National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for anomalous diffraction mad

  1. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wilkinson, A.P. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials

    1993-05-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f` for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high {Tc} superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, FeNi{sub 2}BO{sub 5}), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}, Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, GaCl{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}PO{sub 5}), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub l2}).

  2. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Wilkinson, A.P. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials)

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high [Tc] superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 3], FeNi[sub 2]BO[sub 5]), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6+x], Eu[sub 3]O[sub 4], GaCl[sub 2], Fe[sub 2]PO[sub 5]), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y[sub 3]Ga[sub 5]O[sub l2]).

  3. Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Investigation of the Anomalous Behavior of Ice During Freezing of Aqueous Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Investigation of the Anomalous Behavior of Ice During Freezing be used to quantify stresses during freezing, which could improve our understanding of the role of water, such as freeze-induced destabilization of biological systems, and laboratory or industrial practices

  4. Automated MAD and MIR structure solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berendzen, Joel [Biophysics Group, Mail Stop D454, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A fully automated procedure for solving MIR and MAD structures has been developed using a scoring scheme to convert the structure-solution process into an optimization problem. Obtaining an electron-density map from X-ray diffraction data can be difficult and time-consuming even after the data have been collected, largely because MIR and MAD structure determinations currently require many subjective evaluations of the qualities of trial heavy-atom partial structures before a correct heavy-atom solution is obtained. A set of criteria for evaluating the quality of heavy-atom partial solutions in macromolecular crystallography have been developed. These have allowed the conversion of the crystal structure-solution process into an optimization problem and have allowed its automation. The SOLVE software has been used to solve MAD data sets with as many as 52 selenium sites in the asymmetric unit. The automated structure-solution process developed is a major step towards the fully automated structure-determination, model-building and refinement procedure which is needed for genomic scale structure determinations.

  5. New Developments in MadGraph/MadEvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alwall, Johan; Artoisenet, Pierre; de Visscher, Simon; Duhr, Claude; Frederix, Rikkert; Herquet, Michel; Mattelaer, Olivier; /IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve

    2011-11-08

    We here present some recent developments of MadGraph/MadEvent since the latest published version, 4.0. These developments include: Jet matching with Pythia parton showers for both Standard Model and Beyond the Standard Model processes, decay chain functionality, decay width calculation and decay simulation, process generation for the Grid, a package for calculation of quarkonium amplitudes, calculation of Matrix Element weights for experimental events, automatic dipole subtraction for next-to-leading order calculations, and an interface to FeynRules, a package for automatic calculation of Feynman rules and model files from the Lagrangian of any New Physics model.

  6. Sandia Energy - NuMAD License and Disclaimer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    License and Disclaimer Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Rotor Innovation Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD) NuMAD License and Disclaimer...

  7. Structure of the -Al2O3,,0001... surface from low-energy electron diffraction: Al termination and evidence for anomalously large thermal vibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soares, Edmar Avellar

    ; published 22 April 2002 We use dynamical low-energy electron diffraction LEED to determine the surface layer s as labeled in Fig. 1. First- principles calculations predict an Al1 termination with the first cannot be accurately modeled in low-energy electron diffraction LEED calculations using an isotropic

  8. Discrimination of solvent from protein regions in native Fouriers as a means of evaluating heavy-atom solutions in the MIR and MAD methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berendzen, Joel [Biophysics Group, Mail Stop D454, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The presence of distinct regions of high and low density variation in electron-density maps is found to be a good indicator of the correctness of a heavy-atom solution in the MIR and MAD methods. An automated examination of the native Fourier is tested as a means of evaluation of a heavy-atom solution in MAD and MIR methods for macromolecular crystallography. It is found that the presence of distinct regions of high and low density variation in electron-density maps is a good indicator of the correctness of a heavy-atom solution in the MIR and MAD methods. The method can be used to evaluate heavy-atom solutions during MAD and MIR structure solutions and to determine the handedness of the structure if anomalous data have been measured.

  9. MadGraph 5 : Going Beyond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Alwall; Michel Herquet; Fabio Maltoni; Olivier Mattelaer; Tim Stelzer

    2011-06-02

    MadGraph 5 is the new version of the MadGraph matrix element generator, written in the Python programming language. It implements a number of new, efficient algorithms that provide improved performance and functionality in all aspects of the program. It features a new user interface, several new output formats including C++ process libraries for Pythia 8, and full compatibility with FeynRules for new physics models implementation, allowing for event generation for any model that can be written in the form of a Lagrangian. MadGraph 5 builds on the same philosophy as the previous versions, and its design allows it to be used as a collaborative platform where theoretical, phenomenological and simulation projects can be developed and then distributed to the high-energy community. We describe the ideas and the most important developments of the code and illustrate its capabilities through a few simple phenomenological examples.

  10. Automation of the Dipole Subtraction Method in MadGraph/MadEvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rikkert Frederix; Thomas Gehrmann; Nicolas Greiner

    2008-08-15

    We present the implementation of the dipole subtraction formalism for the real radiation contributions to any next-to-leading order QCD process in the MadGraph/MadEvent framework. Both massless and massive dipoles are considered. Starting from a specific (n+1)-particle process the package provides a Fortran code for all possible dipoles to all Born processes that constitute the subtraction term to the (n+1)-particle process. The output files are given in the usual "MadGraph StandAlone" style using helicity amplitudes.

  11. Simon Fraser University Athletics & Recreation Employment Opportunity Head Instructor -Mountain Madness & Outdoor Adventures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    - Mountain Madness & Outdoor Adventures Position Title: Head Instructor - Mountain Madness & Outdoor camp, Mountain Madness and Outdoor Adventures. Both camps are full day, one week camps; Mountain Madness is for children 8-11 years and Outdoor Adventures is for children 11-14 years. Mountain Madness

  12. Linking SARAH and MadGraph using the UFO format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staub, Florian

    2012-01-01

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/OMEGA. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files have seen further improvement in this version.

  13. Exhuming caliban : gothic and madness in late twentieth and twenty-first - century Caribbean literary fictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escudero, Andrew Mario

    2012-01-01

    Caribbean and the World. Barbados: University of the Wests study is specific to Barbados and Barbadian madness, hisMajor slave rebellions (Barbados (1816) with 400 slaves

  14. BTA Magnet Field Map Archive and MAD Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn,J.W.

    2008-04-01

    This note publishes some and information that has resided in private files. The attached tables were provided by Joseph Skelly from his archives. They show magnetic field measurements versus excitation current for the Booster to AGS transfer line quadrupoles and dipoles based on field measurements [we believe] were done by the Magnet Division. Also given are Ed Blesser's fifth order fits of field versus current. The results are given in 'Tesla' or T-M/M. These tables are attached to provide an archive of this data. The MAD model of the BTA line does have the same values as shown in the attached fits so the transfer was correct. MAD uses as its 'gradient' for quads Tesla per meter normalized to rigidity [B-rho]. The model of the BTA line in use uses the T-M/M given in the tables divided by the length to give T M which is then normalized by Brho. Thus, the input to the model appears to be correct. The original model is also attached as part of a memo by Skelly describing it.

  15. B and C class MADS-box genes and the developmental genetics of maize flower development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whipple, Clinton J.

    2006-01-01

    diversification of the two C-Class MADS box genes OSMADS32004). Conservation of B-class floral homeotic gene function2004). Conservation of B-class floral homeotic gene function

  16. ANSI X3H2-97-010 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-245

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    ANSI X3H2-97-010 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-245 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION and A. Steiner. Adding Valid Time to SQL Temporal. 1996. ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-146r2, ANSI X3H2 Temporal. 1996. ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-147r2, ANSI X3H2-96-502r1. 6 Snodgrass, R.T., Addendum

  17. Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ophir Flomenbom

    2010-08-13

    Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: {\\psi}_{\\alpha} (t)~t^(-1-{\\alpha}), 0renewal as all the particles attempt to jump at the same time. It is shown that the mean square displacement (MSD) in a renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous file, , obeys, ~[_{nrml}]^{\\alpha}, where _{nrml} is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

  18. Anomalous energy transport across topological insulator superconductor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anomalous energy transport across topological insulator superconductor junctions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous energy transport across topological insulator...

  19. Chapter 2 Diffractive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-09-14

    Diffractive optics is an emerging technology with many applications. Some of the important applications include the design and fabrication of optical elements ...

  20. The Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Knecht

    2014-12-03

    The calculations entering the prediction of the standard model value for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon $a_\\mu$ are reviewed, and compared to the very accurate experimental measurement. The situation for the electron is discussed in parallel.

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning subproject characterization report for the E-MAD Decontamination Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-01-31

    This document describes and reports the results of the work undertaken to determine the nature and extent of contamination of portions of the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility located in Area 25 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  2. Towards a public analysis database for LHC new physics searches using MadAnalysis 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dumont; B. Fuks; S. Kraml; S. Bein; G. Chalons; E. Conte; S. Kulkarni; D. Sengupta; C. Wymant

    2015-01-27

    We present the implementation, in the MadAnalysis 5 framework, of several ATLAS and CMS searches for supersymmetry in data recorded during the first run of the LHC. We provide extensive details on the validation of our implementations and propose to create a public analysis database within this framework.

  3. MAD: A Real World Application of Qualitative Model-Based Decision Tree Generation for Diagnosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg,.Universität

    equipment. Furthermore, cost of diagnosis system generation, modification and maintenance is reduced. We knowledge and computer-based product data for diagnosis system generation. This way, the cost of diagnosisMAD: A Real World Application of Qualitative Model-Based Decision Tree Generation for Diagnosis

  4. ANSI X3H297010 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD245

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    ANSI X3H2­97­010 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD­245 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD­146r2, ANSI X3H2­96­501r2.) [5] Snodgrass, R. T., M. H. B¨ohlen, C. S. Jensen and A. Steiner. Adding Transaction Time to SQL/Temporal. 1996. (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD­147r2, ANSI X3H2

  5. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Nguyen, H.T.; Boyd, R.; Shore, B.W.

    1999-05-25

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described. 7 figs.

  6. Dirac Kirchhoff diffraction theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruben Van Boxem; Bart Partoens; Jo Verbeeck

    2013-03-05

    Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory is applied throughout photon and electron optics. It is based on the stationary electromagnetic or Schr\\"odinger wave equation, and is useful in describing interference phenomena for both light and matter waves. Here, Kirchhoff's diffraction theory is derived from the relativistic Dirac equation, thus reformulated to work on Dirac spinors. The parallels with the "classic" scalar theory are highlighted, and a basic interpretation of the result obtained for the Fraunhofer diffraction limit is given. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the similarity between the two equations on the most fundamental level.

  7. Aquatic habitat enhancements for Mad River and Beaver Pond Brook in conjunction with the reconstruction of I-84, Waterbury, Connecticut

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyman, David, C.

    2003-01-01

    for state agencies in Connecticut and Maine. References ASCEOF I-84, WATERBURY, CONNECTICUT David C. Nyman, P.E. (Phone:for I-84 in Waterbury, Connecticut, reaches of Mad River and

  8. ANSI X3H2-96-582 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-203

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    ANSI X3H2-96-582 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-203 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: Change Proposal Title: Addendum to Valid- and Transaction-time Proposals Source: ANSI Expert. Steiner Adding Valid Time to SQL Temporal, ANSI X3H2-96-501r2, ISO IEC JTC 1 SC 21 WG 3 DBL-MAD-146r2

  9. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  10. Particle Diffraction at High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir A. Petrov

    1998-04-27

    A brief ideological and historical review of problems of high energy diffractive scattering is given.

  11. Direct Detection of Dark Matter with MadDM v.2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihailo Backovic; Kyoungchul Kong; Antony Martini; Olivier Mattelaer; Gopolang Mohlabeng

    2015-05-15

    We present MadDM v.2.0, a numerical tool for dark matter physics in a generic model. This version is the next step towards the development of a fully automated framework for dark matter searches at the interface of collider physics, astro-physics and cosmology. It extends the capabilities of v.1.0 to perform calculations relevant to the direct detection of dark matter. These include calculations of spin-independent/spin-dependent nucleon scattering cross sections and nuclear recoil rates (as a function of both energy and angle), as well as a simplified functionality to compare the model points with existing constraints. The functionality of MadDM v.2.0 incorporates a large selection of dark matter detector materials and sizes, and simulates detector effects on the nuclear recoil signals. We validate the code in a wide range of dark matter models by comparing results from MadDM v.2.0 to the existing tools and literature.

  12. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  13. Madžarski kalk hištvo in sorodno v stari knjižni prekmurš?ini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudá s, El?d

    2011-01-01

    uporabiti pri raziskavi madžarsko-slovenskih stikov, moramo poznati zgodovinske okoliš?ine, ki so igrale pri teh stikih pomembno vlogo. Prekmursko obmo?je je bilo vklju?eno v madžarski upravni sistem leta 1077 (Just 2009: 18) in je ostalo njegov del do... hižni zakon is a hybrid. Zakon is Slo- vene proper, whereas hižni is a calqued element from Hungarian. Among the calques discussed. Hištvo and hižnik are attested from the beginnings of Prekmurje Slovene literature. Hižna tivarišica is perhaps a hapax...

  14. Anomalous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneandAn319 125Annualregulatoryimpurity ion

  15. Multilayer diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1990-04-10

    This invention is for a reflection diffraction grating that functions at X-ray to VUV wavelengths and at normal angles of incidence. The novel grating is comprised of a laminar grating of period D with flat-topped grating bars. A multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures, of period d and comprised of alternating flat layers of two different materials, are disposed on the tops of the grating bars of the laminar grating. In another embodiment of the grating, a second multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures are also disposed on the flat faces, of the base of the grating, between the bars. D is in the approximate range from 3,000 to 50,000 Angstroms, but d is in the approximate range from 10 to 400 Angstroms. The laminar grating and the layered microstructures cooperatively interact to provide many novel and beneficial instrumentational advantages. 2 figs.

  16. Multilayer diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1990-01-01

    This invention is for a reflection diffraction grating that functions at X-ray to VUV wavelengths and at normal angles of incidence. The novel grating is comprised of a laminar grating of period D with flat-topped grating bars. A multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures, of period d and comprised of alternating flat layers of two different materials, are disposed on the tops of the grating bars of the laminar grating. In another embodiment of the grating, a second multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures are also disposed on the flat faces, of the base of the grating, between the bars. D is in the approximate range from 3,000 to 50,000 Angstroms, but d is in the approximate range from 10 to 400 Angstroms. The laminar grating and the layered microstructures cooperatively interact to provide many novel and beneficial instrumentational advantages.

  17. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  18. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1996-08-29

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 8 figs.

  19. Microscopic theory of quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microscopic theory of quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene Prev Next Title: Microscopic theory of quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene Authors: Qiao, Zhenhua ;...

  20. Review: István Szépfalusi, Ottó Vörös, Anikó Beregszászi, Miklós Kontra: Madžarski jezik v Avstriji in Sloveniji

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molná r, Zoltá n Mikló s

    2012-02-01

    - sti, Budimpešta – Alsó?r (Unterwart). Lendava 2012, 351 str. Pri?ujo?a izdaja je ?etrta iz zbirke A magyar nyelv a Kárpát-medencében a XX. század végén – Madžarski jezik v Karpatskem bazenu ob koncu XX. sto let ja. Prva knjiga A magyar nyelv...

  1. TauDecay: a library to simulate polarized tau decays via FeynRules and MadGraph5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaoru Hagiwara; Tong Li; Kentarou Mawatari; Junya Nakamura

    2014-12-15

    TauDecay is a library of helicity amplitudes to simulate polarized tau decays, constructed in the FeynRules and MadGraph5 framework. Together with the leptonic mode, the decay library includes the main hadronic modes, \\tau \\to \

  2. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  3. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Senturia, Stephen D. (Brookline, MA)

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  4. Anomalous Emission from HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Dickinson

    2008-08-04

    Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

  5. New features of MadAnalysis 5 for analysis design and reinterpretation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Conte; Béranger Dumont; Benjamin Fuks; Thibaut Schmitt

    2015-05-26

    We present MadAnalysis 5, an analysis package dedicated to phenomenological studies of simulated collisions occurring in high-energy physics experiments. Within this framework, users are invited, through a user-friendly Python interpreter, to implement physics analyses in a very simple manner. A C++ code is then automatically generated, compiled and executed. Very recently, the expert mode of the program has been extended so that analyses with multiple signal/control regions can be handled. Additional observables have also been included, and an interface to several fast detector simulation packages has been developed, one of them being a tune of the Delphes 3 software. As a result, a recasting of existing ATLAS and CMS analyses can be achieved straightforwardly.

  6. The charmonium dissociation in an "anomalous wind"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey V. Sadofyev; Yi Yin

    2015-10-22

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries ``anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the ``anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the ``anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and {\\it qualitative} difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are {\\it model-dependent} and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. We speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Anomalous transport through porous and fractured media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Peter Kyungchul

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous transport, understood as the nonlinear scaling with time of the mean square displacement of transported particles, is observed in many physical processes, including contaminant transport through porous and fractured ...

  8. The charmonium dissociation in an "anomalous wind"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadofyev, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries ``anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the ``anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the ``anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and {\\it qualitative} difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are {\\it model-dependent} and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. We speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.

  9. ANSI X3H296502r2 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD147r2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    ANSI X3H2­96­502r2 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD­147r2 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: Change Proposal Title: Adding Transaction Time to SQL/Temporal Source: ANSI Expert's Contribution Authors/Temporal, ANSI X3H2­96­501r2, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 21/WG 3 DBL­MAD­146r2, November, 1996. [4] Steiner, A. and M. H. B

  10. Testing of the Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation with T-Matrix Calculations for Hexagonal Columns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConference Tight09/2011a CloudTesting at NRELof

  11. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  13. A computational inverse diffraction grating problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-02-29

    Mar 2, 2012 ... tromagnetic diffraction through periodic structures, along with some ... problems in diffractive optics, which is to design a grating structure that ...

  14. Plato’s Psychological Manifestations of Madness: A Case for a Parallel between Philosophical and Tyrannical Souls in The Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratman, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Fall 2012 – Spring 2013 | 43 Plato’s Psychological Manifestations of Madness: A Case for a Parallel between Philosophical and Tyrannical Souls in The Republic Christopher Stratman In this paper, I will argue that there is a philosophically... interesting comparison to be made between the philosophical and tyrannical souls in Plato’s Republic. I will argue for this point with the intent of building a case for a valuable insight into Socrates’ and thus Plato’s conception of the philosophical...

  15. ANSI X3H296582 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD203

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    ANSI X3H2­96­582 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG3 DBL MAD­203 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: Change Proposal Title: Addendum to Valid­ and Transaction­time Proposals Source: ANSI Expert and A. Steiner Adding Valid Time to SQL/Temporal, ANSI X3H2­96­501r2, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 21/WG 3 DBL

  16. Parametric probability distributions for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Foy, Bernard R; Wohlberg, Brendt E; Scovel, James C

    2010-01-01

    The problem of anomalous change detection arises when two (or possibly more) images are taken of the same scene, but at different times. The aim is to discount the 'pervasive differences' that occur thoughout the imagery, due to the inevitably different conditions under which the images were taken (caused, for instance, by differences in illumination, atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, or misregistration), and to focus instead on the 'anomalous changes' that actually take place in the scene. In general, anomalous change detection algorithms attempt to model these normal or pervasive differences, based on data taken directly from the imagery, and then identify as anomalous those pixels for which the model does not hold. For many algorithms, these models are expressed in terms of probability distributions, and there is a class of such algorithms that assume the distributions are Gaussian. By considering a broader class of distributions, however, a new class of anomalous change detection algorithms can be developed. We consider several parametric families of such distributions, derive the associated change detection algorithms, and compare the performance with standard algorithms that are based on Gaussian distributions. We find that it is often possible to significantly outperform these standard algorithms, even using relatively simple non-Gaussian models.

  17. Investigating Unitarity in Presence of Anomalous Couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamta Dahiya; Sukanta Dutta; Rashidul Islam

    2015-06-20

    We study the high energy behaviour of the helicity amplitudes in the $2\\to2$ scattering processes involving Higgs and gauge bosons. This model-independent analysis is performed for a SM-like Higgs in the presence of anomalous $WWV$, $WWVV$, $VVH$, $VVHH$, $HHHH$ and $HHH$ interactions ($V\\equiv Z,\\gamma$ and $W^\\pm$.) among gauge and highs bosons. We constrain these anomalous couplings by requiring the non-violation of the perturbative unitarity. Further, assuming all anomalous couplings to have arisen only from dimension-six operators, we show that unitarity violation can be evaded up to $\\sim$ 9 TeV corresponding to the best fit values of $f_{WW}/\\Lambda^2$ and $f_{BB}/\\Lambda^2$ from the combined analysis of Tevatron and LHC data.

  18. Anomalous Soft Photons in Hadron Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2010-05-17

    Anomalous soft photons in excess of what is expected from electromagnetic bremsstrahlung have been observed in association with the production of hadrons, mostly mesons, in high-energy (K+)p, (pi+)p, (pi-)p, pp, and (e+)(e-) collisions. We propose a model for the simultaneous production of anomalous soft photons and mesons in quantum field theory, in which the meson production arises from the oscillation of color charge densities of the quarks of the underlying vacuum in the flux tube. As a quark carries both a color charge and an electric charge, the oscillation of the color charge densities will be accompanied by the oscillation of electric charge densities, which will in turn lead to the simultaneous production of soft photons during the meson production process. How the production of these soft photons may explain the anomalous soft photon data will be discussed. Further experimental measurements to test the model will be proposed.

  19. Introduction to Collection "Physics in a Mad World" (an Abridged Version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shifman, M

    2015-01-01

    This Introduction opens the collection "Physics in A Mad World" devoted to two outstanding physicists whose destinies were deeply intertwined with the tragedies and drama of the times in which they lived. Friedrich (Fritz) Houtermans was the first to understand why stars shine. He endured Stalin's prisons in the Moscow of the late 1930s, then faced the Gestapo in Germany. In the early 1970s, Yuri Golfand was among the discoverers of theoretical supersymmetry, a concept which completely changed mathematical physics in the 21st century. After his discovery, his research institution in Moscow fired him. He knew the humiliations of the Brezhnev regime firsthand, blacklisted and unemployed for the rest of the decade due to his desire to emigrate to Israel. This introduction gives a detailed review of background and supplemental information to the events described in the three main essays authored by V. Frenkel, B. Eskin and B. Bolotovsky who presented captivating stories of the physicists' lives, as told by their ...

  20. Search for anomalous production of events with a high energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Search for anomalous production of events with a high energy lepton and photon at the Tevatron Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for anomalous...

  1. Development of anomalous diffusion among crowding proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margaret R. Horton; Felix Höfling; Joachim O. Rädler; Thomas Franosch

    2010-03-19

    In cell membranes, proteins and lipids diffuse in a highly crowded and heterogeneous landscape, where aggregates and dense domains of proteins or lipids obstruct the path of diffusing molecules. In general, hindered motion gives rise to anomalous transport, though the nature of the onset of this behavior is still under debate and difficult to investigate experimentally. Here, we present a systematic study where proteins bound to supported lipid membranes diffuse freely in two dimensions, but are increasingly hindered by the presence of other like proteins. In our model system, the surface coverage of the protein avidin on the lipid bilayer is well controlled by varying the concentration of biotinylated lipid anchors. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we measure the time correlation function over long times and convert it to the mean-square displacement of the diffusing proteins. Our approach allows for high precision data and a clear distinction between anomalous and normal diffusion. It enables us to investigate the onset of anomalous diffusion, which takes place when the area coverage of membrane proteins increases beyond approximately 5%. This transition region exhibits pronounced spatial heterogeneities. Increasing the packing fraction further, transport becomes more and more anomalous, manifested in a decrease of the exponent of subdiffusion.

  2. Experiences with making diffraction image data available: what metadata do we need to archive?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J., E-mail: l.m.j.kroon-batenburg@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Helliwell, John R. [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M14 9PL (United Kingdom); Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    A local raw ‘diffraction data images’ archive was made available and some data sets were retrieved and reprocessed, which led to analysis of the anomalous difference densities of two partially occupied Cl atoms in cisplatin as well as a re-evaluation of the resolution cutoff in these diffraction data. General questions on storing raw data are discussed. It is also demonstrated that often one needs unambiguous prior knowledge to read the (binary) detector format and the setup of goniometer geometries. Recently, the IUCr (International Union of Crystallography) initiated the formation of a Diffraction Data Deposition Working Group with the aim of developing standards for the representation of raw diffraction data associated with the publication of structural papers. Archiving of raw data serves several goals: to improve the record of science, to verify the reproducibility and to allow detailed checks of scientific data, safeguarding against fraud and to allow reanalysis with future improved techniques. A means of studying this issue is to submit exemplar publications with associated raw data and metadata. In a recent study of the binding of cisplatin and carboplatin to histidine in lysozyme crystals under several conditions, the possible effects of the equipment and X-ray diffraction data-processing software on the occupancies and B factors of the bound Pt compounds were compared. Initially, 35.3 GB of data were transferred from Manchester to Utrecht to be processed with EVAL. A detailed description and discussion of the availability of metadata was published in a paper that was linked to a local raw data archive at Utrecht University and also mirrored at the TARDIS raw diffraction data archive in Australia. By making these raw diffraction data sets available with the article, it is possible for the diffraction community to make their own evaluation. This led to one of the authors of XDS (K. Diederichs) to re-integrate the data from crystals that supposedly solely contained bound carboplatin, resulting in the analysis of partially occupied chlorine anomalous electron densities near the Pt-binding sites and the use of several criteria to more carefully assess the diffraction resolution limit. General arguments for archiving raw data, the possibilities of doing so and the requirement of resources are discussed. The problems associated with a partially unknown experimental setup, which preferably should be available as metadata, is discussed. Current thoughts on data compression are summarized, which could be a solution especially for pixel-device data sets with fine slicing that may otherwise present an unmanageable amount of data.

  3. A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux The purpose of this tutorial is to model graphene d Pj k px j py k 2 i 1 A Graphene Model Diffraction Pattern #12;

  4. Anomalous Topological Pumps and Fractional Josephson Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan Zhang; C. L. Kane

    2013-10-20

    We discover novel topological pumps in the Josephson effects for superconductors. The phase difference, which is odd under the chiral symmetry defined by the product of time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries, acts as an anomalous adiabatic parameter. These pumping cycles are different from those in the "periodic table", and are characterized by $Z\\times Z$ or $Z_2\\times Z_2$ strong invariants. We determine the general classifications in class AIII, and those in class DIII with a single anomalous parameter. For the $Z_2\\times Z_2$ topological pump in class DIII, one $Z_2$ invariant describes the coincidence of fermion parity and spin pumps whereas the other one reflects the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers pairs, leading to three distinct fractional Josephson effects.

  5. Diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy Hallvard Angelskar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    Diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy by Hallvard Angelsk°ar Submitted in partial;Abstract Diffractive optical elements can be used in spectroscopy instruments to fulfill several tasks to precisely fabricate complex diffractive optical elements with feature sizes below the micrometer scale

  6. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  7. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  8. Phase-space jets drive transport and anomalous resistivity (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport and anomalous resistivity In the presence of wave dissipation, phase-space structures spontaneously emerge in nonlinear Vlasov dynamics. These structures include not only...

  9. Anomalous Zeeman response of the coexisting superconducting and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anomalous Zeeman response of the coexisting superconducting and spin-density-wave phases as a probe of extended s -wave pairing in ferropnictide superconductors Prev Next ...

  10. Diffraction tomography with Fourier ptychography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horstmeyer, Roarke

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a method to perform diffraction tomography in a standard microscope that includes an LED array for illumination. After acquiring a sequence of intensity-only images of a thick sample, a ptychography-based reconstruction algorithm solves for its unknown complex index of refraction across three dimensions. The experimental microscope demonstrates a spatial resolution of 0.39 $\\mu$m and an axial resolution of 3.7 $\\mu$m at the Nyquist-Shannon sampling limit (0.54 $\\mu$m and 5.0 $\\mu$m at the Sparrow limit, respectively), across a total imaging volume of 2.2 mm $\\times$ 2.2 mm $\\times$ 110 $\\mu$m. Unlike competing methods, the 3D tomograms presented in this article are continuous, quantitative, and formed without the need for interferometry or any moving parts. Wide field-of-view reconstructions of thick biological specimens demonstrate potential applications in pathology and developmental biology.

  11. Diffractive J/Psi Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assis Jesus, Ana Carolina; /Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; ,

    2007-07-01

    This work presents measurements of two diffractive production ratio for heavy flavour physics with the use of a reconstructed J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} sample in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab Tevatron. These events were selected using the Luminosity Monitor detectors, the calorimeter system and the muon system in a pseudo-rapidity region with range 2.7 {le} |{eta}| {le} 4.4. The measured ratio were estimated to be N{sub diff}{sup J/{psi}}/N{sub total}{sup J/{psi}} = (1.74 {+-} 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst))% e N{sub diff}{sup b}/N{sub total}{sup b} = (0.79 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.23(syst))%.

  12. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-03-26

    A finely detailed diffraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the diffraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating. 7 figures.

  13. Computing decay rates for new physics theories with FeynRules and MadGraph5/aMC@NLO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Alwall; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; Olivier Mattelaer; Deniz Gizem Ozturk; Chia-Hsien Shen

    2015-08-23

    We present new features of the FeynRules and MadGraph5/aMC@NLO programs for the automatic computation of decay widths that consistently include channels of arbitrary final-state multiplicity. The implementations are generic enough so that they can be used in the framework of any quantum field theory, possibly including higher-dimensional operators. We extend at the same time the conventions of the Universal FeynRules Output (or UFO) format to include decay tables and information on the total widths. We finally provide a set of representative examples of the usage of the new functions of the different codes in the framework of the Standard Model, the Higgs Effective Field Theory, the Strongly Interacting Light Higgs model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and compare the results to available literature and programs for validation purposes.

  14. Hydrodynamic Waves in an Anomalous Charged Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Navid; Rezaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous conserved charge. In $3+1$ dimensions, in addition to two ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field: one with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gauge-gravitational anomaly coefficient and the other with a velocity which depends on both chiral anomaly and the gauge gravitational anomaly coefficients. While the former is the Chiral Alfv\\'en wave recently found in arXiv:1505.05444, the latter is a new type of collective excitations originated from the density fluctuations. We refer to these modes as the Type-M and Type-D chiral Alfv\\'en waves respectively. We show that the Type-M Chiral Alfv\\'en mode is split into two chiral Alfv\\'en modes when taking into account the effect of dissipation processes in the fluid. In 1+1 dimensions we find only one propagating mode associated with the anomalous effects. We explicitly compute the velocity of this wave and show that in contras...

  15. Top polarisation measurement and anomalous $Wtb$ coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arun Prasath; Rohini M. Godbole; Saurabh D. Rindani

    2014-12-09

    Kinematical distributions of the decay products of the top quark carry information on the polarisation of the top as well as on any possible new physics in the decay of the top quark. We construct observables in the form of asymmetries in the kinematical distributions to probe their effects. Charged-lepton angular distributions in the decay are insensitive to anomalous couplings and are a sensitive measure of top polarisation. However, these are difficult to measure in the case of highly boosted top quarks as compared to energy distributions of decay products. These are then sensitive, in general, to both top polarisation and top anomalous couplings. We compare various asymmetries for their sensitivities to the polarisation of the top quark as well as to possible new physics in the $Wtb$ vertex, paying special attention to the case of highly boosted top quarks. We perform a $\\chi ^2$- analysis to determine the regions in the polarisation of the top quark and the couplings of the $Wtb$ vertex constrained by different combinations of the asymmetries.

  16. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1993-10-26

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described. 21 figures.

  17. NORMAL EMISSION PHOTOELECTRON DIFFRACTION STUDIES AT SSRL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevan, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    The technique's relation to LEED and to surface EXAFS isenergy electron diffraction (LEED) might be advantageouslyquite similar to those in LEED. Indeed, the PhD final state

  18. Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in supercondu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in superconducting cuprate bilayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous expansion of the...

  19. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  20. Residual Stresses in Weldments by Neutron Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandara, Arosha

    Residual Stresses in Weldments by Neutron Diffraction Shanmukha Rao M, Jon James, Shirley Northover :- The neutron diffraction is determined from Bragg's law. When neutron propagate through crystal sample, Coherent, Incoherent and Absorption Scattering phenomena take place Weld MaterialsPlate materials Stress

  1. Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , of the laminar flow and the sheath fluid usually has a large curvature and refrac- tive index difference. Often morphology of a particle. We present a jet-in-fluid design of flow chamber for acquisition of clear diffraction images in a laminar flow. Diffraction images of polystyrene spheres of different diameters were

  2. Dynamical theory of diffraction on moving grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Bushuev; A. I. Frank; G. V. Kulin

    2015-02-16

    In the framework of the approximation of slowly varying amplitudes a multiwave dynamical theory of neutron diffraction on a moving phase grating was developed. The influence of the velocity of the grating, its period and height of the slits on the discrete energy spectrum and intensity of various diffraction orders was analyzed.

  3. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-03-03

    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded beyond ICF-related laser-plasma interactions to encompass closely related technical areas including laser particle acceleration, high-intensity laser effects, short­ pulse laser interactions, PIC and Vlasov/rad-hydro modeling, inertial and magnetic fusion plasmas, advanced plasma diagnostics, alternate ignition schemes, EOS/transport/opacity, and this year, x­ ray free-electron lasers and their applications. The conference continues to be a showcase for the presentation and discussion of the latest developments in these areas. II. Meeting Report The conference was extremely successful with more than one hundred participants. There were ninety-nine (99) abstracts submitted. There were forty-four (44) presentations including eleven (11) invited talks. The following topics were covered: a) Radiation Hydrodynamics b) Implosion Plasma Kinetic Effects c) Alternate Ignition Schemes d) Astrophysical Phenomena e) Opacity/Transport/EOS f) High Power Lasers and Facilities g) High-Intensity Laser-Matter Interactions h) Hydrodynamics and Hydro-instabilities i) Hot Dense Plasma Atomic Processes j) High Energy Density Physics k) Laser Particle Acceleration Physics l) Advanced Plasma Diagnostics m) Advanced light sources and applications Despite significant advertising, there were two students who applied for the travel grants: Charlie Jarrott and Joohwan Kim. The total funds expended were $3,216.14.

  4. ANSI X3H2-96-502r2 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-147r2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    ANSI X3H2-96-502r2 ISO IEC JTC1 SC21 WG3 DBL MAD-147r2 I S O INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: Change Proposal Title: Adding Transaction Time to SQL Temporal Source: ANSI Expert's Contribution Authors Snodgrass, R. T., M. H. Bohlen, C. S. Jensen and A. Steiner Adding Valid Time to SQL Temporal, ANSI X3H2

  5. Anomalous Transport in Holographic Chiral Superfluids via Kubo Formulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amadeo Jimenez-Alba; Luis Melgar

    2014-11-06

    We study anomalous conductivities in Chiral Superfluids in the framework of two different holographic models, by means of Kubo formulae. In addition, we point out the existence of an anomalous transport phenomenon that consists in the presence of a charge density when the superfluid velocity is aligned with a magnetic field. It has been pointed out recently that certain chiral conductivities in holographic superfluids exhibit universal behavior at zero temperature. We show that anomalous conductivities always stabilize at low temperatures in our setup. Even though the particular value they acquire is model-dependent, it seems to be robust and determined solely by the interplay between the broken symmetries and the anomalies.

  6. The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephanov, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents do transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous non-dissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.

  7. Fresnel diffraction patterns as accelerating beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that beams originating from Fresnel diffraction patterns are self-accelerating in free space. In addition to accelerating and self-healing, they also exhibit parabolic deceleration property, which is in stark contrast to other accelerating beams. We find that the trajectory of Fresnel paraxial accelerating beams is similar to that of nonparaxial Weber beams. Decelerating and accelerating regions are separated by a critical propagation distance, at which no acceleration is present. During deceleration, the Fresnel diffraction beams undergo self-smoothing, in which oscillations of the diffracted waves gradually focus and smooth out at the critical distance.

  8. Sampling and Characterization of 618-2 Anomalous Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.E. Zacharias

    2006-04-27

    Excavation of the 618-2 Burial Ground has produced many items of anomalous waste. Prior to temporary packaging and/or storage, these items have been characterized in the field to identify radiological and industrial safety conditions.

  9. Quantum transport, anomalous dephasing, and spin-orbit coupling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum transport, anomalous dephasing, and spin-orbit coupling in an open ballistic bismuth nanocavity Home Author: B. Hackens, J. P. Minet, S. Faniel, G. Farhi, C. Gustin, J. P....

  10. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  11. Anomalous Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunner, Tamara S.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Borunda, Mario F.; Dugaev, V. K.; Kovalev, A. A.; Abanov, Artem; Timm, Carsten; Jungwirth, T.; Inoue, Jun-ichiro; MacDonald, A. H.; Sinova, Jairo.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous Hall effect in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is studied within the Kubo-Streda formalism in the presence of pointlike potential impurities. We find that all contributions ...

  12. NLO BFKL and anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balitsky, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This presentation covers: Regge limit in the coordinate space; “BFKL” representation of 4-point correlation function in N = 4 SYM; light-ray operators; “DGLAP” representation of 4-point correlation function; and anomalous dimensions from DGAP vs BFKL representations.

  13. Active diffraction gratings: Development and tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonora, S.; Frassetto, F.; Poletto, L. [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, National Council for Research of Italy, via Trasea, 7, Padova 35131 (Italy); Zanchetta, E.; Della Giustina, G.; Brusatin, G. [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We present the realization and characterization of an active spherical diffraction grating with variable radius of curvature to be used in grazing-incidence monochromators. The device consists of a bimorph deformable mirror on the top of which a diffraction grating with laminar profile is realized by UV lithography. The experimental results show that the active grating can optimize the beam focalization of visible wavelengths through its rotation and focus accommodation.

  14. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

    2008-05-30

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  15. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S. [TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Physics Division, Ankara (Turkey); TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Physics Division, Ankara, Turkey and Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ankara University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-09-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  16. Simulation framework for spatio-spectral anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Harvey, Neal R; Porter, Reid B; Wohlberg, Brendt E

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a simulation framework for anomalous change detection that considers both the spatial and spectral aspects of the imagery. A purely spectral framework has previously been introduced, but the extension to spatio-spectral requires attention to a variety of new issues, and requires more careful modeling of the anomalous changes. Using this extended framework, they evaluate the utility of spatial image processing operators to enhance change detection sensitivity in (simulated) remote sensing imagery.

  17. Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taner, M. Turhan

    2006-01-03

    A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

  18. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Settlemyer, Bradley W; Hodson, Stephen W; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  19. Diagrammatic computation of multi-Higgs processes at very high energies: scaling F holy grail with MadGraph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentin V. Khoze

    2015-04-21

    At very high energies scattering amplitudes in a spontaneously broken gauge theory into multi-particle final states are known to grow factorially with the number of particles produced. Using simple scalar field theory models with and without the VEV, we compute total cross-sections with up to 7 particles in the final state at the leading order in perturbation theory with MadGraph. By exploring the known scaling properties of the multi-particle rates with the number of particles, we determine from these the general $n$-point cross-sections in the large-$n$ limit. In the high-multiplicity regime we are considering, n>>1 and lambda n=fixed, the perturbation theory becomes strongly coupled with the higher-order loop effects contributing increasing powers of lambda n. In the approximation where only the leading loop effects are included, we show that the corresponding perturbative cross-sections grow exponentially and ultimately violate perturbative unitarity. This occurs at surprisingly low energy scales ~50 TeV with multiplicities above ~130. It is expected that a repair mechanism or an extension of the theory has to set-in before these scales are reached, possibly involving a novel non-perturbative dynamics in the a priori weakly coupled theory.

  20. Diagrammatic computation of multi-Higgs processes at very high energies: scaling F holy grail with MadGraph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoze, Valentin V

    2015-01-01

    At very high energies scattering amplitudes in a spontaneously broken gauge theory into multi-particle final states are known to grow factorially with the number of particles produced. Using simple scalar field theory models with and without the VEV, we compute total cross-sections with up to 7 particles in the final state at the leading order in perturbation theory with MadGraph. By exploring the known scaling properties of the multi-particle rates with the number of particles, we determine from these the general $n$-point cross-sections in the large-$n$ limit. In the high-multiplicity regime we are considering, n>>1 and lambda n=fixed, the perturbation theory becomes strongly coupled with the higher-order loop effects contributing increasing powers of lambda n. In the approximation where only the leading loop effects are included, we show that the corresponding perturbative cross-sections grow exponentially and ultimately violate perturbative unitarity. This occurs at surprisingly low energy scales ~50 TeV ...

  1. Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Test of factorization in diffractive deep...

  2. XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data quality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data...

  3. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

  4. XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    expected from an ideal crystal, and improves the sharpness of anomalous difference Fourier peaks indicating metal positions. Authors: Sauter, Nicholas K. 1 + Show Author...

  5. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Decomposition Studied via in Situ Low Temperature X-ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M; Rawn, Claudia J; Keffer, David J.; Mull, Derek L; Payzant, E Andrew; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are known to have a slowed decomposition rate at ambient pressure and temperatures below the melting point of ice termed self-preservation or anomalous preservation. As hydrate exothermically decomposes, gas is released and water of the clathrate cages transforms into ice. Two regions of slowed decomposition for methane hydrate, 180 200 K and 230 260 K, were observed, and the kinetics were studied by in situ low temperature x-ray powder diffraction. The kinetic constants for ice formation from methane hydrate were determined by the Avrami model within each region and activation energies, Ea, were determined by the Arrhenius plot. Ea determined from the data for 180 200 K was 42 kJ/mol and for 230 260 K was 22 kJ/mol. The higher Ea in the colder temperature range was attributed to a difference in the microstructure of ice between the two regions.

  6. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  7. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-01-23

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the 'diffraction before destruction' nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography datamore »sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.« less

  8. Anomalous spectral laws in differential models of turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Thalabard; Sergey Nazarenko; Sebastien Galtier; Sergey Medvedev

    2015-05-27

    Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argued to be a robust feature common to the finite-capacity turbulence systems. The anomalous exponent is independent of the initial conditions but varies for for different models of the same physical system.

  9. Coherent diffractive imaging of single layer microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, Khuong Ba Le, Hoang Vu; Van Vuong, Cuong; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap; Ong, Adabelle X. P.; Henderson, Clare A.; Smith, Trevor A.

    2015-04-28

    We report the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) coherent diffractive imaging of silica/polymer micro-particle samples illuminated by a table-top high harmonic generation source at the wavelength of 30?nm. We achieve images constructed from diffraction patterns acquired with 13??m × 13??m samples comprising a sparse monolayer of spherical silica and polymer micro-particles. Successful reconstructed image of an aperiodic sample using this HHG source will open the path to the realization of a compact soft x-ray microscope to investigate other complex absorbing samples.

  10. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25 R-MAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-02-24

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25, Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Building 3110, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--891-VOL I-Rev. 1, dated July 2003, provides details of demolition, waste disposal, and use restriction (UR) modification for Corrective Action Unit 113, Area 25 R-MAD Facility. Demolition was completed on July 15, 2010, when the last of the building debris was disposed. Final field activities were concluded on August 30, 2010, after all equipment was demobilized and UR signs were posted. This work was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  11. Diffractive production of isolated photons at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bussey, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The ZEUS detector at HERA has been used to measure the photoproduction of isolated photons in diffractive events. Cross sections are evaluated in the photon transverse-energy and pseudorapidity ranges 5 photon energy and of the colourless exchange ("Pomeron") energy that are imparted to a photon-jet final state. Comparison is made to predictions from the RAPGAP Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A finely detailed defraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the defraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating.

  13. Reaction-diffusion approach in soft diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodion Kolevatov; Konstantin Boreskov

    2013-11-29

    We apply the reaction-diffusion (stochastic) approach to the numerical calculation of the elastic amplitude in the Reggeon Field Theory (RFT) and its single diffractive cut. Fits to the total, integrated and differential elastic cross sections with account of all Pomeron loops are reported together with all-loop calculation of the single difraction dissociation cross section.

  14. Anomalous magnetic behavior in nanocomposite materials of reduced graphene oxide-Ni/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollu, Pratap E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Prathapani, Sateesh; Varaprasadarao, Eswara K.; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bahadur, D. E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Santosh, Chella; Grace, Andrews Nirmala E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in

    2014-08-04

    Magnetic Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (RGO-Ni/NF) nanocomposite has been synthesized by one pot solvothermal method. Respective phase formations and their purities in the composite are confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and X Ray Diffraction, respectively. For the RGO-Ni/NF composite material finite-size effects lead to the anomalous magnetic behavior, which is corroborated in temperature and field dependent magnetization curves. Here, we are reporting the behavior of higher magnetization values for Zero Field Cooled condition to that of Field Cooled for the RGO-Ni/NF nanocomposite. Also, the observed negative and positive moments in Hysteresis loops at relatively smaller applied fields (100?Oe and 200?Oe) are explained on the basis of surface spin disorder.

  15. Anomalous specific heat in ultradegenerate QED and QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gerhold; A. Ipp; A. Rebhan

    2004-08-31

    We discuss the origin of the anomalous $T\\ln T^{-1}$ behavior of the low-temperature entropy and specific heat in ultradegenerate QED and QCD and report on a recent calculation which is complete to leading order in the coupling and which contains an infinite series of anomalous terms involving also fractional powers in $T$. This result involves dynamical hard-dense-loop resummation and interpolates between Debye screening effects at larger temperatures and non-Fermi-liquid behavior from only dynamically screened magnetic fields at low temperature.

  16. Anomalous specific heat in high-density QED and QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ipp; A. Gerhold; A. Rebhan

    2003-09-22

    Long-range quasi-static gauge-boson interactions lead to anomalous (non-Fermi-liquid) behavior of the specific heat in the low-temperature limit of an electron or quark gas with a leading $T\\ln T^{-1}$ term. We obtain perturbative results beyond the leading log approximation and find that dynamical screening gives rise to a low-temperature series involving also anomalous fractional powers $T^{(3+2n)/3}$. We determine their coefficients in perturbation theory up to and including order $T^{7/3}$ and compare with exact numerical results obtained in the large-$N_f$ limit of QED and QCD.

  17. Universal anomalous dimensions at large spin and large twist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apratim Kaviraj; Kallol Sen; Aninda Sinha

    2015-06-09

    In this paper we consider anomalous dimensions of double trace operators at large spin ($\\ell$) and large twist ($\\tau$) in CFTs in arbitrary dimensions ($d\\geq 3$). Using analytic conformal bootstrap methods, we show that the anomalous dimensions are universal in the limit $\\ell\\gg \\tau\\gg 1$. In the course of the derivation, we extract an approximate closed form expression for the conformal blocks arising in the four point function of identical scalars in any dimension. We compare our results with two different calculations in holography and find perfect agreement.

  18. Quantum theory of light double-slit diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Hong Li; Bo-Jun Zhang; Ji Ma; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; He Dong; Si-Qi Zhang; Jing Wang; Yi-Heng Wu; Xin-Guo Yin

    2013-05-10

    In this paper, we study the light double-slit diffraction experiment with quantum theory approach. Firstly, we calculate the light wave function in slits by quantum theory of photon. Secondly, we calculate the diffraction wave function with Kirchhoff's law. Thirdly, we give the diffraction intensity of light double-slit diffraction, which is proportional to the square of diffraction wave function. Finally, we compare calculation result of quantum theory and classical electromagnetic theory with the experimental data. We find the quantum calculate result is accordance with the experiment data, and the classical calculation result with certain deviation. So, the quantum theory is more accurately approach for studying light diffraction.

  19. Theory of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Koschmieder

    2013-01-18

    It is shown that it follows from our model of the electron that its magnetic moment has an anomalous part if the magnetic field energy is taken into account. That means that the magnetic moment of our model of the electron is 1.0000565 times larger than the measured magnetic moment of the electron.

  20. Anomalous emissions of 103mRh biphoton transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Cheng; Bing Xia

    2009-08-06

    In this report, the anomalous emissions, centered on the one half transition energy 39.76/2 keV, are observed from the long-lived Mossbauer state of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung exposure. Strong coupling with identical nuclei in Rh crystals opens cascade channels for biphoton transitions.

  1. Anomalous loss in blue-green wavelength discrimination with very

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, David H.

    Anomalous loss in blue-green wavelength discrimination with very brief monochromatic stimuli to yield non-uniform increases in discrimination thresholds in the blue-green region of the spectrum that the effect was not attributable to the reduced energy of the short flash. One of the most significant

  2. Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation D. Babikov *, B.K. Kendrick, R mechanical calculations of the ðJ ¼ 0Þ energies and lifetimes of the metastable states of ozone on a new effect in the reaction that forms ozone because of their role in the energy transfer mechanism, in which

  3. Weak chaos, infinite ergodic theory, and anomalous dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer Klages

    2015-07-15

    This book chapter introduces to the concept of weak chaos, aspects of its ergodic theory description, and properties of the anomalous dynamics associated with it. In the first half of the chapter we study simple one-dimensional deterministic maps, in the second half basic stochastic models and eventually an experiment. We start by reminding the reader of fundamental chaos quantities and their relation to each other, exemplified by the paradigmatic Bernoulli shift. Using the intermittent Pomeau-Manneville map the problem of weak chaos and infinite ergodic theory is outlined, defining a very recent mathematical field of research. Considering a spatially extended version of the Pomeau-Manneville map leads us to the phenomenon of anomalous diffusion. This problem will be discussed by applying stochastic continuous time random walk theory and by deriving a fractional diffusion equation. Another important topic within modern nonequilibrium statistical physics are fluctuation relations, which we investigate for anomalous dynamics. The chapter concludes by showing the importance of anomalous dynamics for understanding experimental results on biological cell migration.

  4. Anomalous Transformation in Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Itoyama; B. Razzaghe-Ashrafi

    1992-04-03

    An ``anomalous'' supersymmetry transformation of the gaugino axial current is given in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The contact term is computed to one-loop order by a gauge-invariant point-splitting procedure. We reexamine the supercurrent anomaly in this method.

  5. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, H.

    1998-11-10

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

  6. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, Hector (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

  7. Diffractive production of isolated photons at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Bussey; for the ZEUS Collaboration

    2015-07-14

    The ZEUS detector at HERA has been used to measure the photoproduction of isolated photons in diffractive events. Cross sections are evaluated in the photon transverse-energy and pseudorapidity ranges 5 energy an pseudorapidity in the ranges 4 energy and of the colourless exchange ("Pomeron") energy that are imparted to a photon-jet final state. Comparison is made to predictions from the RAPGAP Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Method of collecting and processing electron diffraction data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billinge, Simon; Farrow, Christopher; Gorelik, Tatiana E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Schmidt, Martin U

    2014-12-30

    A method of using electron diffraction to obtain PDFs from crystalline, nanocrystalline, and amorphous inorganic, organic, and organometallic compound.

  9. Analytic design and solutions for resonance domain diffractive optical elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friesem, Asher A.

    Analytic design and solutions for resonance domain diffractive optical elements Michael A. Golub. INTRODUCTION Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are usually designed and characterized with scalar diffraction, 2006 (Doc. ID 72721); published February 14, 2007 A model for designing and analyzing complicated

  10. MAD-AIR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    are reached, then moisture/mildew problems will surface. Ard last, but not least consider the hottest scare in tk bilding irdustry -- RADON. Radon gas mves through construction by pressure differential. If radon exists and the house (or a portion of it...) is at a 1- pressure, then all the pieces are in place far an elevated radon count. The frierdly HVX system is distrihting the problem throughout the house. Whew, what is the solution?? Hang in there, another problem my still remain hidden - duct...

  11. Full Quantum Theory of ${C_{60}}$ Double-slit Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Ji Ma; Bo-Jun Zhang; Hong Li; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Si-Qi Zhang; Jing Wang; He Dong; Xin-Guo Yin

    2013-05-10

    In this paper, we apply the full new method of quantum theory to study the double-slit diffraction of ${C_{60}}$ molecules. We calculate the double-slit wave functions of ${C_{60}}$ molecules by Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, and calculate the diffraction wave function behind the slits with the Feynman path integral quantum theory, and then give the relation between the diffraction intensity of double-slit and diffraction pattern position. We compare the calculation results with two different double-slit diffraction experiments. When the decoherence effects are considered, the calculation results are in good agreement with the two experimental data.

  12. Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1982-05-07

    Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

  13. Diffractive Scattering and Gauge/String Duality

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tan, Chung-I [Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

    2009-09-01

    High-energy diffractive scattering will be discussed based on Gauge/String duality. As shown by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan, the ubiquitous Pomeron emerges naturally in gauge theories with string-theoretical descriptions. Its existence is intimately tied to gluons, and also to the energy-momentum tensor. With a confining dual background metric, the Pomeron can be interpreted as a 'massive graviton'. In a single unified step, both its infrared and ultraviolet properties are dealt with, reflecting confinement and conformal symmetry respectively. An effective field theory for high-energy scattering can be constructed. Applications based on this approach will also be described.

  14. Near-perfect diffraction grating rhomb

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wantuck, Paul J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A near-perfect grating rhomb enables an output beam to be diffracted to an angle offset from the input beam. The correcting grating is tipped relative to the dispersing grating to provide the offset angle. The correcting grating is further provided with a groove spacing which differs from the dispersing grating groove space by an amount effective to substantially remove angular dispersion in the output beam. A near-perfect grating rhomb has the capability for selective placement in a FEL to suppress sideband instabilities arising from the FEL.

  15. Conformal constraints for anomalous dimensions of leading twist operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Manashov; M. Strohmaier

    2015-03-16

    Leading-twist operators have a remarkable property that their divergence vanishes in a free theory. Recently it was suggested that this property can be used for an alternative technique to calculate anomalous dimensions of leading-twist operators and allows one to gain one order in perturbation theory so that, i.e., two-loop anomalous dimensions can be calculated from one-loop Feynman diagrams, etc. In this work we study feasibility of this program on a toy-model example of the $\\varphi^3$ theory in six dimensions. Our conclusion is that this approach is valid, although it does not seem to present considerable technical simplifications as compared to the standard technique. It does provide one, however, with a very nontrivial check of the calculation as the structure of the contributions is very different.

  16. Driven Anomalous Diffusion: An example from Polymer Stretching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takuya Saito; Takahiro Sakaue

    2015-04-24

    The way tension propagates along a chain is a key to govern many of anomalous dynamics in macromolecular systems. After introducing the weak and the strong force regimes of the tension propagation, we focus on the latter, in which the dynamical fluctuations of a segment in a long polymer during its stretching process is investigated. We show that the response, i.e., average drift, is anomalous, which is characterized by the nonlinear memory kernel, and its relation to the fluctuation is nontrivial. These features are discussed on the basis of the generalized Langevin equation, in which the role of the temporal change in spring constant due to the stress hardening is pinpointed. We carried out the molecular dynamics simulation, which supports our theory.

  17. Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degrande, Céline, E-mail: cdegrand@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Greiner, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Kilian, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Siegen, Fachbereich Physik, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Mattelaer, Olivier [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Cen [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2013-08-15

    We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics.

  18. W and Anomalous Single Top Production at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Rizvi; for the H1 Collabortion

    2008-07-22

    The analysis of $W$ production and the search for anomalous single top production is performed with the H1 detector at HERA with an integrated luminosity of 0.5 fb$^{-1}$, consisting of the complete high energy data from the HERA programme. Production cross section measurements of single $W$ production, as well as $W$ polarisation fractions in events containing isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum are also presented. In the context of a search for single top production an upper limit on the top production cross section $\\sigma_{ep\\to etX} < 0.16$ pb is established at the 95% confidence level, corresponding to an upper bound on the anomalous magnetic coupling $\\kappa_{tu\\gamma} < 0.14$.

  19. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  2. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  3. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  5. Anomalous energy transport in the FPU-beta chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jani Lukkarinen; Herbert Spohn

    2007-04-12

    We consider the energy current correlation function for the FPU-beta lattice. For small non-linearity one can rely on kinetic theory. The issue reduces then to a spectral analysis of the linearized collision operator. We prove thereby that, on the basis of kinetic theory, the energy current correlations decay in time as t^(-3/5). It follows that the thermal conductivity is anomalous, increasing as N^(2/5) with the system size N.

  6. Crossover from anomalous to normal diffusion in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. D. A. Aarao Reis; Dung di Caprio

    2015-06-16

    Random walks (RW) of particles adsorbed in the internal walls of porous deposits produced by ballistic-type growth models are studied. The particles start at the external surface of the deposits and enter their pores, in order to simulate an external flux of a species towards a porous solid. For short times, the walker concentration decays as a stretched exponential of the depth z, but a crossover to long time normal diffusion is observed in most samples. The anomalous concentration profile remains at long times in very porous solids if the walker steps are restricted to nearest neighbors and is accompanied with subdiffusion features. These findings are correlated with a decay of the explored area with z. The study of RW of tracer particles left at the internal part of the solid rules out an interpretation by diffusion equations with position-dependent coefficients. A model of RW in a tube of decreasing cross section explains those results by showing long crossovers from an effective subdiffusion regime to an asymptotic normal diffusion. The crossover position and density are analytically calculated for a tube with area decreasing exponentially with z and show good agreement with numerical data. The anomalous decay of the concentration profile is interpreted as a templating effect of the tube shape on the total number of diffusing particles at each depth, while the volumetric concentration in the actually explored porous region may not have significant decay. These results may explain the anomalous diffusion of metal atoms in porous deposits observed in recent works. They also confirm the difficulty in interpreting experimental or computational data on anomalous transport reported in recent works, particularly if only the concentration profiles are measured.

  7. Realizing in-plane surface diffraction by x-ray multiple-beam diffraction with large incidence angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xian-Rong Gog, Thomas; Assoufid, Lahsen; Peng, Ru-Wen; Siddons, D. P.

    2014-11-03

    Based on rigorous dynamical-theory calculations, we demonstrate the principle of an x-ray multiple-beam diffraction (MBD) scheme that overcomes the long-lasting difficulties of high-resolution in-plane diffraction from crystal surfaces. This scheme only utilizes symmetric reflection geometry with large incident angles but activates the out-of-plane and in-plane diffraction processes simultaneously and separately in the continuous MBD planes. The in-plane diffraction is realized by detoured MBD, where the intermediate diffracted waves propagate parallel to the surface, which corresponds to an absolute Bragg surface diffraction configuration that is extremely sensitive to surface structures. A series of MBD diffraction and imaging techniques may be developed from this principle to study surface/interface (misfit) strains, lateral nanostructures, and phase transitions of a wide range of (pseudo)cubic crystal structures, including ultrathin epitaxial films and multilayers, quantum dots, strain-engineered semiconductor or (multi)ferroic materials, etc.

  8. 2010 Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ana Gonzalez

    2011-03-10

    Advances in basic methodologies have played a major role in the dramatic progress in macromolecular crystallography over the past decade, both in terms of overall productivity and in the increasing complexity of the systems being successfully tackled. The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology will, as in the past, focus on the most recent developments in methodology, covering all aspects of the process from crystallization to model building and refinement, complemented by examples of structural highlights and complementary methods. Extensive discussion will be encouraged and it is hoped that all attendees will participate by giving oral or poster presentations, the latter using the excellent poster display area available at Bates College. The relatively small size and informal atmosphere of the meeting provides an excellent opportunity for all participants, especially younger scientists, to meet and exchange ideas with leading methods developers.

  9. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (5239 Miles Ave., Apt. A, Oakland, CA 94618); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (1195 Keeler Ave., Berkeley, CA 94708)

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  10. Anomalous quartic boson couplings via gamma gamma --> WW and gamma gamma --> WWZ at the TESLA kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. B. Marfin; V. A. Mossolov; T. V. Shishkina

    2003-04-30

    The production of two and three electroweak gauge bosons in the high-energy $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions gives the well opportunity to probe anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings. The influence of five possible anomalous couplings on the cross sections for $W^+W^-$, $W^+W^-\\gamma$, $W^+W^-Z$ productions has been investigated at the TESLA kinematics ($\\sqrt{S}\\sim 1$ TeV). There are the reasonable discriminations between various anomalous contributions.

  11. Anomalous effects due to the inertial anti-gravitational potential of the sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Khokhlov

    2007-10-31

    It is introduced inertial anti-gravitational potential into the theory of gravity to stop gravitational collapse at the nuclear density and thus prevent singularities. It is considered effective gravity which includes Newtonian potential and inertial anti-gravitational potential. It is investigated footprints of the effective gravity in the solar system. The inertial anti-gravitational potential of the sun allows to explain the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11, the anomalous increase in the lunar semi-major axis, the residuals of the seasonal variation of the proper angular velocity of the earth, the anomalous increase of the Astronomical Unit, the anomalous shift of the perihelion of mercury.

  12. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of...

  13. Diffraction Dissociation at the LHC; Role of the Background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Kuprash, O. E.; Magas, V. K.

    2011-07-15

    We discuss two topical problems of diffraction dissociation at the LHC, namely the role of the background and the elastic contribution.

  14. X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marchesini, Stefano

    X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample of 50 nm colloidal gold particles, recorded at a wavelength of 2.1 nm.

  15. Numerical solution of an inverse diffraction grating problem from ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-02

    Feb 5, 2013 ... One of its important applications is the design and fabrication of optic elements with periodic structures, often called diffraction gratings.

  16. Diffractive Production of Jets and Vector Bosons at the Tevatron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenichi Hatakeyama; for the CDF Collaboration

    2008-12-08

    Recent results on diffractive dijet and vector boson production and exclusive dijet production from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment are presented.

  17. Experimental observation of acoustic sub-harmonic diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    it possible to better design spatial diffraction spectra, such as a rainbow effect in optics with a more complicated color spectrum than a traditional rainbow. The discovery...

  18. Conditions for stimulated emission in anomalous gravity-superconductors interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Modanese; T. Junker

    2009-08-19

    Several authors have studied the generation of gravitational fields by condensed-matter systems in non-extreme density conditions. General Relativity and lowest-order perturbative Quantum Gravity predict in this case an extremely small emission rate, so these phenomena can become relevant only if some strong quantum effect occurs. Quantum aspects of gravity are still poorly understood. It is believed that they could play a role in systems which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence, like superconductors and superfluids, leading to an "anomalous" coupling between matter and field. We mention here recent work in this field by Woods, Chiao, Becker, Agop et al., Ummarino, Kiefer and Weber. New results are presented concerning anomalous stimulated gravitational emission in a layered superconductor like YBCO. We model the superconductor as an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions. The superconducting parameters are defined by our preliminary measurements with melt-textured samples. We write explicitly and solve numerically the Josephson equations which give the normal and super components of the total current in the superconductor, and derive from this the total available power P=IV. Then, assuming that the coefficients A and B for spontaneous and stimulated gravitational emission are known, we apply to this case the Frantz-Nodvik equation for a laser amplifier. The equation is suitably modified in order to allow for a "continuous pumping" given by an oscillating transport current. The conclusions are relevant for the evaluation of gravitational emission from superconductors. We find that even if the A and B coefficients are anomalously large (possibly because of the Quantum Gravity effects mentioned above), the conditions for stimulated emission are quite strict and the emission rate strongly limited by the IV value.

  19. Red Noise in Anomalous X-ray Pulsar Timing Residuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne M. Archibald; Rim Dib; Margaret A. Livingstone; Victoria M. Kaspi

    2007-12-20

    Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs), thought to be magnetars, exhibit poorly understood deviations from a simple spin-down called "timing noise". AXP timing noise has strong low-frequency components which pose significant challenges for quantification. We describe a procedure for extracting two quantities of interest, the intensity and power spectral index of timing noise. We apply this procedure to timing data from three sources: a monitoring campaign of five AXPs, observations of five young pulsars, and the stable rotator PSR B1937+21.

  20. Dirt Softens Soap: Anomalous Elasticity of Disordered Smectics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leo Radzihovsky; John Toner

    1997-08-01

    We show that a smectic in a disordered medium (e.g., aerogel) exhibits anomalous elasticity, with the compression modulus B(k) vanishing and the bend modulus K(k) diverging as k --> 0. In addition, the effective disorder develops long ranged correlations. These divergences are much stronger than those driven by thermal fluctuations in pure smectics, and are controlled by a zero temperature glassy fixed point, which we study in an $\\epsilon=5-d$ expansion. We discuss the experimental implications of these theoretical predictions.

  1. Origin of the Anomalous Long Lifetime of 14C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Nam, Hai Ah [ORNL; Maris, Pieter [Iowa State University; Vary, J. P. [Iowa State University; Navratil, Petr [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ormand, W. Erich [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    We report the microscopic origins of the anomalously suppressed beta decay of 14C to 14N using the ab initio no-core shell model with the Hamiltonian from the chiral effective field theory including three-nucleon force terms. The three-nucleon force induces unexpectedly large cancellations within the p shell between contributions to beta decay, which reduce the traditionally large contributions from the nucleon-nucleon interactions by an order of magnitude, leading to the long lifetime of 14C.

  2. Anomalous magnetic behavior at the graphene/Co interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-07-14

    An intensive theoretical study on the interaction between graphene and transition metal atom has been carried out; however, its experimental verification is still lacking. To explore the theoretical prediction of antiferromagnetic coupling due to charge transfer between graphene and cobalt, epitaxial layer of cobalt is grown on graphene surface. Predicted antiferromagnetic interaction with Neel temperature (T{sub N}???32?K) which anomalously shifts to higher temperature (34?K) and becomes more prominent under application of magnetic field of 1 T is reported. Lowering of magnetoresistance as a consequence of this antiferromagnetic coupling at the interface is also observed.

  3. Anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in a dispersive approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladyslav Pauk; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2014-09-03

    We present a new general dispersive formalism for evaluating the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. In the suggested approach, this correction is related to the imaginary part of the muon's electromagnetic vertex function. The latter may be directly related to measurable hadronic processes by means of unitarity and analyticity. As a test we apply the introduced formalism to the case of meson pole exchanges and find agreement with the direct two-loop calculation.

  4. Calculation of the RayleighSommerfeld diffraction integral by exact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calculation of the Rayleigh­Sommerfeld diffraction integral by exact integration of the fast of constant (possibly complex) index of refraction n. The method integrates the Rayleigh­Sommerfeld diffraction integral numerically. After an appropriate change of integration variables, the integrand

  5. Multivariate Techniques for Identifying Diffractive Interactions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikael Kuusela; Jerry W. Lamsa; Eric Malmi; Petteri Mehtala; Risto Orava

    2009-09-16

    Close to one half of the LHC events are expected to be due to elastic or inelastic diffractive scattering. Still, predictions based on extrapolations of experimental data at lower energies differ by large factors in estimating the relative rate of diffractive event categories at the LHC energies. By identifying diffractive events, detailed studies on proton structure can be carried out. The combined forward physics objects: rapidity gaps, forward multiplicity and transverse energy flows can be used to efficiently classify proton-proton collisions. Data samples recorded by the forward detectors, with a simple extension, will allow first estimates of the single diffractive (SD), double diffractive (DD), central diffractive (CD), and non-diffractive (ND) cross sections. The approach, which uses the measurement of inelastic activity in forward and central detector systems, is complementary to the detection and measurement of leading beam-like protons. In this investigation, three different multivariate analysis approaches are assessed in classifying forward physics processes at the LHC. It is shown that with gene expression programming, neural networks and support vector machines, diffraction can be efficiently identified within a large sample of simulated proton-proton scattering events. The event characteristics are visualized by using the self-organizing map algorithm.

  6. Modeling of Jet-by-Jet Diffraction Dimitri Papamoschou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    . Figure 1. Example of engine layout of Hybrid-Wing-Body airplane (Ref. 2). Research on jet-by-jetModeling of Jet-by-Jet Diffraction Dimitri Papamoschou The paper presents an analytical model for the prediction of jet-by-jet diffraction. The source jet is modeled as a radiating cylinder on which one can

  7. ANOMALOUS RADIO EMISSION FROM DUST IN THE HELIX1 S. Casassus,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Readhead, Anthony

    ANOMALOUS RADIO EMISSION FROM DUST IN THE HELIX1 S. Casassus,2 A. C. S. Readhead,3 T. J. Pearson,3 detection of a new component of foreground Galactic emission. The anomalous foreground at $10­30 GHz, unexplained by tradi- tional emission mechanisms, correlates with 100 m dust emission. We use planetary

  8. Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a) Brian K for an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation is given in terms of the energy transfer mechanism, where the metastable states of ozone are formed first, and then stabilized by collisions with other atoms. Unusual

  9. MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS B. COQBLIN Laboratoire de impurities. 1. Introduction. -The rare-earth metals can be divided in two groups : - The (( normal )) rare-earths lantha- num are (( anomalous )) rare-earths metals. The same duality exists in alloys with rareearth

  10. On the Anomalous Weight Losses of High Voltage Symmetrical Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elio B. Porcelli; Victo S. Filho

    2015-02-21

    In this work, we analyzed an anomalous effect verified from symmetrical capacitor devices, working in very high electric potentials. The mastery of that effect could mean in the future the possible substitution of propulsion technology based on fuels by single electrical propulsion systems. From experimental measurements, we detected small variations of the device inertia that cannot be associated with known interactions, so that the raised force apparently has not been completely elucidated by current theories. We measured such variations within an accurate range and we proposed that the experimental results can be explained by relations like Clausius-Mossotti one, in order to quantify the dipole forces that appear in the devices. The values of the weight losses in the capacitors were calculated by means of the theoretical proposal and indicated good agreement with our experimental measurements for 7kV and with many other experimental works.

  11. Modeling anomalous/non-CCM extinction using nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rai, Rakesh K

    2012-01-01

    Modeling extinction along anomalous/non-CCM sightlines, which are characterized by a broad $217.5 nm$ bump and steep far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise, is reported. The extinction along these sightlines, viz. {HD 210121}, {HD 204827}, {HD 29647} and {HD 62542}, is difficult to reproduce using standard silicate and graphite grains. Very good match with the observed extinction is obtained by considering nanodiamond component as part of carbonaceous matter. Most of these sightlines are rich in carbon and are invariably backed by a young hot stellar object. Nanodiamond is taken as core within amorphous carbon and graphite. These core-mantle particles taken as additional components along with graphite and silicates lead to reduction in the silicate requirement. The abundance of carbonaceous matter is not affected as a very small fraction of nanodiamond is required. Extinction along sightlines that show steep FUV is also reported demonstrating the importance of nanodiamond component in all such regions.

  12. Anomalous Soft Photons associated with Hadron Production in String Fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2010-11-29

    The bosonized QCD2+QED2 system for quarks with two flavors contains QCD2 and QED2 bound states, with an isoscalar photon at about 25 MeV and an isovector (I=1,I_3=0) photon at about 44 MeV. Consequently, when a quark and an antiquark at the two ends of a string pulls apart from each other at high energies, hadrons and soft photons will be produced simultaneously in the fragmentation of the string. The production of the QED2 soft photons in association with hadrons may explain the anomalous soft photon data in hadron-hadron collisions and e+e- annihilations at high energies.

  13. Sensor fusion and nonlinear prediction for anomalous event detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, J.V.; Moore, K.R.; Elphic, R.C.

    1995-03-07

    The authors consider the problem of using the information from various time series, each one characterizing a different physical quantity, to predict the future state of the system and, based on that information, to detect and classify anomalous events. They stress the application of principal components analysis (PCA) to analyze and combine data from different sensors. They construct both linear and nonlinear predictors. In particular, for linear prediction the authors use the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm and for nonlinear prediction they use both backpropagation (BP) networks and fuzzy predictors (FP). As an application, they consider the prediction of gamma counts from past values of electron and gamma counts recorded by the instruments of a high altitude satellite.

  14. Optical loss due to diffraction by concentrator Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornung, Thorsten Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-26

    Fresnel lenses are widely used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems as a primary optical element. They focus sunlight on small solar cells or on the entrance apertures of secondary optical elements. A Fresnel lens consists of several prism rings and diffraction by these prism rings is unavoidable. Some of the light that would reach a designated target area according to geometric optics will miss it due to diffraction. This diffraction loss may be of relevant magnitude for CPV applications. The results of published analytical calculations are evaluated, discussed, and compared to computer simulations and measurements.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of YidC, a membrane-protein chaperone and insertase from Bacillus halodurans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumazaki, Kaoru [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsukazaki, Tomoya, E-mail: ttsukaza@bs.naist.jp [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Nishizawa, Tomohiro [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshiki [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Kato, Hideaki E. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nakada-Nakura, Yoshiko [Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Hirata, Kunio [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mori, Yoshihiro; Suga, Hiroaki [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Dohmae, Naoshi [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu, E-mail: ttsukaza@bs.naist.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-07-23

    YidC, a membrane-protein chaperone/insertase from B. halodurans, was expressed, purified and crystallized in the lipidic cubic phase. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.4 Å resolution. YidC, a member of the YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 family, inserts proteins into the membrane and facilitates membrane-protein folding in bacteria. YidC plays key roles in both Sec-mediated integration and Sec-independent insertion of membrane proteins. Here, Bacillus halodurans YidC2, which has five transmembrane helices conserved among the other family members, was identified as a target protein for structure determination by a fluorescent size-exclusion chromatography analysis. The protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the lipidic cubic phase. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.9, b = 60.6, c = 58.9 Å, ? = 100.3°. The experimental phases were determined by the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method using a mercury-derivatized crystal.

  16. Increased Photovoltaic Power Output via Diffractive Spectrum Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ganghun

    In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced ...

  17. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  18. Equilibrium structures from gas-phase electron-diffraction data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaffrey, Philip D

    2007-01-01

    For the past 75 years gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) has remained the most valuable technique for determining structures of small molecules, free from intermolecular interactions. Throughout this period many ...

  19. Gas-phase electron diffraction studies of unstable molecules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble-Eddy, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) is the only viable technique for the accurate structural study of gas-phase molecules that contain more than ~10 atoms. Recent advances in Edinburgh have made it possible to study ...

  20. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2014-11-11

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  1. Overcoming the far-field diffraction limit via absorbance modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction limits the resolution of far-field lithography and imaging to about half of the wavelength, which greatly limits the capability of optical techniques. The proposed technique with absorbance modulation aims to ...

  2. Diffraction in Two-Photon Collisions at TESLA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. De Roeck; R. Engel; A. Rostovtsev

    1997-10-15

    In this article we discuss the possibility to measure diffraction dissociation in collisions of real and weakly virtual photons at a 500 GeV e+e- linear collider.

  3. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  4. LINE BROADENING EFFECTS IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF AIR PARTICULATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connor, B.H.

    2012-01-01

    X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF AIR PARTICULATES B. H.Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis Of Air Particulates* B.H. 0X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis of Air Particulates* B.H.

  5. Hybrid Pomeron Model of exclusive central diffractive production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Peschanski; M. Rangel; C. Royon

    2008-08-12

    Central diffractive production of heavy states (massive dijets, Higgs boson) is studied in the exclusive mode using a new Hybrid Pomeron Model (HPM). Built from Hybrid Pomerons defined by the combination of one hard and one soft color exchanges, the model describes well the centrally produced diffractive dijet data at the Tevatron. Predictions for the Higgs boson and dijet exclusive production at the LHC are presented.

  6. Shielding at a distance due to anomalous resonance in superlens with eccentric core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanghyeon Yu; Mikyoung Lim

    2015-04-18

    The cylindrical plasmonic structure with concentric core exhibits the anomalous localized resonance and the resulting cloaking effect. It turns out that the plasmonic structure of eccentric core also has the anomalous resonant behavior. Differently from the concentric case, the eccentric superlens has the shielding effect as well as the cloaking effect depending on the radii of core and shell and the distance between them, where the shielding region is located at a distance from the device. In this paper, we investigate the anomalous resonance and the shielding effect in superlens with eccentric core using the m\\"{o}bius transformation which maps the eccentric annulus to an concentric annulus.

  7. Atomic Resolution Coherent Diffractive Imaging and Ultrafast Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Jian-min (University of Illinois) [University of Illinois

    2011-01-12

    A major scientific challenge is determining the 3-D atomic structure of small nanostructures, including single molecules. Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is a promising approach. Recent progress has demonstrated coherent diffraction patterns can be recorded from individual nanostructures and phased to reconstruct their structure. However, overcoming the dose limit imposed by radiation damage is a major obstacle toward the full potential of CDI. One approach is to use ultrafast x-ray or electron pulses. In electron diffraction, amplitudes recorded in a diffraction pattern are unperturbed by lens aberrations, defocus, and other microscope resolution-limiting factors. Sub-A signals are available beyond the information limit of direct imaging. Significant contrast improvement is obtained compared to high-resolution electron micrographs. progress has also been made in developing time-resolved electron diffraction and imaging for the study of ultrafast dynamic processes in materials. This talk will cover these crosscutting issues and the convergence of electron and x-ray diffraction techniques toward structure determination of single molecules.

  8. A laboratory based system for Laue micro x-ray diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, P. A.; Advanced Light Source

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory based system for Laue micro x-ray diffractionLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road,Berkeley, California 94720 A laboratory diffraction system

  9. Supplementary Figure 1| Neutron diffraction data at 86 % relative humidity. a) Schematic representation of neutron diffraction geometry for -2 scans. Diffraction data are obtained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    distributions of lipid and protein under varying levels of hydration. Predicted neutron scattering profiles as number density profiles weighted by the neutron scattering lengths of individual atoms, then symmetrizedSupplementary Figure 1| Neutron diffraction data at 86 % relative humidity. a) Schematic

  10. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector: an improved analysis of anomalous threshold constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano; Mattingly, David M. E-mail: liberati@sissa.it

    2013-03-01

    Recently there has been a renewed activity in the physics of violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector. Flavor dependent Lorentz violation, which generically changes the pattern of neutrino oscillations, is extremely tightly constrained by oscillation experiments. Flavor independent Lorentz violation, which does not introduce new oscillation phenomena, is much more weakly constrained with constraints coming from time of flight and anomalous threshold analyses. We use a simplified rotationally invariant model to investigate the effects of finite baselines and energy dependent dispersion on anomalous reaction rates in long baseline experiments and show numerically that anomalous reactions do not necessarily cut off the spectrum quite as sharply as currently assumed. We also present a revised analysis of how anomalous reactions can be used to cast constraints from the observed atmospheric high energy neutrinos and the expected cosmogenic ones.

  11. Anomalously High B-Values In The South Flank Of Kilauea Volcano...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anomalously High B-Values In The South Flank Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii- Evidence For The Distribution Of Magma Below Kilauea'S East Rift Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  12. Coexistence and efficiency of normal and anomalous transport by molecular motors in living cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Goychuk; Vasyl O. Kharchenko; R. Metzler

    2013-09-26

    Recent experiments reveal both passive subdiffusion of various nanoparticles and anomalous active transport of such particles by molecular motors in the molecularly crowded environment of living biological cells. Passive and active microrheology reveals that the origin of this anomalous dynamics is due to the viscoelasticity of the intracellular fluid. How do molecular motors perform in such a highly viscous, dissipative environment? Can we explain the observed co-existence of the anomalous transport of relatively large particles of 100 to 500 nm in size by kinesin motors with the normal transport of smaller particles by the same molecular motors? What is the efficiency of molecular motors in the anomalous transport regime? Here we answer these seemingly conflicting questions and consistently explain experimental findings in a generalization of the well-known continuous diffusion model for molecular motors with two conformational states in which viscoelastic effects are included.

  13. Anomalous delta-type electric and magnetic two-nucleon interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolae Bogdan Mandache

    2009-04-07

    Anomalous delta-type interactions, of both electric and magnetic nature, are introduced between the overlapping peripheral structures of the nucleons, which may explain the spin-triplet deuteron state and the absence of other nucleon-nucleon bound states.

  14. Quantum anomalous Hall effect with cold atoms trapped in a square lattice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiong-Jun; Liu, Xin; Wu, Congjun; Sinova, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to realize the quantum anomalous Hall effect in an anisotropic square optical lattice which can be generated from available experimental setups of double-well lattices with minor modifications. A periodic gauge...

  15. MRF Technical Note # 49 Can desert dust explain the anomalous greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    MRF Technical Note # 49 Can desert dust explain the anomalous greenhouse effect observed over greenhouse effect observed over the Sahara during July 2003 revealed by GERB/UM intercomparisons? Jim M

  16. Anomalous $WW?$ couplings with beam polarization at the Compact Linear Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Ar?; A. A. Billur; S. C. ?nan; M. Köksal

    2015-06-30

    We study the anomalous $WW\\gamma$ couplings at the Compact Linear Collider through the processes $e^{+}e^{-}\\to W^+W^-$, $e^{-}e^{+} \\to e^{-} \\gamma^{*} e^{+} \\to e^{+} \

  17. Anomalous Near-Field Heat Transfer between a Cylinder and a Perforated Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez-Wong, Alejandro

    We predict that the near-field radiative heat-transfer rate between a cylinder and a perforated surface depends nonmonotonically on their separation. This anomalous behavior, which arises due to evanescent-wave effects, ...

  18. Solution to the long-standing puzzle of Huygens’ “anomalous suspension”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauenberg, M

    2015-01-01

    SOLUTION TO THE LONG STANDING PUZZLE OF HUYGENS’ “ANOMALOUSof mercury 76 cm. in height standing inside the tube. At theSOLUTION TO THE LONG STANDING PUZZLE OF HUYGENS’ “ANOMALOUS

  19. Momentum conservation implies anomalous energy transport in 1d classical lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomaz Prosen; David K. Campbell

    1999-08-26

    Under quite general conditions, we prove that for classical many-body lattice Hamiltonians in one dimension (1D) total momentum conservation implies anomalous conductivity in the sense of the divergence of the Kubo expression for the coefficient of thermal conductivity, $\\kappa$. Our results provide rigorous confirmation and explanation of many of the existing ``surprising'' numerical studies of anomalous conductivity in 1D classical lattices, including the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem.

  20. In-situ x-ray diffraction study of the growth of highly strained epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinsheimer, J.; Callori, S. J.; Ziegler, B.; Bein, B.; Dawber, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Chinta, P. V.; Ashrafi, A.; Headrick, R. L. [Department of Physics, Cook Physical Science Building, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Cook Physical Science Building, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)

    2013-12-09

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction was performed during the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using both off-axis RF magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition techniques. It was found that the films were ferroelectric during the growth process, and the presence or absence of a bottom SrRuO{sub 3} electrode played an important role in the growth of the films. Pulsed laser deposited films on SrRuO{sub 3} displayed an anomalously high tetragonality and unit volume, which may be connected to the previously predicted negative pressure phase of BaTiO{sub 3}.

  1. A random walk approach to anomalous particle and energy transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Isliker

    2007-10-26

    The combined Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) in position and momentum space is introduced, in the form of two coupled integral equations that describe the evolution of the probability distribution for finding a particle at a certain position and with a certain momentum as a function of time. The integral equations are solved numerically with a pseudospectral method that is based on the expansion of the unknown functions in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. In parallel, Monte-Carlo simulation are performed. Through the inclusion of momentum space, the combined CTRW is able to yield results on density and temperature profile evolution, on particle and heat fluxes and diffusivities, and on kinetic energy distributions. Depending on the choice of the probability distributions of the particle displacements in position and momentum space, the combined CTRW is able to model phenomena of anomalous transport in position as well as in momentum (or energy or velocity) space. An application is made to a toroidally confined plasma that undergoes off-center injection of cold plasma (off-axis fueling), using two variants of the model, the mixed model and the critical gradient model. The phenomenon of profile stiffness is addressed, both for the density and for the temperature profile, respectively, and the particle and energy confinement times are determined. The analysis of the particle and heat fluxes shows that the dynamics realized in the combined CTRW is incompatible with the classical approach of Fick's or Fourier's law for particle and heat transport, respectively.

  2. An Explanation of Dayton Miller's Anomalous "Ether Drift" Result

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Roberts

    2006-10-15

    In 1933 Dayton Miller published in this journal the results of his voluminous observations using his ether drift interferometer, and proclaimed that he had determined the "absolute motion of the earth". This result is in direct conflict with the prediction of Special Relativity, and also with numerous related experiments that found no such signal or "absolute motion". This paper presents a complete explanation for his anomalous result by: a) showing that his results are not statistically significant, b) describing in detail how flaws in his analysis procedure produced a false signal with precisely the properties he expected, and c) presenting a quantitative model of his systematic drift that shows there is no real signal in his data. In short, this is every experimenter's nightmare: he was unknowingly looking at statistically insignificant patterns in his systematic drift that mimicked the appearance of a real signal. An upper limit on "absolute motion" of 6 km/sec is derived from his raw data, fully consistent with similar experimental results and the prediction of Special Relativity. The key point of this paper is the need for a comprehensive and quantitative error analysis. The concepts and techniques used in this analysis were not available in Miller's day, but are now standard. These problems also apply to the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley, and to most if not all similar experiments; appendices are provided discussing several such experiments.

  3. Anomalous transport in Charney-Hasegawa-Mima flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoncini, Xavier; Agullo, Olivier; Benkadda, Sadruddin; Zaslavsky, George M. [PIIM, Universite, de Provence, CNRS, Centre Universitaire de Saint Jerome, F-13397 Marseilles (France); Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012, USA and Department of Physics, New York University, 2-4 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003 (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The transport properties of particles evolving in a system governed by the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation are investigated. Transport is found to be anomalous with a nonlinear evolution of the second moments with time. The origin of this anomaly is traced back to the presence of chaotic jets within the flow. All characteristic transport exponents have a similar value around {mu}=1.75, which is also the one found for simple point vortex flows in the literature, indicating some kind of universality. Moreover, the law {gamma}={mu}+1 linking the trapping-time exponent within jets to the transport exponent is confirmed, and an accumulation toward zero of the spectrum of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent is observed. The localization of a jet is performed, and its structure is analyzed. It is clearly shown that despite a regular coarse-grained picture of the jet, the motion within the jet appears as chaotic, but that chaos is bounded on successive small scales.

  4. Double $J/?$ production in central diffractive processes at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Brenner Mariotto; V. P. Goncalves

    2015-05-11

    In this paper we study the double $J/\\psi$ production in central diffractive processes considering the Resolved Pomeron model. Based on the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization formalism for the quarkonium production mechanism we estimate the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the cross section for the double $J/\\psi$ production in diffractive processes at LHC energies. The contributions of the color-singlet and color-octet channels are estimated and predictions for the total cross sections in the kinematical regions of the LHC experiments are also presented. Our results demonstrate that the contribution of central diffractive processes is not negligible and that its study can be useful to test the Resolved Pomeron model.

  5. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H.; Downing, K.; Huang, X.; Kirz, J.; Marchesini, S.; Nelson, J.; Shapiro, D.; Steinbrener, J.; Stewart, A.; Jacobsen, C.

    2009-09-01

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  6. Electron gun for diffraction experiments on controlled molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Nele L M; D?ugo?ecki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    A dc electron gun, generating picosecond pulses with up to $8\\times10^{6}$ electrons per pulse, was developed. Its applicability for future time-resolved-diffraction experiments on state- and conformer-selected laser-aligned or oriented gaseous samples was characterized. The focusing electrodes were arranged in a velocity-map imaging spectrometer configuration. This allowed to directly measure the spatial and velocity distributions of the electron pulses emitted from the cathode. In combination with electron trajectory simulations, this permitted the characterization of the electron beam in terms of coherence length and pulse duration. Electron diffraction data of a thin aluminum foil illustrated the diffraction capabilities of the electron-gun setup.

  7. Saturation in diffractive deep inelastic eA scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Kugeratski; V. P. Goncalves; F. S. Navarra

    2006-02-24

    In this paper we investigate the saturation physics in diffractive deep inelastic electron-ion scattering. We estimate the energy and nuclear dependence of the ratio $\\sigma^{diff}/\\sigma^{tot}$ and predict the $x_{\\pom}$ and $\\beta$ behavior of the nuclear diffractive structure function $F_{2,A}^{D(3)}(Q^2, \\beta, x_{IP})$. Moreover, we analyze the ratio $R^{diff}_{A1,A2}(Q^2, \\beta, x_{IP}) = F_{2,A1} ^{D(3)}/F_{2,A2} ^{D(3)}$, which probes the nuclear dependence of the structure of the Pomeron. We show that saturation physics predicts that approximately 37 % of the events observed at eRHIC should be diffractive.

  8. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammons, S M; Bendek, E; Guyon, O

    2011-09-08

    The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.

  9. Non-diffracting chirped Bessel waves in optical antiguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chremmos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Chirped Bessel waves are introduced as stable (non-diffracting) solutions of the paraxial wave equation in optical antiguides with a power-law radial variation in their index of refraction. Through numerical simulations, we investigate the propagation of apodized (finite-energy) versions of such waves, with or without vorticity, in antiguides with practical parameters. The new waves exhibit a remarkable resistance against the defocusing effect of the unstable index potentials, outperforming standard Gaussians with the same full width at half maximum. The chirped profile persists even under conditions of eccentric launching or antiguide bending and is also capable of self-healing like standard diffraction-free beams in free space.

  10. Non-periodic systems with continuous diffraction measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Baake; Matthias Birkner; Uwe Grimm

    2015-02-18

    The present state of mathematical diffraction theory for systems with continuous spectral components is reviewed and extended. We begin with a discussion of various characteristic examples with singular or absolutely continuous diffraction, and then continue with a more general exposition of a systematic approach via stationary stochastic point processes. Here, the intensity measure of the Palm measure takes the role of the autocorrelation measure in the traditional approach. We furthermore introduce a `Palm-type' measure for general complex-valued random measures that are stationary and ergodic, and relate its intensity measure to the autocorrelation measure.

  11. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-09-01

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  12. A compact electron gun for time-resolved electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2015-01-15

    A novel compact time-resolved electron diffractometer has been built with the primary goal of studying the ultrafast molecular dynamics of photoexcited gas-phase molecules. Here, we discuss the design of the electron gun, which is triggered by a Ti:Sapphire laser, before detailing a series of calibration experiments relating to the electron-beam properties. As a further test of the apparatus, initial diffraction patterns have been collected for thin, polycrystalline platinum samples, which have been shown to match theoretical patterns. The data collected demonstrate the focusing effects of the magnetic lens on the electron beam, and how this relates to the spatial resolution of the diffraction pattern.

  13. Simulation of diffraction dissociation in quark-diquark representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Grichine

    2015-02-27

    A low mass single diffraction dissociation mode based on the quark-diquark representation of hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. The mass spectra of nucleon-pion system are compared with experimental data and predictions of other models. The hadron-nucleus single-diffraction cross-sections are calculated in the framework of the Glauber-Gribov model for integral cross-sections. The model predictions are compared with experimental data for the different distributions of secondary particles produced in the hadron-nucleus interactions in the momentum range 31-320 GeV/c.

  14. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1994-09-20

    An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

  15. Impact of anomalous dispersion on the interferometer measurements of plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J; Johnson, W R; Iglesias, C A; Scofield, J H

    2004-12-16

    For many decades optical interferometers have been used to measure the electron density of plasmas. During the last ten years X-ray lasers in the wavelength range 14 to 47 nm have enabled researchers to use interferometers to probe even higher density plasmas. The data analysis assumes that the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons, which makes the index of refraction less than one and the electron density proportional to the number of fringe shifts. Recent experiments in Al plasmas observed plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one and made us question the validity of the usual formula for calculating the index of refraction. Recent calculations showed how the anomalous dispersion from the bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction in many types of plasma and make the index greater than one or enhance the index such that one would greatly overestimate the electron density of the plasma using interferometers. In this work we calculate the index of refraction of C, Al, Ti, and Pd plasmas for photon energies from 0 to 100 eV (12.4 nm) using a new average-atom code. The results show large variations from the free electron approximation under many different plasma conditions. We validate the average-atom code against the more detailed OPAL code for carbon and aluminum plasmas. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential.

  16. Transport Simulation and Diffractive Event Reconstruction at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Staszewski; J. Chwastowski

    2009-08-05

    The measurement of diffractively scattered protons in the ATLAS Forward Physics detector system placed 220 m away from the ATLAS interaction point is studied. A parameterisation of the scattered proton transport through the LHC magnet lattice is presented. The proton energy unfolding and its impact on the centrally produced scalar particle mass resolution are discussed.

  17. Microscopic structure of liquid hydrogen: a neutron diffraction experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Celli; U. Bafile; G. J. Cuello; F. Formisano; E. Guarini; R. Magli; M. Neumann; M. Zoppi

    2002-09-10

    We have measured the center-of-mass structure factor S(k) of liquid para-hydrogen by neutron diffraction, using the D4C diffractometer at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France. The present determination is at variance with previous results obtained from inelastic neutron scattering data, but agrees with path integral Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Diffracted light from latent images in photoresist for exposure control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bishop, Kenneth P. (Rio Rancho, NM); Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gaspar, Susan M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hickman, Kirt C. (Albuquerque, NM); McNeil, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Naqvi, S. Sohail H. (Albuquerque, NM); Stallard, Brian R. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipton, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    In microelectronics manufacturing, an arrangement for monitoring and control of exposure of an undeveloped photosensitive layer on a structure susceptible to variations in optical properties in order to attain the desired critical dimension for the pattern to be developed in the photosensitive layer. This is done by ascertaining the intensities for one or more respective orders of diffracted power for an incident beam of radiation corresponding to the desired critical dimension for the photosensitive layer as a function of exposure time and optical properties of the structure, illuminating the photosensitive layer with a beam of radiation of one or more frequencies to which the photosensitive layer is not exposure-sensitive, and monitoring the intensities of the orders of diffracted radiation due to said illumination including at least the first order of diffracted radiation thereof, such that when said predetermined intensities for the diffracted orders are reached during said illumination of photosensitive layer, it is known that a pattern having at least approximately the desired critical dimension can be developed on the photosensitive layer.

  19. CONTROLLED SCATTERING OF LIGHT WAVES: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, David C.

    CONTROLLED SCATTERING OF LIGHT WAVES: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS DAVID C. DOBSON 1. Introduction. Di ractive optics is a vigorously growing technol- ogy in which optical components functions unattainable with conventional optics. These devices have great advantages in terms of size

  20. Inverse diffraction grating of Maxwell's equations in biperiodic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-02-06

    K. Ito and F. Reitich, “A high-order perturbation approach to profile .... as corrective lenses, anti-reflective interfaces, beam splitters, and sensors. .... To reduced the diffraction grating problem from an unbounded domain ?S ...... To test the stability of the method, some relative random noise is added to the ... Table 2 reports.

  1. Processing incommensurately modulated protein diffraction data with Eval15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porta, Jason [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Lovelace, Jeffrey J. [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Borgstahl, Gloria E. O., E-mail: gborgstahl@unmc.edu [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Data processing of an incommensurately modulated profilin–actin crystal is described. Recent challenges in biological X-ray crystallography include the processing of modulated diffraction data. A modulated crystal has lost its three-dimensional translational symmetry but retains long-range order that can be restored by refining a periodic modulation function. The presence of a crystal modulation is indicated by an X-ray diffraction pattern with periodic main reflections flanked by off-lattice satellite reflections. While the periodic main reflections can easily be indexed using three reciprocal-lattice vectors a*, b*, c*, the satellite reflections have a non-integral relationship to the main lattice and require a q vector for indexing. While methods for the processing of diffraction intensities from modulated small-molecule crystals are well developed, they have not been applied in protein crystallography. A recipe is presented here for processing incommensurately modulated data from a macromolecular crystal using the Eval program suite. The diffraction data are from an incommensurately modulated crystal of profilin–actin with single-order satellites parallel to b*. The steps taken in this report can be used as a guide for protein crystallographers when encountering crystal modulations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the processing of data from an incommensurately modulated macromolecular crystal.

  2. Review of ATLAS results on MPI, soft QCD and diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staszewski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The most recent ATLAS measurements on multiple parton interactions, soft QCD and diffraction are presented. The measurements of underlying event in jet and Z bozon events are discussed. Then, the the total cross section measurement with the ALFA detectors is described.

  3. RENORM Predictions of Diffraction at LHC Confirmed Konstantin Goulianos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (non-exponentially suppressed) rapidity gap, and thereby its integral over all phase space saturates when it reaches unity. Differential cross sections are expressed in terms of the IP-trajectory (t) = 1 is then calculated as ND = (tot -el)-(2SD +DD +CD). Diffraction 2014 AIP Conf. Proc. 1654, 050006-1­050006-4; doi: 10

  4. Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and Jürgen Jahns A conventional Fresnel zone plate (FZP) consists of concentric rings with an alternating binary transmission of zero and one. In an azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate (aFZP), the light transmission

  5. Dual-Mode Switching of Diffraction Gratings Based on Azobenzene-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    -irradiated area and can be polymerized further on flood irradiation. If the concentration of the azobenzene-polymerDual-Mode Switching of Diffraction Gratings Based on Azobenzene- Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals include polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC),[3,4] cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) with or without

  6. DIFFRACTION SCATTERING AT HIGH ENERGIES (outlook from 1980s) 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    DIFFRACTION SCATTERING AT HIGH ENERGIES (outlook from 1980s) 1 A.A.Vorobyov 1. Introduction In 1960 of the most exciting tasks in the high energy physics. Several theorems have been formulated based on general cross sections in the asymptotic region at high energies. Among the general theorems of the axiomatic

  7. Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction M A T H I E U A L L of the internal order of colloidal crystals and to identify optimum growth conditions. This work leads shear, photonic crystal 1. Introduction A great deal of attention has recently been devoted to colloidal

  8. The three-loop cusp anomalous dimension in QCD and its supersymmetric extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey Grozin; Johannes M. Henn; Gregory P. Korchemsky; Peter Marquard

    2015-11-27

    We present the details of the analytic calculation of the three-loop angle-dependent cusp anomalous dimension in QCD and its supersymmetric extensions, including the maximally supersymmetric $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory. The three-loop result in the latter theory is new and confirms a conjecture made in our previous paper. We study various physical limits of the cusp anomalous dimension and discuss its relation to the quark-antiquark potential including the effects of broken conformal symmetry in QCD. We find that the cusp anomalous dimension viewed as a function of the cusp angle and the new effective coupling given by light-like cusp anomalous dimension reveals a remarkable universality property -- it takes the same form in QCD and its supersymmetric extensions, to three loops at least. We exploit this universality property and make use of the known result for the three-loop quark-antiquark potential to predict the special class of nonplanar corrections to the cusp anomalous dimensions at four loops. Finally, we also discuss in detail the computation of all necessary Wilson line integrals up to three loops using the method of leading singularities and differential equations.

  9. Structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus orphan ORF AF1382 determined by sulfur SAD from a moderately diffracting crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jin-Yi; Fu, Zheng-Qing; Chen, Lirong; Xu, Hao; Chrzas, John; Rose, John Wang, Bi-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    The crystal structure of the 11.14 kDa orphan ORF 1382 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AF1382) has been determined by sulfur SAD phasing using data collected from a moderately diffracting crystal and 1.9 Å synchrotron X-rays. The crystal structure of the 11.14 kDa orphan ORF 1382 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AF1382) has been determined by sulfur SAD phasing using a moderately diffracting crystal and 1.9 Å wavelength synchrotron X-rays. AF1382 was selected as a structural genomics target by the Southeast Collaboratory for Structural Genomics (SECSG) since sequence analyses showed that it did not belong to the Pfam-A database and thus could represent a novel fold. The structure was determined by exploiting longer wavelength X-rays and data redundancy to increase the anomalous signal in the data. AF1382 is a 95-residue protein containing five S atoms associated with four methionine residues and a single cysteine residue that yields a calculated Bijvoet ratio (?F{sub anom}/F) of 1.39% for 1.9 Å wavelength X-rays. Coupled with an average Bijvoet redundancy of 25 (two 360° data sets), this produced an excellent electron-density map that allowed 69 of the 95 residues to be automatically fitted. The S-SAD model was then manually completed and refined (R = 23.2%, R{sub free} = 26.8%) to 2.3 Å resolution. High-resolution data were subsequently collected from a better diffracting crystal using 0.97 Å wavelength synchrotron X-rays and the S-SAD model was refined (R = 17.9%, R{sub free} = 21.4%) to 1.85 Å resolution. AF1382 has a winged-helix–turn–helix structure common to many DNA-binding proteins and most closely resembles the N-terminal domain (residues 1–82) of the Rio2 kinase from A. fulgidus, which has been shown to bind DNA, and a number of MarR-family transcriptional regulators, suggesting a similar DNA-binding function for AF1382. The analysis also points out the advantage gained from carrying out data reduction and structure determination on-site while the crystal is still available for further data collection.

  10. NuMAD User's Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPE PreComp Figure 58 Comparison of computed section properties for a utility scale wind turbine blade model. 72 Classical Flutter Analysis Through the "Advanced" menu item,...

  11. NuMAD User's Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNewsusceptometer under pressure |Cafés November 12,| SAND2015-XXXX028

  12. NuMAD User's Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesofPublications64NewsroomNontoxic quantumNotTheTwoNovel38NowNow

  13. MADNESS | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) | SciTech ConnectFuture |0396 Some Comments~ *

  14. Enhanced anomalous photo-absorption from TiO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Majumder, Subrata; Mishra, Indrani; Varma, Shikha; Dash, P.; Singh, C.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-03-28

    Two dimensional nanostructures have been created on the rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces via ion irradiation technique. Enhanced anomalous photo- absorption response is displayed, where nanostructures of 15?nm diameter with 0.5?nm height, and not the smaller nanostructures with larger surface area, delineate highest absorbance. Comprehensive investigations of oxygen vacancy states, on ion- irradiated surfaces, display a remarkable result that the number of vacancies saturates for higher fluences. A competition between the number of vacancy sites on the nanostructure in conjunction with its size is responsible for the observed anomalous photo-absorption.

  15. Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry "violation" in heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinfeng Liao

    2015-02-27

    The heavy ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry "violation" phenomena. For example certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible in such domains. We briefly review recent progress in both the theoretical understanding and experimental search of various anomalous transport effects (such as the Chiral Magnetic Effect, Chiral Separation Effect, Chiral Electric Separation Effect, Chiral Electric/Magnetic Waves, etc) in the hot QCD fluid created by such collisions.

  16. Electromagnetic fields and anomalous transports in heavy-ion collisions --- A pedagogical review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The hot and dense matter generated in heavy-ion collisions may contain domains in which the P and CP symmetries of QCD are violated. Moreover, heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely strong magnetic fields as well as electric fields. The interplay among the electromagnetic field, triangle anomaly, and the P and CP violation of QCD leads to a number of macroscopic quantum phenomena known as the anomalous transports. The purpose of the article is to give a pedagogical review of various properties of the electromagnetic fields, the anomalous transports phenomena, and their experimental signatures in heavy-ion collisions.

  17. Electromagnetic fields and anomalous transports in heavy-ion collisions --- A pedagogical review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu-Guang Huang

    2015-09-14

    The hot and dense matter generated in heavy-ion collisions may contain domains in which the P and CP symmetries of QCD are violated. Moreover, heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely strong magnetic fields as well as electric fields. The interplay among the electromagnetic field, triangle anomaly, and the P and CP violation of QCD leads to a number of macroscopic quantum phenomena known as the anomalous transports. The purpose of the article is to give a pedagogical review of various properties of the electromagnetic fields, the anomalous transports phenomena, and their experimental signatures in heavy-ion collisions.

  18. Measuring Anomalous Couplings in H->WW* Decays at the International Linear Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosuke Takubo; Robert N. Hodgkinson; Katsumasa Ikematsu; Keisuke Fujii; Nobuchika Okada; Hitoshi Yamamoto

    2013-05-17

    Measurement of the Higgs coupling to W-bosons is an important test of our understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. We study the sensitivity of the International Linear Collider (ILC) to the presence of anomalous HW+W- couplings using ZH -> nu nu WW* -> nu nu 4j events. Using an effective Lagrangian approach, we calculate the differential decay rates of the Higgs boson including the effects of new dimension-5 operators. We present a Monte Carlo simulation of events at the ILC, using a full detector simulation based on geant4 and a real event reconstruction chain. Expected constraints on the anomalous couplings are given.

  19. Searching for Single Production of Charged Heavy Leptons via Anomalous Interactions at CLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Tasci; A. Senol

    2013-01-07

    We consider the possible discovery potential for single production of charged heavy leptons via anomalous interactions at the envisaged Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) by taking into account initial state radiation (ISR) and beamstrahlung effects. We calculate the production cross sections and decay widths of charged heavy leptons in the context of anomalous interactions at center of mass energies $\\sqrt{s}=1$ and 3 TeV. The signal and corresponding backgrounds are studied in detail for the mass range 300-1900 GeV.

  20. 718 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 3, JUNE 2006 Nonlinear Effects and Anomalous Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    -frequency plasmas: anomalous skin depth in inductively coupled plasmas, transport by fluctuations in helicon plasmas. II. ANOMALOUS SKIN DEPTH IN ICPS Inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) are plasma sources ex- cited. The first is a spiral coil shaped like a stove-top heating element and placed on the dielectric top cover

  1. Marine and Petroleum Geology 23 (2006) 745765 Origin of anomalous subsidence along the Northern South China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    Marine and Petroleum Geology 23 (2006) 745­765 Origin of anomalous subsidence along the Northern China Sea margin to assess all mechanisms contributing to Late Tertiary tectonic subsidence in this area-rift anomalous subsidence is computed as the discrepancy between observed and predicted post-rift subsidence

  2. Anomalous Near-Field Heat Transfer between a Cylinder and a Perforated Surface Alejandro W. Rodriguez,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anomalous Near-Field Heat Transfer between a Cylinder and a Perforated Surface Alejandro W between a cylinder and a perforated surface depends nonmonotonically on their separation. This anomalous between a cylinder (or elongated object) and a perforated surface (e.g., a ring) can vary nonmonotonically

  3. Transverse Imaging of the Proton in Exclusive Diffractive pp Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian Weiss; Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman

    2006-04-20

    In a forthcoming paper we describe a new approach to rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, Higgs, etc.) in exclusive double-gap diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent (QCD factorization), and allows us to calculate the RGS probability in a model-independent way in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the colliding protons and the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Here we focus on the transverse momentum dependence of the cross section. By measuring the ''diffraction pattern'', one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton from the data.

  4. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  5. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Song, Shuangqi

    2015-12-22

    A hair treatment process for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction including (a) coating the hair with a material comprising a polymer, (b) pressing the hair with a pressing device including one or more surfaces, and (c) forming a secondary nanostructured surface pattern on the hair that is complementary to the primary nanostructured surface pattern on the one or more surfaces of the pressing device. The secondary nanostructured surface pattern diffracts light into dispersed colors that are visible on the hair. The section of the hair is pressed with the pressing device for from about 1 to 55 seconds. The polymer has a glass transition temperature from about 55.degree. C. to about 90.degree. C. The one or more surfaces include a primary nanostructured surface pattern.

  6. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; et al

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffractionmore »microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.« less

  7. Analysis of Contribution from Edge Radiation to Optical Diffraction Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Liu, P. Evtushenko, A. Freyberger, C. Liu, A.H. Lumpkin

    2009-05-01

    Beam size measurement with near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been carried out successfully at CEBAF. The ODR station is installed on the Hall-A beam line after eight bending magnets. The ODR images were affected by an unexpected radiation. Some calculations for analyzing the source of the radiation will be presented. Furthermore, two schemes will be proposed to alleviate the contamination.

  8. Hadron Optics: Diffraction Patterns in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Brodsky; D. Chakrabarti; A. Harindranath; A. Mukherjee; J. P. Vary

    2006-08-10

    We show that the Fourier transform of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) amplitude with respect to the skewness variable $\\zeta$ at fixed invariant momentum transfer squared $t$ provides a unique way to visualize the structure of the target hadron in the boost-invariant longitudinal coordinate space. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics. As a specific example, we utilize the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED to obtain the behavior of the DVCS amplitude for electron-photon scattering. We then simulate the wavefunctions for a hadron by differentiating the above LFWFs with respect to $M^2$ and study the corresponding DVCS amplitudes in light-front longitudinal space. In both cases we observe that the diffractive patterns in the longitudinal variable conjugate to $\\zeta$ sharpen and the positions of the first minima move in with increasing momentum transfer. For fixed $t$, higher minima appear at positions which are integral multiples of the lowest minimum. Both these observations strongly support the analogy with diffraction in optics.

  9. Diffractive Dijet Production and Nuclear Shadowing in pA Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen E. Vance; Dmitri Kharzeev

    2001-06-11

    We study the implications of non-universality observed recently in e p and pbar p diffraction for nuclear shadowing and diffractive dijet production in pA collisions.

  10. Glucose-Sensitive Inverse Opal Hydrogels: Analysis of Optical Diffraction Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Glucose-Sensitive Inverse Opal Hydrogels: Analysis of Optical Diffraction Response Yun-Ju Lee swelling of the inverse opal hydrogel, which was observed through shifts in the optical diffraction

  11. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, H. N.

    2011-02-23

    The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

  12. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, H. N.

    The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

  13. What Can We Learn from the Study of Single Diffractive Dissociation at High Energies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Arkhipov

    1999-09-28

    The fundamental relations in the dynamics of single diffraction dissociation and elastic scattering at high energies are discussed.

  14. A study on quantum mechanical approach for $C_{60}$ diffraction analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bo-Jun Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Hou-Li Tang; Jing Wang; Si-Qi Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Diffraction phenomena of large molecules have been studied in many experiments, and these experiments are described by many theoretical works. In this paper, we study $C_{60}$ molecules single and double-slit diffraction with quantum theory approach, and we pay close attention to the $C_{60}$ diffraction experiment carried out by A.Zeilinger et.at in 1999. In double-slit diffraction, we consider the decoherence effect, and find the theoretical results are good agreement with experimental data.

  15. A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Noah

    A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees James H characterize the set of unranked species tree topologies that give rise to ARGTs, showing that this set generalizes beyond the specific five-taxon case. Here, we perform a complete characterization of the set

  16. ANOMALOUS DISPERSION OF SLOW NEUTRONS IN CRYSTALS By H. G. SMITH and S. W. PETERSON (1),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Studies of anomalous scattering of neutrons from CdI2 single crystals were conti- nued over an energy neutron scattering by nuclei and crystals has been fairly well understood for many years. An incident, and depends on the neutron-nucleus interactions. In general, the scattering amplitude can be expressed

  17. Oil and Gas CDT Anomalous compaction and lithification during early burial in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Anomalous compaction and lithification during early burial in sedimentary basins training in a range of skills will mean opportunities for academic, government or Oil and Gas sector (e geoscience for oil and gas). References & Further Reading Neagu, R.C. Cartwright, J., Davies R.J. & Jensen L

  18. Anomalous Tectonic Subsidence of the Southern Australian Passive Margin: Response to Cretaceous Dynamic Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Dietmar

    Anomalous Tectonic Subsidence of the Southern Australian Passive Margin: Response to Cretaceous that formed over and orthogonal to a Mesozoic subducted slab in the mantle. The tectonic subsidence pattern, enhancing initial subsidence. Subsequent lithospheric rebound coincides with post-rift thermal subsidence

  19. Detecting Anomalous Sensor Events in Smart Home Data for Enhancing the Living Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Detecting Anomalous Sensor Events in Smart Home Data for Enhancing the Living Experience is on the rise and the place for smart home solutions is growing. One of the major concerns for smart home data captured from a smart home testbed. Introduction Smart homes are built by adding intelligent

  20. Dynamic topography and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G.E. Shephard a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Lijun

    GR letter Dynamic topography and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G Handling Editor: A. Aitken Keywords: Dynamic topography Residual basement depth Geodynamic modeling Argentine Basin Subduction Plate tectonics A substantial portion of Earth's topography is known to be caused

  1. Dynamic topography and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G.E. Shephard a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Dietmar

    GR letter Dynamic topography and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G: A. Aitken Keywords: Dynamic topography Residual basement depth Geodynamic modeling Argentine Basin Subduction Plate tectonics A substantial portion of Earth's topography is known to be caused by the viscous

  2. Search for anomalous production of multilepton events in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Gerry P.

    A search for anomalous production of events with three or more isolated leptons in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 fb[superscript ?1], were collected ...

  3. TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PHBV BLENDS: ANOMALOUS ELONGATION AND AGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PHBV BLENDS: ANOMALOUS ELONGATION AND AGING T. Gérard, T. Noto and T-based polymers, they still have some disadvantages such as poor (fragile) mechanical properties. Blending the drawbacks of the pure components. In this work, PLA and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV

  4. Anomalous expansion and negative specific heat in quasi-2D plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Chjan C.

    Anomalous expansion and negative specific heat in quasi-2D plasmas Timothy D. Andersen and Chjan C. Lim May 23, 2010 #12;Magnetic Nuclear Fusion Magnetic nuclear fusion is one of the most promising confining the plasma. #12;Magnetic Nuclear Fusion continued 2 1D +3 1 T 4 2 He +1 0 n + 17.6MeV. (1) Plasma

  5. Anomalous surface waves associated with deep earthquakes, generated at an ocean ridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furumura, Takashi

    Anomalous surface waves associated with deep earthquakes, generated at an ocean ridge M. Furumura earthquakes in laterally homogeneous structures do not generate such surface waves. Since the propagation these surface waves are generated. Many of the zones from which the surface waves appear to originate

  6. Anomalous self-generated electrostatic fields in nanosecond laser-plasma interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skupin, Stefan

    Anomalous self-generated electrostatic fields in nanosecond laser-plasma interaction L. Lancia,1 565-0871, Japan 6 Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 1-Université by proton radiography. Using a current three-dimensional wave propagation code equipped with nonlinear

  7. Towards a non-Intrusive Recognition of Anomalous System Behavior in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Towards a non-Intrusive Recognition of Anomalous System Behavior in Data Centers Roberto Baldoni1 system of a data cen- ter that is able to infer when the data center is getting into an anoma- lous behavior by analyzing the power consumption at each server and the data center network traffic

  8. Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation Evgeny Vetoshkin represent the metastable O3 * species and play a central role in the process of ozone formation.1063/1.2778432 I. INTRODUCTION Ozone O3 is formed in the stratosphere as a product of the following recombination

  9. Measurement of Higgs Anomalous Coupling with H->WW* at International Linear Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosuke Takubo; Katsumasa Ikematsu; Nobuchika Okada; Robert N. Hodgkinson; Keisuke Fujii

    2010-06-17

    The measurement of the Higgs coupling to W bosons is an important program at the international linear collider (ILC) to search for the anomaly in the coupling to the gauge bosons. We study the sensitivity of ILC to the Higgs anomalous coupling to W bosons by using ZH->vvWW* events. In this article, we report the status of the study.

  10. Study of the Anomalous Thermochemical Behavior of 1,2-Diazines by Correlation-Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Study of the Anomalous Thermochemical Behavior of 1,2-Diazines by Correlation-Gas Chromatography of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 The vaporization enthalpies and liquid vapor literature vaporization, sublimation, and fusion enthalpy data. Good agreement with the literature

  11. Hadronic contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment Workshop. $(g-2)_?$: Quo vadis? Workshop. Mini proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice Benayoun; Johan Bijnens; Tom Blum; Irinel Caprini; Gilberto Colangelo; Henryk Czy?; Achim Denig; Cesareo A. Dominguez; Simon Eidelman; Christian S. Fischer; Paolo Gauzzi; Yuping Guo; Andreas Hafner; Masashi Hayakawa; Gregorio Herdoiza; Martin Hoferichter; Guangshun Huang; Karl Jansen; Fred Jegerlehner; Benedikt Kloss; Bastian Kubis; Zhiqing Liu; William Marciano; Pere Masjuan; Harvey B. Meyer; Tsutomu Mibe; Andreas Nyffeler; Vladimir Pascalutsa; Vladyslav Pauk; Michael R. Pennington; Santiago Peris; Christoph F. Redmer; Pablo Sanchez-Puertas; Boris Shwartz; Evgeny Solodov; Dominik Stoeckinger; Thomas Teubner; Marc Unverzagt; Marc Vanderhaeghen; Magnus Wolke

    2014-07-21

    We present the mini-proceedings of the workshops Hadronic contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment: strategies for improvements of the accuracy of the theoretical prediction and $(g-2)_{\\mu}$: Quo vadis?, both held in Mainz from April 1$^{\\rm rst}$ to 5$^{\\rm th}$ and from April 7$^{\\rm th}$ to 10$^{\\rm th}$, 2014, respectively.

  12. CDF Note 10355 Search for Anomalous Production of Photon + Jets + Missing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigg, Chris

    CDF Note 10355 Search for Anomalous Production of Photon + Jets + Missing Transverse Energy Events Abstract Many new physics models predict mechanisms that could produce a + jets signature. We search for discrepancies in the + jets and + jets + missing transverse energy channels, independent of any model, for new

  13. Search for anomalous heavy-flavor quark production in association with W bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Christofek, L.; Coppage, Don; Gardner, J.; Hensel, Carsten; Jabeen, S.; Wilson, Graham Wallace

    2005-04-01

    We search for anomalous production of heavy-flavor quark jets in association with W bosons at the Fermilab Tevatron p(p) over bar Collider in final states in which the heavy-flavor quark content is enhanced by requiring at least one tagged jet...

  14. Role of anomalous warm gulf waters in the intensification of Hurricane Menas Kafatos,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    Role of anomalous warm gulf waters in the intensification of Hurricane Katrina Menas Kafatos,1 several strong hurricanes intensifying in the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall that severely damaged the Gulf States, especially Hurricane Katrina. Remarkable similarities between sea surface temperature

  15. On the representation of the diffracted field of Hermite-Gaussian modes in an alien basis and the young diffraction principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, V.N.; Strokovskii, G.A. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1994-10-01

    An analytical form of expansion coefficients of a diffracted field for an arbitrary Hermite-Gaussian beam in an alien Hermite-Gaussian basis is obtained. A possible physical interpretation of the well-known Young phenomenological diffraction principle and experiments on diffraction of Hermite-Gaussian beams of the lowest types (n = 0 - 5) from half-plane are discussed. The case of nearly homogenous expansion corresponding to misalignment and mismatch of optical systems is also analyzed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  16. DIFFRACTION 2000 SESSION: `Di raction in lepton-hadron collisions I'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIFFRACTION 2000 SESSION: `Di#11;raction in lepton-hadron collisions I' September 2 - 7, 2000; Conclusions #12; DIFFRACTION 2000 Paul Thompson Why measure open charm in di#11;raction ? #15; Charm mass Interactions? September 2000 2 #12; DIFFRACTION 2000 Paul Thompson Event Kinematics x IP = M 2 X +Q 2 W 2 +Q 2

  17. Time evolution of the diffraction pattern of an ultrashort laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time evolution of the diffraction pattern of an ultrashort laser pulse M. Lefrançois and S. F evolution of the diffraction pattern of an ultrashort laser pulse passing through a circular aperture is obtained in the Fresnel regime. The diffraction is not constant in time as the pulse travels through

  18. Neutron diffraction study of the contribution of grain contacts to nonlinear stress-strain behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron diffraction study of the contribution of grain contacts to nonlinear stress-strain behavior performed simultaneous neutron diffraction and quasi-static loading experiments on a selection of rocks to experimentally isolate the response of these contact regions. Neutron diffraction measures strain in the lattice

  19. NEUTRON DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF CYTOCHROME b5 RECONSTITUTED IN DEUTERATED LIPID MULTILAYERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NEUTRON DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF CYTOCHROME b5 RECONSTITUTED IN DEUTERATED LIPID MULTILAYERS E. P centrosymmetric pairs of asymmetric lipid-protein bilayers. Lamellar neutron diffraction data were collected. A neutron diffraction analysis ofcytochrome b5, incorporated into ordered lipid multilayers, promised

  20. Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a , Y. Bressonb in a collimated beam thus introducing Fresnel diffraction. We study the instrumental contrast taking into account, but this study can apply to any other instrument concerned with Fresnel diffraction. Keywords: Interferometer

  1. Accurate and fast simulation of Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Accurate and fast simulation of Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses Qing Cao, such as various Fresnel zone plates [1, 2] and muti-level diffractive lenses [3], can be used for focusing and fast simulation of various Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses. As two tests, we

  2. Palladium deuteride formation in the cathode of an electrochemical cell: An in situ neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Redey, L.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

    1991-12-31

    In this report, neutron diffraction of palladium cathodes is utilized to reveal palladium deuteride formation within the crystal structure of the metal. The experiment described in this report demonstrates the efficacy of neutron powder diffraction as a tool for structural studies of metal deuterides/hydrides and the feasibility of in situ diffraction measurements from a working electrochemical cell. (JL)

  3. Palladium deuteride formation in the cathode of an electrochemical cell: An in situ neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Redey, L.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, neutron diffraction of palladium cathodes is utilized to reveal palladium deuteride formation within the crystal structure of the metal. The experiment described in this report demonstrates the efficacy of neutron powder diffraction as a tool for structural studies of metal deuterides/hydrides and the feasibility of in situ diffraction measurements from a working electrochemical cell. (JL)

  4. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  5. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.

  6. Hybrid shearing and phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2003-06-03

    A new interferometry configuration combines the strengths of two existing interferometry methods, improving the quality and extending the dynamic range of both. On the same patterned mask, placed near the image-plane of an optical system under test, patterns for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry and lateral shearing interferometry coexist. The former giving verifiable high accuracy for the measurement of nearly diffraction-limited optical systems. The latter enabling the measurement of optical systems with more than one wave of aberration in the system wavefront. The interferometry configuration is a hybrid shearing and point diffraction interferometer system for testing an optical element that is positioned along an optical path including: a source of electromagnetic energy in the optical path; a first beam splitter that is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering the first beam splitter in a first position wherein the first beam splitter is in the optical path dividing light from the source into a reference beam and a test beam and in a second position wherein the first beam splitter is outside the optical path: a hybrid mask which includes a first section that defines a test window and at least one reference pinhole and a second section that defines a second beam splitter wherein the hybrid mask is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering either the first section or the second section into the optical path positioned in an image plane that is created by the optical element, with the proviso that the first section of the hybrid mask is positioned in the optical path when first beam splitter is positioned in the optical path; and a detector positioned after the hybrid mask along the optical path.

  7. Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2013-10-29

    A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

  8. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  9. Diffraction crystals for sagittally focusing x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1982-06-07

    The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

  10. Diffraction crystal for sagittally focusing x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ice, Gene E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sparks, Jr., Cullie J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

  11. A Study of the gluon ladder in diffractive processes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Jeppe R.; Sabio Vera, Agustin

    is the Balitsky–Fadin– Kuraev–Lipatov (BFKL) formalism [1]. The BFKL framework can be applied to processes characterised by a colour octet exchange as well as colour singlet exchange (diffractive processes). The case of t = 0 colour singlet scattering corresponds... simple form: (? ? ?0 (ka,q, ?)) f? (ka,kb,q) = ?(2) (ka ? kb) + ? d2k pik2 ? ( k2 ? ?2 ) ? (ka,k,q) f? (k + ka,kb,q) . (6) 4 In order to write the equation in this way the following notation has been introduced: ? (ka,k,q) = ?¯s 2 ( 1 + (ka ? q)2 (k + ka...

  12. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to:Wylie, Texas: Energy ResourcessourceX-Ray Diffraction

  13. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single goldWind Power >X-Ray Diffraction

  14. High-pressure behavior and thermoelastic properties of niobium studied by in situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Yongtao E-mail: yongtaozou6@gmail.com; Li, Baosheng; Qi, Xintong; Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting; Li, Xuefei; Welch, David

    2014-07-07

    In situ synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on Nb have been conducted at pressures up to 6.4 GPa and temperatures up to 1073 K. From the pressure-volume-temperature measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for the first time for Nb based on the thermal pressure (?P{sub th}) equation of state (EOS), modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan EOS, and Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K{sub T}{sup ´} fixed at 4.0, we obtained the ambient isothermal bulk modulus K{sub T0}=174(5) GPa, the temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure (?K{sub T}/?T){sub P}=-0.060(8) GPa K?¹ and at constant volume (?K{sub T}/?T){sub V}=-0.046(8) GPa K?¹, the volumetric thermal expansivity ?{sub T}(T)=2.3(3)×10??+0.3(2)×10??T (K?¹), as well as the pressure dependence of thermal expansion (??/?P){sub T}=(?2.0±0.4)×10?? K?¹ GPa?¹. Fitting the present data to the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS with Debye temperature ??=276.6 K gives ??=1.27(8) and K{sub T0}=171(3) GPa at a fixed value of q=3.0. The ambient isothermal bulk modulus and Grüneisen parameter derived from this work are comparable to previously reported values from both experimental and theoretical studies. An in situ high-resolution, angle dispersive XRD study on Nb did not indicate any anomalous behavior related to pressure-induced electronic topological transitions at ~5 GPa as has been reported previously.

  15. Aspects of jet quenching as a diffractive phenomenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidalgo-Duque, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the collisional aspects of jet quenching in a high energy nuclear collision are perhaps best understood as a diffractive phenomenon. The jet has a large energy, and acquires momentum transverse to its axis more effectively by multiple soft collisions than by few hard scatterings (as known from analogous systems such as $J/\\psi$ production at Hera). Such regime of large E and small momentum transfer is characteristically dominated by the pomeron. From this insight we estimate the jet quenching parameter in the hadron medium (largely a pion gas) at the end of the collision, which is naturally small and increases with temperature in line with the gas density. The treatment of diffraction in the quark-gluon plasma/liquid phase is beset with uncertainties, but we provide a couple of preliminary guesses that suggest indeed that the pomeron-mediated interactions are very relevant and provide a further handle on the jet quenching parameter, that perturbation theory seems to underestimate. Finally, the o...

  16. Diffractive W and Z Production at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.

    2010-07-01

    We report on a measurement of the fraction of events with a W or Z boson produced diffractively in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, using data from 0.6 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the CDF II detector equipped with a Roman-pot spectrometer that detects the {bar p} from {bar p} + p {yields} {bar p}+[X+W/Z]. We find that (0.97 {+-} 0.11)% of Ws and (0.85 {+-} 0.22)% of Zs are produced diffractively in a region of (anti)proton fractional momentum loss {zeta} of 0.03 < {zeta} < 0.10 and 4-momentum transferred squared t of -1 < t < 0 (GeV/c){sup 2}. We also report on searches for W and Z production in double Pomeron exchange, p+{bar p} {yields} p+[X+W/z]+{bar p}, and on exclusive Z production, {bar p}p {yields} {bar p}+Z+p. No signal is seen above background for these processes, and comparisons are made with expectations.

  17. Surface Curvatures and Diffraction Profiles of Sagittaly Bent Laue Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, X.; Takacs, P.; Ghose, S.; Zhong, Z.; Rehak, M.L.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Dooryhee, E.

    2011-05-17

    The performance of a bent Laue crystal monochromator crucially depends on the sagittal and meridional bending curvatures of the crystal. To optimize the design of monochromator crystals, the surface curvatures and diffraction profiles of a set of sagittally bent Laue crystals with different aspect ratios have been studied experimentally by optical metrology and X-ray measurements. The results were confirmed with finite-element analysis using large-deformation theory. The nonlinear relationship between the curvatures necessitates an experimentally determined parameter in the theoretical modeling of the diffraction profiles. By taking into account the local stress and the aspect ratio of the sagittally bent Laue crystal, the modified analytical approach successfully predicts the rocking-curve width and the integrated reflecting power. The effect of extreme sagittal bending on the rocking curve is also discussed. To retain high reflectivity, the bending curvature should not exceed its critical value for the specified crystal geometry. Furthermore, the uniformity of the bending curvatures across the crystal surface has been examined, which suggests that the minimum crystal dimension should be approximately twice the size of the beam footprint.

  18. XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data quality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-29

    Serial crystallography, using either femtosecond X-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources or short synchrotron-radiation exposures, has the potential to reveal metalloprotein structural details while minimizing damage processes. However, deriving a self-consistent set of Bragg intensities from numerous still-crystal exposures remains a difficult problem, with optimal protocols likely to be quite different from those well established for rotation photography. Here several data processing issues unique to serial crystallography are examined. It is found that the limiting resolution differs for each shot, an effect that is likely to be due to both the sample heterogeneity and pulse-to-pulse variation in experimental conditions. Shotsmore »with lower resolution limits produce lower-quality models for predicting Bragg spot positions during the integration step. Also, still shots by their nature record only partial measurements of the Bragg intensity. An approximate model that corrects to the full-spot equivalent (with the simplifying assumption that the X-rays are monochromatic) brings the distribution of intensities closer to that expected from an ideal crystal, and improves the sharpness of anomalous difference Fourier peaks indicating metal positions.« less

  19. Zero-Field Dissipationless Chiral Edge Transport and the Nature of Dissipation in the Quantum Anomalous Hall State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Weiwei

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is predicted to possess, at a zero magnetic field, chiral edge channels that conduct a spin polarized current without dissipation. While edge channels have been observed in previous ...

  20. Limits on Anomalous Trilinear Gauge Couplings in Z? Events from pp? Collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Gerry P.

    Using Z? candidate events collected by the CDF detector at the Tevatron Collider, we search for potential anomalous (non-standard-model) couplings between the Z boson and the photon. Z? couplings vanish at tree level and ...

  1. MNRAS 449, 809819 (2015) doi:10.1093/mnras/stv287 Characterizing extragalactic anomalous microwave emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    2015-01-01

    emission in NGC 6946 with CARMA Brandon Hensley,1 extragalactic detection of anomalous microwave emission (AME) reported by Murphy et al. in an extranuclear frequency of AME in this region to be consistent with models of spinning dust emission. However

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 045116 (2015) Magnetic ordering at anomalously high temperatures in Dy at extreme pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, James

    2015-01-01

    transports Dy into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature, until finally only a structureless Thomas-Fermi gas remains [1]. Although such astronomic pressures

  3. Anomalous Diffusion of Self-Propelled Particles in Directed Random Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Reza Shaebani; Zeinab Sadjadi; Igor M. Sokolov; Heiko Rieger; Ludger Santen

    2014-09-18

    We theoretically study the transport properties of self-propelled particles on complex structures, such as motor proteins on filament networks. A general master equation formalism is developed to investigate the persistent motion of individual random walkers, which enables us to identify the contributions of key parameters: the motor processivity, and the anisotropy and heterogeneity of the underlying network. We prove the existence of different dynamical regimes of anomalous motion, and that the crossover times between these regimes as well as the asymptotic diffusion coefficient can be increased by several orders of magnitude within biologically relevant control parameter ranges. In terms of motion in continuous space, the interplay between stepping strategy and persistency of the walker is established as a source of anomalous diffusion at short and intermediate time scales.

  4. Determination of the polarization state of x rays with the help of anomalous transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, K. S. Uschmann, I.; Förster, E.; Marx, B.; Paulus, G. G.; Stöhlker, T.

    2014-04-14

    Besides intensity and direction, the polarization of an electromagnetic wave provides characteristic information on the crossed medium. Here, we present two methods for the determination of the polarization state of x rays by polarizers based on anomalous transmission (Borrmann effect). Using a polarizer-analyzer setup, we have measured a polarization purity of less than 1.5?×?10{sup ?5}, three orders of magnitude better than obtained in earlier work. Using the analyzer crystal in multiple-beam case with slightly detuned azimuth, we show how the first three Stokes parameters can be determined with a single angular scan. Thus, polarization analyzers based on anomalous transmission make it possible to detect changes of the polarization in a range from degrees down to arcseconds.

  5. Gravitational Encounters and the Evolution of Galactic Nuclei. III. Anomalous Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merritt, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series presenting the results of direct numerical integrations of the Fokker-Planck equation for stars orbiting a supermassive black hole (SBH) at the center of a galaxy. The algorithm of Paper II included diffusion coefficients that described the effects of random ("classical") and correlated ("resonant") relaxation. In this paper, the diffusion coefficients of Paper II have been generalized to account for the effects of "anomalous relaxation," the qualitatively different way in which eccentric orbits evolve in the regime of rapid relativistic precession. Two functional forms for the anomalous diffusion coefficients are investigated, based on power-law or exponential modifications of the resonant diffusion coefficients. The parameters defining the modified coefficients are first constrained by comparing the results of Fokker-Planck integrations with previously-published N-body integrations. Steady-state solutions are then obtained via the Fokker-Planck equation for models with pr...

  6. Emerging Non-Anomalous Baryonic Symmetries in the AdS_5/CFT_4 Correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessi Benishti

    2011-06-06

    We study the breaking of baryonic symmetries in the AdS_5/CFT_4 correspondence for D3 branes at Calabi-Yau three-fold singularities. This leads, for particular VEVs, to the emergence of non-anomalous baryonic symmetries during the renormalization group flow. We claim that these VEVs correspond to critical values of the B-field moduli in the dual supergravity backgrounds. We study in detail the C^3/Z_3 orbifold, the cone over F_0 and the C^3/Z_5 orbifold. For the first two examples, we study the dual supergravity backgrounds that correspond to the breaking of the emerging baryonic symmetries and identify the expected Goldstone bosons and global strings in the infra-red. In doing so we confirm the claim that the emerging symmetries are indeed non-anomalous baryonic symmetries.

  7. Measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry with 9 fb?¹ of pp? collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; et al

    2011-09-16

    We present an updated measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry Absl for semileptonic b-hadron decays in 9.0 fb?¹ of pp? collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of ?s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain Absl=(-0.787±0.172(stat)±0.093(syst))%. This result differs by 3.9 standard deviations from the prediction of the standard model and provides evidence for anomalously large CP violation in semileptonic neutral B decay. The dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.

  8. A spin-filter made of quantum anomalous Hall insulator nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jiansheng

    2014-07-28

    Topological end states (TES) in quantum anomalous Hall insulator nanowires can induce tunneling within the gap. Such TES are spin polarized, thus the induced current is spin polarized as well, which can be used to construct a spin-filter applied in spintronics. An interferometry device is designed to control the polarized current as well. The advantage and finite size effect on this system are discussed.

  9. Anomalous Heat Conduction in a Di-atomic One-Dimensional Ideal Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Casati; Tomaz Prosen

    2002-04-02

    We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e. the Fourier Law does not hold. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of the dependence of the heat current on the number of particles, of the internal temperature profile and on the Green-Kubo formalism.

  10. Critical Review of Theoretical Models for Anomalous Effects (Cold Fusion) in Deuterated Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chechin, V A; Rabinowitz, M; Kim, Y E

    1994-01-01

    We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as "Cold Fusion" (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.

  11. Critical Review of Theoretical Models for Anomalous Effects (Cold Fusion) in Deuterated Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Chechin; V. A. Tsarev; M. Rabinowitz; Y. E. Kim

    2003-04-06

    We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as "Cold Fusion" (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.

  12. Analyzing the anomalous dipole moment type couplings of heavy quarks with FCNC interactions at the CLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Tasci; A. Senol; C. Verep

    2014-04-10

    In this study we examine both anomalous magnetic and dipole moment type couplings of a heavy quark via its single production with subsequent dominant Standard Model decay modes at the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The signal and background cross sections are analyzed for heavy quark masses 600 and 700 GeV. We make the analysis to delimitate these couplings as well as to find the attainable integrated luminosities or 3$\\sigma$ observation limit.

  13. COMMENTS ON ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN CHARGING OF PD POWDERS WITH HIGH DENSITY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-10-01

    In Kitamura, et al, Pd-containing materials are exposed to isotopes of hydrogen and anomalous results obtained. These are claimed to be a replication of another experiment conducted by Arata and Zhang. Erroneous basic assumptions are pointed out herein that alter the derived conclusions significantly. The final conclusion is that the reported results are likely normal chemistry combined with noise. Thus the claim to have proven that cold fusion is occurring in these systems is both premature and unlikely.

  14. Uncorrelated versus independent elliptically-contoured distributions for anomalous change detection in hyperspectral imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Scovel, James C

    2008-01-01

    The detection of actual changes in a pair of images is confounded by the inadvertent but pervasive differences that inevitably arise whenever two pictures are taken of the same scene, but at different times and under different conditions. These differences include effects due to illumination, calibration, misregistration, etc. If the actual changes are assumed to be rare, then one can 'learn' what the pervasive differences are, and can identify the deviations from this pattern as the anomalous changes. A recently proposed framework for anomalous change detection recasts the problem as one of binary classification between pixel pairs in the data and pixel pairs that are independently chosen from the two images. When an elliptically-contoured (EC) distribution is assumed for the data, then analytical expressions can be derived for the measure of anomalousness of change. However, these expression are only available for a limited class of EC distributions. By replacing independent pixel pairs with uncorrelated pixel pairs, an approximate solution can be found for a much broader class of EC distributions. The performance of this approximation is investigated analytically and empirically, and includes experiments comparing the detection of real changes in real data.

  15. Fingerprints of anomalous primordial Universe on the abundance of large scale structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baghram, Shant; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: abolhasani@ipm.ir E-mail: MohammadHossein.Namjoo@utdallas.edu

    2014-12-01

    We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures. Using the quasars data and adopting the power-law scaling k{sup n{sub A}-1} for the amplitude of dipole we find the upper bound n{sub A} < 0.6 for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale M{sub c} in which for M M{sub c}) the enhancement in variance induced from anomalous feature decreases (increases) the abundance of dark matter structures in Universe.

  16. Present State of Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Prospective Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarzer, R A; Field, D P; Adams, B L; Kumar, M; Schwartz, A J

    2008-10-24

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), when employed as an additional characterization technique to a scanning electron microscope (SEM), enables individual grain orientations, local texture, point-to-point orientation correlations, and phase identification and distributions to be determined routinely on the surfaces of bulk polycrystals. The application has experienced rapid acceptance in metallurgical, materials, and geophysical laboratories within the past decade (Schwartz et al. 2000) due to the wide availability of SEMs, the ease of sample preparation from the bulk, the high speed of data acquisition, and the access to complementary information about the microstructure on a submicron scale. From the same specimen area, surface structure and morphology of the microstructure are characterized in great detail by the relief and orientation contrast in secondary and backscatter electron images, element distributions are accessed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), or cathodoluminescence analysis, and the orientations of single grains and phases can now be determined, as a complement, by EBSD.

  17. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focussing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data.

  18. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1999-02-09

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focusing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data. 18 figs.

  19. New methods for indexing multi-lattice diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gildea, Richard J.; Waterman, David G.; Parkhurst, James M.; Axford, Danny; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Winter, Graeme

    2014-09-27

    A new indexing method is presented which is capable of indexing multiple crystal lattices from narrow wedges of diffraction data. The method takes advantage of a simplification of Fourier transform-based methods that is applicable when the unit-cell dimensions are known a priori. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with both semi-synthetic multi-lattice data and real multi-lattice data recorded from crystals of ~1 µm in size, where it is shown that up to six lattices can be successfully indexed and subsequently integrated from a 1° wedge of data. Analysis is presented which shows that improvements in data-quality indicators can be obtained through accurate identification and rejection of overlapping reflections prior to scaling.

  20. New methods for indexing multi-lattice diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gildea, Richard J.; Waterman, David G.; Parkhurst, James M.; Axford, Danny; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Winter, Graeme

    2014-09-27

    A new indexing method is presented which is capable of indexing multiple crystal lattices from narrow wedges of diffraction data. The method takes advantage of a simplification of Fourier transform-based methods that is applicable when the unit-cell dimensions are known a priori. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with both semi-synthetic multi-lattice data and real multi-lattice data recorded from crystals of ~1 µm in size, where it is shown that up to six lattices can be successfully indexed and subsequently integrated from a 1° wedge of data. Analysis is presented which shows that improvements in data-quality indicators can bemore »obtained through accurate identification and rejection of overlapping reflections prior to scaling.« less

  1. Crystal diffraction lens telescope for focusing nuclear gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Ballmoos, P. von; Naya, J.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G. [Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Faiz, M. [KFUPM, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Physics Dept.

    1996-08-01

    A crystal diffraction lens was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory for use as a telescope to focus nuclear gamma rays. It consisted of 600 single crystals of germanium arranged in 8 concentric rings. The mounted angle of each crystal was adjusted to intercept and diffract the incoming gamma rays with an accuracy of a few arc sec. The performance of the lens was tested in two ways. In one case, the gamma rays were focused on a single medium size germanium detector. In the second case, the gamma rays were focused on the central germanium detector of a 3 x 3 matrix of small germanium detectors. The efficiency, image concentration and image quality, and shape were measured. The tests performed with the 3 x 3 matrix detector system were particularly interesting. The wanted radiation was concentrated in the central detector. The 8 other detectors were used to detect the Compton scattered radiation, and their energy was summed with coincident events in the central detector. This resulted in a detector with the efficiency of a large detector (all 9 elements) and the background of a small detector (only the central element). The use of the 3 x 3 detector matrix makes it possible to tell if the source is off axis and, if so, to tell in which direction. The crystal lens acts very much like a simple convex lens for visible light. Thus if the source is off to the left then the image will focus off to the right illuminating the detector on the right side: telling one in which direction to point the telescope. Possible applications of this type of crystal lens to balloon and satellite experiments will be discussed.

  2. Simulation of X-ray diffraction profiles for bent anisotropic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Rio, Manuel Sanchez; Shi, Xianbo; Honkimaki, Veijo; Zhang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The equations for calculating diffraction profiles for bent crystals are revisited for both meridional and sagittal bending. Two approximated methods for computing diffraction profiles are treated: multilamellar and Penning-Polder. A common treatment of crystal anisotropy is included in these models. The formulation presented is implemented into the XOP package, completing and updating the crystal module that simulates diffraction profiles for perfect, mosaic and now distorted crystals by elastic bending.

  3. Huygens-Fresnel-Kirchhoff construction for quantum propagators with application to diffraction in space and time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arseni Goussev

    2012-01-06

    We address the phenomenon of diffraction of non-relativistic matter waves on openings in absorbing screens. To this end, we expand the full quantum propagator, connecting two points on the opposite sides of the screen, in terms of the free particle propagator and spatio-temporal properties of the opening. Our construction, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, describes the quantum phenomena of diffraction in space and diffraction in time, as well as the interplay between the two. We illustrate the method by calculating diffraction patterns for localized wave packets passing through various time-dependent openings in one and two spatial dimensions.

  4. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The production of dijets is measured in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. The data were recorded with the H1 detector at DESY in the years 2003-2007. Diffractive events are selected by requiring a gap in the rapidity distribution of the hadronic systen, where no particles are produced. Two jets are selected with transverse momenta in the hadronic-centre-of-mass system larger than 4 and 5.5GeV, respectively. Cross sections are measured single- and doubledifferentially in various kinematic quantities. The data are found to be in good agreement with NLO QCD calculations based on diffractive parton densities determined frominclusive diffractive cross section measurements.

  5. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prilliman, Gerald Stephen

    2003-09-01

    The behavior of nanocrystals under extreme pressure was investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A major part of this investigation was the testing of a prototype synchrotron endstation on a bend magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source for high pressure work using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments conducted and documented here helped to determine issues of efficiency and accuracy that had to be resolved before the construction of a dedicated ''super-bend'' beamline and endstation. The major conclusions were the need for a cryo-cooled monochromator and a fully remote-controllable pressurization system which would decrease the time to change pressure and greatly reduce the error created by the re-placement of the diamond anvil cell after each pressure change. Two very different types of nanocrystal systems were studied, colloidal iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and thin film TiN/BN. Iron oxide nanocrystals were found to have a transition from the {gamma} to the {alpha} structure at a pressure strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, ranging from 26 GPa for 7.2 nm nanocrystals to 37 GPa for 3.6 nm nanocrystals. All nanocrystals were found to remain in the {alpha} structure even after release of pressure. The transition pressure was also found, for a constant size (5.7 nm) to be strongly dependent on the degree of aggregation of the nanocrystals, increasing from 30 GPa for completely dissolved nanocrystals to 45 GPa for strongly aggregated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction pattern of the pressure induced {alpha} phase demonstrated a decrease in intensity for certain select peaks. Together, these observations were used to make a complete picture of the phase transition in nanocrystalline systems. The size dependence of the transition was interpreted as resulting from the extremely high surface energy of the {alpha} phase which would increase the thermodynamic offset and thereby increase the kinetic barrier to transition that must be overridden with pressure. The anomalous intensities in the x-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted as being the result of stacking faults, indicating that the mechanism of transition proceeds by the sliding of {gamma}(111) planes to form {alpha}(001) planes. The increasing transition pressure for more aggregated samples may be due to a positive activation volume, retarding the transition for nanocrystals with less excess (organic) volume available to them. The lack of a reverse transition upon decompression makes this interpretation more difficult because of the lack of an observable hysteresis, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain kinetic effects for certain. In the case TiN/BN nanocomposite systems, it was found that the bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) of the TiN nanoparticles was not correlated to the observed hardness or Young's modulus of the macroscopic thin film. This indicates that the origin of the observed super-hard nature of these materials is not due to any change in the Ti-N interatomic potential. Rather, the enhanced hardness must be due to nano-structural effects. It was also found that during pressurization the TiN nanoparticles developed a great deal of strain. This strain can be related to defects induced in individual nanoparticles which generates strain in adjacent particles due to the highly coupled nature of the system.

  6. A Study of Detonation Propagation and Diffraction with Compliant Confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, J; Schwendeman, D; Kapila, A; Henshaw, W

    2007-08-13

    A previous computational study of diffracting detonations with the ignition-and-growth model demonstrated that contrary to experimental observations, the computed solution did not exhibit dead zones. For a rigidly confined explosive it was found that while diffraction past a sharp corner did lead to a temporary separation of the lead shock from the reaction zone, the detonation re-established itself in due course and no pockets of unreacted material were left behind. The present investigation continues to focus on the potential for detonation failure within the ignition-and-growth (IG) model, but now for a compliant confinement of the explosive. The aim of the present paper is two fold. First, in order to compute solutions of the governing equations for multi-material reactive flow, a numerical method of solution is developed and discussed. The method is a Godunov-type, fractional-step scheme which incorporates an energy correction to suppress numerical oscillations that would occur near the material interface separating the reactive material and the inert confiner for standard conservative schemes. The numerical method uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on overlapping grids, and the accuracy of solutions is well tested using a two-dimensional rate-stick problem for both strong and weak inert confinements. The second aim of the paper is to extend the previous computational study of the IG model by considering two related problems. In the first problem, the corner-turning configuration is re-examined, and it is shown that in the matter of detonation failure, the absence of rigid confinement does not affect the outcome in a material way; sustained dead zones continue to elude the model. In the second problem, detonations propagating down a compliantly confined pencil-shaped configuration are computed for a variety of cone angles of the tapered section. It is found, in accord with experimental observation, that if the cone angle is small enough, the detonation fails prior to reaching the cone tip. For both the corner-turning and the pencil-shaped configurations, mechanisms underlying the behavior of the computed solutions are identified. It is concluded that disagreement between computation and experiment in the corner-turning case lies in the absence, in the model, of a mechanism that allows the explosive to undergo desensitization when subjected to a weak shock.

  7. Crystal structure of nacrite from the electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhukhlistov, A. P.

    2008-01-15

    The crystal structure of the nacrite mineral of the kaolin group (space group Cc; R = 2.76%; 634 unique reflections) is refined from the digital oblique-texture electron diffraction patterns obtained with the use of imaging plates. The maxima characterizing the locations and potentials of the hydrogen atoms of the hydroxyl groups are revealed from the difference Fourier-potential syntheses. The O-H interatomic distances and the angles of inclination of the O-H bond with respect to the ab plane are equal to 0.97 A and -18.3 deg. for the inner hydroxyl group and 0.92, 0.85, 0.93 A and 60.8 deg., 67.8 deg., 58.4 deg. for the outer hydroxyl groups, respectively. The O{sub donor}-O{sub acceptor} interatomic distances are 2.940, 2.949, and 3.121 A. It is established that the electrostatic potential distributions of the hydrogen atoms of the inner hydroxyl group and one of the outer hydroxyl groups located in the vicinity of the symmetry pseudoplane m of the layer are characterized by anisotropy, which can indicate a statistical distribution of these hydrogen atoms.

  8. X-ray diffraction study of crystalline barium titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zali, Nurazila Mat; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohamad, Siti Mariam; Foo, Choo Thye; Murshidi, Julie Adrianny

    2014-02-12

    In this study, BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics have been prepared via solid-state reaction method. The powders were calcined for 2 hours at different temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1200°C. Using X-ray diffraction with a Rietveld analysis, the phase formation and crystal structure of the BaTiO{sub 3} powders were studied. Change in crystallite size and tetragonality as a function of calcination temperature were also discussed. It has been found that the formation of pure perovskite phase of BaTiO{sub 3} began at calcination condition of 1000 °C for 2 hours. The crystal structure of BaTiO{sub 3} formed is in the tetragonal structure. The second phases of BaCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} existed with calcination temperature below 1000 °C. Purity, crystallite size and tetragonality of BaTiO{sub 3} powders were found to increase with increasing calcination temperature.

  9. The computation of conical diffraction coefficients in high-frequency acoustic wave scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheichl, Robert

    The computation of conical diffraction coefficients in high-frequency acoustic wave scattering B DIFFRACTION COEFFICIENTS IN HIGH-FREQUENCY ACOUSTIC WAVE SCATTERING B.D. BONNER, I.G. GRAHAM, AND V.P. SMYSHLYAEV§ Abstract. When a high-frequency acoustic or electromagnetic wave is scattered by a surface

  10. Structure of K-doped polyacetylene and its variations with annealing, studied by neutron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    complementary information to X-ray diffraction can be obtained with neutrons. In addition, neutron scatteringL-379 Structure of K-doped polyacetylene and its variations with annealing, studied by neutron~u le 9 janvier 1985, accepte le 21 fevrier 1985) Résumé. 2014 On a étudié par diffraction de neutrons

  11. A pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction at surfaces A. Janzen,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Linde, D.

    A pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction at surfaces A. Janzen,a B. Krenzer, O The construction of a pulsed electron gun for ultrafast reflection high-energy electron diffraction experiments describe the construction of an elec- tron gun used in RHEED experiments at crystal surfaces

  12. Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to radiation force and torque University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 USA lzhang@chaos.utexas.edu Abstract: Acoustical and optical non-diffracting beams are potentially useful for manipulating particles and larger objects. An extended optical theorem

  13. SOLVING VIRUS STRUCTURES FROM XFEL DIFFRACTION PATTERNS OF RANDOM PARTICLE ORIENTATIONS USING ANGULAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    SOLVING VIRUS STRUCTURES FROM XFEL DIFFRACTION PATTERNS OF RANDOM PARTICLE ORIENTATIONS USING August 2013 #12;ABSTRACT SOLVING VIRUS STRUCTURES FROM XFEL DIFFRACTION PATTERNS OF RANDOM PARTICLE such as viruses. To quote from Caspar and Klug [2] "there are only a limited number of efficient designs possible

  14. Behavior of the diffractive cross section in hadron-nucleus collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Batista; R. J. M. Covolan; A. N. Pontes

    2000-03-31

    A phenomenological analysis of diffractive dissociation of nuclei in proton-nucleus and meson-nucleus collisions is presented. The theoretical approach employed here is able to take into account at once data of the HELIOS and EHS/NA22 collaborations that exhibit quite different atomic mass dependences. Possible extensions of this approach to hard diffraction in nuclear processes are also discussed.

  15. Diffraction de Fresnel des electrons diffuss lastiquement et inlastiquement par des crans semi-transparents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1353 Diffraction de Fresnel des electrons diffusés élastiquement et inélastiquement par des écrans 1980) Résumé. 2014 L'application du principe de Huygens-Fresnel à l'étude de la diffraction par le bord légèrement divergent rend compte de l'allure générale des franges de Fresnel observées en microscopie

  16. Image distortion in thermoacoustic tomography caused by microwave diffraction Changhui Li,* Manojit Pramanik,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Image distortion in thermoacoustic tomography caused by microwave diffraction Changhui Li,* Manojit-induced thermoacoustic tomography. The distortion, due to microwave diffraction in the object to be imaged, leads Thermoacoustic TA tomography TAT in biological tis- sue reconstructs the TA source distribution from the acoustic

  17. Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals Alessandra Balestreri and Lucio Claudio Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals Alessandra Balestreri Optical properties of fcc opals oriented along the 111 direction are calculated by means of a scattering on polystyrene opals. Diffraction spectra as a function of the number of layers display an oscillatory behavior

  18. INFLUENCE OF OPTICAL BAND STRUCTURES ON THE DIFFRACTION OF PHOTONIC COLLOIDAL CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    INFLUENCE OF OPTICAL BAND STRUCTURES ON THE DIFFRACTION OF PHOTONIC COLLOIDAL CRYSTALS WILLEM L diffraction studies on colloidal crystals with large re- fractive index mismatches up to 1.45 and polarizibilities per volume as large as 0.6. These conditions push colloidal crystals into the regime where strong

  19. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-06-21

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the superposition of mass fluxes due to Fickian diffusion, thermodiffusion (Soret effect), and electromigration, which in turn are a consequence of a superposition of chemical, temperature, and electrical potential gradients. On the other hand, we propose defect pile-up at particle-particle contacts and subsequent tunneling as a mechanism creating the 'burst-mode' discontinuous densification at the singularities observed at 847 and 905 Degree-Sign C.

  20. Spin-fluctuation mechanism of anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in itinerant magnets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhuravlev, I. A.; Antropov, V. P.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    2015-11-16

    The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe1–xCox)2B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained. The anomalies are associated with the changes in band occupations due to Stoner-like band shifts and with the selective suppression of spin-orbit “hot spots” by thermal spin fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the anisotropy can increase, rather than decrease, with decreasing magnetization. This peculiar electronic mechanisms is in stark contrast to the assumptions of the existing models.

  1. The Morphology of the Anomalous Microwave Emission in the Planck 2015 data release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Hausegger, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We calculate weighted mosaic correlations between the recently published Planck 2015 foreground maps - both anomalous microwave emission (AME) maps, free-free emission, synchrotron radiation and thermal dust emission. The weighting coefficients are constructed taking account of the signal-to-error ratio given by the data product. Positive correlation is found for AME compared with thermal dust emission as well as synchrotron radiation. We find AME and free-free emission tending to be anti-correlated, however, when investigating different scales, their relationship appears to be more complex. We argue that dust particles responsible for AME are pushed out of hot zones in the interstellar medium (ISM).

  2. A fourth generation, anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry and the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debajyoti Choudhury; Dilip Kumar Ghosh

    2010-07-21

    A fourth chiral generation, with $m_{t^\\prime}$ in the range $\\sim (300 - 500)$ GeV and a moderate value of the CP-violating phase can explain the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry observed recently by the D0 collaboration. The required parameters are found to be consistent with constraints from other $B$ and $K$ decays. The presence of such quarks, apart from being detectable in the early stages of the LHC, would also have important consequences in the electroweak symmetry breaking sector.

  3. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg_1-yMn_yTe Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the Mn atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predicted for a range of quantum well thickness and the concentration of the Mn atoms. This effect enables dissipationless charge current in spintronics devices.

  4. A Prosaic Explanation for the Anomalous Accelerations Seen in Distant Spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward M. Murphy

    1998-10-05

    Anderson, et al. (gr-qc/9808081) have recently reported the discovery of an apparent anomalous, weak, long-range acceleration in the Pioneer 10/11 and Ulysses spacecraft. I believe that this result can be explained by non-isotropic radiative cooling of the spacecraft electronics through passive radiators on the spacecraft surface. These radiators are preferentially placed on the anti-solar side of the spacecraft to avoid heating by solar radiation. The power transmitted through these radiator panels can explain the observed acceleration within the observational errors.

  5. Anomalous deflection of a charged-particle beam by bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taratin, A.M.; Vorobev, S.A.

    1986-05-01

    Using computer simulations of particle trajectory, a deflection of part of the beam in the direction opposite to the curvature is discovered for charged particles passing through a bent crystal. The passage of a proton beam of energy E(0) = 1 GeV through a curved silicon single crystal is considered, and only particles that move through the single crystal in a quasi-channel mode are deflected. It is suggested that the observed anomalous deflection can be used to deflect beams of high energy charged particles through angles that are tens of times greater than the critical angle for channeling, with application to experimental nuclear physics. 6 references.

  6. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, Thomas [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chowdhury, Saumitra [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Hayakawa, Masashi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Izubuchi, Taku [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.

  7. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku

    2015-01-07

    The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.

  8. Decaying neutralino dark matter in anomalous U(1){sub H} models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Restrepo, D.; Zapata, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    In supersymmetric models extended with an anomalous U(1){sub H} different R-parity violating couplings can yield an unstable neutralino. We show that in this context astrophysical and cosmological constraints on neutralino decaying dark matter forbid bilinear R-parity breaking neutralino decays and lead to a class of purely trilinear R-parity violating scenarios in which the neutralino is stable on cosmological scales. We have found that among the resulting models some of them become suitable to explain the observed anomalies in cosmic-ray electron/positron fluxes.

  9. Search for Anomalous Production of Events with Two Photons and Additional Energetic Objects at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U. /Kosice, IEF; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-10-01

    The authors present results of a search for anomalous production of two photons together with an electron, muon, {tau} lepton, missing transverse energy, or jets using p{bar p} collision data from 1.1-2.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The event yields and kinematic distributions are examined for signs for new physics without favoring a specific model of new physics. The results are consistent with the standard model expectations. The search employs several new analysis techniques that significantly reduce instrumental backgrounds in channels with an electron and missing transverse energy.

  10. Influence of disordered porous media in the anomalous properties of a simple water model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Furlan; Carlos E. Fiore; M. C. Barbosa

    2015-04-17

    The thermodynamic, dynamic and structural behavior of a water-like system confined in a matrix is analyzed for increasing confining geometries. The liquid is modeled by a two dimensional associating lattice gas model that exhibits density and diffusion anomalies, in similarity to the anomalies present in liquid water. The matrix is a triangular lattice in which fixed obstacles impose restrictions to the occupation of the particles. We show that obstacules shortens all lines, including the phase coexistence, the critical and the anomalous lines. The inclusion of a very dense matrix not only suppress the anomalies but also the liquid-liquid critical point.

  11. Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation under anomalous dispersion in fused silica. Part 1. Numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smetanina, E O; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Kandidov, V P

    2012-10-31

    We report the results of investigation of femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in fused silica by varying the wavelength in the range from 800 to 2300 nm. It is shown that in the case of the anomalous group-velocity dispersion, a sequence of 'light bullets' with a high spatial and temporal localisation of the light field is formed along the filament. The relation of the formation and propagation of light bullets with the formation of an isolated anti-Stokes wing of the supercontinuum spectrum is established. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. Limits on anomalous WW? and WWZ couplings from WW/WZ? e?jj production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Coppage, Don; Hebert, C.

    2000-08-09

    IV, V and VI describe our particle identification methods, the data sample, and event selection criteria. Sec- tions VII and VIII are devoted to detection efficiency and background estimates. Results and conclusions are presented in Secs. IX and X. II... containing a radiator ~393 foils of 18 mm thick polypropylene in a volume filled with nitrogen gas!, and an x-ray detection chamber filled with Xe gas. The TRD information is not used in this analysis.5-4 LIMITS ON ANOMALOUS WWg AND WWZ COUPLINGS...

  13. Study of anomalous $WW??$ coupling sensitivity at the Compact Linear Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Koksal

    2014-09-09

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is one of the most popular linear colliders, planned to realize $e^{-}e^{+}$ collisions in three energy stages of $0.5$, $1.5$, and $3$ TeV. It has an energy scale never reached by any existing lepton collider. In this study, we present the sensitivity studies of the $WW\\gamma\\gamma$ anomalous quartic gauge boson coupling (aQGC) in the three different processes $e^{+}e^{-}\\rightarrow W^{-} W^{+}\\gamma$, $e^{+}e^{-} \\rightarrow e^{+}\\gamma^{*} e^{-} \\rightarrow e^{+} W^{-} \\gamma \

  14. Anomalous Dimensions and Non-Gaussianity (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563AbuseConnectJournal Article: Annual UsersConnect Anomalous

  15. Anomalous pairing vibration in neutron-rich Sn isotopes beyond the N=82 magic number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirotaka Shimoyama; Masayuki Matsuo

    2011-06-09

    Two-neutron transfer associated with the pair correlation in superfluid neutron-rich nuclei is studied with focus on low-lying $0^+$ states in Sn isotopes beyond the N=82 magic number. We describe microscopically the two-neutron addition and removal transitions by means of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field model and the continuum quasiparticle random phase approximation formulated in the coordinate space representation. It is found that the pair transfer strength for the transitions between the ground states becomes significantly large for the isotopes with $A \\ge 140$, reflecting very small neutron separation energy and long tails of the weakly bound $3p$ orbits. In $^{132-140}$Sn, a peculiar feature of the pair transfer is seen in transitions to low-lying excited $0^+$ states. They can be regarded as a novel kind of pair vibrational mode which is characterized by an anomalously long tail of the transition density extending to far outside of the nuclear surface, and a large strength comparable to that of the ground-state transitions. The presence of the weakly bound neutron orbits plays a central role for these anomalous behaviors.

  16. Anomalous scaling of low-order structure functions of turbulent velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Y. Chen; B. Dhruva; S. Kurien; K. R. Sreenivasan; M. A. Taylor

    2004-11-30

    It is now believed that the scaling exponents of moments of velocity increments are anomalous, or that the departures from Kolmogorov's (1941) self-similar scaling increase nonlinearly with the increasing order of the moment. This appears to be true whether one considers velocity increments themselves or their absolute values. However, moments of order lower than 2 of the absolute values of velocity increments have not been investigated thoroughly for anomaly. Here, we discuss the importance of the scaling of non-integer moments of order between +2 and -1, and obtain them from direct numerical simulations at moderate Reynolds numbers (Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers $R_\\lambda \\le$ 450) and experimental data at high Reynolds numbers ($R_\\lambda \\approx$ 10,000). The relative difference between the measured exponents and Kolmogorov's prediction increases as the moment order decreases towards -1, thus showing that the anomaly that is manifest in high-order moments is present in low-order moments as well. This conclusion provides a motivation for seeking a theory of anomalous scaling as the order of the moment vanishes. Such a theory does not have to consider rare events--which may be affected by non-universal features such as shear--and so may be regarded as advantageous to consider and develop.

  17. Analysis of The Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed in Spacecraft Flybys of Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roger Ellman

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008 anomalous behavior in spacecraft flybys of Earth was reported in Physical Review Letters, Volume 100, Issue 9, March 7, 2008, in an article entitled "Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed during Spacecraft Flybys of Earth". The data indicate unaccounted for changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005. The article states that, "All ... potential sources of systematic error .... [have been] modeled. None can account for the observed anomalies.... Like the Pioneer anomaly ... the Earth flybys anomaly is a real effect .... Its source is unknown." In the present article it is shown that the Earth flybys anomaly would be caused by a very small acceleration [in addition to that of natural gravitation], centrally directed and independent of distance, the same effect as that which the Pioneer anomaly exhibits. How that effect operates to produce the observed results is analyzed. A cause of the centrally directed accelerations is presented.

  18. Anomalous Flyby in the Non-Prefered Reference Frame of the Rotating Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Petry

    2011-09-27

    Several spacecrafts show an anomalous flyby. In a previous paper a non-prefered reference frame is studied moving uniformly relative to the prefered one. In this article the Doppler frequency residual is derived. The prefered reference frame is given by the isotropy of the CMB and the non-prefered one is the Earth. The resulting jump is much too small to explain the measured anomalous flybys of the different spacecrafts. Therefore, the transformations from the prefered frame to the non-prefered frame are replaced by the corresponding total differentials. A formula for the Doppler frequency residual is derived. It is applied to the prefered frame of the Earth and the non-prefered frame of the rotating Earth. The resulting Doppler residual depends on the direction of the velocity of the spacecraft and the position of the observer on the rotating Earth. It is similar to the experimental formula of Anderson et al. which is independent of the position of the observer.

  19. Static and dynamic contributions to anomalous chain dynamics in polymer blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Bernabei; Angel J. Moreno; Juan Colmenero

    2010-11-10

    By means of computer simulations, we investigate the relaxation of the Rouse modes in a simple bead-spring model for non-entangled polymer blends. Two different models are used for the fast component, namely fully-flexible and semiflexible chains. The latter are semiflexible in the meaning that static intrachain correlations are strongly non-gaussian at all length scales. The dynamic asymmetry in the blend is strongly enhanced by decreasing temperature, inducing confinement effects on the fast component. The dynamics of the Rouse modes show very different trends for the two models of the fast component. For the fully-flexible case, the relaxation times exhibit a progressive deviation from Rouse scaling on increasing the dynamic asymmetry. This anomalous effect has a dynamic origin. It is not related to particular static features of the Rouse modes, which indeed are identical to those of the fully-flexible homopolymer, and are not modified by the dynamic asymmetry in the blend. On the contrary, in the semiflexible case the relaxation times exhibit approximately the same scaling behaviour as the amplitudes of the modes. This suggests that the origin of the anomalous dynamic scaling for semiflexible chains confined in the blend is esentially of static nature. We discuss implications of these observations for the applicability of theoretical approaches to chain dynamics in polymer blends.

  20. Role of polarization in probing anomalous gauge interactions of the Higgs boson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudhansu S. Biswal; Debajyoti Choudhury; Rohini M. Godbole; Mamta

    2009-03-22

    We explore the use of polarized $e^+/e^-$ beams and/or the information on final state decay lepton polarizations in probing the interaction of the Higgs boson with a pair of vector bosons. A model independent analysis of the process $e^+ e^- \\to f \\bar f H$, where $f$ is any light fermion, is carried out through the construction of observables having identical properties under the discrete symmetry transformations as different individual anomalous interactions. This allows us to probe an individual anomalous term independent of the others. We find that initial state beam polarization can significantly improve the sensitivity to CP-odd couplings of the $Z$ boson with the Higgs boson ($ZZH$). Moreover, an ability to isolate events with a particular $\\tau$ helicity, with even 40% efficiency, can improve sensitivities to certain $ZZH$ couplings by as much as a factor of 3. In addition, the contamination from the $ZZH$ vertex contributions present in the measurement of the trilinear Higgs-$W$ ($WWH$) couplings can be reduced to a great extent by employing polarised beams. The effects of initial state radiation (ISR) and beamstrahlung, which can be relevant for higher values of the beam energy are also included in the analysis.

  1. Leptophilic dark matter and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2014-08-26

    We consider renormalizable theories such that the scattering of dark matter off leptons arises at tree level, but scattering off nuclei only arises at loop. In this framework, the various dark matter candidates can be classified by their spins and by the forms of their interactions with leptons. In this study, we determine the corrections to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon that arise from its interactions with dark matter. We then consider the implications of these results for a set of simplified models of leptophilic dark matter. When a dark matter candidate reduces the existing tension between themore »standard model prediction of the anomalous magnetic moment and the experimental measurement, the region of parameter space favored to completely remove the discrepancy is highlighted. Conversely, when agreement is worsened, we place limits on the parameters of the corresponding simplified model. These bounds and favored regions are compared against the experimental constraints on the simplified model from direct detection and from collider searches. Although these constraints are severe, we find there do exist limited regions of parameter space in these simple theories that can explain the observed anomaly in the muon magnetic moment while remaining consistent with all experimental bounds.« less

  2. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive events with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A sample of pp collision data collected under low luminosity conditions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is used to study diffractive dijet production. Events containing at least two jets with pT > 20 GeV are selected and analysed in terms of variables which discriminate between diffractive and non-diffractive processes. Cross sections are measured differentially in \\Delta\\eta_F, the size of the observable forward region of pseudorapidity which is devoid of hadronic activity, and in an estimator, \\xi˜, of the fractional momentum loss of the proton assuming single diffractive dissociation (pp -> pX). Model comparisons indicate a dominant non-diffractive contribution up to moderately large \\Delta\\eta_F and small\\xi˜, with a diffractive contribution which is significant at the highest \\Delta\\etaF and the lowest \\xi˜. The rapidity gap survival probability is estimated from comparisons of the data in this latter region with predictions based on diffractive parton density fun...

  3. Mapping Strain in Nanocrystalline Nitinol: an X-ray Diffraction Method (SULI paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibee, Mathew; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-01-04

    Understanding the mechanical properties of biomedical devices is critical in predicting and preventing their failure in the body. Such knowledge is essential, for example, in the design of biomedical stents, which must undergo repeated strain over their ten year lifetimes without breaking. Computational models are used to predict mechanical response of a device, but these models are not complete; there are significant deviations from the predictions, especially when devices are subjected to repeated multi-axial loads. Improving these models requires comparisons with actual measurements of strained nitinol. Local measurements of the full strain tensor can be made using X-ray diffraction techniques, but they are currently limited to materials whose grain size is larger than the X-ray beam size or require several diffraction patterns produced by rotation of the sample. Nitinol stents are nanocrystalline, with grains smaller than any available X-ray beam. We present a method for measuring the local strain in a nanocrystalline material from a single X-ray diffraction pattern by extending current powder diffraction techniques. The components of the strain tensor are mapped onto a displacement ellipsoid, which is then reconstructed from diffraction data through Bragg's law and least-squares fitting. Using simulated diffraction data, we performed sensitivity tests to examine how the accuracy of the method depends on how much of the diffraction pattern is measured. We found that strain can be accurately calculated from measurements of at least three diffraction arcs of at least 20{sup o} in length. Thus we believe that our method is a viable approach to calculating strain provided a sufficient amount of diffraction pattern is recorded.

  4. Single-particle structure determination by correlations of snapshot X-ray diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 20)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Starodub, D.

    2013-03-25

    This deposition includes the diffraction images generated by the paired polystyrene spheres in random orientations. These images were used to determine and phase the single particle diffraction volume from their autocorrelation functions.

  5. Low missing mass, single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Kuprash, O. E.; Orava, R.; Salii, A.

    2014-12-15

    The cross sections for single and double diffraction dissociation at low missing masses are calculated for the LHC energies on the basis of the dual (Regge) model under the assumption of a dominant contribution of the exchange of the Pomeron Regge pole. The model reproduces the rich resonance structure in the region of low missing masses M{sub x}. Diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory M{sub x} supplemented with the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing-mass dependence of the differential and integrated single and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  6. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron M.; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; et al

    2009-11-01

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 °C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  7. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

  8. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Lima, Enju; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Neiman, Aaron M.

    2009-11-06

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 deg. C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  9. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  10. Non-uniform sampled scalar diffraction calculation using non-uniform fast Fourier transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Scalar diffraction calculations such as the angular spectrum method (ASM) and Fresnel diffraction, are widely used in the research fields of optics, X-rays, electron beams, and ultrasonics. It is possible to accelerate the calculation using fast Fourier transform (FFT); unfortunately, acceleration of the calculation of non-uniform sampled planes is limited due to the property of the FFT that imposes uniform sampling. In addition, it gives rise to wasteful sampling data if we calculate a plane having locally low and high spatial frequencies. In this paper, we developed non-uniform sampled ASM and Fresnel diffraction to improve the problem using the non-uniform FFT.

  11. Spin Wave Diffraction Control and Read-out with a Quantum Memory for Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Hétet; David Guéry-Odelin

    2015-01-06

    A scheme for control and read-out of diffracted spins waves to propagating light fields is presented. Diffraction is obtained via sinusoidally varying lights shifts and ideal one-to-one mapping to light is realized using a gradient echo quantum memory. We also show that dynamical control of the diffracted spin waves spatial orders can be implemented to realize a quantum pulse sequencer for temporal modes that have high time-bandwidth products. Full numerical solutions suggest that both co-propagating and couterpropagating light shift geometries can be used, making the proposal applicable to hot and cold atomic vapours as well as solid state systems with two-level atoms.

  12. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  13. One dimensional surface profilometry by analyzing the Fresnel diffraction pattern from a step

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osanloo, Soghra

    2013-01-01

    When a coherent quasi-monochromatic light is reflected from a step, a diffraction pattern is formed that can be described by Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral and visibility of the fringes depends on the height of the step. In this paper, it is shown that the Fresnel diffraction from a step can be described by an interference-like formula. A relationship is derived between the visibility of the diffraction pattern from 1D step and the step height. Finally, a novel method is presented for 1D surface testing. The theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  14. Neutron and X-ray diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modelling of magnesium stabilised amorphous calcium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benning, Liane G.

    Neutron and X-ray diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modelling of magnesium online xxxx Keywords: Amorphous calcium carbonate; EPSR modelling; Neutron diffraction; X-ray diffraction Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) plays a key role in biomineralisation processes in sea organisms. Neutron

  15. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

    2008-07-08

    A system for determining property of multiphase fluids based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum exhibits peaks whose relative size depends on the properties of the various phases of the multiphase fluid. For example, for particles in a liquid, the peaks exhibit dependence on the particle size and the particle volume fraction. Where the exact relationship is know know a priori, data from different peaks of the same reflection spectrum or data from the peaks of different spectra obtained from different diffraction gratings can be used to resolve the size and volume fraction.

  16. Rank-1 accelerated illumination recovery in scanning diffractive imaging by transparency estimation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2014-08-07

    Illumination retrieval in scanning diffractive imaging a.k.a. ptychography is challenging when the specimen is weakly scattering or surrounded by empty space. We describe a rank-1 acceleration method for weakly scattering or piecewise smooth specimens.

  17. Reverse Monte Carlo investigations concerning recent isotopic substitution neutron diffraction data on liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pethes, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    Although liquid water has been studied for many decades by (X-ray and neutron) diffraction measurements, new experimental results keep appearing, virtually every year. The reason for this is that neither X-ray, nor neutron diffraction data are trivial to correct and interpret for this essential substance. Since X-rays are somewhat insensitive to hydrogen, neutron diffraction with (most frequently, H/D) isotopic substitution is vital for investigating the most important feature in water: hydrogen bonding. Here, the two very recent sets of neutron diffraction data are considered, both exploiting the contrast between light and heavy hydrogen, $^1$H and $^2$H, in different ways. Reverse Monte Carlo structural modeling is applied for constructing large structural models that are as consistent as possible with all experimental information, both in real and reciprocal space. The method has also proven to be useful for revealing where possible small inconsistencies appear during primary data processing: for one neutr...

  18. Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information ...

  19. Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication and Application to EUV Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-01-01

    Application to Diffractive Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol.of advanced diffracitve optics,”J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. B,diffusers. ” Applied Optics, 43, 28, 1 (2004). Patrick P.

  20. A Low Diffraction Laser Beam as Applied to Polymer Ablation Xuanhui Lu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    ] and UV [8] beams is a well established process. Factors of laser beams likely to affect drilling-diffraction beam to ablation-dominated drilling and grooving processes involving polymer material and its

  1. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

  2. An AdS/QCD holographic wavefunction for the rho meson and diffractive rho meson electroproduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Forshaw; R. Sandapen

    2012-07-18

    We show that AdS/QCD generates predictions for the rate of diffractive rho meson electroproduction that are in agreement with data collected at the HERA electron-proton collider.

  3. Investigating the structure of the core-mantle boundary region using S and P diffracted waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manners, Ursula J.

    2008-01-01

    with existing data sets to model the base of the mantle. Weour diffracted data sets to model the base of the mantle,and data sets used, the features seen in the various models at the base

  4. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jessica L

    2010-01-01

    properties of Au thin films by X?ray diffraction and in in  polythiophene thin?film transistors.  Nat Mater 2006, copper  phthalocyanine thin films evaporated on amorphous 

  5. Electron Pulse Compression with a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yihua

    Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a powerful method for studying time-resolved structural changes. Currently, space-charge-induced temporal broadening prevents obtaining high-brightness electron pulses with sub-100 ...

  6. Twisted X-rays: incoming waveforms yielding discrete diffraction patterns for helical structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friesecke, Gero; Jüstel, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Conventional X-ray methods use incoming plane waves and result in discrete diffraction patterns when scattered at crystals. Here we find, by a systematic method, incoming waveforms which exhibit discrete diffraction patterns when scattered at helical structures. As examples we present simulated diffraction patterns of carbon nanotubes and tobacco mosaic virus. The new incoming waveforms, which we call twisted waves due to their geometric shape, are found theoretically as closed-form solutions to Maxwell's equations. The theory of the ensuing diffraction patterns is developed in detail. A twisted analogue of the Von Laue condition is seen to hold, with the peak locations encoding the symmetry and the helix parameters, and the peak intensities indicating the electronic structure in the unit cell. If suitable twisted X-ray sources can in the future be realized experimentally, it appears from our mathematical results that they will provide a powerful tool for directly determining the detailed atomic structure of ...

  7. Lattice motions from THz phonon-polaritons measured with femtosecond x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenlein, Robert William; Cavalleri, A.; Wall, S.; Simpson, C.; Statz, E.; Ward, D.W.; Nelson, K.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Rini, M.; Dean, N.; Khalil, M.

    2006-08-07

    We use femtosecond x-ray diffraction to measure the coherent lattice displacements associated with the excitation and propagation of THz phonon polaritons in LiTaO3.

  8. Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The post-experiment processing of X-ray Diffraction Microscopy data is often time-consuming and difficult. This is mostly due to the fact that even if a preliminary result has been reconstructed, there is no definitive answer as to whether or not a better result with more consistently retrieved phases can still be obtained. We show here that the first step in data analysis, the assembly of two-dimensional diffraction patterns from a large set of raw diffraction data, is crucial to obtaining reconstructions of highest possible consistency. We have developed software that automates this process and results in consistently accurate diffraction patterns. We have furthermore derived some criteria of validity for a tool commonly used to assess the consistency of reconstructions, the phase retrieval transfer function, and suggest a modified version that has improved utility for judging reconstruction quality.

  9. X-Ray Diffraction Observations of a Charge-Density-Wave Order...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Diffraction Observations of a Charge-Density-Wave Order in Superconducting Ortho-II YBa2Cu3O6.54 Single Crystals in Zero Magnetic Field Citation Details In-Document Search...

  10. Synthesis and single crystal x-ray diffraction study of a Schiff...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    single crystal x-ray diffraction study of a Schiff base derived from 4-acylpyrazolone and 2-aminophenol Re-direct Destination: The title compound, (Z)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-41((2hydr...

  11. THE STRUCTURE OF SOLID SURFACES AND OF ADSORBATES BY LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON DIFFRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    been carried out by LEED. Changes In chemical compositiondeveloped, a complete dynamical LEED Intensity analysis 1s shave been studied by LEED and 1n some cases diffraction beam

  12. Strain and particle size of palladium powders by time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, A.C.; Conant, J.W.; Talcott, C.L.; David, M.A.; Vaninetti, J.; Goldstone, J.A.; Williams, A.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Roof, R.B.; Hitterman, R.L.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Faber, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined the strain and particle size for several samples of palladium powder by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction on two different diffractometers and by x-ray powder diffraction. The results are compared and found to be in fair agreement. The time-of-flight method gives good enough precision to reveal deficiencies in the simple models used for strain and particle size line broadening. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Review of crystal diffraction and its application to focusing energetic gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; von Ballmoos, P.; Naya, J.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G.; Faiz, M.

    1995-10-01

    The basic features of crystal diffraction and their application to the construction of a crystal diffraction lens for focusing energetic gamma rays are described using examples from the work preformed at the Argonne National Laboratory. Both on-axis and off-axis performance are discussed. The review includes of normal crystals, bent crystals, and crystals with variable crystal-plane spacings to develop both condenser-type lenses and point-to-point imaging lenses.

  14. X-ray diffraction characterization of suspended structures forMEMS applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Lavelle, B.; Rigo, S.; Masri, T.; Bosseboeuf, A.; Sarnet, T.; Petit, J.-A.; Desmarres, J.-M.

    2005-09-15

    Mechanical stress control is becoming one of the major challenges for the future of micro and nanotechnologies. Micro scanning X-ray diffraction is one of the promising techniques that allows stress characterization in such complex structures at sub micron scales. Two types of MEMS structure have been studied: a bilayer cantilever composed of a gold film deposited on poly-silicon and a boron doped silicon bridge. X-ray diffraction results are discussed in view of numerical simulation experiments.

  15. Pioneer 10 and 11 Spacecraft Anomalous Acceleration in the light of the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. W. Kalinowski

    2015-06-29

    The Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory leads to a model of a modified acceleration that can fit an anomalous acceleration experienced by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The future positions of those spacecrafts are predicted using distorted hyperbolic orbit. A connection between an anomalous acceleration and a Hubble constant is solved in the theory together with a relation to a cosmological constant using a paradigm of modern cosmology. . In the paper we consider an exact solution of a point mass motion in the Solar System under an influence of an anomalous acceleration. We find two types of orbits: periodic and chaotic. Both orbits are bounded. This means there is no possibility to escape from the Solar System. Some possibilities to avoid this conclusion are considered. Relativistic effects and a cosmological drifting of a gravitational constant are considered.The model of an anomalous acceleration does not cause any contradiction with Solar System observations. We give a full statistical analysis of the model.

  16. Functional integral over velocities for a spinning particle with and without anomalous magnetic moment in a constant electromagnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    1997-10-16

    The technique of functional integration over velocities is applied to the calculation of the propagator of a spinning particle with and without anomalous magnetic moment. A representation for the spin factor is obtained in this context for the particle in a constant electromagnetic field. As a by-product, we also obtain a Schwinger representation for the first case.

  17. Anomalous specific heat jump in a two-component ultracold Fermi gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armen Sedrakian; Herbert Müther; Artur Polls

    2006-09-20

    The thermodynamic functions of a Fermi gas with spin population imbalance are studied in the temperature-asymmetry plane in the BCS limit. The low temperature domain is characterized by anomalous enhancement of the entropy and the specific heat above their values in the unpaired state, decrease of the gap and eventual unpairing phase transition as the temperature is lowered. The unpairing phase transition induces a second jump in the specific heat, which can be measured in calorimetric experiments. While the superfluid is unstable against a supercurrent carrying state, it may sustain a metastable state if cooled adiabatically down from the stable high-temperature domain. In the latter domain the temperature dependence of the gap and related functions is analogous to the predictions of the BCS theory.

  18. Anomalous Brownian motion of colloidal particle in a nematic environment: effect of the director fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Turiv; A. Brodin; V. Nazarenko

    2015-06-12

    As recently reported [Turiv T. et al., Science, 2013, Vol. 342, 1351], fluctuations in the orientation of the liquid crystal (LC) director can transfer momentum from the LC to a colloid, such that the diffusion of the colloid becomes anomalous on a short time scale. Using video microscopy and single particle tracking, we investigate random thermal motion of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal for the time scales shorter than the expected time of director fluctuations. At long times, compared to the characteristic time of the nematic director relaxation we observe typical anisotropic Brownian motion with the mean square displacement (MSD) linear in time $\\tau$ and inversly proportional to the effective viscosity of the nematic medium. At shorter times, however, the dynamics is markedly nonlinear with MSD growing more slowly (subdiffusion) or faster (superdiffusion) than $\\tau$. These results are discussed in the context of coupling of colloidal particle's dynamics to the director fluctuation dynamics.

  19. Thermodynamic and dynamic anomalous behavior in the TIP4P/? water model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raul Fuentes-Azcatl; Marcia C. Barbosa

    2015-08-11

    The model Tip4p/{\\epsilon} for water is tested for the presence of thermodynamic and dy- namic anomalies. Molecular dynamic simulations for this model were performed and we show that for this system the density versus temperature at constant pressure ex- hibits a maximum. In addition we also show that the diffusion coefficient versus density at constant temperature has a maximum and a minimum. The anomalous behavior of the density and of the diffusion coefficient obey the water hierachy. The results for the Tip4p- are consistent with experiments and when compared with the Tip4p-2005 model show similar results a variety of physical properties and better performance for the dielectric constant.

  20. Extrinsic anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial Mn{sub 4}N films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X. Ren, L. Z.; Zhou, W. Q.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Li, S. W.

    2015-01-19

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated. The longitudinal conductivity ?{sub xx} is within the superclean regime, indicating Mn{sub 4}N is a highly conducting material. We further demonstrate that the AHE signal in 40-nm-thick films is mainly due to the extrinsic contributions based on the analysis fitted by ?{sub AH}=a??{sub xx0}+b?{sub xx}{sup 2} and ?{sub AH}??{sub xx}. Our study not only provide a strategy for further theoretical work on antiperovskite manganese nitrides but also shed promising light on utilizing their extrinsic AHE to fabricate spintronic devices.

  1. Search for anomalous production of multiple leptons in association with $W$ and $Z$ bosons at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a search for anomalous production of multiple low-energy leptons in association with a W or Z boson using events collected at the CDF experiment corresponding to 5.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. This search is sensitive to a wide range of topologies with low-momentum leptons, including those with the leptons near one another. The observed rates of production of additional electrons and muons are compared with the standard model predictions. No indications of phenomena beyond the standard model are found. A 95% confidence level limit is presented on the production cross section for a benchmark model of supersymmetric hidden-valley Higgs production. Particle identification efficiencies are also provided to enable the calculation of limits on additional models.

  2. AMI OBSERVATIONS OF THE ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tibbs, C. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scaife, A. M. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Watson, R. A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paladini, R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grainge, K. J. B., E-mail: ctibbs@ipac.caltech.edu [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present observations of the known anomalous microwave emission region, G159.6-18.5, in the Perseus molecular cloud at 16 GHz performed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Small Array. These are the highest angular resolution observations of G159.6-18.5 at microwave wavelengths. By combining these microwave data with infrared observations between 5.8 and 160 {mu}m from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we investigate the existence of a microwave-infrared correlation on angular scales of {approx}2'. We find that the overall correlation appears to increase toward shorter infrared wavelengths, which is consistent with the microwave emission being produced by electric dipole radiation from small, spinning dust grains. We also find that the microwave-infrared correlation peaks at 24 {mu}m (6.7{sigma}), suggesting that the microwave emission is originating from a population of stochastically heated small interstellar dust grains rather than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydorenko, D; Chen, L; Ventzek, P L G

    2015-01-01

    Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons was observed in simulation of a high- voltage dc discharge with electron emission from the cathode. An electron beam produced by the emission interacts with the nonuniform plasma in the discharge via a two-stream instability. Efficient energy transfer from the beam to the plasma electrons is ensured by the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The short waves near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. The sheath near the anode reflects some of the accelerated electrons back into the plasma. These electrons travel through the plasma, reflect near the cathode, and enter the accelerating area again but with a higher energy than before. Such particles are accelerated to energies much higher than after the first acceleration. This mechanism plays a role in explaining earlier experimental observations of energetic suprathermal electrons i...

  4. Entropy of the Nordic electricity market: anomalous scaling, spikes, and mean-reversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perello, J; Montero, M; Palatella, L; Simonsen, I; Masoliver, Jaume; Montero, Miquel; Palatella, Luigi; Perello, Josep; Simonsen, Ingve

    2006-01-01

    The electricity market is a very peculiar market due to the large variety of phenomena that can affect the spot price. However, this market still shows many typical features of other speculative (commodity) markets like, for instance, data clustering and mean reversion. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) to the Nordic spot electricity market (Nord Pool). We study the waiting time statistics between consecutive spot price spikes and find it to show anomalous scaling characterized by a decaying power-law. The exponent observed in data follows a quite robust relationship with the one implied by the DEA analysis. We also in terms of the DEA revisit topics like clustering, mean-reversion and periodicities. We finally propose a GARCH inspired model but for the price itself. Models in the context of stochastic volatility processes appear under this scope to have a feasible description.

  5. On the explanation and calculation of anomalous reflood hydrodynamics in large PWR cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Reflood hydrodynamics from large-scale (1:20) test facilities in Japan have yielded apparently anomalous behavior relative to FLECHT tests. Namely, even at reflooding rates below one inch per second, very large liquid volume fractions (10-15%) exist above the quench fronts shortly after flood begins; thus cladding temperature excursions are terminated early in the reflood phase. This paper discusses an explanation for this behavior: liquid films on the core's unheated rods. The experimental findings are shown to be correctly simulated with a new four-field (vapor, films, droplets) version of the best-estimate TRAC-PF1 computer code, TRAC-FF. These experimental and analytical findings have important implications for PWR large-break LOCA licensing.

  6. Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burger, Florian; Feng, Xu; Hotzel, Grit; Jansen, Karl; Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia; Petschlies, Marcus; Renner, Dru B.

    2014-02-24

    We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a?hvp, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring Nf=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Including the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of amore »?hvp. The final result involving an estimate of the systematic uncertainty a?hvp=6.74 (21)(18) 10-8 shows a good overall agreement with these computations.« less

  7. Anomalous Lattice Dynamics and Thermal Properties of Supported Size- and Shape-selected Pt Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B Roldan Cuenya; A Frenkel; S Mostafa; F Behafarid; J Croy; L Ono; Q Wang

    2011-12-31

    Anomalous lattice dynamics and thermal behavior have been observed for ligand-free, size-, and shape-selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on nanocrystalline {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. Several major differences were observed for the NPs with respect to bulk Pt: (i) a contraction in the interatomic distances, (ii) a reduction in the dynamic (temperature-dependent) bond-length disorder and associated increase in the Debye temperature ({Theta}{sub D}), and (iii) an overall decrease in the bond-length expansion coefficient coupled with NP stiffening. The increase in the Debye temperature is explained in terms of the NP size, shape, support interactions, and adsorbate effects. For a similar average size, we observe a striking correlation between the shapes of the NPs and their {Theta}{sub D} values.

  8. Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendra K. Verma

    1995-09-05

    In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

  9. A Case Against Spinning PAHs as the Source of the Anomalous Microwave Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, Brandon S

    2015-01-01

    We employ the all-sky map of the anomalous microwave emission (AME) produced by component separation of the microwave sky to study correlations between the AME and Galactic dust properties. We find that while the AME is highly correlated with all tracers of dust emission, fluctuations in the AME intensity per dust optical depth are uncorrelated with fluctuations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), casting doubt on the association between AME and PAHs. Further, we find that the best predictor of the AME strength is the dust radiance and that the AME intensity increases with increasing radiation field strength, at variance with predictions from the spinning dust hypothesis. A reconsideration of other emission mechanisms, such as magnetic dipole emission, is warranted.

  10. Reduction of trapped ion anomalous heating by in situ surface plasma cleaning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous motional heating is a major obstacle to scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. While the source of this heating is not yet understood, several previous studies suggest that surface contaminants may be largely responsible. We demonstrate an improvement by a factor of four in the room-temperature heating rate of a niobium surface electrode trap by in situ plasma cleaning of the trap surface. This surface treatment was performed with a simple homebuilt coil assembly and commercially-available matching network and is considerably gentler than other treatments, such as ion milling or laser cleaning, that have previously been shown to improve ion heating rates. We do not see an improvement in the heating rate when the trap is operated at cryogenic temperatures, pointing to a role of thermally-activated surface contaminants in motional heating whose activity may freeze out at low temperatures.

  11. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The lattice thermal conductivities ( ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure, P, using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of . This anomalous P dependence of arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.

  12. Anomalously augmented charge transport capabilities of biomimetically transformed collagen intercalated nano graphene based biocolloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhar, Purbarun; Nayar, Suprabha; Das, Sarit K

    2015-01-01

    Collagen micro fibrils bio mimetically intercalate graphitic structures in aqueous media to form graphene nano platelets collagen complex (G Cl). Synthesized G Cl based stable, aqueous bio nanocolloids exhibit anomalously augmented charge transportation capabilities over simple collagen or graphene based colloids. The concentration tunable electrical transport properties of synthesized aqueous G Cl bio nanocolloids has been experimentally observed, theoretically analyzed and mathematically modeled. A comprehensive approach to mathematically predict the electrical transport properties of simple graphene and collagen based colloids has been presented. A theoretical formulation to explain the augmented transport characteristics of the G Cl bio nanocolloids based on the physico chemical interactions among the two entities, as revealed from extensive characterizations of the G Cl bio complex, has also been proposed. Physical interactions between the zwitterionic amino acid molecules within the collagen triple heli...

  13. Discovery of a Possible Anomalous X-ray Pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Lamb; D. W. Fox; D. J. Macomb; T. A. Prince

    2002-06-18

    We report the serendipitous detection of a previously unreported pulsar from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud using data from the CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory. Because of the luminosity of about 1.5x10^35 ergs/s, its near lack of variability for more than 20 years, and its soft spectrum we propose that it is an anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP). Data from the ROSAT PSPC in conjunction with the CHANDRA data give a period, P, of 5.44 s and a spin down time, Pdot/P, of 11 ky. If this is a correct identification it will be the first extragalactic AXP and the fastest yet discovered.

  14. Anomalous behavior of the Pd/D system. Final report, June 1989-August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpak, S.J.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    In a news conference on 23 March 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced that nuclear events could be initiated by the electrochemical compression of deuterium into a palladium lattice. When researchers around the world tried to reproduce the effects described by Pons and Fleischmann in their laboratories, the results were mixed. The nature of the announcement and the Irreproducibility of the effect divided the scientific community into believers and skeptics, indicating religious fervor rather than scientific reasoning. Shortly after the Fleischmann-Pons announcement, a program at NRaD investigated anomalous effects in the Pd/D system. The NRaD program investigated the Pd/D system using standard electrochemical techniques to determine conditions for achieving high Pd/D loadings. Metallurgical aspects of the Pd/D system and the effect of additives were also examined. Tritium content in the gas/liquid phases and radiation emissions were monitored during electrolysis. This report summarizes the investigation results.

  15. On Absence and Existence of the Anomalous Localized Resonance without the Quasi-static Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henrik Kettunen; Matti Lassas; Petri Ola

    2015-04-14

    The paper considers the transmission problems for Helmholtz equation with bodies that have negative material parameters. Such material parameters are used to model metals on optical frequencies and so-called metamaterials. As the absorption of the materials in the model tends to zero the fields may blow up. When the speed of the blow up is suitable, this is called the Anomalous Localized Reconance (ALR). In this paper we study this phenomenon and formulate a new condition, the weak Anomalous Localized Reconance (w-ALR), where the speed of the blow up of fields may be slower. Using this concept, we can study the blow up of fields in the presence of negative material parameters without the commonly used quasi-static approximation. We give simple geometric conditions under which w-ALR or ALR may, or may not appear. In particular, we show that in a case of a curved layer of negative material with a strictly convex boundary neither ALR nor w-ALR appears with non-zero frequencies (i.e. in the dynamic range) in dimensions $d\\ge 3$. In the case when the boundary of the negative material contains a flat subset we show that the w-ALR always happens with some point sources in dimensions $d\\ge 2$. These results, together with the earlier results of Milton et al. ( [22, 23]) and Ammari et al. ([2]) show that for strictly convex bodies ALR may appear only for bodies so small that the quasi-static approximation is realistic. This gives limits for size of the objects for which invisibility cloaking methods based on ALR may be used.

  16. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  17. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  18. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Effect of recording condition on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram with magnetic garnet films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Yuichi, E-mail: nakamura@ee.tut.ac.jp; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-09-14

    A holographic memory has been attracting attention as recording media with high recording density and high data transfer rate. We have studied the magnetic garnets as a rewritable and long life media for magnetic holography. However, since the signal intensity of reconstructed image was relatively low, the effects of recording conditions on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram were investigated with experiments and the numerical simulation using COMSOL multi-physics. The diffraction efficiency tends to decrease as increasing the spatial frequency, and the use of short pulse laser with the pulse width of 50 ps was found to be effective to achieve high diffraction efficiency. This suggests that the formation of clear magnetic fringe similar to interference pattern can be obtained by the use of short pulse laser since undesirable heat diffusion during radiation does not occur. On the other hand, the diffraction efficiency increased as increasing the film thickness up to 3.1 ?m but was saturated in the garnet film thicker than 3.1 ?m in the case of spatial frequency of 1500 line pair/mm. The numerical simulation showed that the effective depth of magnetic fringe was limited about 1.8 ?m irrespective of the garnet film thickness because the fringes were connected by thermal diffusion near the surface of the film, and the effective depth is limited due to this connection of the magnetic fringe. Avoiding this fringe connection, much higher diffraction efficiency will be achieved.

  2. Diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Albrow, M.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell’Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.

    2012-08-01

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at s?=1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p?p collider. A data sample from 310 pb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, EjetT, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of xp? of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, xp?Bj, and a Q²?(EjetT)² in the ranges 10?³p?Bj<10?¹ and 10²p?<0.09 and a four-momentum transfer squared tp?>-4 GeV². The tp? dependence is measured as a function of Q² and xp?Bj and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak xp?Bj and Q² dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q² dependence in the diffractive tp? distributions.

  3. Diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Albrow, M.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; et al

    2012-08-01

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at s?=1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p?p collider. A data sample from 310 pb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, EjetT, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of xp? of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, xp?Bj, and a Q²?(EjetT)² in the ranges 10?³p?Bjmore »region of p?-momentum-loss fraction 0.03p?p?>-4 GeV². The tp? dependence is measured as a function of Q² and xp?Bj and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak xp?Bj and Q² dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q² dependence in the diffractive tp? distributions.« less

  4. The early development of neutron diffraction: science in the wings of the Manhattan Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, T. E., E-mail: masont@ornl.gov; Gawne, T. J.; Nagler, S. E.; Nestor, M. B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Carpenter, J. M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Early neutron diffraction experiments performed in 1944 using the first nuclear reactors are described. Although neutron diffraction was first observed using radioactive decay sources shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was only with the availability of higher intensity neutron beams from the first nuclear reactors, constructed as part of the Manhattan Project, that systematic investigation of Bragg scattering became possible. Remarkably, at a time when the war effort was singularly focused on the development of the atomic bomb, groups working at Oak Ridge and Chicago carried out key measurements and recognized the future utility of neutron diffraction quite independent of its contributions to the measurement of nuclear cross sections. Ernest O. Wollan, Lyle B. Borst and Walter H. Zinn were all able to observe neutron diffraction in 1944 using the X-10 graphite reactor and the CP-3 heavy water reactor. Subsequent work by Wollan and Clifford G. Shull, who joined Wollan’s group at Oak Ridge in 1946, laid the foundations for widespread application of neutron diffraction as an important research tool.

  5. Non-Diffracting Electron Vortex Beams Balancing Their Electron-Electron Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maor Mutzafi; Ido Kaminer; Gal Harari; Mordechai Segev

    2015-10-10

    By introducing concepts of beam shaping into quantum mechanics, we show how interference effects of the quantum wavefunction describing multiple electrons can exactly balance the repulsion among the electrons. With proper shaping of the fermionic wavefunction, we propose non-diffracting quantum wavepackets of multiple electrons that can also carry orbital angular momentum, in the form of multi-electron non-diffracting vortex beams. The wavefunction is designed to compensate for both the repulsion between electrons and for the diffraction-broadening. This wavefunction shaping facilitates the use of electron beams of higher current in numerous applications, thereby improving the signal-to-noise-ratio in electron microscopy and related systems without compromising on the spatial resolution. Our scheme potentially applies for any beams of charged particles, such as protons, muons and ion beams.

  6. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welding: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; David, Stan A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of residual stresses are often generated during welding and result in critical degradation of the structural integrity and performance of components. Neutron diffraction has become a well established technique for the determination of residual stresses in welds because of the unique deep penetration, three-dimensional mapping capability, and volume averaged bulk measurements characteristic of the scattering neutron beam. Friction stir welding has gained prominence in recent years. The authors reviewed a number of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welds and highlighted examples addressing how the microstructures and residual stresses are correlated with each other. An example of in situ neutron diffraction measurement result shows the evolution of the residual stresses during welding.

  7. Prediction of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns in arbitrarily strained samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; McGonegle, David, E-mail: d.mcgonegle1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-07

    The prediction of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from strained samples is typically conducted in the small strain limit. Although valid for small deviations from the hydrostat (such as the conditions of finite strength typically observed in diamond anvil cells) this assertion is likely to fail for the large strain anisotropies (often of order 10% in normal strain) found in uniaxially loaded dynamic compression experiments. In this paper, we derive a general form for the (?{sub B},?) dependence of the diffraction for an arbitrarily deformed polycrystalline sample in any geometry, and of any crystal symmetry. We show that this formula is consistent with ray traced diffraction for highly strained computationally generated polycrystals, and that the formula shows deviations from the widely used small strain solutions previously reported.

  8. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore »freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  9. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. As a result, this can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  10. Diffractive W production at hadron colliders as a test of colour singlet exchange mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunnar Ingelman; Roman Pasechnik; Johan Rathsman; Dominik Werder

    2012-10-22

    We revisit diffractive and exclusive W production at hadron colliders in different models for soft colour exchanges. The process pp to p[WX]p, and in particular a W charge asymmetry, has been suggested as a way to discriminate diffractive processes as being due to pomeron exchange in Regge phenomenology or QCD-based colour reconnection models. Our detailed analysis of the latter models at LHC energies shows, however, that they give similar results as pomeron models for very leading protons and central W production, including a vanishing W charge asymmetry. We demonstrate that soft colour exchange models provide a continuous transition from diffractive to inelastic processes and thereby include the intrinsic asymmetry of inelastic interactions while being at the same time sensitive to the underlying hadronisation models. Such sensitivity also concerns the differential distributions in proton momentum and W transverse momentum which opens possibilities to discriminate between different colour reconnection models.

  11. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M. R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C. -C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T. O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; et al

    2005-03-14

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done bymore »computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.« less

  12. Regge Analysis of Diffractive and Leading Baryon Structure Functions from DIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Batista; R. J. M. Covolan; J. Montanha

    2002-03-08

    In this paper we present a combined analysis of the H1 data on leading baryon and diffractive structure functions from DIS, which are handled as two components of the same semi-inclusive process. The available structure function data are analyzed in a series of fits in which three main exchanges are taking into account: pomeron, reggeon and pion. For each of these contributions, Regge factorization of the correspondent structure function is assumed. By this procedure, we extract information about the interface between the diffractive, pomeron-dominated, region and the leading proton spectrum, which is mostly ruled by secondary exchanges. One of the main results is that the relative reggeon contribution to the semi-inclusive structure function is much smaller than the one obtained from a analysis of the diffractive structure function alone.

  13. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  14. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  15. Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The post-experiment processing of X-ray Diffraction Microscopy data is often time-consuming and difficult. This is mostly due to the fact that even if a preliminary result has been reconstructed, there is no definitive answer as to whether or not a better result with more consistently retrieved phases can still be obtained. In addition, we show here that the first step in data analysis, the assembly of two-dimensional diffraction patterns from a large set of raw diffraction data, is crucial to obtaining reconstructions of highest possible consistency. We have developed software that automates this process and results in consistently accurate diffractionmore »patterns. We have furthermore derived some criteria of validity for a tool commonly used to assess the consistency of reconstructions, the phase retrieval transfer function, and suggest a modified version that has improved utility for judging reconstruction quality.« less

  16. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore »and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  17. The early development of neutron diffraction: Science in the wings of the Manhattan Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Thom [ORNL] [ORNL; Gawne, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL] [ORNL; Nestor, Margaret Boone {Bonnie} [ORNL; Carpenter, John M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Although neutron diffraction was first observed using radioactive decay sources shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was only with the availability of higher intensity neutron beams from the first nuclear reactors, constructed as part of the Manhattan project, that systematic investigation of Bragg scattering became possible. Remarkably, at a time when the war effort was singularly focused on the development of the atomic bomb, groups working at Oak Ridge and Chicago carried out key measurements and recognized the future utility of neutron diffraction quite independent of its contributions to the measurements of nuclear cross sections. Ernest O. Wollan, Lyle B. Borst, and Walter H. Zinn were all able to observe neutron diffraction in 1944 using the X-10 graphite reactor and the CP-3 heavy water reactor.

  18. Search for anomalous production of prompt like-sign muon pairs and constraints on physics beyond the standard model with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    An inclusive search for anomalous production of two prompt, isolated muons with the same electric charge is presented. The search is performed in a data sample corresponding to 1.6??fb[superscript -1] of integrated luminosity ...

  19. Muon anomalous magnetic moment in a $SU(4) \\otimes U(1)_N$ model without exotic electric charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Cogollo

    2014-11-11

    We study an electroweak gauge extension of the standard model, so called 3-4-1 model, which does not contain exotic electric charges and it is anomaly free. We discuss phenomenological constraints of the model and compute all the corrections to the muon magnetic moment. Mainly, we discuss different mass regimes and their impact on this correction, deriving for the first time direct limits on the masses of the neutral fermions and charged vector bosons. Interestingly, the model could address the reported muon anomalous magnetic moment excess, however it would demands a rather low scale of symmetry breaking, far below the current electroweak constraints on the model. Thus, if this excess is confirmed in the foreseeable future by the g-2 experiment at FERMILAB, this 3-4-1 model can be decisively ruled out since the model cannot reproduce a sizeable and positive contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment consistent with current electroweak limits.

  20. Imaging regenerating bone tissue based on neural networks applied to micro-diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campi, G.; Pezzotti, G. [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, I-00015, Monterotondo Roma (Italy)] [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, I-00015, Monterotondo Roma (Italy); Fratini, M. [Centro Fermi -Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche 'Enrico Fermi', Roma (Italy)] [Centro Fermi -Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche 'Enrico Fermi', Roma (Italy); Ricci, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Burghammer, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)] [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cancedda, R.; Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell'Università di Genova and AUO San Martino Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell'Università di Genova and AUO San Martino Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy); Bukreeva, I.; Cedola, A. [Institute for Chemical and Physical Process, CNR, c/o Physics Dep. at Sapienza University, P-le A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)] [Institute for Chemical and Physical Process, CNR, c/o Physics Dep. at Sapienza University, P-le A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-16

    We monitored bone regeneration in a tissue engineering approach. To visualize and understand the structural evolution, the samples have been measured by X-ray micro-diffraction. We find that bone tissue regeneration proceeds through a multi-step mechanism, each step providing a specific diffraction signal. The large amount of data have been classified according to their structure and associated to the process they came from combining Neural Networks algorithms with least square pattern analysis. In this way, we obtain spatial maps of the different components of the tissues visualizing the complex kinetic at the base of the bone regeneration.

  1. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY)

    2009-02-17

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  2. Diffraction of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the time domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombe, Yves; Mercier, Brigitte; Perrin, Helene; Lorent, Vincent

    2005-12-15

    We have observed the diffraction of a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms on a vibrating mirror potential. The matter wave packet bounces back at normal incidence on a blue-detuned evanescent light field after a 3.6 mm free fall. The mirror vibrates at a frequency of 500 kHz with an amplitude of 3 nm. The atomic carrier and side bands are directly imaged during their ballistic expansion. The locations and the relative weights of the diffracted atomic wave packets are in very good agreement with the theoretical prediction of Henkel et al. [J. Phys. II 4, 1877 (1994)].

  3. Cryptotomography: reconstructing 3D Fourier intensities from randomly oriented single-shot diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 9)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Loh, Ne-Te Duane

    2011-08-01

    These 2000 single-shot diffraction patterns include were either background-scattering only or hits (background-scattering plus diffraction signal from sub-micron ellipsoidal particles at random, undetermined orientations). Candidate hits were identified by eye, and the remainder were presumed as background. 54 usable, background-subtracted hits in this set (procedure in referenced article) were used to reconstruct the 3D diffraction intensities of the average ellipsoidal particle.

  4. Cryptotomography: reconstructing 3D Fourier intensities from randomly oriented single-shot diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 9)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Loh, Ne-Te Duane

    These 2000 single-shot diffraction patterns include were either background-scattering only or hits (background-scattering plus diffraction signal from sub-micron ellipsoidal particles at random, undetermined orientations). Candidate hits were identified by eye, and the remainder were presumed as background. 54 usable, background-subtracted hits in this set (procedure in referenced article) were used to reconstruct the 3D diffraction intensities of the average ellipsoidal particle.

  5. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Origins of Anomalous Particle Size Distributions in Supported Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda; Agrawal, Nitin; Larsson, Elin M.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2012-10-31

    In this Environmental TEM (ETEM) study of supported Pt and Pd model catalysts, individual nanoparticles were tracked during heat treatments at temperatures up to 600°C in H2, O2, and vacuum. We found anomalous growth of nanoparticles occurred during the early stages of catalyst sintering wherein some particles started to grow significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a broadening of the particle size distribution. We can rule out sample non-uniformity as a cause for the growth of these large particles, since images were recorded prior to heat treatments. The anomalous growth of these particles may help explain particle size distributions in heterogeneous catalysts which often show particles that are significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a long tail to the right. It has been suggested that particle migration and coalescence could be the likely cause for the broad size distributions. This study shows that anomalous growth of nanoparticles can occur under conditions where Ostwald ripening is the primary sintering mechanism.

  6. Large anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulator-topological insulator heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alegria, L. D.; Petta, J. R.; Ji, H.; Cava, R. J.; Yao, N.; Clarke, J. J.

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the van der Waals epitaxy of the topological insulator compound Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on the ferromagnetic insulator Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The layers are oriented with (001)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(001)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and (110)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(100)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation of a sharp interface. At low temperatures, bilayers consisting of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Tilted field studies of the AHE indicate that the easy axis lies along the c-axis of the heterostructure, consistent with magnetization measurements in bulk Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The 61?K Curie temperature of Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and the use of near-stoichiometric materials may lead to the development of spintronic devices based on the AHE.

  7. Anomalous behavior of the energy gap in the one-dimensional quantum XY model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manaka Okuyama; Yuuki Yamanaka; Hidetoshi Nishimori; Marek M. Rams

    2015-08-12

    We re-examine the well-studied one dimensional spin-1/2 $XY$ model to reveal its nontrivial energy spectrum, in particular the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. In the case of the isotropic $XY$ model -- the $XX$ model -- the gap behaves very irregularly as a function of the system size at a second order transition point. This is in stark contrast to the usual power-law decay of the gap and is reminiscent of the similar behavior at the first order phase transition in the infinite-range quantum $XY$ model. The gap also shows nontrivial oscillatory behavior for the phase transitions in the anisotropic model in the incommensurate phase. We observe a close relation between this anomalous behavior of the gap and the correlation functions. These results, those for the isotropic case in particular, are important from the viewpoint of quantum annealing where the efficiency of computation is strongly affected by the size dependence of the energy gap.

  8. On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

    2010-03-09

    An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

  9. Properties and alignment of interstellar dust grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with anomalous polarization curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoang, Thiem

    2015-01-01

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratio ($R_{V}<2$) and wavelength of maximum polarization ($\\lambda_{max}<0.4\\mu m$) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use inversion technique to infer best-fit grain size distribution and alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SNe 1986G, 2006X, 2008fp, and 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of $R_{V}$, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius $a< 0.1\\mu m$ is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to observed extinction and polarization data is unsuccessful if the entire data is attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 200...

  10. Anomalous mass transport in Au/304 stainless steel powder under shock loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staudhammer, Karl P.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic deformation experiments on gold plated 304L stainless steel powders were undertaken using a axial symmetrical implosion geometry. These experiments utilized pressures of 0.08 to 1.0 Mbar and contained a symmetric radial melt region along the central axis of the sample holder. To understand the role of deformation in a porous material, the pressure, and temperature as well as the deformation heat and associated defects must be accounted for. Using a strain controllable shock loading design it was possible to separate and control independently strain and pressure. Thus enabling the ability to control the added heat from the deformation process undergoing compaction/consolidation of the powder. When the added heat of consolidation deformation exceeds the melt temperature of the 304 powders, a melt zone results that can consume large regions of the compact. It is within these regions that very high diffusion of gold into the powder occurs. These anomalous increases have been observed via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX measurements. Values exceeding 1200 m/sec have been measured and correlated to the powder sizes, size distribution and packing density, concomitant with sample container strains ranging from 2.0% to 26%.

  11. Resonant cavity mode dependence of anomalous and inverse spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-young

    2014-05-07

    The direct current electric voltage induced by the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and Anomalous Hall Effect (AHE) was investigated in the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The ISHE and AHE components were distinguishable through the fitting of the voltage spectrum. The unwanted AHE was minimized by placing the DUT (Device Under Test) at the center of both the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The voltage of ISHE in the TE{sub 011} cavity was larger than that in the TE{sub 102} cavity due to the higher quality factor of the former. Despite optimized centering, AHE voltage from TE{sub 011} cavity was also higher. The reason was attributed to the E-field distribution inside the cavity. In the case of the TE{sub 011} cavity, the DUT was easily exposed to the E-field in all directions. Therefore, the parasitic AHE voltage in the TE{sub 102} cavity was less sensitive than that in the TE{sub 011} cavity to decentering problem.

  12. The muon anomalous magnetic moment in the supersymmetric economical 3-3-1 model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. Binh; D. T. Huong; H. N. Long

    2015-04-14

    We investigate the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the context of the supersymmetric version of the economical 3-3-1 model. We compute the 1-loop contribution of super-partner particles. We show that contribution of superparticle loop becomes significant when \\tan \\gamma is large. We investigate for both small and large values of $\\tan \\gamma$. We find the region of the parameter space where the slepton masses are of a few hundreds GeV is favour by the muon g-2 for small \\tan \\gamma (\\tan \\gamma \\sim 5 ). Numerical estimation gives the mass of supersymmetric particle, the mass of gauginos m_G \\sim 700 GeV and light slepton mass m_{\\tilde{L}} is of order O (100) GeV. When \\tan{\\gamma} is large (\\tan{\\gamma} \\sim 60), the mass of charged slepton m_{\\tilde{L}} and the mass of gauginos m_G\\sim O(1) TeV while the mass of sneutrino \\sim 450 GeV is in the reach of LHC.

  13. The muon anomalous magnetic moment in the supersymmetric economical 3-3-1 model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binh, D T; Long, H N

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the context of the supersymmetric version of the economical 3-3-1 model. We compute the 1-loop contribution of super-partner particles. We show that contribution of superparticle loop becomes significant when \\tan \\gamma is large. We investigate for both small and large values of $\\tan \\gamma$. We find the region of the parameter space where the slepton masses are of a few hundreds GeV is favour by the muon g-2 for small \\tan \\gamma (\\tan \\gamma \\sim 5 ). Numerical estimation gives the mass of supersymmetric particle, the mass of gauginos m_G \\sim 700 GeV and light slepton mass m_{\\tilde{L}} is of order O (100) GeV. When \\tan{\\gamma} is large (\\tan{\\gamma} \\sim 60), the mass of charged slepton m_{\\tilde{L}} and the mass of gauginos m_G\\sim O(1) TeV while the mass of sneutrino \\sim 450 GeV is in the reach of LHC.

  14. The muon anomalous magnetic moment in the supersymmetric economical 3-3-1 model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. Binh; D. T. Huong; H. N. Long

    2015-11-06

    We investigate the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the context of the supersymmetric version of the economical 3-3-1 model. We compute the 1-loop contribution of super-partner particles. We show that contribution of superparticle loop becomes significant when \\tan \\gamma is large. We investigate for both small and large values of $\\tan \\gamma$. We find the region of the parameter space where the slepton masses are of a few hundreds GeV is favour by the muon g-2 for small \\tan \\gamma (\\tan \\gamma \\sim 5 ). Numerical estimation gives the mass of supersymmetric particle, the mass of gauginos m_G \\sim 700 GeV and light slepton mass m_{\\tilde{L}} is of order O (100) GeV. When \\tan{\\gamma} is large (\\tan{\\gamma} \\sim 60), the mass of charged slepton m_{\\tilde{L}} and the mass of gauginos m_G\\sim O(1) TeV while the mass of sneutrino \\sim 450 GeV is in the reach of LHC.

  15. Yukawa coupling and anomalous magnetic moment of the muon: An update for the LHC era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Girrbach, Jennifer; Nierste, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    We study the interplay between a soft muon Yukawa coupling generated radiatively with the trilinear A-terms of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. In the absence of a tree-level muon Yukawa coupling the lightest smuon mass is predicted to be in the range between 600 GeV and 2200 GeV at 2{sigma}, if the bino mass M{sub 1} is below 1 TeV. Therefore, a detection of a smuon (in conjunction with a sub-TeV bino) at the LHC would directly imply a nonzero muon Yukawa coupling in the MSSM superpotential. Inclusion of slepton flavor mixing could in principle lower the mass of one smuonlike slepton below 600 GeV. However, the experimental bounds on radiative lepton decays instead strengthen the lower mass bound, with larger effects for smaller M{sub 1}, We also extend the analysis to the electron case and find that a light selectron close to the current experimental search limit may prove the MSSM electron Yukawa coupling to be nonzero.

  16. XIth International Conference on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering in Chateau de Blois, France, May 15 - 20, 2005. Conference Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley J. Brodsky; Michael Rijssenbeek

    2005-11-15

    Summary of the XIth International Conference on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering in Chateau de Blois, France, May 15 - 20, 2005, summarizing both theoretical and experimental presentations and discussions.

  17. MAD/TH9114 November 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Theodore J.

    . If there are no fundamental strings in the theory, axionic charge is replaced by an irrelevant vacuum angle. # E­mail address the theory of the electromagnetic potential A µ , it is sometimes useful to step back to the field strengths the dual abelian theories of p-1­ and D- p - 1­form potentials have vacua classified by the dimensions

  18. Animal madness : a natural history of disorder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braitman, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the late 19 th century, changing conceptions of relatedness between people and other animals -- and animals' assumed capacities for, or susceptibilities to, mental or emotional distress-- were influenced by ...

  19. Mad Dash Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050EnermarGeneration Jump to: navigation, search

  20. Lensless MAD Imaging of Nonperiodic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N I C AFAQLensless4LenslessLensless

  1. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2005-04-12

    A system for determining a property of a fluid based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum including a diffraction order equal to zero exhibits a peak whose location is used to determine speed of sound in the fluid. A separate measurement of the acoustic impedance is combined with the determined speed of sound to yield a measure of fluid density. A system for determining acoustic impedance includes an ultrasonic transducer on a first surface of a solid member, and an opposed second surface of the member is in contact with a fluid to be monitored. A longitudinal ultrasonic pulse is delivered through the solid member, and a multiplicity of pulse echoes caused by reflections of the ultrasonic pulse between the solid-fluid interface and the transducer-solid interface are detected. The decay rate of the detected echo amplitude as a function of echo number is used to determine acoustic impedance.

  2. RECENT MAGNETIC STRUCTURE STUDIES BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION(1) By C. G. SHULL,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    classification by neutron scattering include the determination of the magnitude and quality of an atom of this moment as represented in the form factor for neutron scattering. Within the second classification169 RECENT MAGNETIC STRUCTURE STUDIES BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION(1) By C. G. SHULL, Massachusetts

  3. Diffraction-Based Density Restraints for Membrane and Membrane-Peptide Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    or neutron scattering-length density projected along the bilayer normal (5). These profiles represent, California; and z NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology. INTRODUCTION X-ray and neutron diffraction are commonly used for studying the structure of membrane systems (1

  4. Diffraction-focusing migration velocity analysis with application to seismic and GPR data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biondi, Biondo

    from migrated diffracted events by analyzing their residual focus- ing in physical space (depth. By comparing the results of full prestack depth migration before and after the velocity updating, we confirm the migration velocity function for a 2-D, zero-offset, Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data set. Depth migra

  5. Reverse Monte Carlo investigations concerning recent isotopic substitution neutron diffraction data on liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ildikó Pethes; László Pusztai

    2015-08-25

    Although liquid water has been studied for many decades by (X-ray and neutron) diffraction measurements, new experimental results keep appearing, virtually every year. The reason for this is that neither X-ray, nor neutron diffraction data are trivial to correct and interpret for this essential substance. Since X-rays are somewhat insensitive to hydrogen, neutron diffraction with (most frequently, H/D) isotopic substitution is vital for investigating the most important feature in water: hydrogen bonding. Here, the two very recent sets of neutron diffraction data are considered, both exploiting the contrast between light and heavy hydrogen, $^1$H and $^2$H, in different ways. Reverse Monte Carlo structural modeling is applied for constructing large structural models that are as consistent as possible with all experimental information, both in real and reciprocal space. The method has also proven to be useful for revealing where possible small inconsistencies appear during primary data processing: for one neutron data set, it is the molecular geometry that may not be maintained within reasonable limits, whereas for the other set, it is one of the (composite) radial distribution functions that cannot be modeled at the same (high) level as the other three functions. Nevertheless, details of the local structure around the hydrogen bonds appear very much the same for both data sets: the most probable hydrogen bond angle is straight, and the nearest oxygen neighbours of a central oxygen atom occupy approximately tetrahedral positions.

  6. Neutron diffraction measurements of dislocation density in copper crystals deformed at high strain rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Mala N.; Chaplot, S. L.; Rawat, S.

    2013-02-05

    Neutron diffraction measurements of the rocking curves were carried out for single crystals of copper subjected to dynamic compression at 10{sup 3}/s strain rate. The line broadening is expected to be produced by dislocations, and an analysis of this broadening gives the dislocation density. Dislocation density is found to increase with increase of pressure.

  7. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high not well understood. In this Article, these changes in Li-S batteries are studied in operando by X

  8. Breakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Breakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes Zejian Liu of single-walled carbon nanotubes always have 2mm symmetry regardless if the nanotubes them- selves have such symmetry. We here show that, for the case of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the 2mm symmetry can break down

  9. Diffraction Profiles of Elasticity Bent Single Crystals with Constant Strain Gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan,H.; Kalenci, O.; Noyan, I.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a set of equations that can be used to predict the dynamical diffraction profile from a non-transparent single crystal with a constant strain gradient examined in Bragg reflection geometry with a spherical incident X-ray beam. In agreement with previous work, the present analysis predicts two peaks: a primary diffraction peak, which would have still been observed in the absence of the strain gradient and which exits the specimen surface at the intersection point of the incident beam with the sample surface, and a secondary (mirage) peak, caused by the deflection of the wavefield within the material, which exits the specimen surface further from this intersection point. The integrated intensity of the mirage peak increases with increasing strain gradient, while its separation from the primary reflection peak decreases. The directions of the rays forming the mirage peak are parallel to those forming the primary diffraction peak. However, their spatial displacement might cause (fictitious) angular shifts in diffractometers equipped with area detectors or slit optics. The analysis results are compared with experimental data from an Si single-crystal strip bent in cantilever configuration, and the implications of the mirage peak for Laue analysis and high-precision diffraction measurements are discussed.

  10. In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction study of dehydrogenation process of Pd coated Mg nanoblades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590, USA Received 23 March 2008; accepted,2 Hydrogen has been con- sidered as one of the promising alternative energy resources due to its abundanceIn situ reflection high energy electron diffraction study of dehydrogenation process of Pd coated

  11. Diffractive vector meson production at HERA using holographic AdS/QCD wavefunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeff Forshaw; Ruben Sandapen

    2013-05-16

    We demonstrate another success of the AdS/QCD correspondence by showing that an AdS/QCD holographic light-front wavefunction for the $\\rho$ meson generates predictions for the cross-sections of diffractive $\\rho$ production that are in agreement with data collected at the HERA electron-proton collider.

  12. Temperature and TimeResolved XRay Powder Diffraction X14A EERE sponsored PRT beamline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Quadruple lamp furnace ·Insitu XRD studies on the evolution of stresses and oxide layer growth in metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) at high temperature (ORNL) · High temperature structural diffraction studies of the chargedischarge process of lithium Plate sample heater transition metal phosphates

  13. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  14. Pulse Distortion Caused by Cylinder Diffraction and Its Impact on UWB Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    Pulse Distortion Caused by Cylinder Diffraction and Its Impact on UWB Communications Chenming Zhou of the characteristics of UWB signals is pulse distortion, inherently determined by its huge bandwidth. Using cylinder model as an example, pulse distortion and its impacts on UWB system performance have been investigated

  15. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dao, E. Han; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Coey, Aaron; Larsen, Kevin; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; et al

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecondmore »X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.« less

  16. Impulsive solvent heating probed by picosecond x-ray diffraction M. Cammarata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    Impulsive solvent heating probed by picosecond x-ray diffraction M. Cammarata European Synchrotron, the solute-solvent cross term, and the solvent-only term. The last term is very sensitive to the thermodynamic state of the bulk solvent, which may change during a chemical reaction due to energy transfer from

  17. Diffractive Nonlinear Geometrical Optics for Variational Wave Equations and the Einstein Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Ali; John K. Hunter

    2005-11-02

    We derive an asymptotic solution of the vacuum Einstein equations that describes the propagation and diffraction of a localized, large-amplitude, rapidly-varying gravitational wave. We compare and contrast the resulting theory of strongly nonlinear geometrical optics for the Einstein equations with nonlinear geometrical optics theories for variational wave equations.

  18. 1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey

    1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer H. Medecki Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 K. A. Goldberg Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National

  19. Application of Volume diffraction grating for TeraHertz lasing in Volume FEL (VFEL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Baryshevsky; K. G. Batrakov; V. I. Stolyarsky

    2002-09-06

    The generation of induced radiation in volume resonator formed by metal threads is considered. It is shown that using of such volume diffraction grating allows increasing of lasing efficiency in terahertz range. The requirements on beam and grating parameters are obtained.

  20. Optical Lithography and Atom Localization beyond the Diffraction Limit via Rabi Gradient 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Zeyang

    2014-07-28

    frequency is much larger than the dipole-dipole interaction and showed how to extract the spatial information of the atoms with resolution far beyond the diffraction limit. This method is entirely based on far-field techniques and it does not require point...

  1. Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and J¨urgen Jahns on the classical Fresnel zone plate (FZP) [1]. A simple FZP consists of alternating opaque and transparent rings Fresnel zone plate but to add bridges that hold the zones in place [4], see Fig. 1 right. We refer

  2. Use of the Crystal Diffraction Method to Study the Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    1 Use of the Crystal Diffraction Method to Study the Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclides V. L nuclides in nuclear waste products transmuta- tion. It is known that more than 90% of the waste activity after 10 years storage provides with two long- lived 90 Sr and 137 Cs nuclides. Their transmutation

  3. Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nehorai, Arye

    Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction- tric conductor (PEC) objects when illuminated by a Complex Source Points (CSP) beam expansion (S of a CSP-expansion illumination. In this work we discuss an application of the CSP fringe formulation

  4. Electro-optic response and switchable Bragg diffraction for liquid crystals in colloid-templated materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electro-optic response and switchable Bragg diffraction for liquid crystals in colloid on self- assembled colloids. We compare the electro-optic responses of liquid crystal imbibed into colloid-templated polymers, liquid crystal imbibed in the interstitial space of colloid crystals, and conventional polymer

  5. Hydride precipitation kinetics in Zircaloy-4 studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Hydride precipitation kinetics in Zircaloy-4 studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction Olivier F fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride particles, which may reduce cladding ductility. Dissolved hydrogen responds to temperature gradients, resulting in transport and precipitation into cold

  6. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu

    2012-12-31

    Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

  7. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-03-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.

  8. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-04-10

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/d..delta... Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation.

  9. Stationary table CT dosimetry and anomalous scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Robert L., E-mail: rdixon@wfubmc.edu [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Anomalous, scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} for stationary phantom/table protocols (having elevated values of CTDI{sub vol} over 300% higher than the actual dose to the phantom) have been observed; which are well-beyond the typical accuracy expected of CTDI{sub vol} as a phantom dose. Recognition of these outliers as “bad data” is important to users of CT dose index tracking systems (e.g., ACR DIR), and a method for recognition and correction is provided. Methods: Rigorous methods and equations are presented which describe the dose distributions for stationary-table CT. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of these anomalies. Results: For the stationary table, use of the CTDI{sub 100} formula (applicable to a moving phantom only) overestimates the dose due to extra scatter and also includes an overbeaming correction, both of which are nonexistent when the phantom (or patient) is held stationary. The reported DLP remains robust for the stationary phantom. Conclusions: The CTDI-paradigm does not apply in the case of a stationary phantom and simpler nonintegral equations suffice. A method of correction of the currently reported CTDI{sub vol} using the approach-to-equilibrium formula H(a) and an overbeaming correction factor serves to scale the reported CTDI{sub vol} values to more accurate levels for stationary-table CT, as well as serving as an indicator in the detection of “bad data.”.

  10. Self-consistent nonlinear kinetic simulations of the anomalous Doppler instability of suprathermal electrons in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, W. N. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom) [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, Tromsø (Norway); Dendy, R. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom) [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Suprathermal tails in the distributions of electron velocities parallel to the magnetic field are found in many areas of plasma physics, from magnetic confinement fusion to solar system plasmas. Parallel electron kinetic energy can be transferred into plasma waves and perpendicular gyration energy of particles through the anomalous Doppler instability (ADI), provided that energetic electrons with parallel velocities v{sub ||}?(?+?{sub ce})/k{sub ||} are present; here ?{sub ce} denotes electron cyclotron frequency, ? the wave angular frequency, and k{sub ||} the component of wavenumber parallel to the magnetic field. This phenomenon is widely observed in tokamak plasmas. Here, we present the first fully self-consistent relativistic particle-in-cell simulations of the ADI, spanning the linear and nonlinear regimes of the ADI. We test the robustness of the analytical theory in the linear regime and follow the ADI through to the steady state. By directly evaluating the parallel and perpendicular dynamical contributions to j·E in the simulations, we follow the energy transfer between the excited waves and the bulk and tail electron populations for the first time. We find that the ratio ?{sub ce}/(?{sub pe}+?{sub ce}) of energy transfer between parallel and perpendicular, obtained from linear analysis, does not apply when damping is fully included, when we find it to be ?{sub pe}/(?{sub pe}+?{sub ce}); here ?{sub pe} denotes the electron plasma frequency. We also find that the ADI can arise beyond the previously expected range of plasma parameters, in particular when ?{sub ce}>?{sub pe}. The simulations also exhibit a spectral feature which may correspond to the observations of suprathermal narrowband emission at ?{sub pe} detected from low density tokamak plasmas.

  11. Understanding the anomalous dispersion of doubly-ionized carbon plasmas near 47 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J; Castor, J I; Iglesias, C A; Cheng, K T; Dunn, J; Johnson, W R; Filevich, J; Purvis, M A; Grava, J; Rocca, J J

    2008-04-15

    Over the last several years we have predicted and observed plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one in the soft X-ray regime. These plasmas are usually a few times ionized and have ranged from low-Z carbon plasmas to mid-Z tin plasmas. Our main calculational tool has been the average atom code. We have recently observed C{sup 2+} plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one at a wavelength of 46.9 nm (26.44 eV). In this paper we compare the average atom method, AVATOMKG, against two more detailed methods, OPAL and CAK, for calculating the index of refraction for the carbon plasmas and discuss the different approximations used. We present experimental measurements of carbon plasmas that display this anomalous dispersion phenomenon. It is shown that the average atom calculation is a good approximation when the strongest lines dominate the dispersion. However, when weaker lines make a significant contribution, the more detailed calculations such as OPAL and CAK are essential. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other X-ray sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential. With the advent of tunable X-ray lasers the frequency dependent interferometer measurements of the index of refraction may enable us to determine the absorption coefficients and line-shapes and make detailed comparisons against our atomic physics codes.

  12. Diffraction of dust acoustic waves by a circular cylinder S.-H. Kim, J. R. Heinrich, and R. L. Merlinoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    Diffraction of dust acoustic waves by a circular cylinder S.-H. Kim, J. R. Heinrich, and R. L, 1896 . © 2008 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2977986 Dust acoustic DA waves are pressure July 2008; accepted 14 August 2008; published online 23 September 2008 The diffraction of dust acoustic

  13. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne)) We describe a simple method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 × 4 square array

  14. Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study of Microtubules Buckling and Bundling under Osmotic Stress: A Probe of Interprotofilament Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study of Microtubules Buckling and Bundling under Osmotic Stress the microtubule wall. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction of microtubules under increasing osmotic stress shows (SAXRD) study of MTs subjected to osmotic stress [5] and depletion attraction [6] due to added poly

  15. Argon Adsorption on MCM-41 Mesoporous Crystal Studied by In Situ Synchrotron Powder X-ray Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    -701, Korea, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, 1545 Route 22 East, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements at SPring-8. The diffraction intensity data is analyzed. The proposed method of interpretation of XRD data allows one to calculate the density ratio between the silica

  16. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 \\Theta 4 square array of optical tweezers -- the hexadeca

  17. Strong effects of photonic band structures on the diffraction of colloidal crystals Willem L. Vos and Rudolf Sprik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Strong effects of photonic band structures on the diffraction of colloidal crystals Willem L. Vos The influence of photonic band structures on optical diffraction has been studied with colloidal crystals­16 These demonstrate the use of colloidal crystals to applica- tions in photonics. In this paper, we present a study

  18. Electron diffraction from free-standing, metal-coated transmission gratings Glen Gronniger, Brett Barwick, and Herman Batelaana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    Electron diffraction from free-standing, metal-coated transmission gratings Glen Gronniger, Brett; published online 14 September 2005 Electron diffraction from a free-standing nanofabricated transmission to the development of 100-nm period silicon nitride transmission gratings with free-standing bars.2 Such gratings

  19. A BeppoSAX observation of Her X-1 during the first main-on after an anomalous low-state: evidence for rapid spin-down

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Oosterbroek; A. N. Parmar; M. Orlandini; A. Segreto; A. Santangelo; S. Del Sordo

    2001-06-12

    Results of a BeppoSAX observation of Her X-1 in 2000 October during the first main-on state after the longest recorded anomalous low-state are presented. The 0.1-30 keV spectrum, light curve and pulse profile are all consistent with those measured during previous main on-states, indicating that Her X-1 has resumed its regular 35 day cycle with similar on-state properties as before. However, from a comparison of the measured pulse period with that obtained close to the start of the anomalous low-state, it is evident that Her X-1 continued to spin-down strongly during the anomalous low-state such that the pulse period has returned to a similar value as ~15 years ago. Additionally, the occurrence time of the main-on states after the end of the anomalous low-state indicate that a change in the length, or phasing, of the 35-day cycle occurred during the anomalous low-state.

  20. Critical Test of the Self-Similar Cosmological Paradigm: Anomalously Few Planets Orbiting Low-Mass Red Dwarf Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert L. Oldershaw

    2012-04-02

    The incidence of planetary systems orbiting red dwarf stars with masses less than 0.4 solar masses provides a crucial observational test for the Self-Similar Cosmological paradigm. The discrete self-similarity of the paradigm mandates the prediction of anomalously few planetary systems associated with these lowest mass red dwarf stars, in contrast to conventional astrophysical assumptions. Ongoing observational programs are rapidly collecting the data necessary for testing this prediction and preliminary results are highly encouraging. A definitive verdict on the prediction should be available in the near future.