed metals. The structural changes are accompanied by a semiconductor-metal transition in all three systems as well as a ferromagnetic transition in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system and a superconducting transition in the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system. A long standing question, particularly in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} and the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems, has been whether the structural changes (and therefore the accompanying electrical and magnetic transitions) are accomplished by homogeneous alloy formation or phase separation. The application of ASAXS to this problem proves unambiguously that fine scale composition modulations, as distinct from the simple density fluctuations that arise from cracks and voids, are present in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, and a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems in the semiconductor-metal transition region. Furthermore, ASAXS shows that germanium is distributed uniformly throughout each sample in the x<25 regime of all three systems.

Rice, M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Discrete Symmetries on the Light Front and a General Relation Connecting Nucleon Electric Dipole and Anomalous Magnetic Moments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the electric dipole form factor, F_3(q^2), as well as the Dirac and Pauli form factors, F_1(q^2) and F_2(q^2), of the nucleon in the light-front formalism. We derive an exact formula for F_3(q^2) to complement those known for F_1(q^2) and F_2(q^2). We derive the light-front representation of the discrete symmetry transformations and show that time-reversal- and parity-odd effects are captured by phases in the light-front wave functions. We thus determine that the contributions to F_2(q^2) and F_3(q^2), Fock state by Fock state, are related, independent of the fundamental mechanism through which CP violation is generated. Our relation is not specific to the nucleon, but, rather, is true of spin-1/2 systems in general, be they lepton or baryon. The empirical values of the anomalous magnetic moments, in concert with empirical bounds on the associated electric dipole moments, can better constrain theories of CP violation. In particular, we find that the neutron and proton electric dipole moments echo the isospin structure of the anomalous magnetic moments, kappa^n ~ - kappa^p.

S. J. Brodsky; S. Gardner; D. S. Hwang

2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

399

Structural behavior and dynamics of an anomalous fluid between solvophilic and solvophobic walls: templating, molding and superdiffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Confinement can modify the dynamics, the thermodynamics and the structural properties of liquid water, the prototypical anomalous liquid. By considering a general anomalous liquid, suitable for globular proteins, colloids or liquid metals, we study by molecular dynamics simulations the effect of a solvophilic structured and a solvophobic unstructured wall on the phases, the crystal nucleation and the dynamics of the fluid. We find that at low temperatures the large density of the solvophilic wall induces a high-density, high-energy structure in the first layer ("tempting" effect). In turn, the first layer induces a "molding" effect on the second layer determining a structure with reduced energy and density, closer to the average density of the system. This low-density, low-energy structure propagates further through the layers by templating effect and can involve all the existing layers at the lowest temperatures investigated. Therefore, although the high-density, high-energy structure does not self-reproduce further than the first layer, the structured wall can have a long-range effect thanks to a sequence of templating, molding and templating effects through the layers. We find dynamical slowing down of the solvent near the solvophilic wall but with largely heterogeneous dynamics near the wall due to superdiffusive liquid veins within a frozen matrix of solvent. Hence, the partial freezing of the first hydration layer does not correspond necessarily to an effective reduction of the channel section in terms of transport properties.

Fabio Leoni; Giancarlo Franzese

2014-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

400

Radial x-ray diffraction of tungsten tetraboride to 86 GPa under nonhydrostatic compression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radial x-ray diffraction of tungsten tetraboride to 86 GPa under nonhydrostatic compression Lun December 2012; published online 16 January 2013) Investigations of the equation of state of tungsten moduli and hardness exceed- ing or closing that of diamond. Tungsten tetraboride (WB4) is a candidate

Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

402

Diffractive Z/gamma* --> mu+mu- boson production in proton - antiproton collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the inclusive diffractive Z {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} cross section with gap requirement for M{sub {mu}}{sub {mu}} > 40 GeV at {radical} s = 1.96 TeV and fraction of Z bosons produced diffractively with gap requirement from Z inclusive production are presented. The measurements are performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 820 pb{sup -1}, collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron, between 2002 to 2005. A total of 39945 di-muons events are selected and final results of: {sigma}{sub Diff}{sup gap} x Br(Z/{gamma}* {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) = 4.09 {+-} 0.64(stat.) {+-} 0.88(syst.) {+-} 0.27(lumi.) pb and, R{sub Diff}{sup gap} = 1.92 {+-} 0.30(stat.) {+-} 0.41(syst.) {+-} 0.12(lumi) % are obtained. In addition, d{sigma}/d{zeta} and d{sigma}/dy distributions are presented and they are compared with diffractive montecarlo (POMWIG). A reasonable agreement is obtained in this comparation. Finally, comparison of fraction of Z bosons produced diffractively with gap requirement (gap fraction) as measured with D0 during Run I of the Tevatron is compared. A good agreement is found for gap fraction results.

Mendoza Navas, Luis Miguel; /Andes U., Bogota

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high of these batteries for commercial use. The two primary obstacles are the solubility of long chain lithium

Cui, Yi

404

Sensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxxxxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxx­xxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive-based force sensor integrated with a surface micromachined silicon-nitride probe for penetration and injection that is designed to only be sensitive to axial deflections of the probe. The optical-encoder force sensor exhibits

Quake, Stephen R.

405

Diffractive Nonlinear Geometrical Optics for Variational Wave Equations and the Einstein Equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive an asymptotic solution of the vacuum Einstein equations that describes the propagation and diffraction of a localized, large-amplitude, rapidly-varying gravitational wave. We compare and contrast the resulting theory of strongly nonlinear geometrical optics for the Einstein equations with nonlinear geometrical optics theories for variational wave equations.

Giuseppe Ali; John K. Hunter

2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

406

1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer H. Medecki Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 K. A. Goldberg Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National

Bokor, Jeffrey

407

Breakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Breakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes Zejian Liu of single-walled carbon nanotubes always have 2mm symmetry regardless if the nanotubes them- selves have such symmetry. We here show that, for the case of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the 2mm symmetry can break down

Qin, Lu-Chang

408

Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction of Visible Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction and evaluation of organic chemical adsorption on various titanium dioxide surfaces. The strategy is illustrated thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO2), with micrometer-sized features, were prepared on transparent

409

Tracking the catalyzed growth process of nanowires by in situ x-ray diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity.4­7 Silicon nanowires have also found application in solar cells, both as ab- sorber OF NANOSTRUCTURES Gold-catalyzed silicon nanowires were grown in an x-ray furnace so that in situ x-ray diffraction-type furnace attached to a Pana- lytical X'Pert PRO diffractometer. The temperature of the furnace

Wang, Zhong L.

410

Incident spectrum determination for time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate characterization of the incident neutron spectrum is an important requirement for precise Rietveld analysis of time-of-flight powder neutron diffraction data. Without an accurate incident spectrum the calculated model for the measured relative intensities of individual Bragg reflections will possess systematic errors. We describe a method for obtaining an accurate numerical incident spectrum using data from a transmitted beam monitor.

Hodges, J. P.

1998-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

Powder Diffraction with Proteins Jon Wright, Irene Margiolaki, Andy Fitch and Yves Watier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Powder Diffraction with Proteins Jon Wright, Irene Margiolaki, Andy Fitch and Yves Watier #12 C 3Wright, Protein Powders #12;Wright, Protein Powders 4 Structure representations #12;Wright method to "solve" phase problem · What do we see in electron density maps? 6Wright, Protein Powders #12

Magee, Joseph W.

412

Wire-grid diffraction gratings used as polarizing beam splitter for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wire-grid diffraction gratings used as polarizing beam splitter for visible light and applied of wire grid polarizers as efficient polarizing beam splitters for visible light is studied. The large of wire-grid polarizers in liquid crystal on silicon display systems is considered. © 2005 Optical Society

413

Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell Xiaojing Huang,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 e of biological electron microscopy [1­3]. Radiation damage precludes repeated imaging of live specimens [4 in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103

Mohseni, Hooman

414

Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction- tric conductor (PEC) objects when illuminated by a Complex Source Points (CSP) beam expansion (S of a CSP-expansion illumination. In this work we discuss an application of the CSP fringe formulation

Nehorai, Arye

415

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPALIGNA Standard Operating Procedure Title: X-ray Instrument Alignment ­ APEXII Rev No: Issue date: 1.001 6 the alignment of the APEXII single crystal X-ray diffractometer. POLICY: The instrument must be aligned

Meagher, Mary

416

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPSAXSLA Rev No: Issue date: 1.001 12/26/2008Standard Operating Procedure Title: Small Angle X-ray Scattering approved: December 26 2009 Small Angle X-ray Scattering, Rotating Anode PURPOSE: This Standard Operating

Meagher, Mary

417

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPALIGNS Standard Operating Procedure Title: X-ray Instrument Alignment ­ SMART1000 Rev No: Issue date: 1.001 6 the alignment of the SMART1000 single crystal X-ray diffractometer. POLICY: The instrument must be aligned

Meagher, Mary

418

Stereochemistry Determination by Powder X-ray Diffraction Analysis and NMR Spectroscopy Residual Dipolar Couplings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A matter of technique: For a new steroidal lactol, jaborosalactol 24 (1), isolated from Jaborosa parviflora, NMR spectroscopy residual dipolar couplings and powder X-ray diffraction analysis independently gave the same stereochemistry at C23-C26. Conventional NMR spectroscopic techniques, such as NOE and {sup 3}J coupling-constant analysis failed to unambiguously determine this stereochemistry.

Garcia, M.; Pagola, S; Navarro-Vasquez, A; Phillips, D; Gayathri, C; Krakauer, H; Stephens, P; Nicotra, V; Gil, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

Chuyu Liu

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

J. Opt. 15 (2013) 085101 (3pp) T Roy et al A meta-diffraction-grating for visible light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the far infrared [5] and near-infrared [7] region of the spectrum while flat lenses designed from optical attracted substantial attention [3-9]. In particular anomalous refraction and reflection has been observed [3-8] are concerned with the infrared part of the spectrum, whereas here we experimentally

Zheludev, Nikolay

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.

Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne)) We describe a simple method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 Ã? 4 square array

Grier, David

423

Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 \\Theta 4 square array of optical tweezers -- the hexadeca

Grier, David

424

X-ray diffraction study of the static strength of tungsten to 69 GPa Duanwei He* and Thomas S. Duffy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray diffraction study of the static strength of tungsten to 69 GPa Duanwei He* and Thomas S of tungsten was determined under static high pressures to 69 GPa using x-ray diffraction techniques strength of tungsten increases with compression, reaching a value of 5.3 GPa at the highest pressure

Duffy, Thomas S.

425

Time-resolved diffraction profiles and atomic dynamics in short-pulse laser-induced structural transformations: Molecular dynamics study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time-resolved diffraction profiles and atomic dynamics in short-pulse laser-induced structural dynamics simulations of a 20 nm Au film irradiated with 200 fs laser pulses of different intensity in time-resolved x-ray and electron diffraction experiments. Three processes are found to be responsible

Zhigilei, Leonid V.

426

ieee transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 44, no. 1, january 1997 181 Designing Limited Diffraction Beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1997 181 Designing Limited Diffraction Beams Jian-yu Lu, Member, IEEE Abstract--Theoretically, limited diffraction beams can only be produced with an infinite aperture. In practice, they can be closely approximated with a finite aperture over a large depth of field. Because of this property, these beams could

Lu, Jian-yu

427

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, VOL. 43, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1996 893 Producing Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1996 893 Producing Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams with Synthetic Array Experiment Jian-yu Lu, Member, IEEE Abstract-- Limited diffraction beams have a large depth of field and could have applications in medical ultrasound and other wave related areas such as electromagnetics and optics. However, these beams

Lu, Jian-yu

428

1050 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, VOL. 42, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 1995 Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, NOVEMBER 1995 Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams for Low-Sidelobe and Large Depth of Field Imaging Jian-yu Lu, Member, IEEE Abstract--Limited diffraction beams such as Bessel beams and X waves have a large depth of field and thus could have many applications. However, these beams have higher sidelobes as compared

Lu, Jian-yu

429

Study Z gamma events and limits on anomalous ZZ gamma and Z gamma gamma couplings in pp(-) collisions at root s=1.96 Tev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a measurement of the Z gamma production cross section and limits on anomalous ZZ gamma and Z gamma gamma couplings for form-factor scales of Lambda=750 and 1000 GeV. The measurement is based on 138 (152) candidates ...

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Christofek, L.; Coppage, Don; Gardner, J.; Hensel, Carsten; Jabeen, S.; Wilson, Graham Wallace

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

information algorithms [8]. An important source of decoherence in these systems has proven to be the heating be related to parasitic electrical noise observed in many condensed-matter quantum systems [13Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W

Hensinger, Winfried

431

Comments on the PLA article 'UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects' [Phys. Lett. A 335 (2005) 327  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We comment on the paper `UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects' by A. Serebrov et al., Phys. Lett. A 335 (2005) 327 - 336. Data presented do not originate from these authors alone but were taken in collaboration with several other authors and institutes not mentioned.

M. Daum; P. Geltenbort; R. Henneck; K. Kirch

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

432

Comments on the PLA article "UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects" [Phys. Lett. A 335 (2005) 327  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We comment on the paper `UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects' by A. Serebrov et al., Phys. Lett. A 335 (2005) 327 - 336. Data presented do not originate from these authors alone but were taken in collaboration with several other authors and institutes not mentioned.

Daum, M; Henneck, R; Kirch, K

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Local structure underlying anomalous tetragonal distortions in BiFeO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} ferroelectrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The local structure of tetragonal BiFeO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} solid solutions featuring anomalous lattice distortions has been determined using simultaneous fitting of neutron total scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure data. On the local scale, the large tetragonal distortion, promoted by the displacements of the A-cations (Bi and Pb), is accommodated primarily by the [FeO{sub 6}] octahedra, even though both Fe and Ti acquire (5+1)-fold coordination. Bi cations exhibit considerably larger displacements than Pb. The combination of the A-cation displacements and the ability of M-cations to adopt 5-fold coordination is suggested as key for stabilizing the large tetragonality in BiMO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} systems.

Levin, I.; Krayzman, V.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tucker, M. G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

434

Polarity characterization by anomalous x-ray dispersion of ZnO films and GaN lateral polar structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the use of anomalous x-ray scattering of constituent cations at their absorption edge, in a conventional Bragg-Brentano diffractometer, to measure absolutely and quantitatively the polar orientation and polarity fraction of unipolar and mixed polar wurtzitic crystals. In one set of experiments, the gradual transition between c+ and c? polarity of epitaxial ZnO films on sapphire as a function of MgO buffer layer thickness is monitored quantitatively, while in a second experiment, we map the polarity of a lateral polar homojunction in GaN. The dispersion measurements are compared with piezoforce microscopy images, and we demonstrate how x-ray dispersion and scanning probe methods can provide complementary information that can discriminate between polarity fractions at a material surface and polarity fractions averaged over the film bulk.

Shelton, Christopher T.; Sachet, Edward; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Rajan, Joseph; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Maria, Jon-Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

435

Anomalous enhancements of low-energy fusion rates in plasmas: the role of ion momentum distributions and inhomogeneous screening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-resonant fusion cross-sections significantly higher than corresponding theoretical predictions are observed in low-energy experiments with deuterated matrix target. Models based on thermal effects, electron screening, or quantum-effect dispersion relations have been proposed to explain these anomalous results: none of them appears to satisfactory reproduce the experiments. Velocity distributions are fundamental for the reaction rates and deviations from the Maxwellian limit could play a central role in explaining the enhancement. We examine two effects: an increase of the tail of the target Deuteron momentum distribution due to the Galitskii-Yakimets quantum uncertainty effect, which broadens the energy-momentum relation; and spatial fluctuations of the Debye-H\\"{u}ckel radius leading to an effective increase of electron screening. Either effect leads to larger reaction rates especially large at energies below a few keV, reducing the discrepancy between observations and theoretical expectations.

M. Coraddu; M. Lissia; P. Quarati

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

436

Magnetic Domains in Magnetar Matter as an Engine for Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetars have been suggested as the most promising site for the origin of observed soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs). In this work we investigate the possibility that SGRs and AXPs might be observational evidence for a magnetic phase separation in magnetars. We study magnetic domain formation as a new mechanism for SGRs and AXPs in which magnetar-matter separates into two phases containing different flux densities. We identify the parameter space in matter density and magnetic field strength at which there is an instability for magnetic domain formation. We conclude that such instabilities will likely occur in the deep outer crust for the magnetic Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland (BPS) model and in the inner crust and core for magnetars described in relativistic Hartree theory. Moreover, we estimate that the energy released by the onset of this instability is comparable with the energy emitted by SGRs.

In-Saeng Suh; Grant J. Mathews

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

437

Fast atom diffraction from a ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast H, He atoms, and H{sub 2} molecules with projectile energies ranging from 200?eV up to 3?keV were scattered under a grazing angle of incidence from a clean and flat ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100) surface. The bulk single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method and prepared via annealing under ultra-high vacuum conditions. For scattering along low-index directions, we observed defined diffraction patterns in the angular distributions for scattered projectiles. From the analysis of diffraction patterns, we derive the surface unit cell in good accord with the parameters b and c for the lattice of the bulk crystal and derive information on the termination of the surface.

Busch, M.; Meyer, E.; Winter, H. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Irmscher, K.; Galazka, Z. [Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Max-Born-Straße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Gärtner, K. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

438

in-situ chemistry mapping of hydrogen storage materials by neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron diffraction was used to nondestructively study the microstructures for two hydrogen storage media systems. In the first case, sodium alanate based hydrogen storage is a vehicle-scale candidate system developed by Sandia/GM. Neutron scattering was used to determine the distribution of phases in the storage media at different hydrogen loading levels, to help understand the absorption/desorption of hydrogen in large-scale systems. This study also included a 3D neutron tomographic study of the microstructure. In the second case, tin-doped lanthanum nickel alloys have been studied at JPL for space-based applications, for which the gradual degradation of the material due to segregation and disproportionation of phases is a known problem. A regenerative process developed to restore the storage properties of these alloys was studied, using in-situ neutron diffraction to relate the microstructure to the thermodynamic simulations.

Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Bowman Jr, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Johnson, Terry A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Jorgensen, Scott W [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan] [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Method for characterizing mask defects using image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention applies techniques for image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns on the three-dimensional imaging of defects in EUVL multilayer films. The reconstructed image gives information about the out-of-plane position and the diffraction strength of the defect. The positional information can be used to select the correct defect repair technique. This invention enables the fabrication of defect-free (since repaired) X-ray Mo--Si multilayer mirrors. Repairing Mo--Si multilayer-film defects on mask blanks is a key for the commercial success of EUVL. It is known that particles are added to the Mo--Si multilayer film during the fabrication process. There is a large effort to reduce this contamination, but results are not sufficient, and defects continue to be a major mask yield limiter. All suggested repair strategies need to know the out-of-plane position of the defects in the multilayer.

Hau-Riege, Stefan Peter (Fremont, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Simultaneous Exoplanet Characterization and deep wide-field imaging with a diffractive pupil telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-precision astrometry can identify exoplanets and measure their orbits and masses, while coronagraphic imaging enables detailed characterization of their physical properties and atmospheric compositions through spectroscopy. In a previous paper, we showed that a diffractive pupil telescope (DPT) in space can enable sub-microarcsecond accuracy astrometric measurements from wide-field images by creating faint but sharp diffraction spikes around the bright target star. The DPT allows simultaneous astrometric measurement and coronagraphic imaging, and we discuss and quantify in this paper the scientific benefits of this combination for exoplanet science investigations: identification of exoplanets with increased sensitivity and robustness, and ability to measure planetary masses to high accuracy. We show how using both measurements to identify planets and measure their masses offers greater sensitivity and provides more reliable measurements than possible with separate missions, and therefore results in a lar...

Guyon, Olivier; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J; Bendek, Eduardo A; Milster, Thomas D; Ammons, Stephen M; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Martinache, Frantz; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A; Belikov, Ruslan; 10.1088/0004-637X/767/1/11

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

High resolution coherent diffractive imaging with a table-top extreme ultraviolet source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a resolution of 45?nm with a sample size down to 3??m × 3??m is achieved in a short exposure time of 2?s, from the diffraction pattern generated by a table-top high harmonic source at around 30?nm. By using a narrow-bandwidth focusing mirror, the diffraction pattern's quality is improved and the required exposure time is significantly reduced. In order to obtain a high quality of the reconstructed image, the ratio of the beam size to the sample size and the curvature of the focused beam need to be considered in the reconstruction process. This new experimental scheme is very promising for imaging sub-10?nm scale objects with a table-top source based on a small inexpensive femtosecond laser system.

Vu Le, Hoang, E-mail: vuhoangle@swin.edu.au; Ba Dinh, Khuong; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

442

Diffraction and coherence in breast ultrasound tomography: a study with a toroidal array  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrasound is commonly used as an adjunct to mammography for diagnostic evaluation of suspicions arising from breast cancer screening. As an alternative to conventional sonography that uses hand-held transducers, toroidal array probes that encircle the breast immersed in a water bath have been investigated for ultrasound tomography. In this paper, two sets of experiments performed with a prototype ultrasound scanner on a phantom and a human breast in vivo are used to investigate the effects of diffraction and coherence in ultrasound tomography. Reconstructions obtained with transmission diffraction tomography (TDT) are compared with conventional reflection imaging and computerized ultrasound tomography showing a substantial improvement. The in vivo tests demonstrate that TDT can image the complex boundary of a cancer mass and suggest that it can reveal the anatomy of milk ducts and Cooper's ligaments.

Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simonetti, Francesco [IMPERIAL COLL.; Duric, Neb [KCI; Littrup, Peter [KCI

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

: Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

Polsky, Yarom [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Coupling of lateral grating displacement to the output ports of a diffractive Fabry-Perot cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffraction gratings have been proposed as core elements in future laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In this paper, we use a steady-state technique to derive coupling of lateral grating displacement to the output ports of a diffractive Fabry-Perot cavity. By introducing a signal to noise ratio (SNR) for each of the three cavity output ports the magnitude of the noise sidebands originating from lateral grating displacement are compared to the magnitude of a potential gravitational wave signal. For the example of a 3km long Fabry-Perot cavity featuring parameters similar to the planned Advanced Virgo instrument, we found that the forward-reflecting grating port offers the highest SNR at low frequencies. Furthermore, for this example suspension requirements for lateral isolation were computed, and a factor of twenty relaxation at a frequency of 10Hz can be gained over the transmitted port by observing the forward-reflected port.

J. Hallam; S. Chelkowski; A. Freise; S. Hild; B. Barr; K. A. Strain; O. Burmeister; R. Schnabel

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

445

Nonlinear generalized source method for modeling second-harmonic generation in diffraction gratings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a versatile numerical method for modeling light diffraction in periodically patterned photonic structures containing quadratically nonlinear non-centrosymmetric optical materials. Our approach extends the generalized source method to nonlinear optical interactions by incorporating the contribution of nonlinear polarization sources to the diffracted field in the algorithm. We derive the mathematical formalism underlying the numerical method and introduce the Fourier-factorization suitable for nonlinear calculations. The numerical efficiency and runtime characteristics of the method are investigated in a set of benchmark calculations: the results corresponding to the fundamental frequency are compared to those obtained from a reference method and the beneficial effects of the modified Fourier-factorization rule on the accuracy of the nonlinear computations is demonstrated. In order to illustrate the capabilities of our method, we employ it to demonstrate strong enhancement of second-harmonic genera...

Weismann, Martin; Panoiu, Nicolae C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Correlelations between the Anomalous Behaviour of the Ionosphere and the Seismic Events for VTX-MALDA VLF Propagation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most important application of the VLF signals is that it contains possible information about the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. In other words, in near future, it may be possible to predict seismic events by judging signatures of VLF signals. In this paper, we present the result of the monitoring of the VLF signals collected in the Malda branch of ICSP, located in Malda, West Bengal, for four years (2005, 2007-09) and we try to find out the co-relations, if any, between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes. Here we use that VLF signals which are transmitted from the VTX station (18.2 KHz), located near Vijayanarayanam in Tamilnadu, about 2290 km away from the receiver. To find out the co-relation of the ionospheric activities with the seismic events such as earthquake, first we have to study the average signal throughout the year. For this, we plot the so-called standardized calibration curve using the four years data. Here we use a total of 481 no. of data. To establish the co-relation between the ionospheric activities and the seismic events, we use the data of the year 2008 and we found that the deviations of the anomalous data are co-related with the seismic event. We found that the highest deviation takes place one day prior to the seismic events. We also calculated the 'D-layer preparation time'(DLPT) and the 'D-layer disappearance time'(DLDT) for the data of 2008 and tried to establish the co-relation between the anomalous DLPT and DLDT with the seismic events, if any. We compare our result with the VLF signals received from other places.

Ray, Suman; Sasmal, S. [Indian Centre for Space Physics, 43 Chalantika, Garia Station Road, Kolkata 700084 (India); Chakrabarti, S. K. [Indian Centre for Space Physics, 43 Chalantika, Garia Station Road, Kolkata 700084 (India); S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Choudhury, A. K. [Indian Centre for Space Physics, Malda Branch, Atul Market, Malda 731101 (India)

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

448

Structural behavior and dynamics of an anomalous fluid between attractive and repulsive walls: Templating, molding, and superdiffusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Confinement can modify the dynamics, the thermodynamics, and the structural properties of liquid water, the prototypical anomalous liquid. By considering a generic model for anomalous liquids, suitable for describing solutions of globular proteins, colloids, or liquid metals, we study by molecular dynamics simulations the effect that an attractive wall with structure and a repulsive wall without structure have on the phases, the crystal nucleation, and the dynamics of the fluid. We find that at low temperatures the large density of the attractive wall induces a high-density, high-energy structure in the first layer (“templating” effect). In turn, the first layer induces a “molding” effect on the second layer determining a structure with reduced energy and density, closer to the average density of the system. This low-density, low-energy structure propagates further through the layers by templating effect and can involve all the existing layers at the lowest temperatures investigated. Therefore, although the high-density, high-energy structure does not self-reproduce further than the first layer, the structured wall can have a long-range influence thanks to a sequence of templating, molding, and templating effects through the layers. We find that the walls also have an influence on the dynamics of the liquid, with a stronger effect near the attractive wall. In particular, we observe that the dynamics is largely heterogeneous (i) among the layers, as a consequence of the sequence of structures caused by the walls presence, and (ii) within the same layer, due to superdiffusive liquid veins within a frozen matrix of particles near the walls at low temperature and high density. Hence, the partial freezing of the first layer does not correspond necessarily to an effective reduction of the channel's section in terms of transport properties, as suggested by other authors.

Leoni, Fabio; Franzese, Giancarlo [Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

449

X-ray diffraction and EXAFS analysis of materials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium iron phosphate LiFePO{sub 4} (triphylite) and lithium titanate Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are used as components of a number of active materials in modern rechargeable batteries. Samples of these materials are studied by X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Hypotheses about the phase composition of the analyzed samples are formulated.

Sharkov, M. D., E-mail: mischar@mail.ioffe.ru; Boiko, M. E.; Bobyl, A. V.; Ershenko, E. M.; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Y. V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

X-Ray Diffraction Study of Elemental Erbium to 65 GPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated phase transitions in elemental erbium in a diamond anvil cell up to 65 GPa using x-ray powder diffraction methods. We present preliminary evidence of a series of phase transitions that appear to follow the expected hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc sequence. In particular, we believe that we have evidence for the predicted dhcp {yields} distorted fcc transition between 43 GPa and 65 GPa.

Pravica, M.G.; Lipinska-Kalita, K.; Quine, Z.; Romano, E.; Nicol, M.F. (UNLV)

2006-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

451

Characterization of Ni/Al multilayer on Si substrate by diffraction and reflectometry techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ion beam deposited multilayer film of nominal thickness [Ni(200 Angst )/Al(100 Angst )]x5 on Si substrate has been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction(XRD), X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Polarized neutron reflectivity(PNR). The present paper attempts to identify presence of any intermetallic compounds at the interfaces of the as-deposited sample. Structural parameters obtained from XRR and PNR are close to design values.

Swain, Mitali; Basu, Saibal; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Gupta, Mukul [Solid State Physics Division Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

452

Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder x-ray diffraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

Pawloski, G.A.

1984-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

453

Time-resolved x-ray diffraction techniques for bulk polycrystalline materials under dynamic loading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ?10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup ?1} in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with exposures as short as 70 ns. This approach employs moderate x-ray energies (10–20 keV) and is well suited to weakly absorbing materials such as magnesium alloys. The second technique is useful for more strongly absorbing materials, and uses high-energy x-rays (86 keV) and a fast shutter synchronized with the Kolsky bar to produce short (?40??s) pulses timed with the arrival of the strain pulse at the specimen, recording the diffraction pattern on a large-format amorphous silicon detector. For both techniques we present sample data demonstrating the ability of these techniques to characterize elastic strains and polycrystalline texture as a function of time during high-rate deformation.

Lambert, P. K.; Hustedt, C. J.; Zhao, M.; Ananiadis, A. G.; Hufnagel, T. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Vecchio, K. S. [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Huskins, E. L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Casem, D. T. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Gruner, S. M. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tate, M. W.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Weiss, J. T. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Woll, A. R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kannan, V.; Ramesh, K. T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kenesei, P.; Okasinski, J. S.; Almer, J. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Feasibility of Diffraction Radiation for a Non-invasive Diagnostics of the SLAC Electron Beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of the non-invasive bunch size diagnostics based on the diffraction radiation is now in progress in frame of TPU-KEK-SLAC collaboration. The experimental test of a transverse beam size measurement was performed successful on the KEK-ATF extracted electron beam. However many difficulties emerge if we going from the one GeV electron energy to the several tenth GeV electron beams. The extremely high Lorenz-factor value gives rise to the some problems, such as large contribution of a radiation from an accelerator construction elements in submillimeter wavelength region, extremely pre-wave zone effect even in the optical range, exceeding of the electron beam divergence over the diffraction radiation cone, and so on. More over, the sensitivity of the method based on the optical diffraction radiation from flat slit target decrease catastrophic when an electron energy increase up to several tenth GeV. We suggest the new method based on the phase shift on the slit target, consisting on the two semi-planes which are turned at a some angle one to other (crossed target technique) and present here the results of experimental test of this technique. Also we discuss the origins of indicated difficulties and suggest the ways of these problems solution.

Naumenko, G.; Potylitsyn, A.; /Tomsk Polytechnic U.; Araki, S.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Karataev, P.; Muto, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ross, M.; /SLAC; Cline, D.; Fukui, Y.; /UCLA; Hamatsu, R.; /Tokyo Metropolitan U.

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

456

Animal madness : a natural history of disorder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beginning in the late 19 th century, changing conceptions of relatedness between people and other animals -- and animals' assumed capacities for, or susceptibilities to, mental or emotional distress-- were influenced by ...

Braitman, Laurel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

MAD ANALYSIS OF FHIT STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY CENTER*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, plants, and humans, are involved in some critical and ubiquitous biochemical pathway that remains National Laboratory ¥ àElectronics & Computing Technologies Division, Argonne National Laboratory ¥ ¤Howard transcript exists in the cell with one full-length copy of the gene. This study provides the first structure

Kemner, Ken

458

Lensless MAD Imaging of Nonperiodic Nanostructures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N

459

Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: A comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

Hayashida, Misa [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Malac, Marek; Egerton, Ray F. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6H 2E1 (Canada); Bergen, Michael; Li, Peng [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Coherent Atom Optics With Fast Metastable Beams: Metastable Helium Diffraction By 1D and 2D Magnetized Reflection Gratings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1D and 2D reflection gratings (Permalloy stripes or dots deposited on silicon), immersed in an external homogeneous static magnetic field, are used to study 1D and 2D diffraction of fast metastable helium atoms He* (23S1). Both the grazing incidence used here and the repulsive potential (for sub-level m = -1) generated by the magnetisation reduce the quenching effect. This periodically structured potential is responsible for the diffraction in the incidence plane as well as for the diffraction in the perpendicular plane.

Grucker, J.; Baudon, J.; Karam, J.-C.; Perales, F.; Ducloy, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR-CNRS 7538, Universite Paris 13, 99, Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France); Bocvarski, V. [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 - Belgrade-Zemun (Serbia and Montenegro)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anomalous diffraction mad" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Coherent diffraction of a single virus particle: The impact of a water layer on the available orientational information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coherent diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) may provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution structural analysis of single particles sprayed from an aqueous solution into the laser beam. As a result, diffraction images are measured from randomly oriented objects covered by a water layer. We analyze theoretically how the thickness of the covering water layer influences the structural and orientational information contained in the recorded diffraction images. This study has implications for planned experiments on single-particle imaging with XFELs.

Wang, F.; Weckert, E.; Ziaja, B.; Larsson, D. S. D.; Spoel, D. van der [HASYLAB, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Box 596, S-75124 Uppsala (Sweden)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

A Diffractive-Optic Telescope for X-Ray Astronomy D. Dewey, T.H. Markert, and M.L. Schattenburg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Diffractive-Optic Telescope for X-Ray Astronomy D. Dewey, T.H. Markert, and M.L. Schattenburg for a light-weight X-ray astronomical telescope that uses a diffractive optical element is described (200-1000 cm2 ) through the use of a blazed diffractive optic. State-of-the-art grating technology

Dewey, Daniel

463

Real-time X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Shocked Polycrystalline Tin and Aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35-ns pulse. The characteristic K? lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic K? line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3-mm by 6-mm spot and 1° full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5°. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through a coherent fiberoptic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1-mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

Dane V. Morgan, Don Macy, Gerald Stevens

2008-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

464

MnO spin-wave dispersion curves from neutron powder diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a model-independent approach for the extraction of spin-wave dispersion curves from powder neutron total scattering data. Our approach is based on a statistical analysis of real-space spin configurations to calculate spin-dynamical quantities. The RMCPROFILE implementation of the reverse Monte Carlo refinement process is used to generate a large ensemble of supercell spin configurations from MnO powder diffraction data collected at 100 K. Our analysis of these configurations gives spin-wave dispersion curves for MnO that agree well with those determined independently using neutron triple-axis spectroscopic techniques.

Goodwin, Andrew L.; Dove, Martin T. [Department of Earth Sciences, Cambridge University, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Tucker, Matthew G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Keen, David A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

466

Inverse diffraction for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the Solar Dynamics Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides full Sun images every 1 seconds in each of 7 Extreme Ultraviolet passbands. However, for a significant amount of these images, saturation affects their most intense core, preventing scientists from a full exploitation of their physical meaning. In this paper we describe a mathematical and automatic procedure for the recovery of information in the primary saturation region based on a correlation/inversion analysis of the diffraction pattern associated to the telescope observations. Further, we suggest an interpolation-based method for determining the image background that allows the recovery of information also in the region of secondary saturation (blooming).

Torre, Gabriele; Benvenuto, Federico; Massone, Anna Maria; Piana, Michele

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Diffraction spectral filter for use in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A condenser system for generating a beam of radiation includes a source of radiation light that generates a continuous spectrum of radiation light; a condenser comprising one or more first optical elements for collecting radiation from the source of radiation light and for generating a beam of radiation; and a diffractive spectral filter for separating first radiation light having a particular wavelength from the continuous spectrum of radiation light. Cooling devices can be employed to remove heat generated. The condenser system can be used with a ringfield camera in projection lithography.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Bernardez, Luis J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

An x-ray diffraction study of some mesoionic 2,3-diphenyltetrazoles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An X-my diffraction study is reported for four molecules of mesoionic 2,3-diphenyltetrazoles. The results confirm a dipolar [open quotes]mesoionic[close quotes] structure, aromatic character of the tetrazole ring and no conjugation between the phenyl and tetrazole rings. The geometry of the exocyclic group is discussed in detail. The molecular parameters of the compounds investigated are correlated with [sup 13]C and [sup 15]N nmr data. The results obtained are compared with similar structures which have already been studied.

Luboradzki, R. (Institute of Physical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland)); Kozminski, W.; Stefaniak, L. (Institute of Organic Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Diffraction-free optical beam propagation with near-zero phase variation in extremely anisotropic metamaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extremely anisotropic metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials are designed to have the effective permittivity tensor of a transverse component (parallel to the interfaces of the multilayer) with zero real part and a longitudinal component (normal to the interfaces of the multilayer) with ultra-large imaginary part at the same wavelength, including the optical nonlocality analysis based on the transfer-matrix method. The diffraction-free deep-subwavelength optical beam propagation with near-zero phase variation in the designed multilayer stack due to the near-flat iso-frequency contour is demonstrated and analyzed, including the effects of the multilayer period and the material loss.

Sun, Lei; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jie

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Determination of transient atomic structure of laser-excited materials from time-resolved diffraction data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The time evolution of the Bragg peaks of photo-excited gold nanofilms is measured using transmission ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) with 3.0 MeV electron pulses and the corresponding structure evolution is calculated using two-temperature molecular dynamics (2T-MD). The good agreement obtained between the measured and calculated Bragg peaks, over the full experimental timescale, enables the lattice temperature effects and the structural changes to be disentangled for the first time. The agreement demonstrates that 2T-MD is a reliable method for solving the inverse problem of structure determination of laser irradiated metals in UED measurements.

Giret, Yvelin [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan) [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Naruse, Nobuyasu; Murooka, Yoshie; Yang, Jinfeng; Tanimura, Katsumi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)] [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Daraszewicz, Szymon L.; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Shluger, Alexander L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

471

Electron Pulse Compression with a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a powerful method for studying time-resolved structural changes. Currently, space charge induced temporal broadening prevents obtaining high brightness electron pulses with sub-100 fs durations limiting the range of phenomena that can be studied with this technique. We review the state of the the art of UED in this respect and propose a practical design for reflectron based pulse compression which utilizes only electro-static optics and has a tunable temporal focal point. Our simulation shows that this scheme is capable of compressing an electron pulse containing 100,000 electrons with 60:1 temporal compression ratio.

Wang, Yihua

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility of SF(STEO) ï‚·diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray

473

Anomalous effect due to oxygen vacancy accumulation below the electrode in bipolar resistance switching Pt/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In conventional semiconductor theory, greater doping decreases the electronic resistance of a semiconductor. For the bipolar resistance switching (BRS) phenomena in oxides, the same doping principle has been used commonly to explain the relationship between the density variation of oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}¨) and the electronic resistance. We find that the V{sub o}¨ density can change at a depth of ?10 nm below the Pt electrodes in Pt/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} cells, depending on the resistance state. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry, we found that greater V{sub o}¨ density underneath the electrode resulted in higher resistance, contrary to the conventional doping principle of semiconductors. To explain this seemingly anomalous experimental behavior, we provide quantitative explanations on the anomalous BRS behavior by simulating the mobile V{sub o}¨ [J. S. Lee et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 253503 (2013)] near the Schottky barrier interface.

Lee, Shinbuhm; Won Noh, Tae, E-mail: twnoh@snu.ac.kr [Center for Correlated Electron Systems, Institute for Basic Science, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Bong; Koo Kyoung, Yong [Analytical Science Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Jae [Logic TD, Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 445-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Bounds on an Anomalous Dijet Resonance in W+ jets Production in pp? Collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a study of the dijet invariant mass spectrum in events with two jets produced in association with a W boson in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb?¹ collected with the D0 detector at s?=1.96 TeV. We find no evidence for anomalous resonant dijet production and derive upper limits on the production cross section of an anomalous dijet resonance recently reported by the CDF Collaboration, investigating the range of dijet invariant mass from 110 to 170 GeV/c². The probability of the D0 data being consistent with the presence of a dijet resonance with 4 pb production cross section at 145 GeV/c² is 8×10??.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Otero y Garzón, G. J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Search for Anomalous Scattering of keV Neutrons from H2O-D2O Mixtures R. Moreh,1,2,* R. C. Block,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Search for Anomalous Scattering of keV Neutrons from H2O-D2O Mixtures R. Moreh,1,2,* R. C. Block,2 (Received 20 January 2005; published 12 May 2005) We measured the neutron scattering intensities from pure Linac and the final energy of the scattered neutrons was fixed at 24.3 keV using a 20 cm thick pure iron

Danon, Yaron

476

Anomalous Chemical Expansion Behavior of Pr[subscript 0.2]Ce[subscript 0.8]O[subscript 2-?] Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The chemomechanical and electrical properties of (Pr,Ce)O[subscript 2-?] thin films were studied between 30 and 875°C in air by in situ X-ray diffraction and complex impedance spectroscopy measurements. Reduction/oxidation ...

Kuru, Y.

477

Geochemical provenance of anomalous metal concentrations in stream sediments in the Ashton 1:250,000 quadrangle, Idaho/Montana/Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stream-sediment samples from 1500 sites in the Ashton, Idaho/Montana/Wyoming 1:250,000 quadrangle were analyzed for 45 elements. Almost all samples containing anomalous concentrations (exceeding one standard deviation above the mean value of any element) were derived from drainage basins underlain by Quaternary rhyolite, Tertiary andesite or Precambrian gneiss and schist. Aluminum, barium, calcium, cobalt, iron, nickel, magnesium, scandium, sodium, strontium, and vanadium have no andesite provenance. Most anomalous manganese, europium, hafnium, and zirconium values were derived from Precambrian rocks. All other anomalous elemental concentrations are related to Quaternary rhyolite. This study demonstrates that multielemental stream-sediment analyses can be used to infer the provenance of stream sediments. Such data are available for many parts of the country as a result of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. This study suggests that stream-sediment samples collected in the Rocky Mountains can be used either as pathfinders or as direct indicators to select targets for mineral exploration for a host of metals.

Shannon, S.S. Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Reanalyses of Anomalous Gravitational Microlensing Events in the OGLE-III Early Warning System Database with Combined Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reanalyze microlensing events in the published list of anomalous events that were observed from the OGLE lensing survey conducted during 2004-2008 period. In order to check the existence of possible degenerate solutions and extract extra information, we conduct analyses based on combined data from other survey and follow-up observation and consider higher-order effects. Among the analyzed events, we present analyses of 8 events for which either new solutions are identified or additional information is obtained. We find that the previous binary-source interpretations of 5 events are better interpreted by binary-lens models. These events include OGLE-2006-BLG-238, OGLE-2007-BLG-159, OGLE-2007-BLG-491, OGLE-2008-BLG-143, and OGLE-2008-BLG-210. With additional data covering caustic crossings, we detect finite-source effects for 6 events including OGLE-2006-BLG-215, OGLE-2006-BLG-238, OGLE-2006-BLG-450, OGLE-2008-BLG-143, OGLE-2008-BLG-210, and OGLE-2008-BLG-513. Among them, we are able to measure the Einstein ...

Jeong, J; Han, C; Gould, A; Udalski, A; Szyma?ski, M K; Pietrzy?ski, G; Soszy?ski, I; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, ?; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Fukunaga, D; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Namba, S; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Tsurumi, N; Wada, K; Yamai, N; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A; Albrow, M D; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Cole, A; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Dominik, M; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Hoffman, M; Huber, M; Jørgensen, U G; Kane, S R; Kubas, D; Martin, R; Marquette, J -B; Menzies, J; Pitrou, C; Pollard, K; Sahu, K C; Vinter, C; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Allen, W; Bolt, G; Choi, J -Y; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Drummond, J; Gaudi, B S; Hwang, K -H; Jung, Y K; Lee, C -U; Mallia, F; Maoz, D; Maury, A; McCormick, J; Monard, L A G; Moorhouse, D; Natusch, T; Ofek, E O; Park, B -G; Pogge, R W; Santallo, R; Shin, I -G; Thornley, G; Yee, J C; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Street, R; Tsapras, Y

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Influence of an anomalous dimension effect on thermal instability in amorphous-InGaZnO thin-film transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast I{sub D}-V{sub G} and modulated peak/base pulse time I{sub D}-V{sub D} measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.

Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com, E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com, E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hua-Mao; Tai, Ya-Hsiang [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu 300, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No.1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsin-Chu 30078, Taiwan (China)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

Exclusive central diffractive production of scalar and pseudoscalar mesons; tensorial vs. vectorial pomeron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss consequences of the models of “tensorial pomeron” and “vectorial pomeron” for exclusive diffractive production of scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in proton–proton collisions. Diffractive production of f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(1370), f{sub 0}(1500), ?, and ?{sup ?}(958) mesons is discussed. Different pomeron–pomeron–meson tensorial coupling structures are possible in general. In most cases two lowest orbital angular momentum–spin couplings are necessary to describe experimental differential distributions. For f{sub 0}(980) and ? production reggeon–pomeron, pomeron–reggeon, and reggeon–reggeon exchanges are included in addition, which seems to be necessary at relatively low energies. The theoretical results are compared with the WA102 experimental data. Correlations in azimuthal angle between outgoing protons, distributions in rapidities and transverse momenta of outgoing protons and mesons, in a special “glueball filter variable”, as well as some two-dimensional distributions are presented. We discuss differences between results of the vectorial and tensorial pomeron models. We show that high-energy central production, in particular of pseudoscalar mesons, could provide crucial information on the spin structure of the soft pomeron.

Lebiedowicz, Piotr, E-mail: Piotr.Lebiedowicz@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Nachtmann, Otto, E-mail: O.Nachtmann@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Szczurek, Antoni, E-mail: Antoni.Szczurek@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); University of Rzeszów, PL-35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

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481

A Curved Image-Plate Detector System for High-Resolution Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The developed curved image plate (CIP) is a one-dimensional detector which simultaneously records high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns over a 38.7 2{theta} range. In addition, an on-site reader enables rapid extraction, transfer and storage of X-ray intensity information in {le}30 s, and further qualifies this detector to study kinetic processes in materials science. The CIP detector can detect and store X-ray intensity information linearly proportional to the incident photon flux over a dynamical range of about five orders of magnitude. The linearity and uniformity of the CIP detector response is not compromised in the unsaturated regions of the image plate, regardless of saturation in another region. The speed of XRD data acquisition together with excellent resolution afforded by the CIP detector is unique and opens up wide possibilities in materials research accessible through X-ray diffraction. This article presents details of the basic features, operation and performance of the CIP detector along with some examples of applications, including high-temperature XRD.

Sarin, P.; Haggerty, R; Yoon, W; Knapp, M; Berghaeuser, A; Zschack, P; Karapetrova, E; Yang, N; Kriven, W

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Neutron diffraction studies and magnetism in Ti doped SrFeO{sub 3??} systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The magnetic ground state of single phase tetragonal crystal structure with I4/mmm space group SrFe{sub 1?x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3??} (x?=?0.2 and 0.3) is investigated from 2?K to 300?K. Strong irreversibility is observed in zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled DC magnetization curves. Arrott plots show the absence of spontaneous magnetization (M{sub S}) down to 2?K, ruling out the possibility of long range ferromagnetic order. Neutron diffraction measurements carried out at H?=?0, 7?T (field cooled) at several temperatures above and below the T* (temperature at which M{sub ZFC}(T) is maximum) do not show any additional peaks and also no difference in intensity rules out, both the long range antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. Hence, the combined study of dc magnetization and neutron diffraction results reveals cluster spin glass behavior in SrFe{sub 1?x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3??} (x?=?0.2 and 0.3)

Sendil Kumar, A.; Srinath, S., E-mail: srinath@uohyd.ac.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Babu, P. D. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, R-5 Shed, B.A.R.C, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

483

The impedance problem of wave diffraction by a strip with higher order boundary conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is devoted to analyse an impedance boundary-transmission problem for the Helmholtz equation originated by a problem of wave diffraction by an infinite strip with higher order imperfect boundary conditions. A constructive approach of operator relations is built, which allows a transparent interpretation of the problem in an operator theory framework. In particular, different types of operator relations are exhibited for different types of operators acting between Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces on a finite interval and the positive half-line. All this has consequences in the understanding of the structure of this type of problems. In particular, a Fredholm characterization of the problem is obtained in terms of the initial space order parameters. At the request of the author and the Proceedings Editor the above article has been replaced with a corrected version. The original PDF file supplied to AIP Publishing contained an error in the title of the article. The original title appeared as: 'The Impedance Problem of Wave Diffraction by a trip with Higher Order Boundary Conditions.' This article has been replaced and the title now appears correctly online. The corrected article was published on 8 November 2013.

Castro, L. P. [Center for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA) and Department of Mathematics of University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Simões, A. M. [Center for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA) and Department of Mathematics of University of Beira Interior, 6200-001 Covilhã (Portugal)

2013-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

484

High-Resolution Infrared and Electron-Diffraction Studies of Trimethylenecyclopropane ([3]-Radialene)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combined high-resolution spectroscopic, electron-diffraction, and quantum theoretical methods are particularly advantageous for small molecules of high symmetry and can yield accurate structures that reveal subtle effects of electron delocalization on molecular bonds. The smallest of the radialene compounds, trimethylenecyclopropane, [3]-radialene, has been synthesized and examined in the gas phase by these methods. The first high-resolution infrared spectra have been obtained for this molecule of D3h symmetry, leading to an accurate B0 rotational constant value of 0.1378629(8) cm-1, within 0.5% of the value obtained from electronic structure calculations (density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/cc-pVTZ). This result is employed in an analysis of electron-diffraction data to obtain the rz bond lengths (in Å): C-H = 1.072 (17), C-C = 1.437 (4), and C=C = 1.330 (4). The analysis does not lead to an accurate value of the HCH angle; however, from comparisons of theoretical and experimental angles for similar compounds, the theoretical prediction of 117.5? is believed to be reliable to within 2?. The effect of electron delocalization in radialene is to reduce the single C-C bond length by 0.07 Å compared to that in cyclopropane.

Wright, Corey R.; Holmes, Joshua; Nibler, Joseph W.; Hedberg, Kenneth; White, James D.; Hedberg, Lise; Weber, Alfons; Blake, Thomas A.

2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

485

Measurement of the elastic, total and diffraction cross sections at tevatron energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}{sub sd}/dM{sup 2}dt and the total inelastic cross section for antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies {radical}s = 546 and 1,800 GeV. Data for this measurement have been collected in short dedicated runs during the 1988--1989 data taking period of CDF. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28 {+-} 0.58 (16.98 {+-} 0.25) GeV{sup {minus}2} at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method (1 + {rho}{sup 2}){sigma}{sub T} is measured to be 62.64 {+-} 0.95 (81.83 {+-} 2.29) mb at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Assuming {rho} = 0.15 the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections are {sigma}{sub el} = 12.87 {+-} 0.30, {sigma}{sub T} = 61.26 {+-} 0.93 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 7.89 {+-} 0.33 mb ({sigma}{sub el} = 19.70 {+-} 0.85, {sigma}{sub T} = 80.03 {+-} 2.24 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 9.46 {+-} 0.44 mb) at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV.

Belforte, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); CDF Collaboration

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Measurement of the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections at Tevatron energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}{sub sd}/dM{sup 2}dt and the total inelastic cross section in antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies {radical}s=546 and 1800 GeV. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28{plus_minus}0.58 (16.98{plus_minus}0.25) GeV{sup {minus}2} at {radical}s = 546 (1800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method, (1 + {rho}{sup 2}){sigma}{sub T} is measured to be 62.64{plus_minus}0.95 (81.83{plus_minus}2.29) mb at {radical}s = 546 (1800) GeV. Assuming {rho} = 0.15, the elastic, total and signal diffraction cross sections are {sigma}{sub el} = 12.87{plus_minus}0.30, {sigma}{sub T} = 61.26{plus_minus}0.93 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 7.89{plus_minus}0.33 mb ({sigma}{sub el} = 19.70{plus_minus}0.85, {sigma}{sub T} = 80.03{plus_minus}2.24 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 9.46{plus_minus}0.44 mb) at 546 (1800) GeV.

Belforte, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); CDF Collaboration

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Neutron diffraction studies of nickel-containing perovskite oxide catalysts exposed to autothermal reforming environments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six nickel-containing perovskite oxides (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})M{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O{sub 3{+-}{delta}}, where x = 0 or 0.2 and M = Cr, Fe, or Mn were used to catalyze the autothermal reforming of isooctane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}) into a hydrogen-rich gas during short-term tests at 700 C. To determine the phase stability of the samples in the reducing environment of the reforming reactor, characterization studies of the as-prepared and tested perovskite samples were conducted using powder X-ray diffraction, powder neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. We determined that the reducing conditions of the microreactor caused metallic nickel to form in all six compositions. However, the extent of the nickel loss from the perovskite lattices varied: the chromium-containing compositions lost the least nickel, compared to the manganese- and iron-containing compositions, and the strontium-free compositions lost more nickel than their strontium-containing analogs. Five of the six perovskite compositions tested showed no breakdown of the perovskite lattice despite the loss of nickel from the B-sites, producing only the third example of a B-cation-deficient, 3d transition-metal-containing perovskite.

Mawdsley, J. R.; Vaughey, J. T.; Krause, T. R.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

488

In-situ X-ray diffraction system using sources and detectors at fixed angular positions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray diffraction technique for measuring a known characteristic of a sample of a material in an in-situ state. The technique includes using an x-ray source for emitting substantially divergent x-ray radiation--with a collimating optic disposed with respect to the fixed source for producing a substantially parallel beam of x-ray radiation by receiving and redirecting the divergent paths of the divergent x-ray radiation. A first x-ray detector collects radiation diffracted from the sample; wherein the source and detector are fixed, during operation thereof, in position relative to each other and in at least one dimension relative to the sample according to a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample. A second x-ray detector may be fixed relative to the first x-ray detector according to the a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample, especially in a phase monitoring embodiment of the present invention.

Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Gibson, Walter M. (Voorheesville, NY); Huang, Huapeng (Latham, NY)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

489

Powder diffraction studies on proteins : An overview of data collection approaches.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following the seminal work of Von Dreele, high quality powder X-ray diffraction studies on proteins are being established as a valuable complementary technique to single-crystal measurements. Several studies using a variety of experiments approaches have been reported in the literature, including high-resolution studies employing parallel beam geometry and high intensity measurements using position sensitive detectors. The choice of the optimum instrumental configuration depends on a number of competing factors such as the amount of sample available, its radiation sensitivity, and the quality of the data required for data analysis, e.g. angular resolution, the extent of the data in d-spacing, or the number of patterns required to explore the protein's behaviour at different temperatures, or under different crystallisation conditions, etc. Here we discuss several advantages and disadvantages of different data collection methods followed for selected examples of small proteins.

Margiolaki, I.; Wright, J. P.; Fitch, A. N.; Fox, G. C.; Labrador, A.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Miura, K.; Gozzo, F.; Schiltz, M.; Besnard, C.; Camus, F.; Pattison, P.; Beckers, D.; Degen, T.; X-Ray Science Division; European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Inst.; Swiss Light Source; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; PANalytical

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Experimental determination of residual stress by neutron diffraction in a boiling water reactor core shroud  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residual strains in a 51 mm (2-inch) thick 304L stainless steel plate have been measured by neutron diffraction and interpreted in terms of residual stress. The plate, measuring (300 mm) in area, was removed from a 6m (20-ft.) diameter unirradiated boiling water reactor core shroud, and included a multiple-pass horizontal weld which joined two of the cylindrical shells which comprise the core shroud. Residual stress mapping was undertaken in the heat affected zone, concentrating on the outside half of the plate thickness. Variations in residual stresses with location appeared consistent with trends expected from finite element calculations, considering that a large fraction of the residual hoop stress was released upon removal of the plate from the core shroud cylinder.

Payzant, A.; Spooner, S.; Zhu, Xiaojing; Hubbard, C.R. [and others

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Em, Vyacheslav [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lee, Ho-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Mechanism of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on a {sup 15}C nucleus in diffraction theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The amplitudes for elastic and inelastic proton scattering on the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 15}C (to its J{sup {pi}} = 5/2{sup +} level in the latter case) in inverse kinematics were calculated within Glauber diffraction theory. First- and second-order terms were taken into account in the multiple-scattering operator. The {sup 15}C wave function in the multiparticle shell model was used. This made it possible to calculate not only respective differential cross sections but also the contribution of proton scattering on nucleons occurring in different shells. The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering were calculated at the energies of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 GeV per nucleon.

Ibraeva, E. T., E-mail: ibr@inp.kz [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Zhusupov, M. A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan); Imambekov, O. [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

The Effects Of Finite Electron Temperature And Diffraction On Lowere Hybrid Wave Propagation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we show that the commonly used cold plasma dispersion relation for plasma waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) produces a wave trajectory that is notably different than when thermal corrections to the Hermitian part of the dielectric tensor are retained. This is in contrast to the common implementation in LH simulation codes in which thermal effects are retained only for the anti-Hermitian part of the dielectric tensor used for damping calculations. We show which term is the critical one to retain in the dielectric tensor and discuss implications for modeling of LHRF waves in present day and future devices. We conclude with some observations on the effects of diffraction that may be isolated once thermal effects are retained in both ray tracing and full-wave approaches.

White, J. C.; Bertelli, M.

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

495

Time-, frequency-, and wavevector-resolved x-ray diffraction from single molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a quantum electrodynamic framework, we calculate the off-resonant scattering of a broadband X-ray pulse from a sample initially prepared in an arbitrary superposition of electronic states. The signal consists of single-particle (incoherent) and two-particle (coherent) contributions that carry different particle form factors that involve different material transitions. Single-molecule experiments involving incoherent scattering are more influenced by inelastic processes compared to bulk measurements. The conditions under which the technique directly measures charge densities (and can be considered as diffraction) as opposed to correlation functions of the charge-density are specified. The results are illustrated with time- and wavevector-resolved signals from a single amino acid molecule (cysteine) following an impulsive excitation by a stimulated X-ray Raman process resonant with the sulfur K-edge. Our theory and simulations can guide future experimental studies on the structures of nano-particles and proteins.

Bennett, Kochise, E-mail: kcbennet@uci.edu; Biggs, Jason D.; Zhang, Yu; Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

496

Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

497

Application of neutron diffraction to measure residual strains in high temperature composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental neutron diffraction technique was used to measure residual thermal strains developed in high temperature composites during postfabrication cooling. Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide (over the temperature range 20--950{degree}C) and tungsten and saphikon fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide composites (at room temperature) were investigated. As a result of thermal expansion mismatch, compressive residual strains and stresses were generated in the silicon carbide fibers during cooldown. The axial residual strains were tensile in the matrix and were lower in nickel aluminide matrix as compared to those in titanium aluminide matrix. The average transverse residual strains in the matrix were compressive. Liquid-nitrogen dipping and thermal-cycling tend to reduce the fabrication-induced residual strains in silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide matrix composite. However, matrix cracking can occur as a result of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Saigal, A. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Kupperman, D.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Neutron diffraction study of MnNiGa{sub 2}—Structural and magnetic behaviour  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MnNiGa{sub 2} crystallizes in the L21 (Heusler) structure and has a ferromagnetic ordering temperature T{sub C}???192?K. Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction patterns indicates that the Ga atoms occupy the equivalent 8c position, while Mn and Ni share the 4a (0, 0, 0) and 4b (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) sites with a mixed occupancy of Mn and Ni atoms. It is found that that ?83% of Mn and ?17% Ni are located at the 4a site while ?83% of Ni and ?17% Mn occupy the 4b site. There is no evidence of a magneto-volume effect around T{sub C}. In agreement with this finding, our detailed critical exponent analyses of isothermal magnetization curves and the related Arrott plots confirm that the magnetic phase transition at T{sub C} is second order.

Wang, J. L., E-mail: jianli@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Ma, L.; Wu, G. H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Hofmann, M. [FRM-II, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Avdeev, M.; Kennedy, S. J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Campbell, S. J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Md Din, M. F.; Dou, S. X. [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australi