National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for anode ground bed

  1. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  2. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  3. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  6. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  7. Inert Anode Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1999-07-01

    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  8. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  9. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, Charles R.; Rockett, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  10. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  11. ANODIC TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for effecting eloctrolytic dissolution of a metallic uranium article at a uniform rate. The uranium is made the anode in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing nitrate ions furnished by either ammonium nitrate, lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, or potassium nitrate. A stainless steel cathode is employed and electrolysls carried out at a current density of about 0.1 to 1 ampere per square inch.

  12. Nickel anode electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  13. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  14. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  15. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  16. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, Oscar; Marschman, Steven C.

    1990-01-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

  17. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  18. Nanotube Composite Anode Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotube Composite Anode Materials Technology available for licensng: A composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium-ion battery Reduces manufacturing costs. ...

  19. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Smith, Graham; Mahler, George J.; Vanier, Peter E.

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  20. Electrode assembly for a fluidized bed apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Matthews, Charles W.; Knowlton, Ted M.

    1976-11-23

    An electrode assembly comprising a high voltage electrode having a generally cylindrical shape and being electrically connected to a high voltage source, where the cylinder walls may be open to flow of fluids and solids; an electrically grounded support electrode supporting said high voltage electrode by an electrically insulating support where both of the electrically grounded and electrically insulating support may be hollow; and an electrically grounded liner electrode arranged concentrically around both the high voltage and support electrodes. This assembly is specifically adapted for use in a fluidized bed chemical reactor as an improved heating means therefor.

  1. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  2. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  3. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  4. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Methods for making composite anodes, ...

  5. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion ... Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes

  6. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  7. Jeff Grounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeff Grounds Jeff Grounds jeffgrounds-sm.jpg Jeff Grounds Facilities Manager JTGrounds@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-7197 Mobile: (510) 207-2273 Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:57

  8. Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific energy of carbon-made anodes, a longer cycle life and improved capacity PDF icon slicon-graphene_electrodes

  9. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  10. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  11. Fluidized Bed Technology- Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid,...

  12. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  13. Ancient Salt Beds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Dr. Jack Griffith The key to the search for life on other planets may go through WIPP's ancient salt beds. In 2008, a team of scientists led by Jack Griffith, from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, retrieved salt samples from the WIPP underground and studied them with a transmission electron microscopy lab at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. In examining fluid inclusions in the salt and solid halite

  14. Sea bed mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleath, J.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and dunes, and the transportation of sediments.

  15. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  16. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. ); Huettig, F.R. )

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  17. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  18. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  19. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  20. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  1. National SCADA Test Bed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems.

  2. Microbial fuel cell with improved anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2010-04-13

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the method includes: (i) inoculating an anodic liquid medium in contact with an anode of the microbial fuel cell with one or more types of microorganisms capable of functioning by an exoelectrogenic mechanism; (ii) establishing a biofilm of the microorganisms on and/or within the anode along with a substantial absence of planktonic forms of the microorganisms by substantial removal of the planktonic microorganisms during forced flow and recirculation conditions of the anodic liquid medium; and (iii) subjecting the microorganisms of the biofilm to a growth stage by incorporating one or more carbon-containing nutritive compounds in the anodic liquid medium during biofilm formation or after biofilm formation on the anode has been established.

  3. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

    2008-04-08

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  4. Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes Title: Nanocomposite protective ... USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 25 ENERGY STORAGE

  5. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  6. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  7. Iron-lithium anode for thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester, C.S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a lithium anode for use in a thermal battery having a composite material comprising lithium and a particulate metal capable of being wetted by molten lithium, but only slightly or not alloyable with the lithium. The composite anode material is positioned adjacent a metal collector element the improvement comprising: a metal screen positioned between and substantially co-extensive with the anode composite and the metal collector element. The anode is thereby spaced apart from the element but is in electrical contact and the screen is electrically conductive.

  8. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  10. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  11. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, Lars D.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  12. Microbial fuel cell with improved anode (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial fuel cell with improved anode Title: Microbial fuel cell with improved anode The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the ...

  13. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium ion batteries with titaniagraphene anodes Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to ...

  14. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited ...

  15. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management A fuel cell ...

  16. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  17. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell ...

  18. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein Title: Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein For ...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of ...

  20. Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Ionel C. Stefan, Principal ... Cell Manufacturing Optimize system Scale up anode manufacturing Balance of cell ...

  1. ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies inertech.pdf (8.16 MB) More Documents & ...

  2. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries - Joint Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2014, Research Highlights Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries (a) ... Li metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries beyond Li ion The review ...

  3. Nanocomposite Carbon/Tin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite CarbonTin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National ... Applications and Industries Anodes for lithium ion batteries More InformationFOR MORE ...

  4. Clean Anodic Lithium Films for Longer Life, Rechargeable Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Clean Anodic Lithium ... polymer electrolytes are used to prepare clean anodic lithium films for use in safe, ...

  5. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  6. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  7. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  8. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  9. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  10. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  11. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  12. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  13. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  14. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  15. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  16. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  17. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  18. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  19. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Si-Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Functional Polymer Binders | Department of Energy 7_wang_2012_p.pdf (2.21 MB) More Documents & Publications Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Si-Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes and Functional Polymer Binders Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries

  1. Reduction of ahead of schedule anodes through anode rod quality control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillargeon, F.; Menard, Y.; Perron, C.; Proulx, A.L.

    1996-10-01

    One of the major causes of ahead of schedule anodes reported in recent years by the P155 potroom operation was related to the inherent weakness in the rod welded joints. The development and implementation of an apparatus and procedure to measure, detect and reject the faulty rods prior to anode rodding, will be presented and discussed. The technology has not only significantly reduced the number of ahead of schedule anodes, it has also provided useful information concerning other process improvements.

  2. Pilot demonstration of cerium oxide coated anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, J.S.; Frederick, M.S.; Shingler, M.J.; Alcorn, T.R.

    1992-10-01

    Cu cermet anodes were tested for 213 to 614 hours with an in-situ deposited CEROX coating in a pilot cell operated by Reynolds Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. At high bath ratio ([approximately]1.5) and low current density (0.5 A/cm[sup 2]), a [ge]1 mm thick dense CEROX coating was deposited on the anodes. At lower bath ratios and higher current density, the CEROX coating was thinner and less dense, but no change in corrosion rate was noted. Regions of low current density on the anodes and sides adjacent to the carbon anode sometimes had thin or absent CEROX coatings. Problems with cracking and oxidation of the cermet substrates led to higher corrosion rates in a pilot cell than would be anticipated from lab scale results.

  3. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  4. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  5. Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-ching; Vidt, Edward J.; Keairns, Dale L.

    1977-01-01

    A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

  6. Chemical enhancement of metallized zinc anode performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, J.

    1998-12-31

    Galvanic current delivered to reinforced concrete by a metallized zinc anode was studied relative to the humidity of its environment and periodic direct wetting. Current decreased quickly at low humidity to values unlikely to meet accepted cathodic protection criteria, but could be easily restored by direct wetting of the anode. Thirteen chemicals were screened for their ability to enhance galvanic current. Such chemicals, when applied to the exterior surface of the anode, are easily transported by capillary action to the anode-concrete interface where they serve to maintain the interface conductive and the zinc electrochemically active. The most effective chemicals were potassium and lithium bromide, acetate, chloride and nitrate, which increased galvanic current by a factor of 2--15, depending on relative humidity and chloride contamination of the concrete. This new technique is expected to greatly expand the number of concrete structures which can be protected by simple galvanic cathodic protection, The use of lithium-based chemicals together with metallized zinc anode is also proposed for mitigation of existing problems due to ASR. In this case, lithium which prevents or inhibits expansion due to ASR can be readily injected into the concrete. A new process, electrochemical maintenance of concrete (EMC), is also proposed to benefit reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride-induced corrosion.

  7. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  8. Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-21

    Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

  9. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  10. Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold...

  11. Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

  12. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  13. Self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, A.P.

    1987-06-02

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising and evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof. 2 figs.

  14. Dissipation factor as a predictor of anodic coating performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G.

    1995-01-01

    A dissipation factor measurement is used to predict as-anodized fixture performance prior to actual use of the fixture in an etching environment. A dissipation factor measurement of the anodic coating determines its dielectric characteristics and correlates to the performance of the anodic coating in actual use. The ability to predict the performance of the fixture and its anodized coating permits the fixture to be repaired or replaced prior to complete failure.

  15. Self-cleaning rotating anode X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, Arvydas P.

    1989-01-01

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising an evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof.

  16. Oxide-based SOFC Anode Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxide-based SOFC Anode Materials Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Shown in green, the ceria-based anode materials provide excellent conductivity with resilience not offered in traditional metal oxides. Shown in green, the ceria-based anode materials provide excellent conductivity with resilience not offered in traditional metal oxides. Technology Marketing Summary In a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the anode facilitates the reaction between hydrogen,

  17. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  18. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  19. Superconducting transition temperature in anodized aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemann, C.; Elliott, J.H.; Deutscher, G.; Orbach, R.; Wolf, S.A.

    1983-08-01

    We have measured the superconducting transition temperature of anodized aluminum films of grain sizes ranging from less than 100 to 3000 A. The transition temperature is 1.8 K for films of grain size 100 A and decreases monotonically with increasing grain size to 1.2 K for 3000-A grains. The effect depends only on the volume of the grains.

  20. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  1. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Yang, Z. Gary

    2015-05-26

    Methods for making composite anodes, such as macroporous composite anodes, are disclosed. Embodiments of the methods may include forming a tape from a slurry including a substrate metal precursor, an anode active material, a pore-forming agent, a binder, and a solvent. A laminated structure may be prepared from the tape and sintered to produce a porous structure, such as a macroporous structure. The macroporous structure may be heated to reduce a substrate metal precursor and/or anode active material. Macroporous composite anodes formed by some embodiments of the disclosed methods comprise a porous metal and an anode active material, wherein the anode active material is both externally and internally incorporated throughout and on the surface of the macroporous structure.

  2. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  3. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  4. Corrosion of tin oxide at anodic potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cachet, H.; Froment, M.; Zenia, F.

    1996-02-01

    Tin dioxide electrodes are used as anodes for the electrochemical destruction of organic pollutants in wastewater. The lifetime of such electrodes is limited because of corrosion phenomena which are shown to take place under anodic polarization. These corrosion processes are studied by quartz microbalance experiments, impedance measurements, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations, carried out on sprayed SnO{sub 2} layers. Localized corrosion phenomena are observed and related to the reaction of radical species with the oxide surface. The extent and the morphology of the attack is shown to depend on the doping (F, Sb) of the SnO{sub 2} electrodes, the solution pH, and the concentration of chloride ions. it is also shown that because of corrosion the conduction band energy level is shifted toward much more positive potentials, allowing the SnO{sub 2} electrode to be activated for oxygen evolution.

  5. Fuel cell anode configuration for CO tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2004-11-16

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is designed to operate on a reformate fuel stream containing oxygen and diluted hydrogen fuel with CO impurities. A polymer electrolyte membrane has an electrocatalytic surface formed from an electrocatalyst mixed with the polymer and bonded on an anode side of the membrane. An anode backing is formed of a porous electrically conductive material and has a first surface abutting the electrocatalytic surface and a second surface facing away from the membrane. The second surface has an oxidation catalyst layer effective to catalyze the oxidation of CO by oxygen present in the fuel stream where at least the layer of oxidation catalyst is formed of a non-precious metal oxidation catalyst selected from the group consisting of Cu, Fe, Co, Tb, W, Mo, Sn, and oxides thereof, and other metals having at least two low oxidation states.

  6. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  7. Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Tritium Programs Engineering Louis Boone Josh Segura ... detailed explanation of the plan to capture and dispose of Z-Bed Recovery (ZR) water. ...

  8. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  9. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Energy Storage | Department of Energy Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Presentation given by Amprius, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about silicon nanowire anodes for next generation energy storage. es126_stefan_2014_p.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents

  12. Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Composite anode material for Lithium Ion Battery High reversible capacity and improved cyclability with minimal volume change with cycling IN-10-013 US 9054373B2 Availability: Technology available for license to organizations with commercial interest. Collaborative research is available under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Contact: 800-627-2596; partners@anl.gov PDF icon Anode Materials

  13. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  14. Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

  15. Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte Interface from First Principles Authors: Ong, M T ; Lordi, V ; Draeger, E W ; Pask, J E Publication Date: ...

  16. Anode for a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The anode includes a porous substrate formed of, for instance, a compacted mass of ... substrate; formed; instance; compacted; mass; entangled; metallic; fibers; providing; ...

  17. Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface from First Principles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte Interface from First ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel anode...

  19. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: ... A laminated structure may be prepared from the tape and sintered to produce a porous ...

  20. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... this composite anode exhibits the best performance so far in lithium-ion batteries, while retaining an economical cost and compatibility with existing manufacturing ...

  1. Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence ... Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium Ion Batteries," Journal of the Electrochemical ...

  2. Next Generation Batteries with Metal Anodes - Joint Center for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 3, 2015, Accomplishments Next Generation Batteries with Metal Anodes Promising electrolytes for the magnesium battery consist of salts dissolved in liquid solvents. Recent ...

  3. New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes Beyond ... Technology Marketing Summary Magnesium ion batteries present a viable alternative to ...

  4. Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes Lawrence Berkeley National ... Researchers have developed a new technology to advance the life of lithium-ion batteries. ...

  5. Ground difference compensating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  6. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  7. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a breakthrough particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  8. Carbon paint anode for reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B.; Laylor, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Solvent-based acrylic carbon paint anodes were installed on the north approach spans of the Yaquina Bay Bridge (Newport OR) in 1985. The anodes continue to perform satisfactorily after more than 15 years service. The anodes were inexpensive to apply and field repairs are easily made. Depolarization potentials are consistently above 100 mV with long-term current densities around 2 mA/m 2. Bond strength remains adequate, averaging 0.50 MPa (73 psi). Some deterioration of the anode-concrete interface has occurred in the form of cracks and about 4% of the bond strength measurements indicated low or no bond. Carbon anode consumption appears low. The dominant long-term anode reaction appears to be chlorine evolution, which results in limited further acidification of the anode-concrete interface. Chloride profiles were depressed compared to some other coastal bridges suggesting chloride extraction by the CP system. Further evidence of outward chloride migration was a flat chloride profile between the anode and the outer rebar.

  9. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.; DiMilia, Robert A.; Dynys, Joseph M.; Phelps, Frankie E.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  10. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  11. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2013-10-15

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  12. Results from a pilot cell test of cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Strachan, D M; Henager, Jr, C H; Greenwell, E N; Alcorn, T R

    1992-08-01

    Goal was to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes for Hall-Heroult cells used to produce Al metal. The anodes were made from a ceramic/metal composite consisting of NiO and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and a Cu/Ni metal phase. Thirteen cermet anodes were tested at Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL. All anodes corroded severely during the pilot test. Electrolyte components were found deep within the anodes. However, there were many deficiencies in the pilot cell test, mainly the failure to maintain optimal operating conditions. It is concluded that there is a variety of fabrication and operational considerations that need to be addressed carefully in any future testing. 118 figs, 16 tabs, 17 refs.(DLC)

  13. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  14. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study The chemical bonding ... are crucial in designing further improved Si-C composite anode for lithium ion battery. ...

  15. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Title Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

  16. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  17. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability of the process model.

  18. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, James V.; Savaskan, Gultekin

    1991-01-01

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

  19. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

    1991-04-09

    A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

  20. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling ... SYSTEMS; COAL; COAL GASIFICATION; ELECTRICITY; FLUIDIZED BEDS; GAS TURBINES; ...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIONG FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling ... CHARS; COAL; COAL GASIFICATION; ELECTRICITY; FLUIDIZED BEDS; GAS TURBINES; ...

  3. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Notestein, John E.; Mei, Joseph S.; Zeng, Li-Wen

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  4. Carbonaceous materials as lithium intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    1994-10-01

    Commercial and polymer-derived carbonaceous materials were examined as lithium intercalation anodes in propylene carbonate (pyrolysis < 1350C, carbons) and ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (graphites) electrolytes. The reversible capacity (180--355 mAh/g) and the irreversible capacity loss (15--200 % based on reversible capacity) depend on the type of binder, carbon type, morphology, and phosphorus doping concentration. A carbon-based binder was chosen for electrode fabrication, producing mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and reproducible results. Several types of graphites had capacity approaching LiC{sub 6}. Petroleum fuel green cokes doped with phosphorous gave more than a 20 % increase in capacity compared to undoped samples. Electrochemical characteristics are related to SEM, TEM, XRD and BET measurements.

  5. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  6. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations

  7. Fluidized-bed combustion fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, J.W. Jr.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above a selected size; crushing the first fraction; and combining the crushed first fraction with the second fraction. Also described is a process wherein the selected ash content range is between about 30 percent and about 50 percent, by weight. Also described is a process wherein the selected size is above about 1/4 inch.

  8. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  9. Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    The Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is a modular software environment that is based on the Ptolemy II software environment. The BCVTB can be used for design and analysis of heterogenous systems, such as building energy and controls systems. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to Couple to Ptolemy II simulation software such as EnergyPlus, MATLAB/Simulink or Dymola for data exchange during run-time. Future versions of the BCVTS will also contain an interfacemore » to BACnet which is a communication protocol for building Control systems, and interfaces to digital/analog converters that allow communication with controls hardware. Through Ptolemy II, the BCVTB provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run- time.« less

  10. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  11. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  12. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  13. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  14. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  15. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  16. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  17. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  18. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  19. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  20. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab

  1. Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, Donald R.

    2005-06-30

    The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

  2. Solids feed nozzle for fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical fuel pipe of a fluidized bed extends up through the perforated support structure of the bed to discharge granulated solid fuel into the expanded bed. A cap, as a deflecting structure, is supported above the discharge of the fuel pipe and is shaped and arranged to divert the carrier fluid and granulated fuel into the combusting bed. The diverter structure is spaced above the end of the fuel pipe and provided with a configuration on its underside to form a venturi section which generates a low pressure in the stream into which the granules of solid fuel are drawn to lengthen their residence time in the combustion zone of the bed adjacent the fuel pipe.

  3. Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Presentation from the 33rd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Aiken, South Carolina on April 22-24, 2014. Z-Bed ...

  4. Recent Development on Anodes for Na-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommier, C; Ji, XL

    2015-01-23

    New discoveries in anode materials for sodium ion batteries (NIBs) are highly necessary to achieve the goals of widespread applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and grid-level energy storage. Carbon-based materials are critical for this task as they are inexpensive, abundant, and versatile. They contain a plethora of structures and morphologies, ranging from highly ordered graphite or nanotubes to highly disordered amorphous carbon, thus making them very attractive for electrochemical energy storage. This review attempts to cover past and recent progress in the development of carbon-based anode materials for NIBs. To give a larger context, the article will briefly cover other anode materials for NIBs as well. The aim of this paper is to provide a timely update for researchers currently involved in the respective fields or to serve as a starting point for individuals who would like to gain a greater knowledge of new NIB anode materials.

  5. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The secret to the newly-designed anode is a tailored polymer that conducts electricity and ... At top, spectra of a series of polymers obtained with soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy ...

  6. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in ... 8.0.1 show a lower "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital" for the new Berkeley Lab ...

  7. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with ...

  8. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  9. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  10. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  11. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  12. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  13. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good ...

  14. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 dinh-gennett_topic_5a_dmfc_nrel_kickoff.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Introduction to DMFCs - Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

  15. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with enhanced conductivity, voltage and energy density. Enhanced stability at lower cost Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with enhanced conductivity, voltage and energy density PDF icon LTO_anodes

  16. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  17. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, E.

    1984-04-10

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  18. Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  19. Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  20. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  1. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE ...

  2. Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    test bed to study reservoir stimulation with low hydraulic pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to ...

  3. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Nuclear ...

  4. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation ...

  5. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report You ...

  6. National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009) National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector...

  7. National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009) National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector ...

  8. Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes Title: Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes A method device and ...

  9. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Tanya; Davies, Daniel; Bhadra, Shoham; Van Tassell, Barry.; Erdonmez, Can; Steingart, Daniel A.

    2015-04-24

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrastmore » to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn⁰/Zn²⁺ showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.« less

  10. Process for anodizing a robotic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, William T.

    2011-11-08

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  11. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  12. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-07-15

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  13. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-10-12

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  14. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  15. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability ofmore » the process model.« less

  16. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  17. A Summary of Tritium In-Bed Accountability for 1500 Liter La-Ni-Al Storage Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2001-07-31

    This paper summarizes the in-bed accountability (IBA) calibration results for all the RF LaNi4.25Al0.75 tritium storage beds.

  18. Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More than 95 percent of the sulfur pollutants in coal can be captured inside the boiler by the sorbent. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) builds on earlier work in ...

  19. National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Created in 2003, the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource ... In December 2012, the lab successfully demonstrated QKD on the University of Illinois test ...

  20. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  1. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  2. Particle motion at fluidized bed tube surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, J.F.; Hocking, W.R.; Howard, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    Metal loss from in-bed heat transfer tubes in fluidized bed combustors is recognized as a problem that is affecting the commercialization of FBC technology for coal utilization. A program has been initiated to address the erosion aspect of the wastage problem. Objectives were: (1) to develop a method for measuring the particle impact velocities and mass flux at a fluidized bed tube surface, (2) to obtain wear data from test tubes in an operating cold flow model, and (3) to correlate the results. An instrumented probe was develop during Phase I that could be used to obtain the three orthogonal velocity components and mass flux at a fluidized bed tube surface. The sensors were contained in a 2 inch diameter schedule 40 pipe that can be installed in the cold flow model in place of one of the test tubes. This arrangement allows measurements to be made non-intrusively. The velocity measuring portion used a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) for obtaining the resultant impact velocity and impact angle of the bed particles at the immersed tube surface. Mass flux was derived from the output of a high speed force transducer that measured the individual particle impact momentum signals. The above system was used successfully to measure particle impact velocities and momentum during a limited test program. Test were run in a 1 ft {times} 2 ft ambient temperature fluidized bed test facility using sand and acrylic test tubes. Measurements were taken in the center of the bed at eight circumferential location, by rotating the probe to the desired tube angle. Tube erosion data were also taken at locations corresponding to the above measurement points. The instrumentation provided a wealth of information about the internal hydrodynamics of the fluidized bed. 3 refs., 49 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E. K.

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  4. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  5. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu; Crozier, Peter; Adams, James

    2013-09-19

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  6. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  7. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  8. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Rotunda, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  9. Coal fired fluid bed module for a single elevation style fluid bed power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1979-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the burning of pulverized fuel having a specific waterwall arrangement that comprises a structurally reinforced framework of wall tubes. The wall tubes are reversely bent from opposite sides and then bonded together to form tie rods that extend across the bed to support the lateral walls thereof.

  10. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  11. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.; Turk, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  12. The possibility of forming a sacrificial anode coating for Mg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J; Li, Juchuan; Sacci, Robert L; Thomson, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Mg is the most active engineering metal, and is often used as a sacrificial anode/coating to protect other engineering metals from corrosion attack. So far no sacrificial anode coating has been developed or considered for Mg. This study explores the possibility of forming a sacrificial coating for Mg. A lithiated carbon coating and a metaphosphated coating are applied on the Mg surface, respectively, and their open-circuit-potentials are measured in saturated Mg(OH)2 solution. They exhibit more negative potentials than bare Mg. SEM reveals that the metaphosphated coating offers more effective and uniform protection for Mg than the lithiated carbon coating. These preliminary results indicate that development of a sacrificial anode coating for Mg is indeed possible.

  13. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  14. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    An `in-bed accountability` (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the `cold` test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from {+-} 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to {+-} 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  16. Wear prediction in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.J.; Rogers, W.A.

    1993-06-01

    A procedure to model the wear of surfaces exposed to a fluidized bed is formulated. A stochastic methodology adapting the kinetic theory of gases to granular flows is used to develop an impact wear model. This uses a single-particle wear model to account for impact wear from all possible-particle collisions. An adaptation of a single-particle abrasion model to describe the effects of many abrading particles is used to account for abrasive wear. Parameters describing granular flow within the fluidized bed, necessary for evaluation of the wear expressions, are determined by numerical solution of the fluidized bed hydrodynamic equations. Additional parameters, describing the contact between fluidized particles and the wearing surface, are determined by optimization based on wear measurements. The modeling procedure was used to analyze several bubbling and turbulent fluidized bed experiments with single-tube and tube bundle configurations. Quantitative agreement between the measured and predicted wear rates was found, with some exceptions for local wear predictions. This work demonstrates a methodology for wear predictions in fluidized beds.

  17. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  18. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  19. Color Anodizing of Titanium Coated Rolled Carbon Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarajan, Zohair; Mobarakeh, Hooman Nikbakht; Namiranian, Sohrab

    2011-12-26

    As an important kind of structural materials, the titanium cladded steel plates have the advantages of both metals and have been applied in aviation, spaceflight, chemical and nuclear industries. In this study, the specimens which were prepared under soldering mechanism during rolling were anodized by electrochemical process under a given conditions. The color anodizing takes place by physical phenomenon of color interference. Part of incident light on the titanium oxide is reflected and the other part reflects inside coated titanium layer. Major part of the light which reflects from titanium-oxide interface, reflects again inside of the oxide layer.

  20. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  1. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  2. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  3. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  4. Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvador, Louis A.; Andermann, Ronald E.; Rath, Lawrence K.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

  5. Sulfur-tolerant anode material for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Yang, Zhibin

    2016-08-02

    In one aspect, the present subject matter is directed to a composite anode for a hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cell, the anode comprising a layered perovskite ceramic and a bi-metallic alloy.

  6. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  7. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  8. Effect of the Anion Activity on the Stability of Li Metal Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Li Metal Anodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries The lithium metal anode (bottom) ... Significance and Impact Identified one reason behind Li-S batteries failing to hold a ...

  9. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature rise monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.

  10. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

    2010-06-11

    This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

  11. TRITIUM IN-BED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR A PASSIVELY COOLED, ELECTRICALLY HEATED HYDRIDE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Foster, P.

    2011-01-21

    A PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been deployed into tritium service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. The bed design, absorption and desorption performance, and cold (non-radioactive) in-bed accountability (IBA) results have been reported previously. Six PACE Beds were fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory method. An IBA inventory calibration curve, flowing gas temperature rise ({Delta}T) versus simulated or actual tritium loading, was generated for each bed. Results for non-radioactive ('cold') tests using the internal electric heaters and tritium calibration results are presented. Changes in vacuum jacket pressure significantly impact measured IBA {Delta}T values. Higher jacket pressures produce lower IBA {Delta}T values which underestimate bed tritium inventories. The exhaust pressure of the IBA gas flow through the bed's U-tube has little influence on measured IBA {Delta}T values, but larger gas flows reduce the time to reach steady-state conditions and produce smaller tritium measurement uncertainties.

  12. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  13. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.; Even, Jr., William R.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Wang, James C. F.; Zifer, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  14. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K.; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.; Kozarek, Robert L.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  15. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  16. Solid fuel feed system for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the combustion of coal, with limestone, is replenished with crushed coal from a system discharging the coal laterally from a station below the surface level of the bed. A compartment, or feed box, is mounted at one side of the bed and its interior separated from the bed by a weir plate beneath which the coal flows laterally into the bed while bed material is received into the compartment above the plate to maintain a predetermined minimum level of material in the compartment.

  17. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  18. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  19. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0_zhang_2011_p.pdf (472.78 KB) More Documents & Publications New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

  20. Synthesis and characterization of anodized titanium-oxide nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Lai, Peng; Bhuiyan, Md S; Tsouris, Costas; Gu, Baohua; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Gabitto, Jorge; Harrison, L. D.

    2009-01-01

    Anodized titanium-oxide containing highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays is a nanomaterial architecture that shows promise for diverse applications. In this paper, an anodization synthesis using HF-free aqueous solution is described. The anodized TiO2 film samples (amorphous, anatase, and rutile) on titanium foils were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Additional characterization in terms of photocurrent generated by an anode consisting of a titanium foil coated by TiO2 nanotubes was performed using an electrochemical cell. A platinum cathode was used in the electrochemical cell. Results were analyzed in terms of the efficiency of the current generated, defined as the ratio of the difference between the electrical energy output and the electrical energy input divided by the input radiation energy, with the goal of determining which phase of TiO2 nanotubes leads to more efficient hydrogen production. It was determined that the anatase crystalline structure converts light into current more efficiently and is therefore a better photocatalytic material for hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical splitting of water.

  1. Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fultz, B.

    2001-01-12

    This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been writing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

  2. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  3. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2008-08-12

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  4. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  5. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  6. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycledmore » at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.« less

  7. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  8. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. . Electric Power Lab.)

    1992-05-01

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

  9. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  10. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.