Sample records for anode ground bed

  1. Spectral Analysis of Thinning Beds Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francese, Renee Rose

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to field data from North Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, to image ?pinch-outs?. Multiple survey arrays were collected using a 200 MHz frequency antenna to image internal dune structures. The results showed anomalous features at merging beds... the transmitter and receiver along the surface at a specific array spacing. In our case, the initial separation of the transmitter and receiver is 1 m and then the device is moved over 0.25 m. The diagram shows a radargram of amplitudes (B) resulting from a GPR...

  2. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  3. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Bed Bugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Roger E.; Howell Jr., Harry N.

    2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bed Bugs L-1742 9-01 Roger Gold and Harry Howell* B ed bugs, generally called ?chinces? in Texas, feed on blood, principally that of humans, by piercing the skin with their elongated beaks. Although they inflict misery on their victims, it has never...

  6. Anode performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail ShareRedAndreasAnode performance Anode performance

  7. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  8. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  9. Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

  10. Circulating Fluid Bed Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraley, L. D.; Do, L. N.; Hsiao, K. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The circulating bed combustor represents an alternative concept of burning coal in fluid bed technology, which offers distinct advantages over both the current conventional fluidized bed combustion system and the pulverized coal boilers equipped...

  11. catalyst beds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalyst beds catalyst beds Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate...

  12. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  13. anodes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 25 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  14. anodization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 25 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  15. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  16. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  17. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  18. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  19. EMSL - catalyst beds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalyst-beds en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-structural-defe...

  20. Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

  1. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  2. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Huettig, F.R. (Ceramic Magnetics, Inc., Fairfield, NJ (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  3. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehta, Gautam I. (Greensburg, PA); Rogers, Lynn M. (Export, PA)

    1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  4. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.D.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers is in progress. Preliminary results indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. In these instances it was observed that large particles were forming within the bed which were larger that the feed. Four operators could confirm that the larger bed particles had formed due to bed particles sticking together or agglomerating. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with these deposits being found most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Examples of these agglomerates and deposits have been received from five of the surveyed facilities. Also during this quarter, a bulk sample of Illinois No. 6 coal was obtained from the Fossil Energy Program at Ames Laboratory here at Iowa State University and prepared for combustion tests. This sample was first ground to a top-size of 3/8`` using a jaw crusher then a size fraction of 3/8`` {times} 8 (US mesh) was then obtained by sieving using a Gilson Test-Master. This size fraction was selected for the preliminary laboratory-scale experiments designed to simulate the dense bed conditions that exist in the bottom of CFB combustors. To ensure uniformity of fuel composition among combustion runs, the sized coal was riffled using, a cone and long row method and stored in bags for each experiment. During this quarter additional modifications were made to achieve better control of fluidization regimes and to aid in monitoring the hydrodynamic and chemical conditions within the reactor.

  5. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    ;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 fuel fuel feed air products air fuel Retort) products Underfeed Combustion fuel feed air #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 required #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Overfeed Bed fuel motion products air

  6. Microbial fuel cell with improved anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the method includes: (i) inoculating an anodic liquid medium in contact with an anode of the microbial fuel cell with one or more types of microorganisms capable of functioning by an exoelectrogenic mechanism; (ii) establishing a biofilm of the microorganisms on and/or within the anode along with a substantial absence of planktonic forms of the microorganisms by substantial removal of the planktonic microorganisms during forced flow and recirculation conditions of the anodic liquid medium; and (iii) subjecting the microorganisms of the biofilm to a growth stage by incorporating one or more carbon-containing nutritive compounds in the anodic liquid medium during biofilm formation or after biofilm formation on the anode has been established.

  7. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    long life and improved Safety for PHEV and EV applications. Objectives Develop a low cost synthesis methods to prepare high energy anodes Full structural and...

  8. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  9. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  10. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  11. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

  12. Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-ion Batteries Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials...

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE...

  14. anodic protection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 27 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  15. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  16. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  17. Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, P. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Hogge, K. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Naffziger, C. [NSTec; Codova, S. R. [SNL; Ormond, E. U. [SNL

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

  18. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadler, III, Leon Y. (Tuscaloosa, AL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  19. Improvement of four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

  20. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  1. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  2. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  3. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  4. Fluidized-bed sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc oxide-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor. In this program, regenerable ZnO-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents are being developed and tested. These include zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-SORB sorbents. The Z-SORB sorbent is a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company (PPCo).

  5. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  6. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 ?m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  7. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  8. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  9. Breakout SessionIII,Bed-Materialand Bed-TopographyMeasurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as independent variables. 2. Does your organization have any accuracy standards for collecting theses types (bed topography or bed material) of sediment data? National and international mapping standards such as those of Standards and Technology, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Digital Geographic Information

  10. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  11. Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

  12. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

  13. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland J. L. Bamber 1 ,al. : A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland Howat, I. M.al. : A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland Fig. 3. (a)

  14. Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and...

  15. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart...

  16. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stability of Si-based anode. 4 Milestones * Synthesize and characterize TiO 2 Graphene and SnO 2 Graphene nano-composite as anode for Li-ion batteries. - on going *...

  17. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  18. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  19. Fluidized bed controls refinery emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulally, I.F.; Kersey, B.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1983, two fluidized bed, waste heat boilers entered into service at the Ashland Petroleum Company refinery site in Ashland, Kentucky. These fluidized bed units are coupled to the regeneration end of a newly developed reduced crude conversion (RCC) process and served the purpose of reducing CO, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions while recuperating waste heat from the regenerator process off gases.

  20. Pressure Drop in a Pebble Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Changwoo

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure drops over a packed bed of pebble bed reactor type are investigated. Measurement of porosity and pressure drop over the bed were carried out in a cylindrical packed bed facility. Air and water were used for working fluids. There are several...

  1. Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility-Hames, and Thomas P. Quinn Abstract: Bed scour, egg pocket depths, and alteration of stream-bed surfaces by spawning chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) were measured in two Pacific Northwest gravel-bedded streams. Close

  2. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  3. RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Project ID No....

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    130 Title: Replacement of BH Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 114 Description: Subcontractor shall provide all materials, tools, equipment, supplies, transportation,...

  4. SPOUTED BED ELECTRODES (SBE) FOR DIRECT UTILIZATION OF CARBON IN FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Calo

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phase I project was focused on an investigation of spouted bed particulate electrodes for the direct utilization of solid carbon in fuel cells. This approach involves the use of a circulating carbon particle/molten carbonate slurry in the cell that provides a few critical functions: it (1) fuels the cell continuously with entrained carbon particles; (2) brings particles to the anode surfaces hydrodynamically; (3) removes ash from the anode surfaces and the cell hydrodynamically; (4) provides a facile means of cell temperature control due to its large thermal capacitance; (5) provides for electrolyte maintenance and control in the electrode separator(s); and (6) can (potentially) improve carbon conversion rates by ''pre-activating'' carbon particle surfaces via formation of intermediate oxygen surface complexes in the bulk molten carbonate. The approach of this scoping project was twofold: (1) adaptation and application of a CFD code, originally developed to simulate particle circulation in spouted bed electrolytic reactors, to carbon particle circulation in DCFC systems; and (2) experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of carbon slurry circulation in DCFC systems using simulated slurry mixtures. The CFD model results demonstrated that slurry recirculation can be used to hydrodynamically feed carbon particles to anode surfaces. Variations of internal configurations were investigated in order to explore effects on contacting. It was shown that good contacting with inclined surfaces could be achieved even when the particles are of the same density as the molten carbonate. The use of CO{sub 2} product gas from the fuel cell as a ''lift-gas'' to circulate the slurry was also investigated with the model. The results showed that this is an effective method of slurry circulation; it entrains carbon particles more effectively in the draft duct and produces a somewhat slower recirculation rate, and thus higher residence times on anode surfaces, and can be controlled completely via pressure balance. Experimental investigations in a rectangular spouted vessel hydrodynamics apparatus (SVHA) showed that hydrodynamics can be used to control the circulation, residence time, and distribution of carbon within the spouted bed, as well as provide good particle contact with anode surfaces. This was shown to be a function of viscosity, carbon loading, and particle size, as well as relative densities. Higher viscosities and smaller particle sizes favor more efficient particle entrainment in the draft duct, and particle recirculation. Both the computational and experimental results are consistent with each another and exhibit the same general qualitative behavior. Based upon this work, a design of a prototype SBE/DCFC cell was developed and is presented.

  5. Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

  6. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Power Sources 139,for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,nano-anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel anode...

  8. Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

  9. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet 1. Measure-bed elevation dataset for Greenland J. L. Bamber 1 , J. A.face mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by

  10. State of Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    directly in fluidized beds while taking advantage of low furnace temperatures and chemical activity within the bed to limit SO2 and NOx emissions, thereby eliminating the need for stack gas scrubbing equipment. The excellent heat transfer characteristics...

  11. Regional-scale effects of eutrophication on ecosystem structure and services of seagrass beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Regional-scale effects of eutrophication on ecosystem structure and services of seagrass beds with increasing eutrophication. As eutrophication increased, phytoplankton biomass increased on average 1.8 times to increasing tissue nitrogen content above ground with eutrophication. Despite province- and species

  12. Best Management Practices for Bedding and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    1 Best Management Practices for Bedding and Container Color Plant Production in California #12 in California Bedding and Container Color Plant Production 5 Best Management Practices for Disease Prevention 16 Best Management Practices For Insect And Mite Prevention 19 Impact of Common Bedding And Container

  13. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Hawk, James A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  14. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  15. Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Dufek; Mark L. Stone; Kevin L. Gering; Frederick F. Stewart; David Jamison; Aaron D. Wilson; Lucia M. Petkovic; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hybrid cyclic phosphazene polymer/graphite anodes, where the phosphazene serves as distributed loci for Li deposition, has been investigated. Capacity within the hybrid system was found to occur reversibly in distinct regions. At the most positive voltages, above 0.06 V vs Li/Li+, the capacity was associated mostly with Li+ intercalation into graphite. In the most negative region, deposition of Li within the polymer was the predominate mechanism. A transitional region is inferred by the data whereby bulk aggregation or clustering of Li atoms occurs in proximity to the phosphazene sites that then serve as a template for more widespread population of Li within the anode at higher voltages, akin to a nucleation process. In full cells with a mixed oxide cathode, controlling the extent of Li deposition by limiting the charging voltage to 4.45 V enabled repeated cycling with no loss in capacity. Capacities as high as 183 mAh g-1 have been achieved for systems containing as little as 10% graphite while retaining coulombic efficiencies of 98% over 50 cycles. This level of cycling equates to the deposition of 7.4 Li per cyclic phosphazene.

  16. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  17. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode supported planar Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science ; Engineering 27 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Summary: Polymeric anodes for improved polymer...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodizing aluminum sections Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anodizing aluminum sections Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anodizing aluminum sections Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ENS'05 Paris,...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode image sensor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arc enters the anode is referred... and behavior of the anode spot under typical plasma cutting conditions. III. ... Source: Settles, Gary S. - Department of Mechanical and...

  1. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  2. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, Thomas J. T. (Los Alamos, NM); Snell, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  3. Results from a pilot cell test of cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Strachan, D M; Henager, Jr, C H; Greenwell, E N [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Alcorn, T R [Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Mfg. Technology Lab.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal was to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes for Hall-Heroult cells used to produce Al metal. The anodes were made from a ceramic/metal composite consisting of NiO and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and a Cu/Ni metal phase. Thirteen cermet anodes were tested at Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL. All anodes corroded severely during the pilot test. Electrolyte components were found deep within the anodes. However, there were many deficiencies in the pilot cell test, mainly the failure to maintain optimal operating conditions. It is concluded that there is a variety of fabrication and operational considerations that need to be addressed carefully in any future testing. 118 figs, 16 tabs, 17 refs.(DLC)

  4. Surface roughness of anodized titanium coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Chinn, Douglas Alan

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of grade five 6Al4V titanium alloy were coated with two commercial fluoropolymer anodizations (Tiodize and Canadize) and compared. Neither coating demonstrates significant outgassing. The coatings show very similar elemental analysis, except for the presence of lead in the Canadize coating, which may account for its lower surface friction in humid environments. Surface roughness has been compared by SEM, contact profilometry, optical profilometry, power spectral density and bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF). The Tiodize film is slightly smoother by all measurement methods, but the Canadize film shows slightly less scatter at all angles of incidence. Both films exhibited initial friction coefficients of 0.2 to 0.4, increasing to 0.4 to 0.8 after 1000 cycles of sliding due to wear of the coating and ball. The coatings are very similar and should behave identically in most applications.

  5. Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

  6. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  7. Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, Donald R.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

  8. Adhesion of anodic films on aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeldon, P.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G.E.; Wood, G.C. (Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom). Corrosion and Protection Centre); Habazaki, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research); Shimizu, K. (Keio Univ., Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan). University Chemical Lab.)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During anodizing of certain binary Al alloys, the growing anodic oxide film detaches from the alloy substrate, subsequently allowing access of the electrolyte to the underlying bare metal and re-anodizing at a high current density. An Al-3% Li alloy was shown to reveal these phenomena, which are associated with the development of voids at the alloy/film interface as the film thickens. The development of voids, assisting the film detachment, was attributed to the reduced volume of lithium oxide (Li[sub 2]O) formed at the alloy/film interface and compared to that of alumina (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]).

  9. Building a Raised Bed Garden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Files, Priscilla J.; Dainello, Frank J.; Arnold, Michael A.; Welsh, Douglas F.

    2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    need, and are less likely to wet foliage. However, they do have some disadvantages. Emitters are prone to clogging unless the water used is very clean, and if emitters are installed under mulch it is difficult to spot problems. Emitters are also... this flexibility as your plantings mature. If you choose drip or trickle irrigation, determine the length of the hose and the number of emitters you will need. Drip tape with 12-inch emitter spacing is best for vegetables. Beds should be divided into watering zones...

  10. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, James V. (Piedmont, CA); Savaskan, Gultekin (Albany, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

  11. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  12. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

  13. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  14. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Zeng, Li-Wen (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  15. Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The...

  16. Granular Dynamics in Pebble Bed Reactor Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laufer, Michael Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pebble bed reactor,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.the AVR reactor,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 121,Operating Experience,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.

  17. anodic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode materia.l1-9 These materials have been showed large-14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15-20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21-25 have been Cho,...

  18. advanced anodic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode materia.l1-9 These materials have been showed large-14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15-20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21-25 have been Cho,...

  19. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with...

  20. Microbial Community Composition Is Unaffected by Anode Potential Xiuping Zhu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHE).2,6 This voltage can be produced by an external power source, or through insertion of a reverse electrodialysis stack between the electrodes.7,8 The anode potential can influence the performance of BESs.9

  1. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge?discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

  2. anode cathodic protection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  3. anodic tantala films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diodes Materials Science Websites Summary: to be an efficient anode for organic light-emitting diode OLED X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong an ultrathin...

  4. anode interfacial layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  5. Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are Fast to Discharge but Slow to Charge December 02, 2014 Measured and calculated rate-performance of a Si thin-film (70...

  6. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    its strength. Application of the cathode occurs next. An LSCF or similar powder is mixed allowing the water to evaporate from the LSCF, the half-cell is sintered again. The anode is applied

  7. Breakdown Anodization (BDA) for hierarchical structures of titanium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Soon Ju, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Breakdown Anodization (BDA) of titanium dioxide is a very promising, fast fabrication method to construct micro-scale and nano-scale structures on titanium surfaces. This method uses environmentally friendly electrolytes, ...

  8. Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

  9. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 200,000 Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Coated Layered SiO x -Graphene Nanocomposite Anodes J-G Zhang and J. Liu Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

  10. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) research and development program is designed to develop the technology and data base required for the successful commercialization of the PFBC concept. A cooperative program with the US, West Germany, and the UK has resulted in the construction of the 25 MWe IEA-Grimethorpe combined-cycle pilot plant in England which will be tested in 1981. A 13 MWe coal-fired gas turbine (air cycle) at Curtis-Wright has been designed and construction scheduled. Start-up is planned to begin in early 1983. A 75 MWe pilot plant is planned for completion in 1986. Each of these PFBC combined-cycle programs is discussed. The current status of PFB technology may be summarized as follows: turbine erosion tolerance/hot gas cleanup issues have emerged as the barrier technology issues; promising turbine corrosion-resistant materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking; first-generation PFB combustor technology development is maturing at the PDU level; however, scale-up to larger size has not been demonstrated; and in-bed heat exchanger materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking. The DOE-PFB development plan is directed at the resolution of these key technical issues. (LCL)

  11. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, E.

    1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  12. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  13. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12;The addition of other metals to Platinum improves its fuel cell performance Pt alone is easily

  14. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  15. Process for anodizing a robotic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, William T. (Weston, MA)

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  16. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  17. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or more of the CERTS Microgrid concepts. Future planned microgrid work involves unattended continuous operation of the microgrid for 30 to 60 days to determine how utility faults impact the operation of the microgrid and to gage the power quality and reliability improvements offered by microgrids.

  18. FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION UNIT FOR OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hammad; Y. Zurigat; S. Khzai; Z. Hammad; O. Mubydeem

    A fluidized bed combustion unit has been designed and installed to study the fluidized bed combustion performance using oil shale as fuel in direct burning process. It is a steel column of 18 cm inside diameter and 130 cm height fitted with a perforated plate air distributor of 611 holes, each of 1

  19. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  20. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  1. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  2. Ordered bed modular reactor design proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, J. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ordered Bed Modular Reactor (OBMR) is a design as an advanced modular HTGR in which the annular reactor core is filled with an ordered bed of fuel spheres. This arrangement allows fuel elements to be poured into the core cavity which is shaped so that an ordered bed is formed and to be discharged from the core through the opening holes in the reactor top. These operations can be performed in a shutdown shorter time. The OBMR has the most of advantages from both the pebble bed reactor and block type reactor. Its core has great structural flexibility and stability, which allow increasing reactor output power and outlet gas temperature as well as decreasing core pressure drop. This paper introduces ordered packing bed characteristics, unloading and loading technique of the fuel spheres and predicted design features of the OBMR. (authors)

  3. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  4. Predaceous Ground Beetles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Predaceous Ground Beetles Caterpillar Hunters and Bombardier Beetles Rick Minzenmayer, Extension Agent-IPM Chris Sansone, Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension genus Calosoma, a brightly colored ground beetle. Some species are called...

  5. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology] National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University] Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University] Arizona State University

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  6. Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients: 8 ounces egg noodles, uncooked 1 pound ground turkey 1 onion. Meanwhile, brown ground turkey and onions in non stick skillet until meat is no longer pink and onions cup of egg noodles on plate, top with 1/2 cup of turkey mixture. Equipment: Knife Cutting board

  7. National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009) National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector...

  8. Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  9. Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Hosek, William (Morris, NJ)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  10. Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, fabrication, and installation of the cold flow test facility has been completed. The SMGBF test facility shown in Figure 2 consists of a solids feed hopper, a transparent test vessel, a screw conveyor, a 55-gal drum for solids storage, a dust feeder, a baghouse filter, and the associated instrumentation for flow and pressure control and measurement. The standleg is 11-in ID by 3-ft long, and also transparent to facilitate observation. The crushed acrylic particles of characteristics shown in Table 1 are used as the bed media. The bed particles were selected, by maintaining the particle size while reducing the particle density, to simulate the minimum fluidization velocity expected under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. By maintaining the particle size, the bed effectively simulates the bed packing and voidage in the moving bed which is directly related to the efficiency of particulate removal and pressure drop characteristics. The test facility performed as designed and no particular difficulties were encountered. The baseline data on pressure profiles across the stationary and the moving granular beds were obtained for gas face velocities up to 6 ft/s, higher than the minimum fluidization velocity of the bed material (5 ft/s), and no visible fluidization was observed at the base of the standleg. This confirms the operational feasibility of the compact SMGBF design.

  11. Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, fabrication, and installation of the cold flow test facility has been completed. The SMGBF test facility shown in Figure 2 consists of a solids feed hopper, a transparent test vessel, a screw conveyor, a 55-gal drum for solids storage, a dust feeder, a baghouse filter, and the associated instrumentation for flow and pressure control and measurement. The standleg is 11-in ID by 3-ft long, and also transparent to facilitate observation. The crushed acrylic particles of characteristics shown in Table 1 are used as the bed media. The bed particles were selected, by maintaining the particle size while reducing the particle density, to simulate the minimum fluidization velocity expected under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. By maintaining the particle size, the bed effectively simulates the bed packing and voidage in the moving bed which is directly related to the efficiency of particulate removal and pressure drop characteristics. The test facility performed as designed and no particular difficulties were encountered. The baseline data on pressure profiles across the stationary and the moving granular beds were obtained for gas face velocities up to 6 ft/s, higher than the minimum fluidization velocity of the bed material (5 ft/s), and no visible fluidization was observed at the base of the standleg. This confirms the operational feasibility of the compact SMGBF design.

  12. Cooking with Ground Pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    to thaw. Even when cooked, pork that has been thawed at room temperature can make you sick. Cooking ground pork safely For dishes that contain ground pork, cook the pork before mixing it with other ingredients. How to store cooked ground pork Leftover... dishes made with ground pork should be stored in a covered dish in the refrigerator right away to prevent spoilage. Use it within 3 days. Reheat foods with ground pork until they are steaming hot, bubbling, or at 165 degrees. Other uses Use cooked...

  13. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  14. A PROTOTYPE FOUR INCH SHORT HYDRIDE (FISH) BED AS A REPLACEMENT TRITIUM STORAGE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.; Shanahan, K.; Heung, L.

    2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi{sub 4.15}Al{sub 0.85} material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  15. Ground Water Management Act (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Ground Water Management Act of 1992, Virginia manages ground water through a program regulating the withdrawals in certain areas called Ground Water Management Areas (GWMA). Currently,...

  16. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  17. Simulation of space particle bed reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincendon, Isabelle R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? dimensional fluidized bed codes called CHEhI- FLUB, FLAG and FLIrFIX. The FLUFIX code efl'ort actually began in 19ig with the development of a step ? by ? step building ? block approach to understand the hy- drodynamics of fluidized beds and close coupling... with validation experiments. In mid ? 1979, the IC ? FIXs computer program was modified so that it would model a fluidized bed with a. central jet This required transforming K ? FIX I'rom a gas ? liquid computer program to a. gas ? solia computer program. Later...

  18. Rock bed behavior and reverse thermosiphon effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, J.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two rock beds, in the Mark Jones and Doug Balcomb houses, have been instrumented, monitored, and analyzed. Observed experimental operation has been compared with, or explained by, theoretical predictions. The latter are based on one-dimensional finite-difference computer calculation of rock bed charging and discharging, with fixed or variable inputs of air flow rate and temperature. Both rock beds exhibit appreciable loss of stored heat caused by lack of backdraft dampers or incomplete closure of such dampers. These topics are discussed, and some improvements that might be made in future installations are noted.

  19. The possibility of forming a sacrificial anode coating for Mg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mg is the most active engineering metal, and is often used as a sacrificial anode/coating to protect other engineering metals from corrosion attack. So far no sacrificial anode coating has been developed or considered for Mg. This study explores the possibility of forming a sacrificial coating for Mg. A lithiated carbon coating and a metaphosphated coating are applied on the Mg surface, respectively, and their open-circuit-potentials are measured in saturated Mg(OH)2 solution. They exhibit more negative potentials than bare Mg. SEM reveals that the metaphosphated coating offers more effective and uniform protection for Mg than the lithiated carbon coating. These preliminary results indicate that development of a sacrificial anode coating for Mg is indeed possible.

  20. Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

  1. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, Gary P. (Plum Borough, PA); Gavasto, Thomas M. (New Kensington, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

  2. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  3. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  4. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail ShareRedAndreasAnode performance Anode

  5. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  6. Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

    of its relatively recent application to coal fired steam production, fluid beds have been uti lized in industry for over 60 years. Beginning in Germany in the twenties for coal gasification, the technology was applied to catalytic cracking of heavy... system cost), use of minimum excess air required, and maintaining the min"imum reactor temperature neces sary to sustain combustion. For superautogenous fuels, where incineration. only is desired, minimum capital cost is achieved by using direct bed...

  7. Distribution of bed material in a Horizontal Circulating Fluidised Bed boiler.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekvall, Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??A conventional circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler has a limitation due to the height of the furnace, when implemented in smaller industrial facilities. The design… (more)

  8. Fabrication of Metal/Oxide Nanostructures by Anodization Processes for Biosensor, Drug Delivery and Supercapacitor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Po-Chun

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    applications of micro/nano structures; (2) novel processes to innovate anodic aluminum oxide nanotube template; (3) the supercapacitor applications of anodic titanium oxide. First, the extremely high surface area AAO coated microneedle and microneedle array...

  9. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  10. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries....

  11. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodized ti-metal substrates Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion medium CDM , serves as a methanol... from the cathode into the anode to offset the water dragged by electro-osmosis. The new MEA, consisting... of a CDM anode, a...

  13. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Abstract: Surface...

  14. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode wire grids Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Fig. 12. Zinc thruster data while operating using a consumable anode. The same four-grid RPA used... consumable anodes that were machined from solid magnesium and zinc, which...

  16. Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

  17. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

  18. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 3, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SGSYS (Substation Grounding SYStem Analysis Program). This program analyzes the substation ground field given the total electric current injected into the ground field and the design of the grounding system. Standard outputs of the program are (1) total ground resistance, (2) step voltage, (3) touch voltage, (4) voltages on a grid of points, (5) voltage profile along straight lines, (6) transfer voltages, (7) ground potential rise, (8) body currents, (9) step voltage profile along straight lines, and (10) touch voltage profile along straight lines. This program can be utilized in an interactive or batch mode. In the interactive mode, the user defines the grounding system geometry, soil parameters, and output requests interactively, with the use of a user friendly conversational program. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. An appendix provides forms which facilitate data collection procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program SGSYS and provides a test case for validation purposes.

  19. Cooking with Ground Beef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of ground beef, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  20. Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed] Sediment supply to gravel bed river channels often takes the form of episodic sediment pulses, and there is considerable interest in introducing sediment pulses in stream restorations to alter bed surface grain size

  1. In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells D.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane under methane-to-oxygen ratio (Rmix) of 2. Anode-supported fuel cells are investigated regarding

  2. Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system Module in samples collected after 12/1/01 have been determined by XRF analysis using a Cu-anode tube as the source/1/05 will be reported with an added indicator of the Cu- anode XRF system used in analysis, the first (1) or the second

  3. Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors Module/Species A@crocker.ucdavis.edu Supporting information A molybdenum-anode XRF instrument is used to analyze the heavier elements (Ni, Cu, Zn with lighter deposits were acquired and used in the Mo-anode XRF system. The new calibration foils resulted

  4. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Sylwester, Alan P. (Washington, DC); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  5. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  6. Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

  7. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  8. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  9. anode electrode materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode electrode materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Nanostructured Electrode...

  10. Dynamics of Finite Dust Clouds in a Magnetized Anodic Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, A.; Pilch, I.; Trottenberg, T. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-6315 (United States)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The response to an external modulation voltage of small dust clouds confined in an anodic plasma is studied. Dust density waves are excited when the cloud is larger than a wavelength, whereas a sloshing and stretching motion is found for smaller clouds. The wave dispersion shows similarities with waveguide modes.

  11. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Ground State Quantum Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Mizel; M. W. Mitchell; Marvin L. Cohen

    1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate a novel ground state quantum computation approach that requires no unitary evolution of qubits in time: the qubits are fixed in stationary states of the Hamiltonian. This formulation supplies a completely time-independent approach to realizing quantum computers. We give a concrete suggestion for a ground state quantum computer involving linked quantum dots.

  13. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. It can be used to compute transient ground potential rise due to lightning or switching, and the ground impedance (i.e. resistance and reactance) at specified frequencies. This report, Volume 4, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program TGRND (Transient GRouNDing System Analysis Program). This program computes transient ground potential rise resulting from lightning, switching, or other transient electric currents injected to a grounding system. The program also computes the impedance (i.e. resistance and reactance) of a grounding system as a function of frequency. This program can be utilized in an interactive or batch mode. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program TGRND and provides a test case for validation purposes.

  14. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  15. Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds S. Troesch***, A systems by local authorities. This will result in a large increase of the quantity of sludge from septic to treat this sludge because they may have reached their nominal load or they are not so numerous in rural

  16. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  17. Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

  18. Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

  19. Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvador, Louis A. (Greensburg, PA); Andermann, Ronald E. (Arlington Heights, IL); Rath, Lawrence K. (Mt. Pleasant, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

  20. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  1. OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

  2. Model for attrition in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, T.P.; Sishtla, C.I.; Punwani, D.V.; Arastoopour, H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model developed to predict the particle-size distribution and amount of fines generated during the attrition of particles in fluidized beds agrees well with experimental data for siderite iron ore and lignite char. Certain parameters used in the model are independent of particle size, orifice size, system pressure, bed weight, and attrition time, thus making the model suitable for scale-up purposes. Although the analysis was limited to a single jet with the attrition occurring at room temperature, the model can be extended to multi-jet, high-temperature operations.

  3. Advanced Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    and produce steam. In a one-year evaluation test on an aluminum remelt furnace, the FBWHRS generated about 26 million lb of saturated steam at 150 psig. Before entering the FBWHRS, the flue gases were diluted to IIOO?F to protect the fluidized bed... an improved foulant cleaning system for the fluidized bed di~tributor plate and operating the total system on an aluminum remelt furnace which has a corrosive and fouling flue gas stream (3). Although this project focused on an aluminum remelt furnace...

  4. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

  5. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 2, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SMECC (Substation Maximum Earth Current Computation Program). This program analyzes the electric current distribution among grounded structures inside and outside a substation for different fault conditions. The fault conditions are automatically selected by the program, or they may be specified by the user, or both. The fault condition resulting in maximum substation earth current is identified and reported. Data requirements for this program are: ground impedance, transformer data, transmission line data, transmission line grounding impedances, etc. The program provides four types of standard outputs: (1) a report of voltages and current flow in the unfaulted system, (2) a brief report of the maximum ground potential rise (worst fault condition), (3) a summary report of all fault conditions which have been analyzed by the program, and (4) a detailed report of voltages and current flow for a selected set of fault conditions.

  6. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  7. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent Company AgreesDesireeDepartmentLife Anodes Developing

  8. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  9. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macalady, Jenn

    Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

  10. Assessment of coal bed gas prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, T.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal bed gas is an often overlooked source of clean, methane-rich, H{sub 2}S-free natural gas. The economic development of coal bed gas requires a knowledge of coal gas reservoir characteristics and certain necessary departures from conventional evaluation, drilling, completion, and production practices. In many ways coal seam reservoirs are truly unconventional. Most coals sufficient rank have generated large volumes of gas that may be retained depth in varying amounts through adsorption. Coal gas production can take place only when the reservoir pressure is reduced sufficiently to allow the gas to desorb. Gas flow to the well bore takes place through a hierarchy of natural fractures, not the relatively impermeable coal matrix. Economic production is dependent upon critical factors intrinsic to the reservoir, including coal petrology, gas content, internal formation stratigraphy, fracture distribution, hydrogeology, in situ stress conditions, initial reservoir pressure and pressure regime, and the presence or absence of a {open_quote}free{close_quotes} gas saturation. Further, the coal bed reservoir is readily subject to formation damage through improper drilling, completion, or production techniques. This presentation will review the data types critical to the assessment of any coal seam gas prospect, suggest an outline method for screening such prospects, and point out some possible pitfalls to be considered in any coal bed gas development project.

  11. Fluidized bed gasification of agricultural residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groves, John David

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studied to develop a process which can convert organic waste matter into fuel gas. Hammond et al. (1974) described a fixed bed gasifier which operated at 1800 F (1256 K) and atmos- pheric pressure. When woodchips were used as the feed material...

  12. Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

  13. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

  14. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  15. Arrayed microfluidic actuation for active sorting of fluid bed particulates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerhardt, Antimony L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic actuation offers a facile method to move large quantities of small solids, often referred to as fluid-bed movement. Applications for fluid bed processing are integral to many fields including petrochemical, petroleum, ...

  16. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Evapotranspiration Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evapotranspiration (ET) beds treat wastewater in the soil by evaporation and by transpiration from plants growing there. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation and maintenance of ET beds....

  17. Report on the source of the electrochemical impedance on cermet inert anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Stice, N.D.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Inert Electrode Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anode surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The electrochemical impedances of cermet inert anodes in alumina-saturated molten cryolite as a function of frequency, current density, and time indicated that a significant component of the impedance is due to the gas bubbles produced at the anode during electrolysis. The data also showed a connection between surface structure and impedance that appears to be related to the effects of surface structure on bubble flow. Given the results of this work, it is doubtful that a resistive film contributes significantly to the electrochemical impedances on inert anodes. Properties previously assigned to such a film are more likely due to the bubbles and those factors that affect the properties and dynamics of the bubbles at the anode surface. 12 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments performed support the hypothesis that a reducing atmosphere during fluidized bed coal combustion contributes to the formation of agglomerates. Reducing conditions are imposed by controlling the amount of combustion air supplied to the combustor, 50% of theoretical in these experiments. These localized reducing conditions may arise from either poor lateral bed mixing or oxygen-starved conditions due to the coal feed locations. Deviations from steady-state operating conditions in bed pressure drop may be used to detect agglomerate formation. Interpretation of the bed pressure drop was made more straightforward by employing a moving average difference method. During steady-state operation, the difference between the moving point averages should be close to zero, within {plus_minus}0.03 inches of water. Instability within the combustor, experienced once agglomerates begin to form, can be recognized as larger deviations from zero, on the magnitude of {plus_minus}0.15 inches of water.

  19. IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS #12;ii IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS............................................................... 2 1.3. Overview of the Parameter Estimation Water-to-Water Heat Pump Model ........... 5 1

  20. Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

  1. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

  2. Anode-supported tubular SOFC at low temperature using Ni, Fe, GDC, and YSZ based anode support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fujishiro, Y.; Awano, M.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NiO-GDC, NiO-YSZ, NiO-Fe2O3-GDC, NiO-Fe2O3-YSZ anode tube supported tubular fuel cells was fabricated at the co-sintering temperature from 1250 C to 1400 C to investigate how the co-sintering temperature affect the open-circuit voltage. To focus on the changing of anode tube, all the tubular fuel cells support a ScSZ electrolyte layer and a LSCF cathode layer. The microstructure of the electrolyte layer sintered under 1300 C included pores inside it, and the densification of the electrolyte completed at the sintering temperatures above 1300 C. Furthermore, the shrinkage both in length and in diameter of a tubular fuel cell reaches as much as 20% at co-sintering temperature of 1400 C. The densification of ScSZ electrolyte layer and shrinkage of anode tube will result in the changing of open-circuit voltage of fuel cell from 1.0 V to 1.1 V.

  3. Analysis of cadmium in undissolved anode materials of Mark-IV electro-refiner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Tae-Sic; Fredrickson, G.L.; Vaden, D.; Westphal, B. [Separation Department, Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mark-IV electro-refiner (Mk-IV ER) is a unit process in the FCF (Fuel Conditioning Facility), which is primarily assigned to treating the used driver fuels. Mk-IV ER contains an electrolyte/molten cadmium system for refining uranium electrochemically. Typically, the anode of the Mk-IV ER consists of the chopped sodium-bonded metallic driver fuels, which have been primarily U-10Zr binary fuels. Chemical analysis of the residual anode materials after electrorefining indicates that a small amount of cadmium is removed from the Mk-IV ER along with the undissolved anode materials. Investigation of chemical analysis data indicates that the amount of cadmium in the undissolved anode materials is strongly correlated with the anode rotation speeds and the residence time of the anode in the Mk-IV ER. Discussions are given to explain the prescribed correlation. (authors)

  4. Analysis of Cadmium in Undissolved Anode Materials of Mark-IV Electrorefiner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Guy L. Fredrickson; DeeEarl Vaden; Brian R. Westphal

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mark-IV electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER) contains an electrolyte/molten cadmium system for refining uranium electrochemically. Typically, the anode of the Mk-IV ER consists of the chopped sodium-bonded metallic driver fuels, which have been primarily U-10Zr binary fuels. Chemical analysis of the residual anode materials after electrorefining indicates that a small amount of cadmium is removed from the Mk-IV ER along with the undissolved anode materials. Investigation of chemical analysis data indicates that the amount of cadmium in the undissolved anode materials is strongly correlated with the anode rotation speeds and the residence time of the anode in the Mk-IV ER. Discussions are given to explain the prescribed correlation.

  5. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  6. Real-Time Building Energy Simulation Using EnergyPlus and the Building Controls Test Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controls Test Bed Xiufeng Pang, Prajesh Bhattachayra, ZhengVIRTUAL TEST BED Xiufeng Pang 1 , Prajesh Bhattacharya 1 ,

  7. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

  8. Evaluation of fluid bed heat exchanger optimization parameters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty in the relationship of specific bed material properties to gas-side heat transfer in fluidized beds has inhibited the search for optimum bed materials and has led to over-conservative assumptions in the design of fluid bed heat exchangers. An experimental program was carried out to isolate the effects of particle density, thermal conductivity, and heat capacitance upon fluid bed heat transfer. A total of 31 tests were run with 18 different bed material loads on 12 material types; particle size variations were tested on several material types. The conceptual design of a fluidized bed evaporator unit was completed for a diesel exhaust heat recovery system. The evaporator heat transfer surface area was substantially reduced while the physical dimensions of the unit increased. Despite the overall increase in unit size, the overall cost was reduced. A study of relative economics associated with bed material selection was conducted. For the fluidized bed evaporator, it was found that zircon sand was the best choice among materials tested in this program, and that the selection of bed material substantially influences the overall system costs. The optimized fluid bed heat exchanger has an estimated cost 19% below a fin augmented tubular heat exchanger; 31% below a commercial design fluid bed heat exchanger; and 50% below a conventional plain tube heat exchanger. The comparisons being made for a 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h waste heat boiler. The fluidized bed approach potentially has other advantages such as resistance to fouling. It is recommended that a study be conducted to develop a systematic selection of bed materials for fluidized bed heat exchanger applications, based upon findings of the study reported herein.

  9. Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Wolson, Raymond D. (Lockport, IL); Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U.sup.+4 cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd.sup.+2 cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode.

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative anode reaction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Operating Power Including Nitrogen... is presented that describes the steady state profile of anode nitrogen ... Source: Wetton, Brian - Department of Mathematics, University...

  11. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  12. A MORE EFFICIENT ANODE MICROSTRUCTURE FOR SOFCs BASED ON PROTON CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainwater, Ben H; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Meilin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the desired microstructure of the state-of-the-art Ni-YSZ anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on YSZ is well known, the anode microstructure for a SOFC based on a proton conductor is yet to be optimized. In this study, we examined the effect of anode porosity on the performance of a SOFC based on BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3??} (BZCYYb), a mixed ion (proton and oxygen anion) conductor with high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. Three cells with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anodes of different porosities (37%, 42%, and 50%) and identical electrolytes and cathode components were fabricated and tested. Under typical fuel cell operating conditions, the cell with anode of the lowest porosity (37%), prepared without pore former, achieved the highest performance, demonstrating a peak power density of 1.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 750 °C. This is radically different from the results of Ni-YSZ anodes for YSZ based cells, where high anode porosity (?55%) is necessary to achieve high performance. The observed increase in performance (or electrocatalytic activity for anode reactions) is attributed primarily to the unique microstructure of the anode fabricated without the use of pore forming precursors.

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodically bonded glass-based Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science 32 APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu* Summary: , and anodic bonding. The starting material were two pieces of 3 in....

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic films formed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin film electrolyte is sintered at a temperature of 1400 C for 4 h... anode support SOFC cross-section, (b) microwave ... Source: Kasagi, Nobuhide - Department of Mechanical...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic reaction kinetics Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CELLS Summary: with electrochemical kinetics in active regions of anode and cathode of a SOFC. In the following section, the model... occurs by the following reactions. Oxidation...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic stripping square Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Sample search results for: anodic stripping square Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 554 (2005) 291299 Characteristics of...

  17. Organic Light Emitting Diodes Using a Ga:ZnO Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Burrows, Paul E.

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the application of gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) films as anodes in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Pulsed laser deposited GZO films of differing Ga composition are examined. Bilayer OLEDs using GZO and indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes are then compared. Relative to ITO, the GZO anodes have slightly better sheet resistance and transparency in the visible spectral region. Device data suggest GZO results in more effective hole injection into an aromatic triamine hole transporting layer. Indium free anodes are expected toimprove OLED stability while lowering the cost per unit area, crucial for OLED based lighting applications.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode dielectric coating Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10-5 Table 1. Dielectric parameters for anodic oxide, shunt capacitance... Josephson junction geometry with minimal volume of lossy isolation ... Source: Martinis, John M. -...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-supported solid oxide Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: , "Microstructure Optimization Designs for Anode-Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells," ASME Journal of Fuel Cell... ., "Optimization design of electrodes for...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum anodic oxide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxidation at the anode and material is being removed. D S b k June... Oxidation Reduction ... Source: Montana State University, Chemical and Biological Engineering...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic aluminum oxide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxidation at the anode and material is being removed. D S b k June... Oxidation Reduction ... Source: Montana State University, Chemical and Biological Engineering...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic aluminium oxide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Warwick Collection: Engineering 8 Characterisation of Oxidised Aluminium Powder: Validation of a new Anodic Oxidation Bench Nicolas Gascoin* Summary: 137...

  3. Pitch Production Using Solvent Extraction of Coal: Suitability as Carbon Anode Precursor.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Ali Pour, Mehdi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Albertan coal has been used to produce extracts as precursor for production of anode coke. Coal extractability was studied using digestion with Tetralin in a… (more)

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode x-ray source Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from measurements of the kinetic energy and intensity of the photoelectrons emitted... carbon film (conver- ter) illuminated by X-rays emitted by an aluminium- magnesium anode. For...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxygen-transfer reactions Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy ; Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 57 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells Summary: primarily on the anode side of...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-supported high power Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode current response Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen is produced, and there- fore the current and power are very low. In this regime, the anode... understanding the physical processes responsible for SCFC ... Source:...

  8. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Halow, John S. (Waynesburg, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

  9. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The five volume report comprises the user manual, installation, and validation manual and an applications guide for the SGA (Substation Grounding Analysis) software package. SGA consists of four computer programs: (1) SOMIP, (2) SMECC, (3) SGSYS, and (4) TGRND. The first three programs provide a comprehensive analysis tool for the design of substation grounding systems to meet safety standards. The fourth program, TGRND, provides a state of the art analysis tool for computing transient ground potential rise and ground system impedance. This part of the report, Volume 1, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SOMIP (SOil Measurement Interpretation Program). This program computes the best estimate of the parameters of a two layer soil model from usual soil resistivity measurements. Four pin or three pin soil measurements can be accommodated. In addition, it provides error bounds on the soil parameters for a given confidence level. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program SOMIP and provides two test cases for validation purposes. 4 refs.

  10. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  11. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  12. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  14. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  15. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  16. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  17. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  18. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  19. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I.Program InformationBibliographicAnode Catalysts

  20. CX-011224: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination Replacement of Deep-Anode Ground Bed Sites for Big Hill Cavern 104 and Site Unit 1 "A", and BC Cavern 18 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 10012013...

  1. CX-005369: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 103 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 02222011 Location(s): Texas Office(s): Strategic...

  2. CX-001227: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 114 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03162010 Location(s): Big Hill, Texas Office(s):...

  3. Microsoft Word - BH-OM-1074 and BC-OM-1240 NEPA.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    74 and BC-OM-1240 Title: Replacement of Deep-Anode Ground Bed Sites for BH Cavern 104 and Site Unit 1 "A", and BC Cavern 18 Description: Subcontractor shall provide all materials,...

  4. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.'' which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. [times] 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. [times] 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  5. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  7. Heat transfer coefficients in three phase fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, I.S.; Jin, G.T.; Kim, S.D.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to obtain a semitheoretical correlation for the heat transfer coefficients in three phase fluidized beds, Deckwer's semitheoretical correlation for the heat transfer coefficients in the bubble column, which was derived from Higbie's surface renewal theory of interphase mass transfer with the concept of isotropic turbulence, has been extended to three phase fluidized beds with the modification of the energy dissipation rate. One of the desirable characteristics of three phase fluidized beds is the uniformity of temperature in the bed. The intense longitudinal and transverse turbulent mixing in a fluidized bed may induce the uniform fields of temperature and solids concentration. For highly exothermic reactions, the uniform temperature in the bed is essential to avoid the local hot spots. In order to control the uniform temperature of three phase fluidized beds, the addition or removal of heat in the bed is required and the information on heat transfer surface and the bed is essential to designing the heat exchanger. Recently, Chiu and Ziegler (1983) determined wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficients in three phase fluidized bed (5.08 cm ID) of glass beads and cylindrical gamma alumina particles which were fluidized by cocurrent flow of air and water. Their data were correlated in terms of the modified Colburn j factor. Kato et al. (1981) measured wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficients in three phase fluidized beds of 5.2 and 12.0 cm internal diameter. Four different sizes of glass beads (0.42-2.2 mm) were fluidized by air and aqueous carboxymethyl cellulose solutions. The coefficients increased with decrease in liquid viscosity and with increase in gas and liquid velocity.

  8. Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.; Yocky, David A.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Original formulation of spatially variant anodization for complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery oversampled at twice the Nyquist rate (2.OX). Here we report a spatially interpolating, noninteger-oversampled SVA sidelobe. The pixel's apparent IPR location is assessed by comparing its value to the sum of its value plus weighted comparable for exact interpolation. However, exact interpolation implies an ideal sine interpolator3 and large components may not be necessary. Note that P is the summation of IPR diagonal values. The value of a sine IPR on the diagonals is a sine-squared; values much less than cardinal direction (m, n) values. This implies that cardinal direction interpolation requires higher precision than diagonal interpolation. Consequently, we employed a smaller set. The spatially interpolated SVA used an 8-point/4-point sine interpolator described above. Table 1 shows the Table 1 results show a two-times speed-up using the 1.3x oversampled and spatially interpolated SVA over the Figure 1d. Detected results of 1.3x oversampled sine interpolated spatially variant

  9. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

  10. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  11. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F. (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  12. MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: ___________________________________________ Thesis Adviser scale test data. The short-term behavior of ground-coupled heat pump systems is important for the design

  13. Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

  14. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominatedImpedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance

  15. Graphenesponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel Xing Xie,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Graphene­sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells Xing Xie,ab Guihua Yu February 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03583a A high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was con- structed. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of exoelec- trogens, microorganisms that mediate

  16. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

  17. Crumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    efficiency. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport Silicon is a promising highCrumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Jiayan Luo, Xin Zhao improved performance as Li ion battery anodes in terms of capacity, cycling stability, and Coulombic

  18. Edge-Enriched Graphitic Anodes by KOH Activation for Higher Rate Capability Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Ion Batteries D. Zakhidov,1,2 R. Sugamata,3 T. Yasue,3 T. Hayashi,3 Y. A. Kim,3 and M. Endo4 1 successful anode for lithium ion batteries due to its low cost, safety, and ease of fabrication, but higher are expected to surpass conventional graphite anodes due to larger number of edges for lithium ion

  19. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    on larger scales. Im- provement of the safety of lithium-ion batteries must occur if they are to be utilized in aqueous cells. However, the choice of a suitable anode material for an aqueous lithium-ion battery is moreSynthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium

  20. Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risø-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

  1. ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE BY FOILS simpler, and low cost method to fabricate porous pattern of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) based on the aluminum foils laminate approach were carried out. During our experiments, it was found that the pores

  2. 386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film treatment of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a mercury film electrode Is presented. Nu- merlcal) frequency ( f ) and amount of metal depostted In the mercury layer (9R) and glves a response 6 tlmes

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

  4. Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

  5. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  6. Thermal conductivity of beryllium-gas packed bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Raffray, A.R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Unsintered packed bed has been suggested as a material form for solid breeder and multiplier in the ITER and fusion power reactor blankets. Study of the effective bed thermal conductivity can provide tools for analysis of the blanket performance under different operating conditions, and of how to actively control the thermal behavior of the blanket. Issues of particular interest are the ability to predict and to control the thermal conductivity. The 2-D model developed at UCLA is used to study the effect of particle diameter, solid-to-gas conductivity ratio, bed porosity, contact area, and surface roughness characteristics on bed thermal conductivity. The study shows that all parameters except bed porosity play important roles in determining the bed thermal controllability.

  7. Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C. [Combustion Power Co., San Mateo, CA (United States); Gupta, R.P.; Turk, B.S. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For coal-fired power plants utilizing a gas turbine, the removal of ash particles is necessary to protect the turbine and to meet emission standards. Advantages are also evident for a filter system that can remove other coal-derived contaminants such as alkali, halogens, and ammonia. With most particulates and other contaminants removed, erosion and corrosion of turbine materials, as well as deposition of particles within the turbine, are reduced to acceptable levels. The granular bed filter is suitable for this task in a pressurized gasification or combustion environment. The objective of the base contract was to develop conceptual designs of moving granular bed filter (GBF) and ceramic candle filter technologies for control of particles from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT) systems. The results of this study showed that the GBF design compared favorably with the candle filter. Three program options followed the base contract. The objective of Option I, Component Testing, was to identify and resolve technical issues regarding GBF development for IGCC and PFBC environments. This program was recently completed. The objective of Option II, Filter Proof Tests, is to test and evaluate the moving GBF system at a government-furnished hot-gas cleanup test facility. This facility is located at Southern Company Services (SCS), Inc., Wilsonville, Alabama. The objective of Option III, Multicontaminant Control Using a GBF, is to develop a chemically reactive filter material that will remove particulates plus one or more of the following coal-derived contaminants: alkali, halogens, and ammonia.

  8. Modular hydride beds for mobile applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Ramsey, James A. (The Dalles, OR)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  10. Storage opportunities in Arizona bedded evaporites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rauzi, S.L. [Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arizona is endowed with incredibly diverse natural beauty, and has also been blessed with at least seven discrete deposits of bedded salt. These deposits are dispersed around the state and cover some 2, 500 square miles; they currently contain 14 LPG storage caverns, with preliminary plans for more in the future. The areal extent and thickness of the deposits creates the opportunity for greatly expanded storage of LPG, natural gas, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The location of salt deposits near Tucson and Phoenix may make CAES an attractive prospect in the future. The diversity of both locations and evaporate characteristics allows for much tailoring of individual operations to meet specific requirements.

  11. Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjandra, Sinoto

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kinetic models for methanol synthesis under the assumption that the rate limiting step was the reaction between an adsorbed CO molecule and two adsorbed H2 molecules. The experiment was conducted over a Cu/ZnO/Cr~03 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor... to account for the large degree of initial deactivation. However, Rozovskii (1980) claimed the opposite and stated that methanol is made from carbon dioxide and no methanol is produced from Hz/CO mixtures over the Cu/ZnO/Alz03 catalyst. Liu et al. (1984...

  12. Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

  13. Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

  14. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas-to-solids heat transfer. A stress test rig was built and tested to provide validation data for a stress model needed to support high temperature finned surface design. Additional cold flow model tests and MTF tests were conducted to address mechanical and process design issues. This information was then used to design and cost a commercial CMB design concept. Finally, the MBHE was reconfigured into a slice arrangement and tested for an extended duration at a commercial CFB plant.

  15. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  16. Bed-inventory Overturn Mechanism for Pant-leg Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhiwei; West, Logan; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model was established to investigate the lateral mass transfer as well as the mechanism of bed-inventory overturn inside a pant-leg circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which are of great importance to maintain safe and efficient operation of the CFB. Results show that the special flow structure in which the solid particle volume fraction along the central line of the pant-leg CFB is relative high enlarges the lateral mass transfer rate and make it more possible for bed inventory overturn. Although the lateral pressure difference generated from lateral mass transfer inhibits continuing lateral mass transfer, providing the pant-leg CFB with self-balancing ability to some extent, the primary flow rate change due to the outlet pressure change often disable the self-balancing ability by continually enhancing the flow rate difference. As the flow rate of the primary air fan is more sensitive to its outlet pressure, it is easier to lead to bed inventory overturn. While when the solid particle is easier to c...

  17. Growth and flowering of bedding plants grown in landscape bed amended with hydrophilic polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boatright, Jennifer Lynn

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field study one incorporated hydrophilic polymers into field plots of bedding plants including 25, 50, 75, or 1 00 lb/1 00oft2 . Data recorded during the growing season included flower number, visual rating, soil moisture and temperature, and plant...

  18. Anode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    on the anode, producing a complex response in fuel cell power output. Under optimized gas compositions and flowAnode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12 Zongping of anode-supported, thin-film, single chamber fuel cells (SCFCs) have been investigated. Cells, in which Ni

  19. OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

  20. Fluidized Bed Technology - An R&D Success Story | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    line. The Nucla fluidized bed power plant in Colorado was operated in DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. The technology progressed into larger scale utility applications...

  1. archean spherule beds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has the potential of supplementing the existing fossil fuels, but the heat content of manure is rather low. Since, the fluidized bed... Annamalai, K.; Colaluca, M. A.; Ibrahim,...

  2. Syngas combustor for fluidized bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brushwood, J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Siemens Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) is a rich-quench-lean gas turbine combustor for use primarily on synthetic fuel gases made by gasifying solid fuels (coal or biomass). These fuels contain high amounts of fuel bound nitrogen, primarily as ammonia, which are converted to molecular nitrogen rather than to nitrogen oxides in the rich zone of this combustor. The combustor can operate in many modes. In second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) applications, the fuel gas is burned in a hot, depleted oxygen air stream generated in a fluid bed coal combustor. In 1-1/2 generation PFBC applications, natural gas is burned in this vitiated air stream. In an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application, the synthetic fuel gas is burned in turbine compressor air. In this paper, the MASB technology is described. Recent results of tests at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) for these various operation modes on a full scale basket are summarized. The start-up and simple cycle operating experience on propane at the Wilsonville Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) are also described. In addition, the design issues related to the integration of the MASB in the City of Lakeland PCFB Clean Coal Demonstration Project is summarized.

  3. Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

  4. Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

  5. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  6. The LOFT Ground Segment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  7. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

  8. An analysis of ilmenite particles used as bed material for combustion of biomass in a CFB boiler.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corcoran, Angelica

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Combustion of biomass in a fluidized bed boiler with silica sand as bed material is related to problems such as agglomeration of bed material and… (more)

  9. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000°C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geometry is defined by a graphite retort with a 2.5 inch inside diameter, conical section with a 60° included angle, and a 4 mm gas inlet orifice diameter through which particles are removed from the reactor at the completion of each run. The particles may range from 200 µm to 2 mm in diameter. Maintaining optimal gas flow rates slightly above the minimum spouting velocity throughout the duration of each run is complicated by the variation of particle size and density as conversion and/or coating reactions proceed in addition to gas composition and temperature variations. In order to achieve uniform particle coating, prevent agglomeration of the particle bed, and monitor the reaction progress, a spouted bed monitoring system was developed. The monitoring system includes a high-sensitivity, low-response time differential pressure transducer paired with a signal processing, data acquisition, and process control unit which allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor. The pressure transducer is mounted upstream of the spouted bed reactor gas inlet. The gas flow into the reactor induces motion of the particles in the bed and prevents the particles from draining from the reactor due to gravitational forces. Pressure fluctuations in the gas inlet stream are generated as the particles in the bed interact with the entering gas stream. The pressure fluctuations are produced by bulk movement of the bed, generation and movement of gas bubbles through the bed, and the individual motion of particles and particle subsets in the bed. The pressure fluctuations propagate upstream to the pressure transducer where they can be monitored. Pressure fluctuation, mean differential pressure, gas flow rate, reactor operating temperature data from the spouted bed monitoring system are used to determine the bed operating regime and monitor the particle characteristics. Tests have been conducted to determine the sensitivity of the monitoring system to the different operating regimes of the spouted particle bed. The pressure transducer signal response was monitored over a range of particle sizes and gas flow rates while holding bed height constant. During initial testing, the bed monitoring system successfully identified the spouting regime as well as when particles became interlocked and spouting ceased. The particle characterization capabilities of the bed monitoring system are currently being tested and refined. A feedback control module for the bed monitoring system is currently under development. The feedback control module will correlate changes in the bed response to changes in the particle characteristics and bed spouting regime resulting from the coating and/or conversion process. The feedback control module will then adjust the gas composition, gas flow rate, and run duration accordingly to maintain the bed in the desired spouting regime and produce optimally coated/converted particles.

  10. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

  11. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  12. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  13. Pressure Fluctuations as a Diagnostic Tool for Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethan Bure; Joel R. Schroeder; Ramon De La Cruz; Robert C. Brown

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the origin of pressure fluctuations in fluidized bed systems. The study assessed the potential for using pressure fluctuations as an indicator of fluidized bed hydrodynamics in both laboratory scale cold-models and industrial scale boilers. Both bubbling fluidized beds and circulating fluidized beds were evaluated. Testing including both cold-flow models and laboratory and industrial-scale combustors operating at elevated temperatures. The study yielded several conclusions on the relationship of pressure fluctuations and hydrodynamic behavior in fluidized beds. The study revealed the importance of collecting sufficiently long data sets to capture low frequency (on the order of 1 Hz) pressure phenomena in fluidized beds. Past research has tended toward truncated data sets collected with high frequency response transducers, which miss much of the spectral structure of fluidized bed hydrodynamics. As a result, many previous studies have drawn conclusions concerning hydrodynamic similitude between model and prototype fluidized beds that is insupportable from the low resolution data presented.

  14. Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Garruto, Edward J. (Wayne, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

  15. Origins of Pulsing Regime in Cocurrent Packed-Bed Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCready, Mark J.

    , 6, and 8 mm using an air-water flow. By measuring the flow distance until pulses are observedOrigins of Pulsing Regime in Cocurrent Packed-Bed Flows B.A. Wilhite+ , B. Blackwell+ , J. Kacmar of the formation for cocurrent downflow pulse flow was studied experimentally in a packed-bed of inert spheres of 3

  16. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery W. (Mandan, ND); Zevenbergen, Gary A. (Arvada, CO)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  17. Inert Anode/Cathode Program: Fiscal Year 1986 annual report. [For Hall-Heroult cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenden, B.B.; Davis, N.C.; Koski, O.H.; Marschman, S.C.; Pool, K.H.; Schilling, C.H.; Windisch, C.F.; Wrona, B.J.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of the program is to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes, cathodes, and ancillary equipment for Hall-Heroult cells used by the aluminum industry. The program is divided into four tasks: Inert Anode Development, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development. To devise sensors to control the chemistry of Hall-Heroult cells using stable anodes and cathodes. This report highlights the major FY86 technical accomplishments, which are presented in the following sections: Management, Materials Development, Materials Evaluation, Thermodynamic Evaluation, Laboratory Cell Tests, Large-Scale Tests, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development.

  18. The effects of microstructure on the corrosion of glycine/nitrate processed cermet inert anodes: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Chick, L A; Maupin, G D; Stice, N D

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Inert Electrodes Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under the study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anodes surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring various anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The anode mechanism studies were focused in four areas in FY 1990 and FY 1991: (a) the determination of whether a film formed on cermet inert anodes and (if it existed) the characterization of this film, (b) the determination of the sources of the anode impedance, (c) the evaluation of the effects of silica and a precorroded state on anode corrosion, and (d) a preliminary study on the effect of microstructure on the corrosion properties of the anodes. This report discusses the results of the microstructure studies. 6 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Douglas W. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.

  20. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Natural gas storage in bedded salt formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macha, G.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990 Western Resources Inc. (WRI) identified the need for additional natural gas storage capacity for its intrastate natural gas system operated in the state of Kansas. Western Resources primary need was identified as peak day deliverability with annual storage balancing a secondary objective. Consequently, an underground bedded salt storage facility, Yaggy Storage Field, was developed and placed in operation in November 1993. The current working capacity of the new field is 2.1 BCF. Seventy individual caverns are in service on the 300 acre site. The caverns vary in size from 310,000 CF to 2,600,000 CF. Additional capacity can be added on the existing acreage by increasing the size of some of the smaller existing caverns by further solution mining and by development of an additional 30 potential well sites on the property.

  2. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  3. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations. (MOW)

  4. A Physical Protection Systems Test Bed for International Counter-Trafficking System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kuhn, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Donaldson, Terrence L [ORNL] [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL] [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical protection systems have a widespread impact on the nuclear industry in areas such as nuclear safeguards, arms control, and trafficking of illicit goods (e.g., nuclear materials) across international borders around the world. Many challenges must be overcome in design and deployment of foreign border security systems such as lack of infrastructure, extreme environmental conditions, limited knowledge of terrain, insider threats, and occasional cultural resistance. Successful security systems, whether it be a system designed to secure a single facility or a whole border security system, rely on the entire integrated system composed of multiple subsystems. This test bed is composed of many unique sensors and subsystems, including wireless unattended ground sensors, a buried fiber-optic acoustic sensor, a lossy coaxial distributed sensor, wireless links, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, mobile power generation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and fiber-optic-fence intrusion detection systems. A Common Operating Picture software architecture is utilized to integrate a number of these subsystems. We are currently performance testing each system for border security and perimeter security applications by examining metrics such as probability of sense and a qualitative understanding of the sensor s vulnerability of defeat. The testing process includes different soil conditions for buried sensors (e.g., dry, wet, and frozen) and an array of different tests including walking, running, stealth detection, and vehicle detection. Also, long term sustainability of systems is tested including performance differences due to seasonal variations (e.g. summer versus winter, while raining, in foggy conditions). The capabilities of the test bed are discussed. Performance testing results, both at the individual component level and integrated into a larger system for a specific deployment (in situ), help illustrate the usefulness and need for integrated testing facilities to carry out this mission. The test bed provides access to grassy fields, wooded areas, and a large waterway three distinct testing environments. The infrastructure supporting deployment of systems at the test bed includes grid power, renewable power systems, climate controlled enclosures, high bandwidth wireless links, and a fiber optic communications backbone. With over 10 acres of dedicated area and direct waterway access, the test bed is well suited for long term test and evaluation of physical protection and security systems targeting a wide range of applications.

  5. Factorial tests on process operating conditions and bed fines on the circulating fluid bed performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadle, L.J.; Spenik, James; Sarra, Angela; Ontko, J.S.

    2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A cold-flow circulating fluid bed (CFB) was operated using coke breeze with a packed-bed standpipe over a range of riser and standpipe air flows. The bed materials were selected to simulate solids flow in a CFB gasifier (carbonizer) but are generally relevant to most CFB processes. CFB tests were conducted primarily in the transport mode with sufficient gas velocity to achieve a uniform axial riser pressure profiles over most of the riser height. The independent variables tested included the riser gas velocity, aeration at the base of the standpipe, and concentration of fines (average particle size). The solids inventory and riser outlet pressure were maintained constant. Factorial tests were conducted in randomized order and in duplicate to provide and an unbiased estimate of the error. Fines were tested as a blocked variable. The gas velocity, standpipe aeration, and relative amount of fine particles were all found to be significant factors affecting both the riser solids holdup and solids flux. The riser pressure drop and mass circulation increased at the higher level of fines contrary to some earlier reports in the literature. The riser pressure drop was fitted using the general linear model (GLM), which explained more than 98% of the variation within the data, while a GLM for the mass circulation rate explained over 90%. The uncertainty of process operating variables was characterized independently through a series of duplicated flow proving experiments.

  6. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB® carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 – 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as “bed hot spots.” Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

  7. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - abundance bed net Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Ecosystem Studies Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 1 Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and 2 bed mobility in gravel bed rivers...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fluidized bed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physik, Universitt Dortmund Collection: Physics 12 POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS Summary: POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - agitation fluidized bed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large-scale, commercial, fluidized bed reactor was started by Fritz Winkler for the gasification... of powdered coal in 1926. Since then fluidized beds have been developed...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric fluidized bed Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large-scale, commercial, fluidized bed reactor was started by Fritz Winkler for the gasification... of powdered coal in 1926. Since then fluidized beds have been developed...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - agitated fluidized bed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large-scale, commercial, fluidized bed reactor was started by Fritz Winkler for the gasification... of powdered coal in 1926. Since then fluidized beds have been developed...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - annual fluidized bed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Minnesota Collection: Engineering 16 POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS Summary: POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS...

  14. Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

  15. Stability of Iridium Anode in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Ironmaking: Influence of Slag Basicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hojong

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-neutral, electrochemical technique to decompose metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas upon use of an inert anode. What sets MOE apart from other technologies is ...

  16. P-230 / X. Yu P-230: Novel Electrical-Chemically Polished Stainless Steel Anode Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    time, top emission OLEDs with evaporated aluminum anode on glass (called Devices AA) were fabricated be widely used in ceiling lighting illuminator and automotive application in the future. High work

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode supported solid Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at ScienceDirect Summary: methanol fuel cells--Effect of anode diffusion media Fuqiang Liu1 , Chao-Yang Wang Departments of Materials... March 2008 Keywords: Direct methanol...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-cathode microbial fuel Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 61 Visions on Energy Production Technologies for Finland up to 2030 Summary: turbine G G After- burner Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Anode...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode catalysts prepared Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cells, by modifying both the anode and the cathode catalysts that will enable PEM fuel cell... catalyst as a separate phase - as nanoparticles. 2. ... Source: DOE Office of...

  20. Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum anodization process Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aluminum anodization process Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December...

  2. A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

  3. Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosquera, Martín A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxide coatings Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for fuel oxidation and the cathode chamber for oxygen... - Synthesize electrolyte powder Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Step 2 - Fabricate anode powder Nickel Oxide + Electrolyte Step......

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxide overlayer Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for oxygen... - Synthesize electrolyte powder Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Step 2 - Fabricate anode powder Nickel Oxide + Electrolyte Step... Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and...

  6. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy, rechargeable Li-ion battery based on carbon nanotubewith Sb and SnSb0.5 as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon, 2003.Li, A review of application of carbon nanotubes for lithium ion battery

  7. Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material By Angela Hardin * February 25, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodal transcranial direct Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    111:796806, 2009 796 J Neurosurg Volume 111 October 2009 Summary: of rTMS over the Trains of transcranial direct current stimulation antagonize motor cortex... of anodal tran-...

  9. Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

  10. Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups brown rice, medium- grain, making 3 cups cooked 1 pound ground turkey 4 zucchini 1 onion 1 green pepper 1/4 teaspoon pepper Directions 1. Cook brown rice turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break beef into small pieces as it browns. Keep on stirring

  11. Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P. [and others

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  12. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  13. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  14. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 °C (900-1000 °F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 °C (650 °F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 °C (650-1000 °F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 °C (700 °F) to 538 °C (1000 °F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  15. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Essam A

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Details of numerical simulations of two-phase gas-solid turbulent flow in the riser section of Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor (CFBR) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique are reported. Two CFBR riser configurations are considered and modeled. Each of these two riser models consist of inlet, exit, connecting elbows and a main pipe. Both riser configurations are cylindrical and have the same diameter but differ in their inlet lengths and main pipe height to enable investigation of riser geometrical scaling effects. In addition, two types of solid particles are exploited in the solid phase of the two-phase gas-solid riser flow simulations to study the influence of solid loading ratio on flow patterns. The gaseous phase in the two-phase flow is represented by standard atmospheric air. The CFD-based FLUENT software is employed to obtain steady state and transient solutions for flow modulations in the riser. The physical dimensions, types and numbers of computation meshes, and solution methodology utilized in the present work are stated. Flow parameters, such as static and dynamic pressure, species velocity, and volume fractions are monitored and analyzed. The differences in the computational results between the two models, under steady and transient conditions, are compared, contrasted, and discussed.

  16. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besler, S.; Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover were pyrolyzed in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor to examine the influence of storage time on thermochemical converting of these materials. The influence of storage on the thermochemical conversion of the biomass feedstocks was assessed based on pyrolysis product yields and chemical and instrumental analyses of the pyrolysis products. Although char and gas yields from corn stover feedstock were influenced by storage time, hybrid poplar and switchgrass were not significantly affected. Liquid, char, and gas yields were feedstock dependent. Total liquid yields (organic+water) varied from 58%-73% depending on the feedstock. Char yields varied from 14%-19% while gas yields ranged from 11%-15%. The chemical composition of the pyrolysis oils from hybrid polar feedstock was slightly changed by storage, however, corn stover and switchgrass feedstock showed no significant changes. Additionally, stored corn stover and hybrid poplar pyrolysis oils showed a significant decrease in their higher heating values compared to the fresh material.

  17. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  18. Microsoft Word - 12-9155160-000 - Pebble Bed Reactor Assessment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water in the tank. No valves or pumps are required to change state to continue cavity heat removal. Preliminary calculations and Document No.: 12-9155160-000 Pebble Bed Reactor...

  19. 31BEDDING CORRELATION IN QUATERNARY DELTAS LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY VERSUS CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    abandoned this lithostrati- graphic approach. The alternate "chronostratigraphic" approach uses outcrop bed-scale growth of deltas or that require prediction of 3-D fluid-flow behavior of deltaic reservoirs

  20. ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16.............................................................................................21 Coal and Methane Production

  1. Numerical simulation of ceramic breeder pebble bed thermal creep behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    Numerical simulation of ceramic breeder pebble bed thermal creep behavior Alice Ying *, Hulin Huang-310 825 1715/2599. E-mail address: ying@fusion.ucla.edu (A. Ying). 0022-3115/02/$ - see front matter Ã?

  2. Kinematic wave model of bed profiles in alluvial channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Singh, Vijay P.

    2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model, based on the kinematic wave (KW) theory, is developed for describing the evolution and movement of bed profiles in alluvial channels. The model employs a functional relation between sediment transport rate and concentration, a...

  3. MCNP4B Modeling of Pebble-Bed Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebenhaft, Julian Robert

    2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B to the neutronic modeling of pebble-bed reactors was investigated. A modeling methodology was developed based on an analysis of critical experiments carried out at the ...

  4. MIT PEBBLE BED REACTOR PROJECT ANDREW C. KADAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT PEBBLE BED REACTOR PROJECT ANDREW C. KADAK Nuclear Science and Engineering Department since approximately 1998, when a student design project concluded that in order to resurrect the nuclear

  5. EEB Hub: A Test Bed for Nationwide Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    EEB Hub: A Test Bed for Nationwide Energy Efficiency Wednesday, May 1, 2013 11:00 a.m. - 12:00 p 2011, became the executive director of the Energy Efficient Buildings (EEB) HUB through the US

  6. Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an in-line reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

  7. Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating Organizations 3...

  8. Gas phase hydrodynamics inside a circulating fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, James C. (James Christopher)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFB's) offer many advantages over traditional pulverized coal burners in the power generation industry. They operate at lower temperatures, have better environmental emissions and better fuel ...

  9. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  10. MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR PROJECT UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annual Report Page ii MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR ABSTRACT This project is developing a fundamental. Publication of an archival journal article covering this work is being prepared. · Detailed gas reactor Abstract

  11. Computational Analysis of Fluid Flow in Pebble Bed Modular Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhir, Akshay

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a Generation IV reactor under consideration by Department of Energy and in the nuclear industry. There are two categories of HTGRs, namely, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and Prismatic reactor. Pebble...

  12. NLS ground states on graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Adami; Enrico Serra; Paolo Tilli

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the existence of ground states for the subcritical NLS energy on metric graphs. In particular, we find out a topological assumption that guarantees the nonexistence of ground states, and give an example in which the assumption is not fulfilled and ground states actually exist. In order to obtain the result, we introduce a new rearrangement technique, adapted to the graph where it applies. Owing to such a technique, the energy level of the rearranged function is improved by conveniently mixing the symmetric and monotone rearrangement procedures.

  13. Performance characterization of a packed bed electro-filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Ajay

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by A JAY NARAYANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by AJAY NARAYANAN Approved as to style and content by: John P. Wagn (Ch ' of the Com ittee) Aydin Akgerman (Member) Ri ard B...

  14. Laboratory testing procedure for evaluation of moving bed catalyst attrition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolin, P.K.; Gainer, D.M.; Hoffman, J.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory scale attrition test has been designed to simulate particle-particle and particle-wall attrition forces which are similar to those experience in commercial moving bed units. The modified drum test uses two concentric rotating drums to induce particle breakage. Using this test, the distribution of particle shapes and sizes produced by catalyst attrition in a moving bed unit have been successfully duplicated.

  15. The backflow cell model for fluidized bed catalytic reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, E. V

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    that the backmixing of gas in a small fluidized bed with high length to diameter rati. o is relatively small. Hence, it was recommended. that reaction rate studies in fluidized bed reactors be correlated on the basis oi' piston flow~ neglecting mixing. Nay (19...) points out that the straight line obtained on plotting the results of Gilliland's ex- periment on a paper with semilogarithmic coordinates, can be used to characterize the residence time distribution introduced by Danckwerts (6). A steep slope, he...

  16. Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wels, B.R.

    1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Research paper Early diagenetic carbonate bed formation at the sedimentwater interface triggered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , chemical, and C and O stable isotope data allow us to infer that the beds formed during synsedimentary exhibit two or three carbonate beds in the vicinity of Wimereux city (3 beds at Wimereux-North and 2 beds Formation, Wheatleyensis+Pectinatus ammonite zones, see below) represents a low-energy shelf facies

  18. NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASYMPTOTIC, DIFFUSION DOMINATED MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT IN PACKED BED REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Peter

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations for the Asymptotic, Diffusion Dominated Mass-Transfer Coefficient in Packed Bed Reactors

  19. EXPERIMENT AND NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF PRIMARY FRAGMENTATION OF OIL SHALE IN FLUIDIZED BED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigang Cui; Xiangxin Han; Xiumin Jiang; Jianguo Liu

    that the fluidized bed temperature is an important factor of primary fragmentation of oil shale, and

  20. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  1. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  2. Moving Bed, Granular Bed Filter Development Program: Option 1, Component Test Facility. Task 3, Test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, J.C.; Purdhomme, J.W.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the base contract, Combustion Power Co. developed commercial designs for a moving granular-bed filter (GBF). The proposed filter is similar to previous designs in terms of its shape and method of filtration. The commercial designs have scaled the filter from a 5 ft diameter to as large as a 20 ft diameter filter. In Task 2 of the Moving Bed-Granular Filter Development Program, all technical concerns related to the further development of the filter are identified. These issues are discussed in a Topical Report which has been issued as part of Task 2. Nineteen issues are identified in this report. Along with a discussion of these issues are the planned approaches for resolving each of these issues. These issues will be resolved in either a cold flow component test facility or in pilot scale testing at DOE`s Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located at Southem Company Services` Wilsonville facility. Task 3 presents a test plan for resolving those issues which can be addressed in component test facilities. The issues identified in Task 2 which will be addressed in the component test facilities are: GBF scale-up; effect of filter cone angle and sidewall materials on medium flow and ash segregation; maximum gas filtration rate; lift pipe wear; GBF media issues; mechanical design of the gas inlet duct; and filter pressure drop. This document describes a test program to address these issues, with testing to be performed at Combustion Power Company`s facility in Belmont, California.

  3. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  4. DELAYED COKING OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED COAL FOR PRODUCTION OF ANODE GRADE COKE: CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PRODUCTS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karri, Vamsi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study investigates the feasibility of using high temperature solvent extraction of coal to produce feedstock for the production of anode grade coke through delayed… (more)

  5. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  6. Ground Water Management Regulations (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The rules and regulations apply to the management of the state's ground water resources. In addition, the Commissioner of Conservation has recommended that oil and gas operators with an interest...

  7. Calibrating Pesticide Application Ground Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.

    2000-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This pocket-sized guide gives step-by-step instructions for calibrating ground sprayers. Tables provide instructions, examples and sample formulas for determining speed of application, flow rate and the amount of pesticide to add to the tank....

  8. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

  9. MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MUHAMMAD HAIDER KHAN AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved..................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Overview of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.............................................. 1 1

  10. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 3. Historical Ground-Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................................................................................................................................... 9 Mine history and ground-water development ....................................................................................................................................................... 11 Ground-water quality database.......................................................................................................................................................... 29 Compilation of complete database

  11. Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCof EnergyHouse Environmental JusticeGroundsHigh Performance

  12. High Capacity Composite Carbon Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatin N.J. forTechnologyComposite

  13. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokkam, Ram [Ames Laboratory

    2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.

  14. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG&G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided.

  15. CVICU Post Op Bed Set-up Protocol 1. The CVICU will be responsible for setting up post op bed for patients coming from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    CVICU Post Op Bed Set-up Protocol 1. The CVICU will be responsible for setting up post op bed for patients coming from the OR. Set up will include: · Hot bed with a monitor shelf, IV poles for 6 syringe set up. If the receiving nurse is not available, the charge nurse will be responsible for delegating

  16. Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wawersik, W.R., Carlson, L.W., Henfling, J.A., Borns, D.J., Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, C.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M., [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

  17. Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

  18. Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

  19. Method for providing uranium articles with a corrosion resistant anodized coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Washington, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium articles are provided with anodized oxide coatings in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte selected from the group consisting of potassium phosphate, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and a mixture of potassium tetraborate and boric acid. The uranium articles are anodized at a temperature greater than about 75.degree. C. with a current flow of less than about 0.036 A/cm.sup.2 of surface area while the pH of the solution is maintained in a range of about 2 to 11.5. The pH values of the aqueous solution and the low current density utilized during the electrolysis prevent excessive dissolution of the uranium and porosity in the film or watering. The relatively high temperature of the electrolyte bath inhibits hydration and the attendant deleterious pitting so as to enhance corrosion resistance of the anodized coating.

  20. Method for providing uranium articles with a corrosion-resistant anodized coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, F.B.; Washington, C.A.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium articles are provided with anodized oxide coatings in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte selected from the group consisting of potassium phosphate, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and a mixture of potassium tetraborate and boric acid. The uranium articles are anodized at a temperature greater than about 75/sup 0/C with a current flow of less than about 0.036 A/cm/sup 2/ of surface area while the pH of the solution is maintained in a range of about 2 to 11.5. The pH values of the aqueous solution and the low current density utilized during the electrolysis prevent excessive dissolution of the uranium and porosity in the film or watering. The relatively high temperature of the electrolyte bath inhibits hydration and the attendant deleterious pitting so as to enhance corrosion resistance of the anodized coating.

  1. Moving granular-bed filter development program topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Dilmore, W.J.; Fellers, A.W.; Gasparovic, A.C.; Kittle, W.F.; Lippert, T.E.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Yang, W.C.

    1991-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse Science Technology Center has proposed a novel moving granular-bed filter concept, the Standleg Moving Granular-Bed Filter (S-MGBF) system, that overcomes the inherent deficiencies of the current state-of-the-art moving granular-bed filter technology. The S-MGBF system combines two unique features that make it highly effective for use in advanced coal-fueled power plants. First, the S-MGBF system applies pelletization technology to generate filter pellets from the power plant solid waste materials, and uses these pellets as a once-through'' filtering media to eliminate the need for costly, complex, and large filter media recycling equipment. This pelletizing step also generates a more environmentally acceptable solid waste product and provides the potential to incorporate gas-phase contaminant sorbents into the filtering media. Secondly, the S-MGBF system passes these pellets and the flyash laden power plant gas through a highly compact S-MGBF that uses cocurrent gas-pellet contacting in an arrangement that greatly simplifies and enhances the distribution of dirty gas to the moving bed and the disengagement of clean gas from the moving bed.

  2. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  3. A Patterned 3D Silicon Anode Fabricated by Electrodeposition on a Virus-Structured Current Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical methods were developed for the deposition of nanosilicon onto a 3D virus-structured nickel current collector. This nickel current collector is composed of self-assembled nanowire-like rods of genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys), chemically coated in nickel to create a complex high surface area conductive substrate. The electrochemically depo­sited 3D silicon anodes demonstrate outstanding rate performance, cycling stability, and rate capability. Electrodeposition thus provides a unique means of fabricating silicon anode materials on complex substrates at low cost.

  4. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  5. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioelectrochemical Microbial fuel cell Biofuels Separators a b s t r a c t The combined use of brush anodes and glass was 75 ± 1 W/m3 . Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power into the anode chamber. The use of a cloth separator (J-cloth, JC) substan- tially improved power generation

  6. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and...

  7. EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been

  8. Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial Suqin Ci a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial fuel cells Suqin Ci November 2011 Available online 20 November 2011 Keywords: Carbon nanotubes Nitrogen doping Anode Microbial. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical systems that directly convert chemical energy

  9. Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable, metal phosphides MPn, M = transition metal ions as attractive Li-ion anode materials have received lithium reactions, i MPn LixMPn simple Li-ion interca- lation and ii MPn M LixM + LixP alloying followed

  10. Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA); Smith, David F. (Boulder Creek, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  11. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  12. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  13. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  14. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphiticKeywords: Sn/C; Lithium Batteries; Anode; Plasma; Microwave

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics of Longitudinal Ground Vehicle Traction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Steven W.

    asphalt b) Wet asphalt c) Gravel d) Packed Snow Nonlinear Dynamics of Longitudinal Ground Vehicle Traction

  16. Application of a fluidized bed combustor to the DARS process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott-Young, R.E. [Australian Paper, Burnie, Tasmania (Australia). Pulp Mill and Services Unit

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Australian Paper has built the world`s first and only operational Direct Alkali Recovery System (DARS) to recover caustic soda for a soda AQ chemical pulp mill. At the heart of the DARS process, concentrated spent pulping liquor is burnt in a fluidized bed. The bed material is made up of coarse, dense iron oxide pellets which require a high fluidizing velocity. Bubbling is violent and gives robust fluidization of the iron and sodium compounds. The plant suffered a protracted startup because of equipment failures, air flow instability problems, and process and equipment design errors. A large amount of post construction development work was required. This paper discusses the experiences and knowledge gained in adapting a fluidized bed to the DARS process.

  17. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  18. Lateral solids dispersion coefficient in large-scale fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of fuel feed ports in a large-scale fluidized bed combustor depends on the fuel characteristics and lateral solids mixing. However, the reported values of the effective lateral solids dispersion coefficient (D{sub sr}) are scattered in the broad range of 0.0001-0.1 m{sup 2}/s. With the aim of predicting D{sub sr} in wider fluidized beds which is difficult to measure directly or deduce from experimental results in lab-scale facilities, a computational method is proposed. It combines the Eulerian-Granular simulation and fictitious particle tracing technique. The value of D{sub sr} is calculated based on the movement of the tracers. The effect on D{sub sr} of bed width (W) ranging from 0.4 m up to 12.8 m at different levels of superficial gas velocity (U{sub 0}) is investigated. It is found that increasing W whilst maintaining U{sub 0}, D{sub sr} initially increases markedly, then its increase rate declines, and finally it stays around a constant value. The computed values of D{sub sr} are examined quantitatively and compared with a thorough list of the measured D{sub sr} in the literature since 1980s. Agreed with the measurements performed in the pilot-scale fluidized beds, the value of D{sub sr} in wider facilities at higher fluidizing velocities is predicted to be around the order of magnitude of 0.1 m{sup 2}/s, much higher than that in lab-scale beds. Finally, the effect of D{sub sr} on the distribution of fuel particles over the cross section in fluidized beds with the specified layout of feed ports is discussed. (author)

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  20. Influence of partial wetting on trickle-bed reactor performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruecker, Craig Michael

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    was started once the hydrogen flow rate stabilized. The time required for 4he first drop to appear at the vapor/liquid separator ranged from ]0 ? 40 minutes, depending on the liquid flow rate. The liquid flow rate was measured by monitoring the liquid level..., conversion with we4t, ing efficiency . 23 25 Experiment, al apparatus 6. Cross sect, ion of experimental trickle-bed reactor 7. Approach to steady stale 8. Catalyst, bed axial temperature profiles Change in the exit conversion with liquid flow rate...

  1. Control of thermal processes in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munts, V.A.; Filippovskij, N.F.; Baskakov, A.P.; Pavliok, E.J. [Ural State Technical Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Heat Power Dept.; Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat and mass balance equations for the transient process of a fluidized bed furnace are described. The equations involve heat release from char and volatiles combustion, heat consumption during moisture evaporation, and heating of char and circulating particles. Calculations and experimental data for steady-state and unsteady conditions are compared. The results show that the height of the dense bed, the excess-air ratio and kinetic features of the fuel affect the rate of the transient process. The time constant for a disturbance by a change of the air flow rate was found to be smaller than the one for a change of the fuel input.

  2. Neutronic analysis of pebble-bed cores with transuranics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, Megan Leigh

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    (ORNL). This Department of Energy sponsored center is authorized to collect, maintain, analyze, and distribute computer software and data sets in the area of radiation transport and safety. The full-core VHTR pebble-bed model was developed... II.A SCALE 5.0 The 3D full-core pebble-bed VHTR model was initially built using SCALE version 5.0. The modular code system is developed and maintained by ORNL and is readily validated and accepted for use in thermal reactor analysis around...

  3. Arkosic conglomerate beds in Mason, Menard, and Kimble counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Luther Franklin

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    channelled into the underlying sandy clay, the th1ckness of the bed ranging from 0, 5 foot on the divides to 4 feet 1n the channels, (Figs ~ l-3) ~ At most outcrops the conglomerate weathex s as a single massive bed but contains inconspicuous thinner... the hematitic upper Hickory sandstone (Fig 41), In places ths cement is continuous between the Hickory sandstone and the conglomex sts w1th no visible break. 13 The conglomerate is cemented by white to light gray or light yellowish brown crystalline calcite...

  4. Refractory experience in circulating fluidized bed combustors, Task 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, R.Q.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the status of the design and selection of refractory materials for coal-fueled circulating fluidized-bed combustors. The survey concentrated on operating units in the United States manufactured by six different boiler vendors: Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster Wheeler, Keeler Dorr-Oliver, Pyropower, and Riley Stoker. Information was obtained from the boiler vendors, refractory suppliers and installers, and the owners/operators of over forty units. This work is in support of DOE's Clean Coal Technology program, which includes circulating fluidized-bed technology as one of the selected concepts being evaluated.

  5. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gall, Robert L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  6. Effective thermal conductivity of packed beds of spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Allen Buchanan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of N are known only for certain types of regular packing, however, an empirical relation for m ) 0. 3 is given as N = 11. 6(l ? m) (22) When a load is applied to a bed of spheres, the contact area between spheres is determined using the Hertz... the authors compared their analytical solutions to has consistently dealt with beds of materials which have a very low thermal conductivity compared to that of the brass and aluminum spheres. These materials have been solid and hollow glass spheres, ceramic...

  7. Pressure Fluctuations as a Disgnostic Tool for Fluidized Beds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Schroeder, J.R.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The validity of using bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) similitude parameters to match a hot BFB to a cold BFB is being studied. Sand in a BFB combustor and copper powder in cold BFB model have been analyzed and found to be out of similitude. In the analysis process, it was determined that the condition of the screen covering the pressure tap affects the quality of pressure data recorded. In addition, distributor plate design and condition will affect the hydrodynamics of the bed. Additional tests are planned to evaluate the validity of similitude concepts in BFB.

  8. Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia-Xin Sun,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia (TOLED) with pure aluminum metal layer as the bottom anode has been fabricated. The brightness as high as that of the TOLED with additional high work function silver deposited on aluminum as the anode

  9. Grounding spatial prepositions for video search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tellex, Stefanie A.

    Spatial language video retrieval is an important real-world problem that forms a test bed for evaluating semantic structures for natural language descriptions of motion on naturalistic data. Video search by natural language ...

  10. Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO Anne in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS mechanism 1. Introduction In the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the largest overpotential

  11. Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries of the composite. The composite material has been studied for specific discharge capacity, coulombic efficiency for the Li-ion battery. Of various carbon materials that have been tried, graphite is favored because it (i

  12. Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model. This model explains, and can be used to quantify, the carbon corrosion behavior dur- ing DEA operation

  13. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D.; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently attracted extensive attention due to the high theoretical energy density and potential low cost. Even so, significant challenges prevent widespread adoption, including continuous dissolution and consumption of active sulfur during cycling. Here we present a fundamentally new design using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on the anode. The lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial self-regulated solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer to actively control the electrochemical reaction while minimizing the deleterious side reactions on the surface and bulk lithium metal. Continuous corrosion and contamination of lithium anode by dissolved polysulfides is largely mitigated. Excellent electrochemical performance has been observed. Li-S cell incorporating the hybrid design retain a capacity of more than 800 mAh g-1 for 400 cycles, corresponding to only 11% fade and a Coulombic efficiency above 99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide new lessons for protecting metal anodes in other energy storage devices.

  14. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canulescu, S., E-mail: stec@fotonik.dtu.dk; Schou, J. [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rechendorff, K.; Pleth Nielsen, L. [Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Alle 29, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Borca, C. N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Bordo, K.; Ambat, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at.?%. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms are not located in a TiO{sub 2} unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2?eV (300–135?nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a direct band gap of 7.3?eV, which is about ?1.4?eV lower than its crystalline counterpart (single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Upon Ti-alloying, extra bands appear within the band gap of amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mainly caused by Ti 3d orbitals localized at the Ti site.

  15. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neudecker, Bernd J. (Knoxville, TN); Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  16. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells Vanessa Lanas, Bruce E. Logan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected (You et al., 2007), carbon cloth (Wang et al., 2009), and activated carbon fiber felt (Zhu et al., 2011 27 August 2013 Available online 5 September 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Carbon brush anode

  17. Microbial Power-Generating Capabilities on Micro-/Nano-Structured Anodes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an alternative electricity gen- erating technology and efficient method-/Nano-Structured Anode Materials, Microbial Fuel Cell 1 Introduction The last three decades have witnessed significant develop- ments and performance improvements in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology [1]. These advances

  18. Impact of Initial Biofilm Growth on the Anode Impedance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    ARTICLE Impact of Initial Biofilm Growth on the Anode Impedance of Microbial Fuel Cells Ramaraja P: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the behavior of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) during: microbial fuel cells; biofilm; internal resis- tance; electrochemical impedance; polarization resistance

  19. Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode Toyoaki Matsuura, Jixin Chen*, Jason B of Energy (DOE) target of 30 $/kW for automotive application by 2015 [1], cost reduction in both fuel cell currently ac- counts for around 50% of the fuel cell system cost, is also essential [1]. Conventional fuel

  20. Porous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    in energy storage has stimulated significant interest in lithium ion battery research. The lithium ion battery is one of the most promising systems which is efficient in delivering energy, light in weightPorous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life Mingyuan Ge

  1. Phase transformations and microstructural design of lithiated metal anodes for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limthongkul, Pimpa, 1975-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been great recent interest in lithium storage at the anode of Li-ion rechargeable battery by alloying with metals such as Al, Sn, and Sb, or metalloids such as Si, as an alternative to the intercalation of graphite. ...

  2. Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Taeseup Song, Jianliang Xia ABSTRACT Silicon is a promising candidate for electrodes in lithium ion batteries due to its large reversible capacity and long-term cycle stability. KEYWORDS Lithium ion battery, silicon, nanotubes

  3. MicroScale Modeling of an AnodeSupported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Micro­Scale Modeling of an Anode­Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell P. Chinda1 , W. Wechsatol A micro ­ scale model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) involving the mass transfer together the available literatures. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Micro ­ Scale Model, Mass Transfer, Electrochemical

  4. AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF ALUMINUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    OF ALUMINUM Hongmin Zhu and Donald R. Sadoway Department of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts production of aluminum the anodic reactions have been studied on carbon microelectrodes by voltammetry electrolysis in a laboratory-scale aluminum reduction cell. When the voltage exceeds a critical value (about 3

  5. Conduction in Multiphase ParticulateFibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitectured carbon networks, typically in the form electronically February 7, 2003. Several promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitecturedConduction in Multiphase ParticulateÃ?Fibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

  6. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    to achieve high-performance silicon electrodes using a low-cost/facile route. Up to now, great attentions of Sciences, Beijing 100083, P. R. China. Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial

  7. Conductive Anodic Filament Enhancement the Presence of a Polyglycol -Containing Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gisele

    Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Under certain environmental conditions, printed wiring boards (CAF), is a result of an electrochemical corrosion process that initiates at the anode and proceeds process involves two steps [2]. The first is a physical degradation of the fibedepoxy bond

  8. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

  9. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  10. Secular Sediment Waves, Channel Bed Waves, and Legacy Sediment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, L. Allan

    Secular Sediment Waves, Channel Bed Waves, and Legacy Sediment L. Allan James* Geography Department, University South Carolina Abstract The concept of sediment waves is reviewed and clarifications are proposed for nomenclature con- cerning vertical channel responses to large fluvial sediment fluxes over a period of a decade

  11. Incineration of biological sludge in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, W.C.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incineration rate, ash properties, and percentage destruction of the combustible material were evaluated under different operating conditions. Experimental measurements were made for temperature, air flow rate, sludge size, ash size and sludge composition. A model based on the heat transfer consideration was derived to describe the drying and devolatilization process during sludge incineration. The model assumes that the drying and devolatilization of a sludge particle is manly caused by the heat flowing into the sludge particle from the bed. Parameters affecting the simulation results included sludge size, inert particle size, sludge heat capacity, sludge heat conductivity, operating flow rate and incinerator temperature. A model developed to simulate a batch type air-sand fluidized bed considered the incineration process as being composed of three consecutive operations, namely, drying, devolatilization, and char combustion. The simulation model predicted the dynamic characteristics of sludge incineration in the bed including its percentage completion and the incinerator temperature. The effects of sludge moisture level, sludge size and incinerator operating conditions on the incinerator behavior were also evaluated. The model developed to simulate the behavior of a fluidized bed incinerator under continuous operation was capable of predicting the time to reach steady state, the stack gas composition, the percentage combustion and the auxiliary heat required under various operating conditions, including sludge feed rate and size, air feed rate, and incinerator temperature.

  12. DMEC-1 Pressurized Circulating Fluidized-Bed Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruempel, G.E.; Ambrose, S.J. [Midwest Power, Des Moines, IA (United States); Provol, S.J. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DMEC-1 project will demonstrate the use of Pyropower`s PYROFLOW pressurized circulating fluidized bed technology to repower an existing coal fired generating station. This will be the first commercial application of this technology in the world. The project is now in budget period 1, the preliminary design phase.

  13. Moisture Transport in Silica Gel Packed Beds: II. Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Mills, A. F.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed to obtain the transient response of a thin adiabatic packed bed of silica gel after a step change in inlet air conditions, comparisons are made with predictions using a solid-side resistance model and a pseudo-gas-side controlled model and better agreement obtained with the former model.

  14. Packed bed reactor for photochemical .sup.196 Hg isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Straight tubes and randomly oriented pieces of tubing having been employed in a photochemical mercury enrichment reactor and have been found to improve the enrichment factor (E) and utilization (U) compared to a non-packed reactor. One preferred embodiment of this system uses a moving bed (via gravity) for random packing.

  15. Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

  16. Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts Institute For 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR/Graphite Discrimination system Damaged Sphere ContainerGraphiteReturn FuelReturn Fresh Fuel Container Spent Fuel Tank #12

  17. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Don

    Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale Jean-Bernard Caron , Donald A and composition, ecological attributes, and environmental influences for the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale ecosystems further suggest the Burgess Shale community was probably highly dependent on immigration from

  18. Thermal resistance gaps for solid breeder blankets using packed beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbis, Z.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Tillack, M.S.; Abdou, M.A.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main design features of a new concept for solid breeder blanket thermal resistance gaps are described and analysis is shown for the blanket thermal characteristics. The effective thermal conductivity of a helium-beryllium packed bed configuration is studied, including the effect of a purge stream. Possible applications of this concept to ITER blanket designs are stressed.

  19. Fish Bulletin 160. Observations On Fishes Associated With Kelp Beds in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feder, Howard M; Turner, Charles H; Limbaugh, Conrad

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. Limbaugh, Conrad. 1955. Fish life in the kelp beds andthe effects of kelp harvesting. Univ. Calif. , Inst. Mar.Hubbs, [ed. ]. Utilization of kelp-bed resources in southern

  20. An adaptable, low cost test-bed for unmanned vehicle systems research.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goppert, James M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? An unmanned vehicle systems test-bed has been developed. The test-bed has been designed to accommodate hardware changes and various vehicle types and algorithms. The… (more)

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalously high bed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    during floods Christopher P. Konrad Summary: and high-gradient tributaries contribute sediment to May Creek. Bed material on the bars in May Creek... in a plane-bed reach. The...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - architecture test bed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as an advance... test-bed generator, MaramaMTE 6, for use in the domain of service-oriented architecture performance... and performance test-beds to be generated - again both...

  3. Modularity of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor for use by the commercial power industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanlon-Hyssong, Jaime E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor is a small high temperature helium cooled reactor that is being considered for both electric power and hydrogen production. Pebble bed reactors are being developed in South Africa, China and ...

  4. Operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasma in front of a positively biased electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Dang, Jeong-Jeung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability of an anode spot plasma, which is an additional high density plasma generated in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in ambient plasma, is a critical issue for its utilization to various types of ion sources. In this study, operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasmas are experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of the bias current flowing into the positively biased electrode and the properties of ambient plasma reveal that unstable nature of the anode spot is deeply associated with the reduction of double layer potential between the anode spot plasma and the ambient plasma. It is found that stability of the anode spot plasma can be improved with increasing the ionization rate in ambient plasma so as to compensate the loss of electrons across the double layer or with enlarging the area of the biased electrode to prevent electron accumulation inside the anode spot. The results obtained from the present study give the guideline for operating conditions of anode spot plasmas as an ion source with high brightness.

  5. Fire spread probabilities for experimental beds composed of mixedwood boreal forest fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edward A.

    that fire spread was largely determined by the heat sink, heat of combustion, and fuel bed depth. We found

  6. Fusion Engineering and Design 3940 (1998) 759764 Mechanical behavior and design database of packed beds for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    of packed beds for blanket designs Alice Y. Ying *, Zi Lu, Mohamed A. Abdou Mechanical and Aerospace

  7. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  8. 2 Salmon-driven bed load transport and bed morphology in mountain 4 Marwan A. Hassan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    of streambed gravels during the digging 41of nests (redds) have been widely recognized [Kondolf and 42Wolman effects through changes 50in bed-surface grain size and packing [Butler, 1995; 51Montgomery et al., 1996 55and sand are lifted into the water column and carried 56downstream. Coarser pebbles and gravels

  9. Granular flow in pebble-bed nuclear reactors: Scaling, Dust Generation, and Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rycroft, Chris H.

    Granular flow in pebble-bed nuclear reactors: Scaling, Dust Generation, and Stress Chris H. Keywords: granular flow, dust generation, numerical methods 1. Introduction Pebble-bed nuclear reactors prototypes of pebble-bed reactors, significant quantities of graphite dust have been observed due to rubbing

  10. Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor Chris H. Rycroft,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor Chris H. Rycroft,1 Gary S. Grest,2 James February 2006; published 24 August 2006 Pebble-bed nuclear reactor technology, which is currently being States, the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor MPBR 4,8 is a candidate for the next generation nuclear plant

  11. Non-Invasive Measurement of Heartbeat with a Hydraulic Bed Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Zhihai "Henry"

    Non-Invasive Measurement of Heartbeat with a Hydraulic Bed Sensor Progress, Challenges}@mail.missouri.edu, SkubicM@missouri.edu Abstract--A hydraulic bed sensor has been developed to non and development of the system. Keywords--hydraulic bed sensor; eldercare monitoring; ballistocardiography I

  12. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE INTERFACE THERMAL CONDUCTANCE OF A LITHIUM METATITANATE PEBBLE BED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    . INTRODUCTION The Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is a typical example of the solid breeder blanket. The solid breeder blankets, such as the HCPB, feature shallow lithium ceramic pebble beds which are more beds is needed for the R&D of the solid breeder blanket; therefore the objective of this study

  13. On interfacial instability as a cause of transverse subcritical bed Jeremy G. Venditti,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    On interfacial instability as a cause of transverse subcritical bed forms Jeremy G. Venditti,1. J. Bennett (2006), On interfacial instability as a cause of transverse subcritical bed forms, Water, 1997]. Ideas about the initiation of the dominant subcritical flow-transverse bed forms (ripples, dunes

  14. Susceptibility of the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) Collected in Poultry Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szalanski, Allen L.

    Susceptibility of the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) Collected in Poultry to the human environment is the movement of bed bugs from poultry facilities to human structures by poultry of insecticides. In addition, populations of bed bugs from poultry facilities have not been screened against

  15. Montana Ground Water Assessment Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes a program to systematically assess and monitor the state's ground water and to disseminate the information to interested persons in order to improve the quality of ground...

  16. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  17. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

  18. Characterization of Biofilm in 200W Fluidized Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Michelle H.; Saurey, Sabrina D.; Lee, Brady D.; Parker, Kent E.; Eisenhauer, Emalee ER; Cordova, Elsa A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated groundwater beneath the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington is currently being treated using a pump and treat system to remove organics, inorganics, radionuclides, and metals. A granular activated carbon-based fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been added to remove nitrate, hexavalent chromium and carbon tetrachloride. Initial analytical results indicated the microorganisms effectively reduced many of the contaminants to less than cleanup levels. However shortly thereafter operational upsets of the FBR include carbon carry over, over production of microbial extracellular polymeric substance (biofilm) materials, and over production of hydrogen sulfide. As a result detailed investigations were undertaken to understand the functional diversity and activity of the microbial community present in the FBR over time. Molecular analyses including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the microbial community extracted from the biofilm within the bed and from the inoculum, to determine functional dynamics of the FBR bed over time and following operational changes. Findings from these analyses indicated: 1) the microbial community within the bed was completely different than community used for inoculation, and was likely from the groundwater; 2) analyses early in the testing showed an FBR community dominated by a few Curvibacter and Flavobacterium species; 3) the final sample taken indicated that the microbial community in the FBR bed had become more diverse; and 4) qPCR analyses indicated that bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling, including denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria, were dominant in the bed. These results indicate that molecular tools can be powerful for determining functional diversity within FBR type reactors. Coupled with micronutrient, influent and effluent chemistry evaluations, a more complete understanding of the balance between system additions (nutrients, groundwater) and biology can be achieved, thus increasing long-term predictions of performance. These analyses uniquely provide information that can be used in optimizing the overall performance, efficiency, and stability of the system both in real time as well as over the long-term, as the system design is altered or improved and/or new streams are added.

  19. Case Study/ Ground Water Sustainability: Methodology and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Chunmiao

    , or the lack thereof, of ground water flow systems driven by similar hydrogeologic and economic conditionsCase Study/ Ground Water Sustainability: Methodology and Application to the North China Plain of a ground water flow system in the North China Plain (NCP) subject to severe overexploitation and rapid

  20. Description of emission control using fluidized-bed, heat-exchange technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, G.J.; Grogan, P.J.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental effects of fluidized-bed, waste-heat recovery technology are identified. The report focuses on a particular configuration of fluidized-bed, heat-exchange technology for a hypothetical industrial application. The application is a lead smelter where a fluidized-bed, waste-heat boiler (FBWHB) is used to control environmental pollutants and to produce steam for process use. Basic thermodynamic and kinetic information for the major sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and NO/sub x/ removal processes is presented and their application to fluidized-bed, waste heat recovery technology is discussed. Particulate control in fluidized-bed heat exchangers is also discussed.

  1. Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, February 1-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Griffith, J.; Joshi, C.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

  2. Chemisorption and anodic oxidation of aromatic molecules on Pd electrode surfaces: studies by UHV-EC-STM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaole

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemisorption and anodic oxidation of hydroquinone (H2Q) and benzoquinone (BQ) at palladium electrode surfaces was studied by a combination of electrochemistry (EC), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), high-resolution electron...

  3. Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

  4. Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

  5. Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis cell operation using two different wastewaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    libraries, anode communities in reactors fed acetic acid decreased in species richness and diversity), as well as water desalination (Cao et al., 2009). The production of hydrogen from non-fermentable sub

  6. A microfocus x-ray source based on a nonmetal liquid-jet anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohimaa, T.; Ewald, J.; Schlie, M.; Hertz, H. M.; Vogt, U. [Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Fernandez-Varea, J. M. [Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate stable operation of a nonmetallic anode in an electron-impact x-ray source. A high-brightness electron beam is focused on a {approx}70 m/s speed, {approx}10 {mu}m diameter methanol jet producing stable x-ray emission with peak spectral brightness at {approx}5.4x10{sup 5} photons/(sx{mu}m{sup 2}xsrx0.1%BW). The jet is fully evaporated in the interaction point. The shape of a simulated spectrum using Monte Carlo methods shows good agreement with experimental data, and the theoretical brightness values give an upper limit for the achievable x-ray emission from jets with very high velocities. Using this anode concept, all compounds and elements found in liquid form are potentially usable for x-ray generation.

  7. Improving dielectric performance in anodic aluminum oxide via detection and passivation of defect states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mibus, M.; Zangari, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Jensen, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Hu, X.; Reed, M. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Knospe, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic and ionic transports in 32–56?nm thick anodic aluminum oxide films are investigated before and after a 1-h anneal at 200–400?°C in argon. Results are correlated to their defect density as measured by the Mott-Schottky technique. Solid state measurements show that electronic conduction upon annealing is hindered by an increase in the Schottky emission barrier, induced by a reduction in dopant density. Using an electrochemical contact, the films fail rapidly under cathodic polarization, unless defect density is decreased down to 10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}, resulting in a three order of magnitude reduction in current and no visible gas evolution. Under anodic polarization, the decrease in defect density delays the onset of ionic conduction as well as further oxide growth and failure.

  8. Studies with a laboratory atmospheric fluidized bed combustor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, W.W.; Su, Shi; Napier, J. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing public concerns over acid rain and municipal solid waste problems have created interest in the development of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion systems. A computer controlled 12-inch laboratory atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) system has been developed at Western Kentucky University. On-line analysis by gas chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (MS) allows extensive analysis of the flux gases. Laboratory experiments with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) interfaced with FTIR and MS systems are used to screen fuel blends for runs in the AFBC system. Current experiments being conducted include co-firing blends of refuse derived fuels with coal and extended burns with coals containing different levels of chlorine.

  9. Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Richland, WA)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method device and material for performing adsorption wherein a fluid mixture is passed through a channel in a structured adsorbent bed having a solid adsorbent comprised of adsorbent particles having a general diameter less than 100 um, loaded in a porous support matrix defining at least one straight flow channel. The adsorbent bed is configured to allow passage of a fluid through said channel and diffusion of a target material into said adsorbent under a pressure gradient driving force. The targeted molecular species in the fluid mixture diffuses across the porous support retaining layer, contacts the adsorbent, and adsorbs on the adsorbent, while the remaining species in the fluid mixture flows out of the channel.

  10. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging with pure N2 to drive loosely or physisorbed iodine species off of the sorbent. Post-test calculations determine the control efficiencies for each bed, iodine loadings on the sorbent, and mass transfer zone depths. Portions of the iodine-laden sorbent from the first bed of two of the tests have been shipped to SNL for waste form studies. Over the past three years, we have explored a full range of inlet iodine and methyl iodide concentrations ranging from {approx}100 ppb to {approx}100 ppm levels, and shown adequate control efficiencies within a bed depth as shallow as 2 inches for lower concentrations and 4 inches for higher concentrations, for the AgZ-type sorbents. We are now performing a limited number of tests in the NC-77 sorbent from SNL. Then we plan to continue to (a) fill in data gaps needed for isotherms and dynamic sorbent modeling, and (b) test the performance of additional sorbents under development.

  11. Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

  12. Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFeo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

  13. Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFeo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

  14. Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

  15. Adsorbate-induced corrosion: anodic dissolution of palladium induced by chemisorbed iodine in halide-free acid solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schimpf, Janemarie A

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as to style and content by: M. P. ria (Chair Co ittee) G. Vigh (Member) R. G. Anthony (Member) M. B. Hall (Head of Department) December 1991 ABSTRACT Adsorbate-Induced Corrosion: Anodic Dissolution of Palladium Induced by Chemisorbed Iodine... not anodically dissolve to an appreciable extent. Approach This investigation employed polycrystalline palladium foils, wires, and rods. Experimental measurements utilized a combination of conventional electrochemical techniques including voltammetry and...

  16. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Portici Research Centre, p.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 ?m thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

  17. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  18. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  19. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  1. Final Report: Novel ALD-Coated Nanoparticle Anodes for Enhanced Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groner, Markus

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Phase I effort is described in detail in the Phase I report given below. The key accomplishments of the Phase I project were (1) the demonstration of high stability LiCoO2 cathodes using ALD-coated LiCoO2 particles, as well as on ALD-coated LiCoO2 electrodes and (2) the demonstration of high stability of graphite anodes using ALD-coated graphite electrodes.

  2. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

  3. Developing High Capacity, Long Life, and High Power Anodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent Company AgreesDesireeDepartmentLife Anodes

  4. Developing a new high capacity anode with long life | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent Companya new high capacity anode with long life

  5. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  6. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  7. Four Rivers second generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, E.P.; Lewnard, J.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (United States); von Wedel, G. [LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik (GmbH); Richardson, K.W. [Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. (United States); Morehead, H.T. [Westinghouse Electric Corp. (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products has been selected in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Round V program to build, own, and operate the first commercial power plant using second generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology. The four Rivers Energy Project (Four Rivers) will produce up to 400,000 lb/hr steam, or an equivalent gross capacity of 95 MWe. The unit will be used to repower an Air Products chemicals manufacturing facility in Calvert City, Kentucky.

  8. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in greenhouse bedding plant production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, John Michael

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Comm!ttee) (Robert E. Pettit) (Member) (David id. Reed) (Member) "7~+ (Grant Yest) (Head of. Depart tment) Deceriber 1983 ABSTRACT Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in greenhouse bedding plant production. IDecember 1983) John... iviichael Brown B. S, East Texas State University. Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . A . E . Nightingale . Isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, T. hamatum, and Gliocladium spp. capable of inhibiting the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, which may cause...

  9. Spectral methods applied to fluidized bed combustors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Christofides, N.J.; Junk, K.W.; Raines, T.S.; Thiede, T.D.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop methods for characterizing fuels and sorbents from time-series data obtained during transient operation of fluidized bed boilers. These methods aimed at determining time constants for devolatilization and char burnout using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) profiles and from time constants for the calcination and sulfation processes using CO{sub 2} and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) profiles.

  10. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

  11. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  12. Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding ATLAS SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding 1 ATLAS SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding Note November 22 mostly connects existing mechanical electrical conductive #12; Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding 2 that equivalent. The barrel outer heat shield (150 aluminum) main element shield. #12; Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding

  13. A novel method for preparing anode cermets for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craciun, R.; Park, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Vohs, J.M.; Wang, C.; Worrell, W.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for fabrication of metal-cermet anodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been developed. Highly porous, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were prepared using a mixture of zircon fibers (YSZp, Si-stabilized, and {lt}0.3% Si) and normal YSZ powders (YSZd). The films remained highly porous following calcination up to 1,550 C, after which either Cu or Ni could be incorporated by impregnation with the nitrate salts. For Cu cermets, the performance increased with metal loading to at least 40% Cu. At 800 C using H{sub 2} as the fuel and a 230 {micro}m, YSZ electrolyte, the current-voltage (I-V) curves for either a Cu- or Ni-cermet anode formed using this new method were found to be identical to the I-V curve for a Ni cermet formed using traditional methods. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the anode films remained porous even with addition of Cu, so that additional modification was possible. Tests of this concept through the addition of ceria by impregnation with the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} led to an additional increase in the cell performance.

  14. Composite solid oxide fuel cell anode based on ceria and strontium titanate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Richland, WA)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode and method of making the same wherein the anode consists of two separate phases, one consisting of a doped strontium titanate phase and one consisting of a doped cerium oxide phase. The strontium titanate phase consists of Sr.sub.1-xM.sub.xTiO.sub.3-.delta., where M is either yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc), or lanthanum (La), where "x" may vary typically from about 0.01 to about 0.5, and where .delta. is indicative of some degree of oxygen non-stoichiometry. A small quantity of cerium may also substitute for titanium in the strontium titanate lattice. The cerium oxide consists of N.sub.yCe.sub.1-yO.sub.2-.delta., where N is either niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), antimony (Sb) or tantalum (Ta) and where "y" may vary typically from about 0.001 to about 0.1 and wherein the ratio of Ti in said first phase to the sum of Ce and N in the second phase is between about 0.2 to about 0.75. Small quantities of strontium, yttrium, and/or lanthanum may additionally substitute into the cerium oxide lattice. The combination of these two phases results in better performance than either phase used separately as an anode for solid oxide fuel cell or other electrochemical device.

  15. Passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coating on stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenja, S.; Pan, J.; Wallinder, I.O.; Leygraf, C.; Kulu, P.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coatings deposited by arc ion plating onto prenitrided AISI 304 stainless steel have been studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Mott-Schottky measurements in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.05 M HCl. The chemical composition of the oxidized surface film atop TiN was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Up to 1.2 V/SHE the TiN coating exhibits passive behavior, which is attributed to the formation of a TiO{sub 2}-like film of nanometer thickness which grows linearly with anodic potential at a rate of 2.4 nm/V. Above 1.2 V/SHE enhanced anodic oxidation of TiN is observed at a rate of 17.7 nm/V, and the overall corrosion performance is governed both by the oxidized TiN coating and by a metallic Ti interlayer atop the nitrided stainless steel substrate. At all potentials the TiO{sub 2} film is characterized by relatively high donor densities and is, furthermore, terminated by a hydroxylated surface.

  16. Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Larry R.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate geomechanical factors which should be taken into account in assessing the risk of leakage of CO{sub 2} from coal bed sequestration projects. The various steps in developing such a project will generate stresses and displacements in the coal seam and the adjacent overburden. The question is whether these stresses and displacements will generate new leakage pathways by failure of the rock or slip on pre-existing discontinuities such as fractures and faults. In order to evaluate the geomechanical issues in CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal beds, it is necessary to review each step in the process of development of such a project and evaluate its geomechanical impact. A coal bed methane production/CO{sub 2} sequestration project will be developed in four steps: (1) Formation dewatering and methane production; (2) CO{sub 2} injection with accompanying methane production; (3) Possible CO{sub 2} injection for sequestration only; and The approach taken in this study was to review each step: Identify the geomechanical processes associated with it, and assess the risks that leakage would result from these processes.

  17. Fluidized-bed gasification of an eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current conceptual HYTORT process design for the hydroretorting of oil shales employs moving-bed retorts that utilize shale particles larger than 3 mm. Work at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in progress to investigate the potential of high-temperature (1100 to 1300 K) fluidized-bed gasification of shale fines (<3 mm size) using steam and oxygen as a technique for more complete utilization of the resource. Synthesis gas produced from fines gasification can be used for making some of the hydrogen needed in the HYTORT process. After completing laboratory-scale batch and continuous gasification tests with several Eastern oil shales, two tests with Indiana New Albany shale were conducted in a 0.2 m diameter fluidized-bed gasification process development unit (PDU). A conceptual gasifier design for 95% carbon conversion was completed. Gasification of 20% of the mined shale can produce the hydrogen required by the HYTORT reactor to retort 80% of the remaining shale. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  19. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  20. State of the art of pressurized fluidized bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared at the request of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to clarify the development status of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) and to place in perspective the problems which are yet to be solved before commercialization of the concept is practical. This report, in essence, supersedes the interim report published in 1979, Assessment of the State of the Art of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems. A brief overview of the PFBC concept is included citing potential advantages and disadvantages relative to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) and conventional pulverized coal plants. A survey of existing and developing PFBC experimental facilities is presented in some detail which includes the major accomplishments at the respective facilities. Recent data on plant emissions, turbine/gas cleanup systems, and overall efficiency are provided. Findings of several design studies are also discussed. The results of recent gas turbine and cascade tests have been encouraging although the full assessment of the accomplishments have not been made. The delay in construction of the Grimethorpe plant causes further delay in proof-testing full-size, rotating turbomachinery. Several parameters are recommended for further assessment in design studies including: (1) effect of turbine life on cost of power; and (2) effect of reduced gas turbine inlet temperature and pressure on cost of power.