National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for anode material process

  1. Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Miller, William E.; Wolson, Raymond D.; Gay, Eddie C.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U.sup.+4 cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd.sup.+2 cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode.

  2. Nanotube Composite Anode Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotube Composite Anode Materials Technology available for licensng: A composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium-ion battery Reduces manufacturing costs. ...

  3. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  4. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  5. Oxide-based SOFC Anode Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxide-based SOFC Anode Materials Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Shown in green, the ceria-based anode materials provide excellent conductivity with resilience not offered in traditional metal oxides. Shown in green, the ceria-based anode materials provide excellent conductivity with resilience not offered in traditional metal oxides. Technology Marketing Summary In a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the anode facilitates the reaction between hydrogen,

  6. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  7. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu; Crozier, Peter; Adams, James

    2013-09-19

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  8. Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Composite anode material for Lithium Ion Battery High reversible capacity and improved cyclability with minimal volume change with cycling IN-10-013 US 9054373B2 Availability: Technology available for license to organizations with commercial interest. Collaborative research is available under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Contact: 800-627-2596; partners@anl.gov PDF icon Anode Materials

  9. New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes Beyond ... Technology Marketing Summary Magnesium ion batteries present a viable alternative to ...

  10. Carbonaceous materials as lithium intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    1994-10-01

    Commercial and polymer-derived carbonaceous materials were examined as lithium intercalation anodes in propylene carbonate (pyrolysis < 1350C, carbons) and ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (graphites) electrolytes. The reversible capacity (180--355 mAh/g) and the irreversible capacity loss (15--200 % based on reversible capacity) depend on the type of binder, carbon type, morphology, and phosphorus doping concentration. A carbon-based binder was chosen for electrode fabrication, producing mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and reproducible results. Several types of graphites had capacity approaching LiC{sub 6}. Petroleum fuel green cokes doped with phosphorous gave more than a 20 % increase in capacity compared to undoped samples. Electrochemical characteristics are related to SEM, TEM, XRD and BET measurements.

  11. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Title Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

  12. Effects of anode materials on resistive characteristics of NiO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Ze; Wang, Linkai; Zhang, Naiwen; Ren, Tianling; Liou, Juin J.

    2013-01-28

    This letter shows that the NiO-based structure with different anodes has different resistive switching properties. A conical conductive filament (CF) model is proposed for oxygen vacancies distributed in NiO films. Modeling analysis reveals much larger dissolution velocity of CF near anodes than near cathodes during the reset process. Different interfaces shown in Auger electron spectroscopy can be bound with the model to reveal that CF is dissolved in the structure with Pt or Au as anodes, while CF remains constant if the anode material is Ti or Al, which can explain whether switching properties occur in the specific NiO-based structures.

  13. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  14. Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fultz, B.

    2001-01-12

    This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been writing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

  15. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0_zhang_2011_p.pdf (472.78 KB) More Documents & Publications New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

  16. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  17. Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-09-034) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance (ANL-09-034) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are a critical technology for many applications, including consumer electronics and electric vehicles. As the demand for hybrid and

  18. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the ...

  19. Process for anodizing a robotic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, William T.

    2011-11-08

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  20. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: Dunn, Jennifer B. ; James, Christine ; Gaines, L G ; Gallagher, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-09-30 OSTI Identifier: 1172039 Report Number(s): ANL/ESD-14/10 108520 DOE Contract

  1. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; James, Christine; Gaines, Linda; Gallagher, Kevin; Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  2. Analysis of Cadmium in Undissolved Anode Materials of Mark-IV Electrorefiner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Guy L. Fredrickson; DeeEarl Vaden; Brian R. Westphal

    2013-10-01

    The Mark-IV electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER) contains an electrolyte/molten cadmium system for refining uranium electrochemically. Typically, the anode of the Mk-IV ER consists of the chopped sodium-bonded metallic driver fuels, which have been primarily U-10Zr binary fuels. Chemical analysis of the residual anode materials after electrorefining indicates that a small amount of cadmium is removed from the Mk-IV ER along with the undissolved anode materials. Investigation of chemical analysis data indicates that the amount of cadmium in the undissolved anode materials is strongly correlated with the anode rotation speeds and the residence time of the anode in the Mk-IV ER. Discussions are given to explain the prescribed correlation.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel anode...

  4. Selective niobium anodization process for fabricating Josephson tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.; Smith, L.N.; Jillie, D.W.

    1981-08-01

    A novel process for fabricating refractory sperconducting tunnel junctions is described, which is useful with both deposited and native oxide barriers. The distinguishing feature of the method is that the entire superconductor-barrier-superconductor sandwich is formed before the patterning of any layer. Isolated Josephson junctions are then formed by anodizing through the upper electrode, while the devices themselves are protected by a photoresist mask. Using this process, Nb-Si:H-Nb junctions have been fabricated, whose product of critical current and subgap resistance exceeds 10 mV and whose critical current density varies by about 50% over a 2-in. diameter wafer.

  5. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document ...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy anode material...

  7. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  8. Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, Donald R.

    2005-06-30

    The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

  9. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  10. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  11. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  12. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  13. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  14. Materials processing with light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials processing with light, plasmas and other sources of energy At the ARC various processing technologies are used to create materials, struc- tures, and devices that play an increasingly important role in high value-added manufacturing of computer and communications equipment, physical and chemical sensors, biomedical instruments and treatments, semiconductors, thin films, photovoltaics, electronic components and optical components. For example, making coatings, including paint, chrome,

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: First Principles Calculations and NMR Spectroscopy of Electrode Materials Vehicle Technologies Office ...

  16. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  17. Lasers in materials processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.I.; Rockower, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A status report on the uranium Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented. Prior to this status report, process economic analysis is presented so as to understand how the unique properties of laser photons can be best utilized in the production of materials and components despite the high cost of laser energy. The characteristics of potential applications that are necessary for success are identified, and those factors that have up to now frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser induced chemical and physical process for the production of new or existing materials are pointed out.

  18. Laser material processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  19. Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Return to Search Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material Argonne National Laboratory CalBattery has worked with Argonne for more than a year under a Work for Others agreement to develop the technology under the Department of Energy&#39;s Startup America program, which is part of a White House initiative to inspire and accelerate high-growth entrepreneurship. CalBattery has worked with Argonne for more

  20. Sulfur-tolerant anode material for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Yang, Zhibin

    2016-08-02

    In one aspect, the present subject matter is directed to a composite anode for a hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cell, the anode comprising a layered perovskite ceramic and a bi-metallic alloy.

  1. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basoli, Francesco; Senesi, Roberto; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  2. Battery Anodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center at Cornell Anodes Introduction The anode is the negative electrode of a primary cell and is always associated with the oxidation or the release of electrons into the external circuit. In a rechargeable cell, the anode is the negative pole during discharge and the positive pole during charge. Lithium Anode The anode in the battery deserves an equal say in the overall performance of a battery. For an effective development of a high energy density battery, the use of high capacity

  3. High Cyclability of Ionic Liquid-Produced TiO2 Nanotube Arrays As an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaqing; Martha, Surendra K; Unocic, Raymond R; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) are considered as a potential SEI-free anode material for Li-ion batteries to offer enhanced safety. Organic solutions, dominatingly ethylene glycol (EG)-based, have widely been used for synthesizing TiO{sub 2} NTs via anodization because of their ability to generate long tubes and well-aligned structures. However, it has been revealed that the EG-produced NTs are composited with carbonaceous decomposition products of EG, release of which during the tube crystallization process inevitably causes nano-scale porosity and cracks. These microstructural defects significantly deteriorate the NTs charge transport efficiency and mechanical strength/toughness. Here we report using ionic liquids (ILs) to anodize titanium to grow low-defect TiO{sub 2} NTs by reducing the electrolyte decomposition rate (less IR drop due to higher electrical conductivity) as well as the chance of the decomposition products mixing into the TiO{sub 2} matrix (organic cations repelled away). Promising electrochemical results have been achieved when using the IL-produced TiO{sub 2} NTs as an anode for Li-ion batteries. The ILNTs demonstrated excellent capacity retention without microstructural damage for nearly 1200 cycles of charge-discharge, while the NTs grown in a conventional EG solution totally pulverized in cycling, resulting in significant capacity fade.

  4. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup ?1} at 100 mA g{sup ?1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup ?1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  5. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  6. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  7. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: ...

  8. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer ?-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719?mAh?g{sup ?1}/2032?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, much greater than the values of ?372?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?818?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, ?1117?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?1589?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, and ?744?mAh?g{sup ?1} for graphite, graphynes, and ?-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer ?-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  9. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  10. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  11. Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.

    2008-12-01

    Study of PV module encapsulation materials, processing, and testing shows that overall module reliability is determined by all component materials and processing factors.

  12. Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation) Pern, J. 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ENCAPSULATION; PROCESSING; RELIABILITY; TESTING PV; MODULE...

  13. Innovative Materials Processing Technologies Ltd IMPT | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Materials Processing Technologies Ltd IMPT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innovative Materials Processing Technologies Ltd (IMPT) Place: United Kingdom Zip: NG1 1GF Sector:...

  14. Lignin-based active anode materials synthesized from low-cost renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rios, Orlando; Tenhaeff, Wyatt Evan; Daniel, Claus; Dudney, Nancy Johnston; Johs, Alexander; Nunnery, Grady Alexander; Baker, Frederick Stanley

    2016-06-07

    A method of making an anode includes the steps of providing fibers from a carbonaceous precursor, the carbon fibers having a glass transition temperature T.sub.g. In one aspect the carbonaceous precursor is lignin. The carbonaceous fibers are placed into a layered fiber mat. The fiber mat is fused by heating the fiber mat in the presence of oxygen to above the T.sub.g but no more than 20% above the T.sub.g to fuse fibers together at fiber to fiber contact points and without melting the bulk fiber mat to create a fused fiber mat through oxidative stabilization. The fused fiber mat is carbonized by heating the fused fiber mat to at least 650.degree. C. under an inert atmosphere to create a carbonized fused fiber mat. A battery anode formed from carbonaceous precursor fibers is also disclosed.

  15. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  16. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  17. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  18. Melt Processing of Covetic Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    www.netl.doe.gov U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program ... of integrally-bound nano-scale carbon phase (i.e., "covetic" nano- materials) in order to produce materials ...

  19. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a stainless steel piece of equipment with multiple hoses and other equipment attached. NREL's expertise focuses on using thin ...

  20. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  1. Aqueous Processing Material Accountability Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bean

    2007-09-01

    Increased use of nuclear power will require new facilities. The U.S. has not built a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility for decades. Reprocessing facilities must maintain accountability of their nuclear fuel. This survey report on the techniques used in current aqueous reprocessing facilities, and provides references to source materials to assist facility design efforts.

  2. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  3. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.; Ramsey, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  4. Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ENCAPSULATION; PROCESSING; RELIABILITY; TESTING PV; MODULE ENCAPSULATION; ...

  5. Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 16. Technology Integration and Education GATE Center of Excellence in ...

  6. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  7. Anodic Behavior of SAM2X5 Material Applied as Amorphous Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hailey, P D; Farmer, J C; Day, S D; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-10

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are desirable industrial materials since they are highly resistant to corrosion and possess enhanced hardness for wear resistance. The amorphous materials can be produced from the melt as powder and later spray deposited as coatings on large engineering structures. As a laboratory experiment, SAM2X5 powder was coated on electrochemical specimens of 304SS for testing. Results show that the coated specimens did not perform satisfactorily during the laboratory testing. This is because of partial devitrification during the deposition of the powder on the small specimen substrates.

  8. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  9. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  10. Roadmap for Process Equipment Materials Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2003-10-01

    This Technology Roadmap addresses the ever-changing material needs of the chemical and allied process industries, and the energy, economic and environmental burdens associated with corrosion and other materials performance and lifetime issues. This Technology Roadmap outlines the most critical of these R&D needs, and how they can impact the challenges facing today’s materials of construction.

  11. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited ...

  12. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries - Joint Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2014, Research Highlights Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries (a) ... Li metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries beyond Li ion The review ...

  13. Nickel anode electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  14. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  15. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  16. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  17. Nanostructured Materials as Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  18. Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  20. Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific energy of carbon-made anodes, a longer cycle life and improved capacity PDF icon slicon-graphene_electrodes

  1. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  2. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. ); Huettig, F.R. )

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  3. Applications of membrane processes for in-process materials recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.M.; Thornton, R.F.; Shapiro, A.P.; Freshour, A.R.; El-Shoubary, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Zero discharge of wastes should be the ultimate goal of manufacturers. Waste reduction lowers costs and lessens liability associated with plant effluents. One approach toward this goal is elimination or minimization of wastes by in-process recycling of waste materials. We have examined opportunities for waste minimization for many equipment manufacturing plants and have evaluated membrane processes for in-process recycling. Membrane processes evaluated include vibrating membranes for suspended solid removal, ion exchange membranes for acid recovery, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for dissolved salt removal, microporous membranes for recycling of machining coolants, oil emulsions, alkaline cleaners and others. This paper presents several examples of evaluations of membrane processes for materials recycling in manufacturing plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A Commercially Scalable Process for Silicon Anode Prelithiation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Amprius at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a commercially scalable process for...

  6. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pam, L.S.; Felter, T.E.; Talin, A.; Ohlberg, D.; Fox, C.; Han, S.

    1999-01-12

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/{micro}m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 {micro}m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material. 2 figs.

  7. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pam, Lawrence S.; Felter, Thomas E.; Talin, Alec; Ohlberg, Douglas; Fox, Ciaran; Han, Sung

    1999-01-01

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/.mu.m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 .mu.m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceeded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material.

  8. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  9. Cermet anode with continuously dispersed alloy phase and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions and methods for making are disclosed which comprise NiO--NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 --Cu--Ni. Addition of an effective amount of a metallic catalyst/reactant to a composition of a nickel/iron/oxide, NiO, copper, and nickel produces a stable electrode having significantly increased electrical conductivity. The metallic catalyst functions to disperse the copper and nickel as an alloy continuously throughout the oxide phase of the cermet to render the electrode compositon more highly electrically conductive than were the third metal not present in the base composition. The third metal is preferably added to the base composition as elemental metal and includes aluminum, magnesium, sodium and gallium. The elemental metal is converted to a metal oxide during the sintering process.

  10. Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing Materials and Process Design ... Case hardening would enable major productivity gains in the forging, forming, and die ...

  11. Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume Applications ... More Documents & Publications Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High ...

  12. Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications (ACC932) Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume ... More Documents & Publications Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High ...

  13. Femtosecond laser processing of fuel injectors - a materials processing evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, B C; Wynne, A

    2000-12-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a new laser-based machining technology that utilizes ultrashort-pulse (0.1-1.0 picosecond) lasers to cut materials with negligible generation of heat or shock. The ultrashort pulse laser, developed for the Department of Energy (Defense Programs) has numerous applications in operations requiring high precision machining. Due to the extremely short duration of the laser pulse, material removal occurs by a different physical mechanism than in conventional machining. As a result, any material (e.g., hardened steel, ceramics, diamond, silicon, etc.) can be machined with minimal heat-affected zone or damage to the remaining material. As a result of the threshold nature of the process, shaped holes, cuts, and textures can be achieved with simple beam shaping. Conventional laser tools used for cutting or high-precision machining (e.g., sculpting, drilling) use long laser pulses (10{sup -8} to over 1 sec) to remove material by heating it to the melting or boiling point (Figure 1.1a). This often results in significant damage to the remaining material and produces considerable slag (Figure 1.2a). With ultrashort laser pulses, material is removed by ionizing the material (Figure 1.1b). The ionized plasma expands away from the surface too quickly for significant energy transfer to the remaining material. This distinct mechanism produces extremely precise and clean-edged holes without melting or degrading the remaining material (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Since only a very small amount of material ({approx} <0.5 microns) is removed per laser pulse, extremely precise machining can be achieved. High machining speed is achieved by operating the lasers at repetition rates up to 10,000 pulses per second. As a diagnostic, the character of the short-pulse laser produced plasma enables determination of the material being machined between pulses. This feature allows the machining of multilayer materials, metal on metal or metal on

  14. Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites: Towards cost-effective and high performance binder free lithium ion batteries anode materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, G. Z.; Wang, Y.; Wong, J. I.; Shi, Y. M.; Huang, Z. X.; Yang, H. Y.; Li, S.

    2014-10-06

    Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile thermal annealing method on Cu foils. Compared to pristine CuO and SnO{sub 2} nanostructures, hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit the enhanced electrochemical performances as the anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The binder free CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites deliver a specific capacity of 718 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 500?mA g{sup ?1} even after 200 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and CuO nanoarchitectures. Such hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites could open up a new route for the development of next-generation high-performance and cost-effective binder free anode material of LIBs for mass production.

  15. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, Oscar; Marschman, Steven C.

    1990-01-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

  16. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  17. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  18. Chemistry and Processing of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, G A; Baumann, T F; Hope-Weeks, L J; Vance, A L

    2002-01-18

    Nanostructured materials can be formed through the sol-gel polymerization of inorganic or organic monomer systems. For example, a two step polymerization of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) was developed such that silica aerogels with densities as low as 3 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx} two times the density of air) could be achieved. Organic aerogels based upon resorcinol-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde can also be prepared using the sol-gel process. Materials of this type have received significant attention at LLNL due to their ultrafine cell sizes, continuous porosity, high surface area and low mass density. For both types of aerogels, sol-gel polymerization depends upon the transformation of these monomers into nanometer-sized clusters followed by cross-linking into a 3-dimensional gel network. While sol-gel chemistry provides the opportunity to synthesize new material compositions, it suffers from the inability to separate the process of cluster formation from gelation. This limitation results in structural deficiencies in the gel that impact the physical properties of the aerogel, xerogel or nanocomposite. In order to control the properties of the resultant gel, one should be able to regulate the formation of the clusters and their subsequent cross-linking. Towards this goal, we are utilizing dendrimer chemistry to separate the cluster formation from the gelation so that new nanostructured materials can be produced. Dendrimers are three-dimensional, highly branched macromolecules that are prepared in such a way that their size, shape and surface functionality are readily controlled. The dendrimers will be used as pre-formed clusters of known size that can be cross-linked to form an ordered gel network.

  19. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

  20. Iron-lithium anode for thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester, C.S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a lithium anode for use in a thermal battery having a composite material comprising lithium and a particulate metal capable of being wetted by molten lithium, but only slightly or not alloyable with the lithium. The composite anode material is positioned adjacent a metal collector element the improvement comprising: a metal screen positioned between and substantially co-extensive with the anode composite and the metal collector element. The anode is thereby spaced apart from the element but is in electrical contact and the screen is electrically conductive.

  1. Processing and Disposition of Special Actinide Target Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disposition of Special Actinide Target Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Processing and Disposition of Special Actinide Target Materials Authors: Robinson, ...

  2. PROCESS FOR PREPARING RARE EARTH CHROMITE BASED CERAMIC MATERIALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: PROCESS FOR PREPARING RARE EARTH CHROMITE BASED CERAMIC MATERIALS AND THE MATERIALS OBTAINED. (in French) Authors: Elston, J. ; Roux, M. Publication Date: 1971-01-01 OSTI ...

  3. Color Anodizing of Titanium Coated Rolled Carbon Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarajan, Zohair; Mobarakeh, Hooman Nikbakht; Namiranian, Sohrab

    2011-12-26

    As an important kind of structural materials, the titanium cladded steel plates have the advantages of both metals and have been applied in aviation, spaceflight, chemical and nuclear industries. In this study, the specimens which were prepared under soldering mechanism during rolling were anodized by electrochemical process under a given conditions. The color anodizing takes place by physical phenomenon of color interference. Part of incident light on the titanium oxide is reflected and the other part reflects inside coated titanium layer. Major part of the light which reflects from titanium-oxide interface, reflects again inside of the oxide layer.

  4. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  5. Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold...

  6. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  7. Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials Process Development and Scale up of Advanced ... More Documents & Publications Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte ...

  8. Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds

  9. Multifunctional Nanostructured Materials for Processing of Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical commodities. The nanostructured materials will be composed of organic and inorganic species that will work cooperatively to effectively promote chemical conversions...

  10. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  11. Hydrogenation process for solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, John L.; Wilcox, Wayne A.

    1979-01-01

    Coal or other solid carbonaceous material is contacted with an organic solvent containing both hydrogen and a transition metal catalyst in solution to hydrogenate unsaturated bonds within the carbonaceous material. This benefaction step permits subsequent pyrolysis or hydrogenolysis of the carbonaceous fuel to form gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon products of increased yield and quality.

  12. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher ...

  13. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  14. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Ronald D.; Blue, Craig A.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Harper, David C.

    2007-05-22

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  15. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Yang, Z. Gary

    2015-05-26

    Methods for making composite anodes, such as macroporous composite anodes, are disclosed. Embodiments of the methods may include forming a tape from a slurry including a substrate metal precursor, an anode active material, a pore-forming agent, a binder, and a solvent. A laminated structure may be prepared from the tape and sintered to produce a porous structure, such as a macroporous structure. The macroporous structure may be heated to reduce a substrate metal precursor and/or anode active material. Macroporous composite anodes formed by some embodiments of the disclosed methods comprise a porous metal and an anode active material, wherein the anode active material is both externally and internally incorporated throughout and on the surface of the macroporous structure.

  16. Electrochromic materials, devices and process of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2003-11-11

    Thin films of transition metal compositions formed with magnesium that are metals, alloys, hydrides or mixtures of alloys, metals and/or hydrides exhibit reversible color changes on application of electric current or hydrogen. Thin films of these materials are suitable for optical switching elements, thin film displays, sun roofs, rear-view mirrors and architectural glass.

  17. Magnetic Filtration Process, Magnetic Filtering Material, and Method of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forming Magnetic Filtering Material - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Magnetic Filtration Process, Magnetic Filtering Material, and Method of Forming Magnetic Filtering Material Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryORNL researchers developed a new method for filtering materials and managing wastewater. This invention offers an integrated, intensified process

  18. Pulse Thermal Processing of Functional Materials Using a Directed Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arc - Energy Innovation Portal Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Pulse Thermal Processing of Functional Materials Using a Directed Plasma Arc Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryUsing pulses of high density infrared light from a directed plasma arc, ORNL researchers invented a method to thermally process thin films and other functional materials on

  19. Water Based Process for Fabricating Thermoelectric Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Find More Like This Return to Search Water Based Process for ... Berkeley Lab scientists Rachel Segalman, Jeffrey Urban and Kevin See have invented a water ...

  20. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  1. Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Predictive Technology Development and Crash Energy Management Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume Applications FY 2009 ...

  2. Processing of monolayer materials via interfacial reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2014-05-20

    A method of forming and processing of graphene is disclosed based on exposure and selective intercalation of the partially graphene-covered metal substrate with atomic or molecular intercalation species such as oxygen (O.sub.2) and nitrogen oxide (NO.sub.2). The process of intercalation lifts the strong metal-carbon coupling and restores the characteristic Dirac behavior of isolated monolayer graphene. The interface of graphene with metals or metal-decorated substrates also provides for controlled chemical reactions based on novel functionality of the confined space between a metal surface and a graphene sheet.

  3. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  4. Processing of superconductive materials and high frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    We do not know yet if superconductivity will become useful without refrigeration. Now, the superconductors are so different from copper that it is difficult to imagine replacing copper with such a brittle material. Superconductors conduct dc with no loss, ac with small losses, and microwaves in co-axial lines with almost no loss and with no dispersion from dc to the highest frequencies. They will probably allow us to close the gap between radio frequency and infrared optical transmission. Clearly your industry should know some things about where superconductivity may lead us and must consider whether the greater risk is to develop them or to let others try it. There are no easy answers yet.

  5. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  6. FLUORINE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF MATERIALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Brown, H.S.

    1958-05-01

    A process is described for separating plutoniunn from neutron-irradiated uranium, which consists of reacting the irradiated uranium mass with HF to form the tetrafluorides of U, Pu, and Np, and then reacting this mixture of tetrafluorides with fiuorine at temperature between 140 and 315 d C. This causes volatile hexafluorides of U and Np to form while at the temperature employed the Pu tetrafluoride is unaffected and remains as a residue.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Materials at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about modular process equipment...

  8. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  9. Reduction of ahead of schedule anodes through anode rod quality control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillargeon, F.; Menard, Y.; Perron, C.; Proulx, A.L.

    1996-10-01

    One of the major causes of ahead of schedule anodes reported in recent years by the P155 potroom operation was related to the inherent weakness in the rod welded joints. The development and implementation of an apparatus and procedure to measure, detect and reject the faulty rods prior to anode rodding, will be presented and discussed. The technology has not only significantly reduced the number of ahead of schedule anodes, it has also provided useful information concerning other process improvements.

  10. Process for producing clad superconductive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cass, Richard B. (Ringoes, NJ); Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process for fabricating superconducting composite wire by the steps of placing a superconductive precursor admixture capable of undergoing a self propagating combustion in stoichiometric amounts sufficient to form a superconductive product within a metal tube, sealing one end of said tube, igniting said superconductive precursor admixture whereby said superconductive precursor admixture endburns along the length of the admixture, and cross-section reducing said tube at a rate substantially equal to the rate of burning of said superconductive precursor admixture and at a point substantially planar with the burnfront of the superconductive precursor mixture, whereby a clad superconductive product is formed in situ, the product characterized as superconductive without a subsequent sintering stage, is disclosed.

  11. Portable nuclear material detector and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J; Fulghum, Charles K; Harpring, Lawrence J; Huffman, Russell K; Varble, Donald L

    2008-04-01

    A portable, hand held, multi-sensor radiation detector is disclosed. The detection apparatus has a plurality of spaced sensor locations which are contained within a flexible housing. The detection apparatus, when suspended from an elevation, will readily assume a substantially straight, vertical orientation and may be used to monitor radiation levels from shipping containers. The flexible detection array can also assume a variety of other orientations to facilitate any unique container shapes or to conform to various physical requirements with respect to deployment of the detection array. The output of each sensor within the array is processed by at least one CPU which provides information in a usable form to a user interface. The user interface is used to provide the power requirements and operating instructions to the operational components within the detection array.

  12. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  13. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Materials Deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Device Fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing Platform Materials Deposition and Device Fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing Platform This page provides details on materials deposition and device fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing platform. The four techniques highlighted are robotic inkjet printing, large-area ultrasonic spray deposition, sputtering, and thermal evaporator deposition. Photo of the shiny back of the glove box behind a close-up of an unenclosed inkjet

  14. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  15. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  16. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  17. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  18. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  19. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  20. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  1. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  2. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycledmore » at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.« less

  3. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technical brief is a guide to selecting high-temperature metallic materials for use in process heating applications such as burners, electrical heating elements, material handling, load support, and heater tubes, etc.

  4. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - New Materials, Devices, and Processes for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Concepts New Materials, Devices, and Processes for Advanced Concepts Computational Science and Theory We can use high-performance computing tools in modeling and simulation studies of semiconductor and other solar materials. We also determine the performance of solar devices. Theoretical studies can help us understand underlying physical principles or predict useful chemical compositions and crystalline structures. Scientific Computing Experimental Materials Science Solid-State

  5. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-manufacturing_b.pdf (117.4 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion

  6. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  7. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  8. Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, K.H.

    1996-04-16

    A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs. 1 fig.

  9. Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1996-01-01

    A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs.

  10. Hydraulically-assisted compression molding material and process development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collister, J.E.; Butler, K.I.; Rinz, J.E. [Premix, Inc., North Kingsville, OH (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) industry has recently seen an introduction of novel materials which are claimed to allow molders of SMC parts to alter their process to mold at substantially lower molding pressures. Although this is viewed as a major advantage for SMC molders, little description of molding processes has been given which take full advantage of these novel materials. The work reported in this paper describes one possible alternative process which will enable molders to capture the low-cost potential of reducing the required molding pressures. This process involves the use of low-cost mold construction, and the use of a novel method of applying molding pressure that obviates the need for a high-cost compression press, which causes the authors to apply a new name to this process; Hydraulic-Assisted Compression Molding. Molding results are presented for SMC which was designed to be molded at reduced pressures and temperatures (6.9 bar and 100 C).

  11. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Smith, Charlene M.

    1991-01-01

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380.degree.-600.degree. C. and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  12. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  13. Method of processing materials using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, D.E.; Bieniewski, T.M.

    1987-04-13

    A method of processing materials. The invention enables ultrafine, ultrapure powders to be formed from solid ingots in a gas free environment. A plasma is formed directly from an ingot which insures purity. The vaporized material is expanded through a nozzle and the resultant powder settles on a cold surface. An inductively coupled plasma may also be used to process waste chemicals. Noxious chemicals are directed through a series of plasma tubes, breaking molecular bonds and resulting in relatively harmless atomic constituents. 3 figs.

  14. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

  15. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Alan; Swansiger, Thomas G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4-2.6 g/cm.sup.3 with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness, good abrasion resistance and crush strength.

  16. Observation of Materials Processes in Liquids in the Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chong M.; Liao, Honggang; Ross, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Materials synthesis and the functioning of devices often indispensably involve liquid media. But direct visualization of dynamic process in liquids, especially with high spatial and temporal resolution, has been challenging. For solid materials, advances in aberration corrected electron microscopy have made observation of atomic level features a routine practice. Here we discuss the extent to which one can take advantage of the resolution of modern electron microscopes to image phenomenon occuring in liquids. We will describe the fundamentals of two different experimental approaches, closed and open liquid cells. We will illustrate the capabilities of each approach by considering processes in batteries and nucleation and growth of nanoparticles from solution. We conclude that liquid cell electron microscopy appears to be duly fulfilling its role for in situ studies of nanoscale processes in liquids, revealing physical and chemical processes otherwise difficult to observe.

  17. CIGS Material and Device Stability: A Processing Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, K.

    2012-03-01

    This is a general overview of CIGS material and device fundamentals. In the first part, the basic features of high efficiency CIGS absorbers and devices are described. In the second part, some examples of previous collaboration with Shell Solar CIGSS graded absorbers and devices are shown to illustrate how process information was used to correct deviations and improve the performance and stability.

  18. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  19. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASFs battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASFs already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEMs and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  20. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  1. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  2. Materials and Processing for Lithium-Ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Lithium ion battery technology is projected to be the leapfrog technology for the electrification of the drivetrain and to provide stationary storage solutions to enable the effective use of renewable energy sources. The technology is already in use for low-power applications such as consumer electronics and power tools. Extensive research and development has enhanced the technology to a stage where it seems very likely that safe and reliable lithium ion batteries will soon be on board hybrid electric and electric vehicles and connected to solar cells and windmills. However, safety of the technology is still a concern, service life is not yet sufficient, and costs are too high. This paper summarizes the state of the art of lithium ion battery technology for nonexperts. It lists materials and processing for batteries and summarizes the costs associated with them. This paper should foster an overall understanding of materials and processing and the need to overcome the remaining barriers for a successful market introduction.

  3. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  4. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  5. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C.; Foster, Edward P.; Tewari, Krishna

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  6. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  7. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  8. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.; Even, Jr., William R.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Wang, James C. F.; Zifer, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  9. Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture Technology available for licensing: A unique method for anode and cathode manufacture A one-step, solvent-free reaction for producing unique electrode materials that do not need further chemical processing treatment Offers the ability to smooth current distribution at the anode surface when charging Li-ion batteries, thereby reducing the risk of lithium dendrites, short circuits and resulting fire PDF icon

  10. An application of neural networks to process and materials control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, J.A.; Whiteson, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Process control consists of two basic elements: a model of the process and knowledge of the desired control algorithm. In some cases the level of the control algorithm is merely supervisory, as in an alarm-reporting or anomaly-detection system. If the model of the process is known, then a set of equations may often be solved explicitly to provide the control algorithm. Otherwise, the model has to be discovered through empirical studies. Neural networks have properties that make them useful in this application. The problems of anomaly detection in nuclear materials control systems fits well into this general control framework. To successfully model a process with a neutral network, a good set of observable must be chosen. These observable just in some sense adequately span the space of representable events, so that a signature metric can be built for normal operation. In this way, a non-normal event, one that does not fit within the signature, can be detected. In this paper, the authors discuss the issues involved in applying a neural network model to anomaly detection in materials control systems.

  11. Recent Development on Anodes for Na-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommier, C; Ji, XL

    2015-01-23

    New discoveries in anode materials for sodium ion batteries (NIBs) are highly necessary to achieve the goals of widespread applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and grid-level energy storage. Carbon-based materials are critical for this task as they are inexpensive, abundant, and versatile. They contain a plethora of structures and morphologies, ranging from highly ordered graphite or nanotubes to highly disordered amorphous carbon, thus making them very attractive for electrochemical energy storage. This review attempts to cover past and recent progress in the development of carbon-based anode materials for NIBs. To give a larger context, the article will briefly cover other anode materials for NIBs as well. The aim of this paper is to provide a timely update for researchers currently involved in the respective fields or to serve as a starting point for individuals who would like to gain a greater knowledge of new NIB anode materials.

  12. Materials performance in prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-11-21

    Two prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns have been metallurgically examined after retirement, to determine the causes of failure and to evaluate the performance of the column container materials in this application. Leaking of the fluid heating and cooling subsystems caused retirement of both TCAP columns, not leaking of the main hydrogen-containing column. The aluminum block design TCAP column (ABL block TCAP) used in the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, Building 773-A, failed in one nitrogen inlet tube that was crimped during fabrication, which lead to fatigue crack growth in the tube and subsequent leaking of nitrogen from this tube. The Third Generation stainless steel design TCAP column (Third generation TCAP), operated in 773-A room C-061, failed in a braze joint between the freon heating and cooling tubes (made of copper) and the main stainless steel column. In both cases, stresses from thermal cycling and local constraint likely caused the nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. No materials compatibility problems between palladium coated kieselguhr (the material contained in the TCAP column) and either aluminum or stainless steel column materials were observed. The aluminum-stainless steel transition junction appeared to be unaffected by service in the AHL block TCAP. Also, no evidence of cracking was observed in the AHL block TCAP in a location expected to experience the highest thermal shock fatigue in this design. It is important to limit thermal stresses caused by constraint in hydride systems designed to work by temperature variation, such as hydride storage beds and TCAP columns.

  13. Materials performance in prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-11-21

    Two prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns have been metallurgically examined after retirement, to determine the causes of failure and to evaluate the performance of the column container materials in this application. Leaking of the fluid heating and cooling subsystems caused retirement of both TCAP columns, not leaking of the main hydrogen-containing column. The aluminum block design TCAP column (AHL block TCAP) used in the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, Building 773-A, failed in one nitrogen inlet tube that was crimped during fabrication, which lead to fatigue crack growth in the tube and subsequent leaking of nitrogen from this tube. The Third Generation stainless steel design TCAP column (Third generation TCAP), operated in 773-A room C-061, failed in a braze joint between the freon heating and cooling tubes (made of copper) and the main stainless steel column. In both cases, stresses from thermal cycling and local constraint likely caused the nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. No materials compatibility problems between palladium coated kieselguhr (the material contained in the TCAP column) and either aluminum or stainless steel column materials were observed. The aluminum-stainless steel transition junction appeared to be unaffected by service in the AHL block TCAP. Also, no evidence of cracking was observed in the AHL block TCAP in a location expected to experience the highest thermal shock fatigue in this design. It is important to limit thermal stresses caused by constraint in hydride systems designed to work by temperature variation, such as hydride storage beds and TCAP columns.

  14. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.; DiMilia, Robert A.; Dynys, Joseph M.; Phelps, Frankie E.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  15. Process for hydroliquefying coal or like carbonaceous solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malek, John Michael

    1977-01-01

    In this process the products of the dissolution-hydrogenation of coal or the like material in a hydrocarbon rich solvent are subjected in their slurryform fraction to an asphaltenes decomposing action of an alkali, like caustic soda or, being admixed after the gasiform fraction of the hydrogenation products has been taken off the slurryform fraction of the hydrogenation products now including the admixed alkali is subjected to a rehydrogenation by a hydrogen rich gas which after its rehydrogenating use is preferably applied, as source of hydrogen, to said dissolution-hydrogenation of coal. Optionally the admixed alkali includes minor amounts of a carboxylic acid salt of calcium.

  16. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  17. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  18. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W.; Maliyekkel, A.T.

    1996-01-02

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process.

  19. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  20. Optical studies of dynamical processes in disordered materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, W.M.

    1991-07-01

    In general terms, our research activities under the present Agency sponsorship continue to focus on processes and interactions which affect the dynamical behavior of excitations/excited states of optically activated amorphous or disordered solids. The framework of our understanding of these processes has been established with work performed over the past two decades. The advent of more refined spectroscopies, most of them laser based, has allowed a re-examination of these properties in a much more detailed and basic way. A deeper understanding of the interactions which lead to relaxation, energy diffusion and nonlinearities in the disordered phases is important to the development of more efficient and better materials to service all of the technologies which employ optically activated materials. In this document, we will present an abbreviated synopsis of the research we have conducted under the auspices of the present grant. We will then outline directions we wish to maintain and will render descriptions of new opportunities which have ensued from our current efforts and which we wish to exploit under renewed sponsorship. 52 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Inert Anode Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1999-07-01

    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  2. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 dinh-gennett_topic_5a_dmfc_nrel_kickoff.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Introduction to DMFCs - Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

  3. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellerich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin

  4. Chemical enhancement of metallized zinc anode performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, J.

    1998-12-31

    Galvanic current delivered to reinforced concrete by a metallized zinc anode was studied relative to the humidity of its environment and periodic direct wetting. Current decreased quickly at low humidity to values unlikely to meet accepted cathodic protection criteria, but could be easily restored by direct wetting of the anode. Thirteen chemicals were screened for their ability to enhance galvanic current. Such chemicals, when applied to the exterior surface of the anode, are easily transported by capillary action to the anode-concrete interface where they serve to maintain the interface conductive and the zinc electrochemically active. The most effective chemicals were potassium and lithium bromide, acetate, chloride and nitrate, which increased galvanic current by a factor of 2--15, depending on relative humidity and chloride contamination of the concrete. This new technique is expected to greatly expand the number of concrete structures which can be protected by simple galvanic cathodic protection, The use of lithium-based chemicals together with metallized zinc anode is also proposed for mitigation of existing problems due to ASR. In this case, lithium which prevents or inhibits expansion due to ASR can be readily injected into the concrete. A new process, electrochemical maintenance of concrete (EMC), is also proposed to benefit reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride-induced corrosion.

  5. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  6. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, Charles R.; Rockett, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  7. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  8. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Dennis A.

    1980-01-01

    Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

  9. Hydrogen gettering packing material, and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Smith, Henry Michael; Schicker, James R.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrogen gettering system for a sealed container is disclosed comprising packing material for use within the sealed container, and a coating film containing hydrogen gettering material on at least a portion of the surface of such packing material. The coating film containing the hydrogen gettering material comprises a mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and one or more catalysts capable of catalyzing the reaction of hydrogen with such one or more organic materials. The mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and the one or more catalysts is dispersed in a suitable carrier which preferably is a curable film-forming material. In a preferred embodiment, the packing material comprises a foam material which is compatible with the coating film containing hydrogen gettering material thereon.

  10. ANODIC TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for effecting eloctrolytic dissolution of a metallic uranium article at a uniform rate. The uranium is made the anode in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing nitrate ions furnished by either ammonium nitrate, lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, or potassium nitrate. A stainless steel cathode is employed and electrolysls carried out at a current density of about 0.1 to 1 ampere per square inch.

  11. Method and apparatus for semi-solid material processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Jian, Xiaogang (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Xu, Hanbing (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-11-24

    A method of forming a material includes the steps of: vibrating a molten material at an ultrasonic frequency while cooling the material to a semi-solid state to form non-dendritic grains therein; forming the semi-solid material into a desired shape; and cooling the material to a solid state. The method makes semi-solid castings directly from molten materials (usually a metal), produces grain size usually in the range of smaller than 50 .mu.m, and can be easily retrofitted into existing conventional forming maching.

  12. Method and apparatus for semi-solid material processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Jian, Xiaogang (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Xu, Hanbing (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-24

    A method of forming a material includes the steps of: vibrating a molten material at an ultrasonic frequency while cooling the material to a semi-solid state to form non-dendritic grains therein; forming the semi-solid material into a desired shape; and cooling the material to a solid state. The method makes semi-solid castings directly from molten materials (usually a metal), produces grain size usually in the range of smaller than 50 .mu.m, and can be easily retrofitted into existing conventional forming machine.

  13. Method and apparatus for semi-solid material processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou (Knoxville, TN); Jian, Xiaogang (Knoxville, TN); Xu, Hanbing (Knoxville, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-05-15

    A method of forming a material includes the steps of: vibrating a molten material at an ultrasonic frequency while cooling the material to a semi-solid state to form non-dendritic grains therein; forming the semi-solid material into a desired shape; and cooling the material to a solid state. The method makes semi-solid castings directly from molten materials (usually a metal), produces grain size usually in the range of smaller than 50 .mu.m, and can be easily retrofitted into existing conventional forming machine.

  14. Method to Reduce Camber in Anode-Supported SOFCs - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method to Reduce Camber in Anode-Supported SOFCs Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology A) Typical camber developed in 7 cm x 7 cm anode-supported SOFC. B) Details on matched TEC backing layer opposite electrolyte surface for camber control (Invention 13536). A) Typical camber developed in 7 cm x 7 cm anode-supported

  15. Type I clathrates as novel silicon anodes: An electrochemical and structural investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Raghavan, Rahul; Wagner, Nicholas A.; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Baggetto, Loic; Zhao, Ran; Cheng, Qian; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Ellis-Terrell, Carol; Miller, Michael A.; Chan, Kwai S.; Chan, Candace K.

    2015-05-05

    In this study, silicon clathrates contain cage-like structures that can encapsulate various guest atoms or molecules. Here we present an electrochemical evaluation of type I silicon clathrates based on Ba8AlySi46-y for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Post-cycling characterization with NMR and XRD show no discernible structural or volume changes even after electrochemical insertion of 44 Li into the clathrate structure. The observed properties are in stark contrast with lithiation of other silicon anodes, which become amorphous and suffer from larger volume changes. The lithiation/delithiation processes are proposed to occur in single phase reactions at approximately 0.2 and 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively, distinct from other diamond cubic or amorphous silicon anodes. Reversible capacities as high as 499 mAh g-1 at a 5 mA g-1 rate were observed for silicon clathrate with composition Ba8Al8.54Si37.46, corresponding to Li:Si of 1.18:1. The results show that silicon clathrates could be promising durable anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Type I clathrates as novel silicon anodes: An electrochemical and structural investigation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Ying; Raghavan, Rahul; Wagner, Nicholas A.; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Baggetto, Loic; Zhao, Ran; Cheng, Qian; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Ellis-Terrell, Carol; et al

    2015-05-05

    In this study, silicon clathrates contain cage-like structures that can encapsulate various guest atoms or molecules. Here we present an electrochemical evaluation of type I silicon clathrates based on Ba8AlySi46-y for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Post-cycling characterization with NMR and XRD show no discernible structural or volume changes even after electrochemical insertion of 44 Li into the clathrate structure. The observed properties are in stark contrast with lithiation of other silicon anodes, which become amorphous and suffer from larger volume changes. The lithiation/delithiation processes are proposed to occur in single phase reactions at approximately 0.2 and 0.4 Vmore » vs. Li/Li+, respectively, distinct from other diamond cubic or amorphous silicon anodes. Reversible capacities as high as 499 mAh g-1 at a 5 mA g-1 rate were observed for silicon clathrate with composition Ba8Al8.54Si37.46, corresponding to Li:Si of 1.18:1. The results show that silicon clathrates could be promising durable anodes for lithium-ion batteries.« less

  17. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  18. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.C.; Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Markunas, R.J.

    1996-05-28

    Disclosed is a variable frequency microwave heating apparatus designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus includes a microwave signal generator and a high-power microwave amplifier or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A power supply is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator or microwave amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 10 figs.

  19. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Arvid C.; Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Markunas, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus (10) is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity (34) depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece (36) is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  20. Process and continuous apparatus for chemical conversion of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rugg, Barry; Stanton, Robert

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose to glucose of the type wherein waste cellulose is continuously fed into an inlet port of a twin screw extruder, water is continuously fed into reaction zone in the extruder, downstream of the inlet port, the cellulose is continuously reacted with water in the presence of an acid catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure in the reaction zone while being continuously conveyed to an outlet port of the extruder having a given diameter and the reacted cellulose is discharged from the extruder while the elevated temperature and pressure in the reaction zone is maintained. The elevated pressure is maintained by forming a dynamic seal zone at the upstream end of the reaction and continuously discharging the reacted material downstream of the outlet port at a predetermined volume rate of flow to maintain the pressure by passing the discharge through an orifice pipe having a smaller diameter than the given diameter of the outlet port.

  1. Process of making porous ceramic materials with controlled porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Ku, Qunyin

    1993-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide ceramic material is disclosed by which the porosity of the resulting material can be selectively controlled by manipulating the sol used to make the material. The method can be used to make a variety of metal oxide ceramic bodies, including membranes, but also pellets, plugs or other bodies. It has also been found that viscous sol materials can readily be shaped by extrusion into shapes typical of catalytic or adsorbent bodies used in industry, to facilitate the application of such materials for catalytic and adsorbent applications.

  2. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  3. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to machine materials. 150 m diameter holes cut in a 50 m thick silicon wafer via nano (left), pico (center), and femtosecond (right) pulse lasers. Photo credit Raydiance. ...

  4. Submerged combustion melting processes for producing glass and similar materials, and systems for carrying out such processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charbonneau, Mark William

    2015-08-04

    Processes of controlling submerged combustion melters, and systems for carrying out the methods. One process includes feeding vitrifiable material into a melter vessel, the melter vessel including a fluid-cooled refractory panel in its floor, ceiling, and/or sidewall, and heating the vitrifiable material with a burner directing combustion products into the melting zone under a level of the molten material in the zone. Burners impart turbulence to the molten material in the melting zone. The fluid-cooled refractory panel is cooled, forming a modified panel having a frozen or highly viscous material layer on a surface of the panel facing the molten material, and a sensor senses temperature of the modified panel using a protected thermocouple positioned in the modified panel shielded from direct contact with turbulent molten material. Processes include controlling the melter using the temperature of the modified panel. Other processes and systems are presented.

  5. Method of processing materials using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, Donald E.; Bieniewski, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A method for coating surfaces or implanting ions in an object using an inductively coupled plasma. The method provides a gas-free environment, since the plasma is formed without using a gas. The coating material or implantation material is intitially in solid form.

  6. Process and apparatus for preparing textured crystalline materials using anisotropy in the paramagnetic susceptibility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holloway, A.

    1992-01-07

    The present invention discloses a process and apparatus for forming textures in materials. The process comprises heating a material having an anisotropy in the paramagnetic or diamagnetic susceptibility within a magnetic field. The material is heated to a temperature approaching its melting point while a magnetic field of at least 10[sup 4]Oe is simultaneously applied. The process and apparatus produce highly textured bulk and elongated materials with high current densities below critical superconducting temperatures. 6 figs.

  7. Process and apparatus for preparing textured crystalline materials using anisotropy in the paramagnetic susceptibility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holloway, Aleksey

    1992-01-07

    The present invention discloses a process and apparatus for forming textures in materials. The process comprises heating a material having an anisotropy in the paramagnetic or diamagnetic susceptibility within a magnetic field. The material is heated to a temperature approaching its melting point while a magnetic field of at least 10.sup.4 Oe is simultaneously applied. The process and apparatus produce highly textured bulk and elongated materials with high current densities below critical superconducting temperatures.

  8. Method of processing materials using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, Donald E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bieniewski, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method for making fine power using an inductively coupled plasma. The method provides a gas-free environment, since the plasma is formed without using a gas. The starting material used in the method is in solid form.

  9. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to 10 times higher than lithium-ion), using raw materials that are low cost or even free. ... that PLE-based batteries can be manufactured and scaled to high-volume production. ...

  10. Aqueous processing of composite lithium ion electrode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L

    2015-02-17

    A method of making a battery electrode includes the steps of dispersing an active electrode material and a conductive additive in water with at least one dispersant to create a mixed dispersion; treating a surface of a current collector to raise the surface energy of the surface to at least the surface tension of the mixed dispersion; depositing the dispersed active electrode material and conductive additive on a current collector; and heating the coated surface to remove water from the coating.

  11. Process for biological material carbon-carbon bond formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Jung, S.; Mindock, C.A.

    1998-12-22

    A process for providing vicinal dimethyl long chain between alkyl groups of organic compounds is described. The process uses intact or disrupted cells of various species of bacteria, particularly Thermoanaerobacter sp., Sarcina sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The process can be conducted in an aqueous reaction mixture at room temperatures. 8 figs.

  12. Process for biological material carbon-carbon bond formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Jung, Seunho; Mindock, Carol A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for providing vicinal dimethyl long chain between alkyl groups of organic compounds is described. The process uses intact or disrupted cells of various species of bacteria, particularly Thermoanaerobacter sp., Sarcina sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The process can be conducted in an aqueous reaction mixture at room temperatures.

  13. Fuel cell anode configuration for CO tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2004-11-16

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is designed to operate on a reformate fuel stream containing oxygen and diluted hydrogen fuel with CO impurities. A polymer electrolyte membrane has an electrocatalytic surface formed from an electrocatalyst mixed with the polymer and bonded on an anode side of the membrane. An anode backing is formed of a porous electrically conductive material and has a first surface abutting the electrocatalytic surface and a second surface facing away from the membrane. The second surface has an oxidation catalyst layer effective to catalyze the oxidation of CO by oxygen present in the fuel stream where at least the layer of oxidation catalyst is formed of a non-precious metal oxidation catalyst selected from the group consisting of Cu, Fe, Co, Tb, W, Mo, Sn, and oxides thereof, and other metals having at least two low oxidation states.

  14. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  15. Modification of carbon nanotubes by CuO-doped NiO nanocomposite for use as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustansar Abbas, Syed; Tajammul Hussain, Syed; Ali, Saqib; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Nisar; Abbas, Saghir; Ali, Zulfiqar

    2013-06-15

    CuO-doped NiO (CuNiO) with porous hexagonal morphology is fabricated via a modified in-situ co-precipitation method and its nanocomposite is prepared with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electrochemical properties of CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic chargedischarge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Since Cu can both act as conductor and a catalyst, the CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite exhibits higher initial coulombic efficiency (82.7% of the 2nd cycle) and better capacity retention (78.6% on 50th cycle) than bare CuNiO (78.9% of the 2nd cycle), CuO/CNT (76.8% of the 2nd cycle) and NiO/CNT (77.7% of the 2nd cycle) at the current density of 100 mA /g. This high capacity and good cycling ability is attributed to the partial substitution of Cu{sup +2} for Ni{sup +2}, resulting in an increase of holes concentration, and therefore improved p-type conductivity along with an intimate interaction with CNTs providing large surface area, excellent conduction, mechanical strength and chemical stability. - Graphical abstract: The porous CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite synthesized via a modified co-precipitation method in combination with subsequent calcination was applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance. - Highlights: CuO doped NiO/CNTs nano composite is achieved via a simple co-precipitation method. Monodispersity, shape and sizes of sample particles is specifically controlled. Good quality adhesion between CNTs and CuNiO is visible from TEM image. High electrochemical performance is achieved. Discharge capacity of 686 mA h/g after 50 cycles with coulombic efficiency (82.5%)

  16. Uniform bulk material processing using multimode microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi; Vaughn, Worth E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE.sub.10 -mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE.sub.11 -, TE.sub.01 - and TM.sub.01 -cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

  17. Sol-gel process of fluoride and fluorobromide materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poncelet, O.; Guilment, J.; Paz-Pujalt, G.

    1996-12-31

    The alkoxides M(OR{sub x}){sub n} wherein M is an alkaline-earth or rare-earth and OR{sub X} is a fluoroalkoxo or bromoalkoxo group exhibit the properties to form pure fluoride materials by hydrolysis at room temperature. Using this property, the authors synthesized pure barium and europium fluoride and pure alkaline-earth bromide. The hydrolysis of a heteroleptic species, Ba(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Br)[OCH(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}] allowed pure and crystalline BaFBr materials to be obtained at room temperature.

  18. Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. This nanotechnology directly addresses delamination of graphite anode material from the collectors, a common result of cyclical

  19. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2008-08-12

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  20. Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced performances as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xiaoqin; Hou, Xianhua; Yao, Lingmin; Hu, Shejun; Liu, Xiang; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode shows the highest reversible capacity of 1157 mA h g{sup −1}. • The Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode shows promising cycling stability. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) have been successfully synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in various proportions were investigated at room temperature, respectively. The Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.04) electrode in the as-synthesized samples showed the highest specific capacity of 1547 mA h g{sup −1} and 1157 mA h g{sup −1} in the initial discharge/charge process, with a coulombic efficiency of 74.8%. Additionally, excellent cycling stability was performed with a 1214 mA h g{sup −1} capacity retention at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. The corresponding mechanism was proposed which indicated that the Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles experienced an aggregation thermochemical reaction among ZnO, MnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} subparticles.

  1. Material and Chemical Processing (Concentrated Solar) (4 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Concentrated sunlight is a versatile and high-quality form of energy with several potential applications besides producing heat and electricity. Today, scientists are developing systems that use concentrated sunlight to detoxify hazardous wastes, to drive chemical reactions, and to treat materials for increased hardness and resistance to corrosion.

  2. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  3. The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

  4. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Smith, Graham; Mahler, George J.; Vanier, Peter E.

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  5. Process for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J.; Todd, Terry A.; Lewis, Leroy C.; Henscheid, Joseph P.

    2005-10-04

    The invention includes a method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the precipitate. The precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. The invention also includes a system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product.

  6. Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei

    2011-01-25

    A method device and material for performing adsorption wherein a fluid mixture is passed through a channel in a structured adsorbent bed having a solid adsorbent comprised of adsorbent particles having a general diameter less than 100 um, loaded in a porous support matrix defining at least one straight flow channel. The adsorbent bed is configured to allow passage of a fluid through said channel and diffusion of a target material into said adsorbent under a pressure gradient driving force. The targeted molecular species in the fluid mixture diffuses across the porous support retaining layer, contacts the adsorbent, and adsorbs on the adsorbent, while the remaining species in the fluid mixture flows out of the channel.

  7. Corrosion of tin oxide at anodic potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cachet, H.; Froment, M.; Zenia, F.

    1996-02-01

    Tin dioxide electrodes are used as anodes for the electrochemical destruction of organic pollutants in wastewater. The lifetime of such electrodes is limited because of corrosion phenomena which are shown to take place under anodic polarization. These corrosion processes are studied by quartz microbalance experiments, impedance measurements, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations, carried out on sprayed SnO{sub 2} layers. Localized corrosion phenomena are observed and related to the reaction of radical species with the oxide surface. The extent and the morphology of the attack is shown to depend on the doping (F, Sb) of the SnO{sub 2} electrodes, the solution pH, and the concentration of chloride ions. it is also shown that because of corrosion the conduction band energy level is shifted toward much more positive potentials, allowing the SnO{sub 2} electrode to be activated for oxygen evolution.

  8. Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1981-01-01

    Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

  9. MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced Light Sources Los ... Authors: Sykora, Milan 1 ; Kober, Edward Martin 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los ...

  10. Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery Manufacturing Grants 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit ...

  11. Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery Manufacturing Grants Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Energy Storage R&D ...

  12. Energy Materials and Processes, An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burk, Linda H.

    2014-12-16

    The report summarizes discussions at the Energy Materials and Process EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop held July 7-8, 2014.

  13. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  14. Nano-structured Materials as Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  15. Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.

  16. EA-2024: Gap Material Plutonium- Transport, Receipt, and Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental assessment evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with transporting up to 900 kilograms of plutonium from foreign nations to the United States, storing the plutonium at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and processing it for disposition. This action would be pursued only if it is determined that there is no other reasonable pathway to assure security of this plutonium from theft or diversion.

  17. Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

  18. Materials Project and Electrolyte Genome - Joint Center for Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Materials Project and Electrolyte Genome The Materials Project and Electrolyte Genome are computer modeling tools designed to accelerate the discovery process before testing in the laboratory. Developing beyond-lithium-ion batteries requires the discovery of new working ions, cathodes, anodes, and electrolytes. The Materials Project and the Electrolyte Genome use high-throughput computer modeling to: identify new candidates for battery materials, predict their performance, and

  19. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  20. Final Report - Recovery Act - Development and application of processing and process control for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus; Armstrong, Beth L; Maxey, L Curt; Sabau, Adrian S; Wang, Hsin; Hagans, Patrick; Babinec, Sue

    2013-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other

  1. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  2. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1998-07-21

    A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

  3. ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF MATERIALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, R.S.; Bailes, R.H.

    1958-04-15

    A process for the recovery of certain metallic ions from aqueous solutions by ion exchange techniques is described. It is applicable to elements such as vanadium, chromium, nnanganese, and the like, which are capable of forming lower valent cations soluble in aqueous solutions and which also form ldgher valent anions soluble in aqueous acidic solutions. For example, small amounts of vanadium occurring in phosphoric acid prepared from phosphate rock may be recovered by reducing the vanadium to a trivalent cation adsorbing; the vanadium in a cationic exchange resin, then treating the resin with a suitable oxidizing agent to convert the adsorbed vanadium to a higher valent state, and finally eluting; the vanadium as an anion from the resin by means of an aqueous acidic solution.

  4. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  5. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  6. Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Yoshi; Skotheim, Terje A.; Lee, Hung S.

    1995-08-15

    The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS.sub.x).sub.n, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode.

  7. Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Y.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.

    1995-08-15

    The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS{sub x}){sub n}, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode. 5 figs.

  8. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Methods for making composite anodes, ...

  9. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion ... Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes

  10. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminummore » to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.« less