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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Scaling of Anode Sheath Voltage Fall with the Operational Parameters in Applied-Field MPD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling of Anode Sheath Voltage Fall with the Operational Parameters in Applied-Field MPD Thrusters (EPPDyL) Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA Scaling laws for the anode sheath voltage fall in applied-field MPD thrusters are derived in order to better understand the physics behind anode sheath

Choueiri, Edgar

2

Anode initiated surface flashover switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Koss, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

3

Thin film buried anode battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Anodic films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface layers are formed on many metals by anodic reaction. Such layers include the products of charge and discharge in many storage batteries, dielectric films used in electronic and optical circuits and display devices, layers responsible for passivity and corrosion protection, and films generated in metal shaping and finishing operations such as anodization, coloring, electropolishing, electrochemical machining and deburring. Anodic films are formed by solid-solid transformations or by dissolution-precipitation processes. Film properties and mechanisms of formation can be determined in situ by a number of optical techniques which have recently become available.

Muller, R.H.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Anode performance | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anode performance New hybrid anode design to improve long-term performance of batteries PNNL researchers have developed a hybrid anode made of graphite and lithium that...

6

Anode and Cathode Arcs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... we call an anode arc, produces a circular pit on the anode and a general roughening of the opposed cathode. Photomicrographs of single anode-type arcs were published1 before the ... arcs\tCathode arcs

L. H. GERMER; W. S. BOYLE

1955-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

7

Carbonate fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

8

Characterization of anodic bonding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anodic bonding is a common process used in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) device fabrication and packaging. Polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) is emerging as a new MEMS device and ...

Tudryn, Carissa Debra, 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Definition: Anode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anode Anode Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anode The positive electrode in an electrochemical cell, or battery.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized electrical device. The direction of electric current is, by convention, opposite to the direction of electron flow. In other words, the electrons flow from the anode into, for example, an electrical circuit. Mnemonic: ACID (Anode Current into Device). A widespread misconception is that anode polarity is always positive (+). This is often incorrectly inferred from the correct fact that in all electrochemical devices, negatively charged anions move towards the anode (hence their name) and positively charged cations move away from it. In fact anode polarity

10

Anodes for alkaline electrolysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

12

Anodic oxidation of zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodic polarization of zircaloy-2 in different electrolytic baths has been investigated in order to obtain thick oxide films with properties suitable for wear applications.

A. Conte; A. Borello; A. Cabrini

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with multilayered graphene anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an innovative anode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), we have investigated graphene films. Graphene has importance due to its huge potential in flexible OLED applications. In this work, graphene films have been catalytically grown and transferred to the glass substrate for OLED fabrications. We have successfully fabricated 2 mm × 2 mm device area blue fluorescent OLEDs with graphene anodes which showed 2.1% of external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. This is the highest value reported among fluorescent OLEDs using graphene anodes. Oxygen plasma treatment on graphene has been found to improve hole injections in low voltage regime, which has been interpreted as oxygen plasma induced work function modification. However, plasma treatment also increases the sheet resistance of graphene, limiting the maximum luminance. In summary, our works demonstrate the practical possibility of graphene as an anode material for OLEDs and suggest a processing route which can be applied to various graphene related devices.

Hwang, Joohyun [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Kyw [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jaehyun; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Doo-Hee; Huh, Jin Woo [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Yool [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Ik, E-mail: jiklee@etri.re.kr [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Hye Yong [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

15

Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific...

16

Nanotube Composite Anode Materials | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanotube Composite Anode Materials Technology available for licensng: A composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium-ion battery Reduces manufacturing costs....

17

Multi-anode ionization chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

18

The possibility of forming a sacrificial anode coating for Mg  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mg is the most active engineering metal, and is often used as a sacrificial anode/coating to protect other engineering metals from corrosion attack. So far no sacrificial anode coating has been developed or considered for Mg. This study explores the possibility of forming a sacrificial coating for Mg. A lithiated carbon coating and a metaphosphated coating are applied on the Mg surface, respectively, and their open-circuit-potentials are measured in saturated Mg(OH)2 solution. They exhibit more negative potentials than bare Mg. SEM reveals that the metaphosphated coating offers more effective and uniform protection for Mg than the lithiated carbon coating. These preliminary results indicate that development of a sacrificial anode coating for Mg is indeed possible.

Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Uniform insulation applied-B ion diode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An applied-B field extraction ion diode has uniform insulation over an anode surface for increased efficiency. When the uniform insulation is accomplished with anode coils, and a charge-exchange foil is properly placed, the ions may be focused at a point on the z axis.

Seidel, David B. (Albuquerque, NM); Slutz, Stephen A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Nanostructured Materials as Anodes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2010 -- Washington D.C. es063whittingham2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structured Materials as Anodes Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

Rubloff, Gary W.

22

Retrofitting sacrificial anodes in the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cathodic protection (CP) systems of 15 fixed offshore platforms were analyzed. These steel template structures, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, are in water depths between 125 and 185 ft (115 and 170 m). A systematic survey program exists to monitor the CP systems including assessment of sacrificial anode depletion, and measurement of anode and platform potentials. These data are used to design new anode retrofits for older structures to extend CP system life. An analysis of field survey measurements, the method used to evaluate new anode needs, and locations for retrofit anodes are described.

Kiefer, J.H.; Thomason, W.H.; Alansari, N.G.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

Windisch, C.F. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Huettig, F.R. (Ceramic Magnetics, Inc., Fairfield, NJ (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

CX-006909: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006909: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Cost Manufacturing of High-Capacity Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes CX(s) Applied:...

25

Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

26

Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

long life and improved Safety for PHEV and EV applications. Objectives Develop a low cost synthesis methods to prepare high energy anodes Full structural and...

28

Three-Dimensional Metal Scaffold Supported Bicontinuous Silicon Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-Dimensional Metal Scaffold Supported Bicontinuous Silicon Battery Anodes Huigang Zhang Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes are attracting significant during cycling generally leads to anode pulverization unless the silicon is dispersed throughout a matrix

Braun, Paul

29

NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Søren Primdahl #12;ii Primdahl, Søren Nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells Thesis FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit Twente

30

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

32

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Novel Anode Materials Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

33

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel...

34

Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

35

The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

Delnick, Frank M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

Flores, P. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Hogge, K. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Naffziger, C. [NSTec; Codova, S. R. [SNL; Ormond, E. U. [SNL

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Hollow-Anode Plasma  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

36240 36240 Plasma Sources Science and Technology 4 (1995) 571-575. Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through the anode hole and forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity (Mach number 1.2). The plasma stream can be used, for instance, in plasma-assisted deposition of thin films

38

APPLIED PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSc APPLIED PHYSICS #12;MSc APPLIED PHYSICS This taught Masters course is based on the strong research in Applied Physics in the University's Department of Physics. The department has an impressive photonics and quantum optics, Physics and the Life Sciences, and solid state physics. The knowledge gained

Mottram, Nigel

39

New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 ?m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode E. Bogdanov, V. I. Demidov, I. D. Kaganovich, M. E. Koepke, and A. A. Kudryavtsev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-authors of this paper, to advance nonlocal plasma research. Explaining and utilizing cathode fall, negative glow, anode in a high-voltage discharge. This approach is being applied currently in plasma engineering research

Kaganovich, Igor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Pore-Scale Investigation of Mass Transport and Electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development and validation of a model for the study of pore-scale transport phenomena and electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode are presented in this work. This model couples mass transport processes with a detailed reaction mechanism, which is used to model the electrochemical oxidation kinetics. Detailed electrochemical oxidation reaction kinetics, which is known to occur in the vicinity of the three-phase boundary (TPB) interfaces, is discretely considered in this work. The TPB regions connect percolating regions of electronic and ionic conducting phases of the anode, nickel (Ni) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively; with porous regions supporting mass transport of the fuel and product. A two-dimensional (2D), multi-species lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to describe the diffusion process in complex pore structures that are representative of the SOFC anode. This diffusion model is discretely coupled to a kinetic electrochemical oxidation mechanism using localized flux boundary conditions. The details of the oxidation kinetics are prescribed as a function of applied activation overpotential and the localized hydrogen and water mole fractions. This development effort is aimed at understanding the effects of the anode microstructure within TPB regions. This work describes the methods used so that future studies can consider the details of SOFC anode microstructure.

Grew, K. N.; Joshi, A. S.; Peracchio, A. A.; Chiu, W. K. S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

43

An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

Ferdman, Alla

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

44

Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

stability of Si-based anode. 4 Milestones * Synthesize and characterize TiO 2 Graphene and SnO 2 Graphene nano-composite as anode for Li-ion batteries. - on going *...

45

Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract: The interaction of phosphorus in synthetic coal gas with the nickel-based anode of solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and...

47

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles Norikazu Takagi@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract During SOFC operation with typical Ni-YSZ anode, Ni is always subjected to the risk of oxidation the effect of redox cycles on anode performance has been intensively investigated, quantitative change

Kasagi, Nobuhide

48

Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

49

Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

50

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

Kalies, William D.

51

Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

52

Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

NETL SOFC: Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems Analysis Publications Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development-This key technology focuses on improving...

54

Cell Analysis ? High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Investigate the relationships of structure, morphology and performance of cathode and anode materials. * Explore kinetic barriers and utilize the knowledge gained to design and...

55

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel anode...

56

Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes Improving Fuel Cell...

57

GRAPHENE BASED ANODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Improvements of the anode performances in Li-ions batteries are in demand to satisfy applications in transportation. In comparison with graphitic carbons, transition metal oxides as… (more)

Cheekati, Sree Lakshmi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Hybrid Nano Carbon...

59

Anodic CaO-TiO2 nanotubes composite film for low temperature CO2 adsorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel one-dimensional anodic CaO-TiO2 nanotubes composite film was prepared using a rapid-anodic oxidation electrochemical anodization technique for low temperature CO2 absorption application. This study aims to determine the ...

Chin Wei Lai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode current response Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as is shown below. Influence of anode... . 3a, the cell with the CDM anode has a lower methanol cross- over current density than the CCM anode... , owing to the thicker CDM...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of hybrid cyclic phosphazene polymer/graphite anodes, where the phosphazene serves as distributed loci for Li deposition, has been investigated. Capacity within the hybrid system was found to occur reversibly in distinct regions. At the most positive voltages, above 0.06 V vs Li/Li+, the capacity was associated mostly with Li+ intercalation into graphite. In the most negative region, deposition of Li within the polymer was the predominate mechanism. A transitional region is inferred by the data whereby bulk aggregation or clustering of Li atoms occurs in proximity to the phosphazene sites that then serve as a template for more widespread population of Li within the anode at higher voltages, akin to a nucleation process. In full cells with a mixed oxide cathode, controlling the extent of Li deposition by limiting the charging voltage to 4.45 V enabled repeated cycling with no loss in capacity. Capacities as high as 183 mAh g-1 have been achieved for systems containing as little as 10% graphite while retaining coulombic efficiencies of 98% over 50 cycles. This level of cycling equates to the deposition of 7.4 Li per cyclic phosphazene.

Eric J. Dufek; Mark L. Stone; Kevin L. Gering; Frederick F. Stewart; David Jamison; Aaron D. Wilson; Lucia M. Petkovic; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode Effect of Humidity and Temperature Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 formation rates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC anode and cathode were catalyst onto the disk and by varying the temperature, dissolved O2 concentration, and the acidity levels

Weidner, John W.

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic reaction kinetics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Al should be severely retarded. Because of this retarded kinetics of anodization process... The Formation of Porous Anodic ... Source: Kim, Ki-Bum - School of Materials...

64

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds

65

Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

Kwan, Thomas J. T. (Los Alamos, NM); Snell, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

Gray, J H; Gray, L W; Karraker, D G

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Surface roughness of anodized titanium coatings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of grade five 6Al4V titanium alloy were coated with two commercial fluoropolymer anodizations (Tiodize and Canadize) and compared. Neither coating demonstrates significant outgassing. The coatings show very similar elemental analysis, except for the presence of lead in the Canadize coating, which may account for its lower surface friction in humid environments. Surface roughness has been compared by SEM, contact profilometry, optical profilometry, power spectral density and bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF). The Tiodize film is slightly smoother by all measurement methods, but the Canadize film shows slightly less scatter at all angles of incidence. Both films exhibited initial friction coefficients of 0.2 to 0.4, increasing to 0.4 to 0.8 after 1000 cycles of sliding due to wear of the coating and ball. The coatings are very similar and should behave identically in most applications.

Dugger, Michael Thomas; Chinn, Douglas Alan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

CX-011727: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

INFINIUM, Inc. - Clean, Efficient Aluminum Electrolysis via SOM Anodes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/22/2013 Location(s): Massachusetts, Massachusetts Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

69

CX-001227: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 114 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03162010 Location(s): Big Hill, Texas Office(s):...

70

Electrostatic probe apparatus for measurements in the near-anode region of Hall thrusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrostatic probe apparatus for measurements in the near-anode region of Hall thrusters L. Dorf Received 22 August 2003; accepted 27 January 2004; published 26 April 2004 Near-anode processes in Hall measurements in the near-anode region, the high potential of the anode relative to ground, small spatial

71

THE EFFECT OF SEGMENTED ANODES ON THE PERFORMANCE AND PLUME OF A HALL THRUSTER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF SEGMENTED ANODES ON THE PERFORMANCE AND PLUME OF A HALL THRUSTER By: ALEXANDER W electrodes in the discharge channel of a Hall thruster to divert discharge current to and from the main anode and thus control the anode temperature. By placing a propellant reservoir in the anode, the evaporation

King, Lyon B.

72

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke Uribarri and E (MPDTs) operating with three anode materials, and an anode spot model is presented which provides below and above onset with anodes of cop- per, graphite, and lead are analyzed using the statistical

Choueiri, Edgar

73

Experimental studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall thruster discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall thruster discharge L. Dorf,a Y. Raitses-attracting anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were characterized by measuring the plasma potential with biased in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster with clean and dielectrically coated anodes are identified

74

Tubular alumina formed by anodization in the meniscal region S. K. Lazarouk,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tubular alumina formed by anodization in the meniscal region S. K. Lazarouk,1,a D. A. Sasinovich,1 by anodization of aluminum at current densities up to 1400 mA/cm2 and anodization rates up to 70 m/min has been developed. It implies anodization in the meniscal region of the sample dipping into an electrolyte

75

FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach ­ The morphology and composition of Fe-containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

76

Effect of anode dielectric coating on Hall thruster operation Y. Raitses, and N. J. Fisch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of anode dielectric coating on Hall thruster operation L. Dorf,a) Y. Raitses, and N. J phenomenon observed in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which is produced on the anode surface during the normal

77

Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are Fast to Discharge but Slow to Charge December 02, 2014 Measured and calculated rate-performance of a Si thin-film (70...

78

Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

University 200,000 Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Coated Layered SiO x -Graphene Nanocomposite Anodes J-G Zhang and J. Liu Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

79

New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture for High Capacity, High-Rate Li-ion Batteries Xin Zhao, Cary Hayner, Mayfair Kung, and Harold Kung, Northwestern...

80

Breakdown Anodization (BDA) for hierarchical structures of titanium oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Breakdown Anodization (BDA) of titanium dioxide is a very promising, fast fabrication method to construct micro-scale and nano-scale structures on titanium surfaces. This method uses environmentally friendly electrolytes, ...

Choi, Soon Ju, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Graphene-Based Composite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene has emerged as a novel, highly promising ... . As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it was shown that it cannot be ... cycling that leads to the failure of the batteries. To resolve this probl...

Nathalie Lavoie; Fabrice M. Courtel…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Battery Anodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

all acceptable and even preferable when compared to lithium metal anode for practical cells. An important evidence for this is the commercial availability of LiCoO2carbon cells...

83

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

86

Coke–pitch interactions during anode preparation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The information on the interactions between coke and pitch is of great value for the aluminum industry. This information can help choose the suitable coke and pitch pairs as well as the appropriate mixing parameters to be used during the production of anodes. In this study, the interaction mechanisms of pitch and coke at the mixing stage were studied by a sessile-drop test using two coal-tar pitches as the liquid and three petroleum cokes as the substrate. The results showed that the coke–pitch interactions are related to both pitch and coke chemical compositions. The contact angle of different coke–pitch systems decreased with increasing time and temperature. At high temperatures, decreasing the pitch viscosity facilitated the spreading of pitch and its penetration into the coke bed. The chemical behavior of petroleum cokes and coal tar pitches were studied using the FT-IR spectroscopy and XPS. The results showed that the wettability behavior of cokes by pitches depends on their physical properties as well as the presence of surface functional groups of coke and pitch which can form chemical bonds.

Arunima Sarkar; Duygu Kocaefe; Yasar Kocaefe; Dilip Sarkar; Dipankar Bhattacharyay; Brigitte Morais; Jérôme Chabot

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 - 10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through

88

Applied Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Science Applied Science Correlation of predicted and measured iron oxidation states in mixed iron oxides H. D. Rosenfeld and W. L. Holstein Development of a quantitative measurement of a diesel spray core using synchrotron x-rays C.F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Gupta, A. McPherson, R. Poola, and J. Wang Localized phase transformations by x-ray-induced heating R.A. Rosenberg, Q. Ma, W. Farrell, E.D. Crozier, G.J. Soerensen, R.A. Gordon, and D.-T. Jiang Resonant x-ray scattering at the Se edge in ferroelectric liquid crystal materials L. Matkin, H. Gleeson, R. Pindak, P. Mach, C. Huang, G. Srajer, and J. Pollmann Synchrotron-radiation-induced anisotropic wet etching of GaAs Q. Ma, D.C. Mancini, and R.A. Rosenberg Synchrotron-radiation-induced, selective-area deposition of gold on

89

Stabilization of Photoluminescence of Porous Silicon with Nonaqueous Anodic Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to prevent the reduction of photoluminescence from porous silicon, we tried to form stable Si–O bonds by anodization in nonaqueous electrolyte at room temperature. Extremely strong, stable, and blue-shifted photoluminescence was obtained in porous silicon that was prepared in 1:1 solution of 49% HF and EtOH and subsequently anodized in KNO3-ethylene glycol electrolytes. The optimum condition was anodization at 20 mA cm-2 for 5 min in 0.02 M KNO3-ethylene glycol. For the formation of Si–O bonds on nanostructured surfaces, it is suggested that the electric field across the surface/electrolyte plays an important role because oxidation becomes more effective when the electrolyte is more resistive. Si–OH, which is formed as a precursor at subsequent anodization, stabilizes the nanostructured surface, converting itself to more stable Si–O bond with photoexcitation. The high current density introduced destroys nanostructured silicon by clustering with surrounding SiO2. With this clustering, wall sizes of the nanostructured silicon remain constant with anodization.

Michiko Shimura; Minoru Katsuma; Tsugunori Okumura

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

Pal, Uday B

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

92

Anodic Behavior of SAM2X5 Material Applied as Amorphous Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron-based amorphous alloys are desirable industrial materials since they are highly resistant to corrosion and possess enhanced hardness for wear resistance. The amorphous materials can be produced from the melt as powder and later spray deposited as coatings on large engineering structures. As a laboratory experiment, SAM2X5 powder was coated on electrochemical specimens of 304SS for testing. Results show that the coated specimens did not perform satisfactorily during the laboratory testing. This is because of partial devitrification during the deposition of the powder on the small specimen substrates.

Hailey, P D; Farmer, J C; Day, S D; Rebak, R B

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion...

94

Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries....

95

Fabrication of Metal/Oxide Nanostructures by Anodization Processes for Biosensor, Drug Delivery and Supercapacitor Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications of micro/nano structures; (2) novel processes to innovate anodic aluminum oxide nanotube template; (3) the supercapacitor applications of anodic titanium oxide. First, the extremely high surface area AAO coated microneedle and microneedle array...

Chen, Po-Chun

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

96

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode image sensor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biofilm, using techniques... on the anode surface have been greatly improved by the development of a real-time imaging MFC 100. This MFC... into anodic and cathodic chambers, an...

98

High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. Abstract: In this article, two-dimensional, Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs are...

99

Effect of Anode Impurity on the Neutron Production in a Dense Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, neutron production characteristics were investigated by employing three different anode designs. Previously, Takao et al. in Plasma Sour Sci Technol 12:407, (2003) studied the effect of anode desig...

H. R. Yousefi; K. Masugata

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE BY FOILS simpler, and low cost method to fabricate porous pattern of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) based applications such as sensors, optical devices, catalysts, and microfabricated fluidic devices. Anodic aluminum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Effect of Sn and Ca doping on the corrosion of Pb anodes in lead acid batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Sn and Ca doping on the corrosion of Pb anodes in lead acid batteries Dragan Slavkova of lead anodes used in lead acid batteries. However, one drawback of these materials is their increased corrosion rate as compared to pure lead anodes. In the present investigation, the dissolution of Pb

Popov, Branko N.

103

Intermittent contact of fluidized anode particles containing exoelectrogenic biofilms for continuous power generation in microbial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intermittent contact of fluidized anode particles containing exoelectrogenic biofilms on granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Particles were fluidized in the anode chamber for electricity was sustained by inter- mittent contact of charged particles with the anode. Higher power was obtained by flu

104

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in a Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in a Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Luke Uribarri flow rate) of onset voltage fluctuations in a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster operating with three anode materials, and an anode spot model is presented which provides a physical explanation for the properties

Choueiri, Edgar

105

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube-Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube-Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells Xing Xie energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC

Cui, Yi

106

Efficient organic light-emitting diodes using polycrystalline silicon thin films as semitransparent anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anode X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok Center for Display Research. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate the application of boron-doped p-Si as a semi-transparent anode better performance to conventional OLEDs which use ITO as anodes. The present technique has the advantage

107

Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode and experimentally verify the evolution of liquid water and nitrogen fronts along the length of the anode channel in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating with a dead-ended anode that is fed by dry hydrogen

Stefanopoulou, Anna

108

Modification of polycrystalline silicon as efficient anode for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modification of polycrystalline silicon as efficient anode for active- matrix organic light silicon (p-Si) on the performance of p-Si anode OLEDs have been studied. UV-ozone treatment of p. By depositing ultra-thin high work function metal oxides, such as V2O5 and MoO3, on p-Si anode, the performance

109

Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different ABSTRACT: A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes

110

Vanadium pentoxide modified polycrystalline silicon anode for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vanadium pentoxide modified polycrystalline silicon anode for active-matrix organic light to be an efficient anode for organic light-emitting diode OLED X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong an ultrathin vanadium pentoxide V2O5 layer on the p-Si anode, the performance of the OLED can be greatly

111

Anodic Behavior of Ti in KOH Solutions Ellipsometric and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anodic Behavior of Ti in KOH Solutions Ellipsometric and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Studies A. Prusi of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA Anodic formation of oxide films on titanium surfaces of refraction of anodic oxide films have been determined. The voltage at which the oxide film breaks down

Popov, Branko N.

112

AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF ALUMINUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION production of aluminum the anodic reactions have been studied on carbon microelectrodes by voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Anode gases have been analyzed by gas chromatography on-line during controlled- potential

Sadoway, Donald Robert

113

Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Jason B. Siegel,a, *,z electrolyte membrane fuel cell PEMFC with a dead-ended anode is observed using neutron imaging gas diffusion layer. Even though dry hydrogen is supplied to the anode via pressure regulation

Stefanopoulou, Anna

114

Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA This paper investigates the effects of dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a PEM fuel cell. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel, although normally less than 5% in molar

Stefanopoulou, Anna

115

Optimization of the Readout Electronics for Microchannel Plate Delay Line Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of the Readout Electronics for Microchannel Plate Delay Line Anodes John Vallerga and future space missions use microchannel plate (MCP) detectors with delay line anode readouts (e.g. FUSE Telescope). Delay line anodes are used to measure the position of the centroid of the charge clouds

Colorado at Boulder, University of

116

The Onset of Voltage Hash and its Relationship to Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Onset of Voltage Hash and its Relationship to Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters, 08544 A phenomenological model is developed to elucidate the relationship between voltage hash and anode electromagnetic force density leads to a mass depletion in the anode region which, in turn, leads to a disparity

Choueiri, Edgar

117

Supporting information for Vertically Grown Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Supporting information for Vertically Grown Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel. Summarized fabrication process flow The anode chamber and contact area were constructed on a 4" P area for the ohmic contact from the anode to the external load. A layer of Ni was then evaporated

118

Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and facile method in the manufacturing of anode support solid oxide fuel cell(1). Two anode support SOFCsPage 5-211 Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel oxide fuel cell (SOFC, hereafter) has been identified as an attractive technique in the recent few

Kasagi, Nobuhide

119

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells utilization in the cell-stack should be reduced. Ã? 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Introduction Solid-oxide Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide

Nielsen, Mads Pagh

120

Light-Weight Free-Standing Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Films for Anodes of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- prove energy densities for both anode and cathode. Silicon as an anode material has at- tracted to over- come this issue, including the use of nano- sized active materials,1 6 active/inactive composite in weight than Si active material. In a commercial lithium ion cell, the anode material is usually coated

Cui, Yi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Algorithms for correcting geometric distortions in delay line anodes Erik Wilkinsona  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithms for correcting geometric distortions in delay line anodes Erik Wilkinsona , Steven V, Baltimore, MD 21218 ABSTRACT Time-delay anodes are typically used in conjunction with microchannel plates to provide photon counting and two- dimensional imaging. The anode and associated electronics are used

Colorado at Boulder, University of

122

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster Leonid Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 As was reported in our previous work, accurate, non-disturbing near-anode and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode

123

Onset Voltage Hash and Anode Spots in Quasi-Steady Magnetoplasmadynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Onset Voltage Hash and Anode Spots in Quasi-Steady Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke Uribarri: Edgar Y. Choueiri November 2008 #12;ONSET VOLTAGE HASH AND ANODE SPOTS IN QUASI noise ("hash") and anode damage in a self-field, quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT

Choueiri, Edgar

124

Relationship Between Anode Spots and Onset Voltage Hash in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relationship Between Anode Spots and Onset Voltage Hash in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters operating above onset and the time-resolved appearance of destructively released anode material in the thruster plume. Such a relationship gives support to previously discussed anode spotting

Choueiri, Edgar

125

Operating parameters and oscillation characteristics of an anode-layer Hall thruster with argon propellant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Currently, the propellant most often used in Hall effect thrusters is xenon and in recent years occasionally krypton. However, both noble gases are extremely scarce on Earth and missions with high propellant demand, e.g., high-power operation, are defied due to the limited annual production. Therefore, alternative abundant propellants like argon need to be considered. In this paper, the operation characteristics of the anode-layer Hall thruster (TAL) UT-58 with argon propellant are evaluated. Further, the guidelines of high-power operation with argon propellant have been investigated by discussing the discharge stability in each propellant using the same performance map. Finally, it is shown by these maps that optimum magnetic lines by magnetic shielding can be applied to the anode-layer Hall thruster with argon propellant. As a result, three regions were determined by comparing the oscillation amplitude using both xenon and argon, and it was discovered that the optimum operating points with argon propellant are in a region with low magnetic flux density.

Daiki Fujita; Rei Kawashima; Yuki Ito; Shohei Akagi; Jun Suzuki; Tony Schönherr; Hiroyuki Koizumi; Kimiya Komurasaki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Failure of PEM water electrolysis cells: Case study involving anode dissolution and membrane thinning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolysis is an efficient and environmental friendly method that can be used for the production of molecular hydrogen of electrolytic grade using zero-carbon power sources such as renewable and nuclear. However, market applications are asking for cost reduction and performances improvement. This can be achieved by increasing operating current density and lifetime of operation. Concerning performance, safety, reliability and durability issues, the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) is the weakest cell component. Most performance losses and most accidents occurring during PEM water electrolysis are usually due to the MEA. The purpose of this communication is to report on some specific degradation mechanisms that have been identified as a potential source of performance loss and membrane failure. An accelerated degradation test has been performed on a MEA by applying galvanostatic pulses. Platinum has been used as electrocatalyst at both anode and cathode in order to accelerate degradation rate by maintaining higher cell voltage and higher anodic potential that otherwise would have occurred if conventional Ir/IrOx catalysts had been used. Experimental evidence of degradation mechanisms have been obtained by post-mortem analysis of the MEA using microscopy and chemical analysis. Details of these degradation processes are presented and discussed.

S.A. Grigoriev; K.A. Dzhus; D.G. Bessarabov; P. Millet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Structural analysis of lignin-derived carbon composite anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains are studied to develop a relationship of structural properties such as crystallite size, intracrystallite d spacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density with their pair distribution functions, as obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering.

McNutt, N.W.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

128

Towards Elimination of the Anode Effect and Perfluorocarbon Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on anode effect Hall-H�roult cell produces CF4 and C2F6 (PFCs) p PFCs have high GWP p in US, Al smelting & Sadoway (1997) r CF4 = a exp (b E ), where b = 0.331 V�1 #12;Sadoway, MIT ECS Meeting, Philadelphia, May

Sadoway, Donald Robert

129

Short communication Compositional control of continuously graded anode functional layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 2012 Available online 17 May 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Anode Spray deposition Compositional gradation SOFC a b s t r a c t In this work, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) are fabricated improvements in solid oxide fuel cell performance have come about through various strategies. Materials

Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.

130

Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Marins, Sean Parris, and Caleb Ellefson Introduction to Multiscale Engineering School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program Introduction in fuels such as biodiesel or jet fuel, SOFC anodes are poisoned, rendering them useless. Research

Collins, Gary S.

132

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Title Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, A. F. Bello, Xiangyun Song, Shidi Xun, Jin Chong, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of The Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 5 Pagination A520 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00134651 Abstract Battery grade graphite products from major suppliers to the battery industry were evaluated in 2325 coin cells with lithium counter electrodes. First and ongoing cycle efficiency, total and reversible capacity, cycle life and discharge rate performance were measured to compare these anode materials. We then ranked the graphites using a formula which incorporates these performance measures to estimate the cost of the overall system, relative to the cost of a system using MCMB. This analysis indicates that replacing MCMB with CCP-G8 (Conoco Phillips) would add little to no cost, whereas each of the other graphites would lead to a more costly system. Therefore we chose CCP-G8 as the new baseline graphite for the BATT program.

134

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

135

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

136

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

137

Corrosion inhibitor storage and release property of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method. ? Benzotriazole was loaded into the TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders. ? Low pH induced release of benzotriazole from TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders was proved. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most studied substances in material science due to its versatile properties and diverse applications. In this study titanium dioxide nanotube powder were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization (RBA) method. The synthesis involved potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} electrolyte under an applied voltage of 20 V and rapid stirring. The morphology and the phase of titanium dioxide nanotube powder were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Benzotriazole was chosen as model inhibitor to evaluate TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder's corrosion inhibitor loading and releasing properties. The storage and release properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder were studied using UV–visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

Arunchandran, C.; Ramya, S.; George, R.P. [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kamachi Mudali, U., E-mail: kamachi@igcar.gov.in [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

"Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Raitses This invention relates to a new plasma thruster for space applications. The key innovations of this thruster allow it to effectively ionize different propellants, including gases, liquids and solids, at different flow rates, and to operate with wallout losses. Due to these characteristics and the design simplicity, this thruster can be miniaturized to operate at low power levels, including, but not limited to a few watts input power, and regimes relevant to Cubesat applications. The new thruster uses plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions and consists of at least two stages, ionization and acceleration, which are physically separated by the geometry, magnetic field topology and

142

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Title Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, Xiangyun Song, Gao Liu, Philip N. Ross, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 19 Start Page 51 Issue 25 Pagination 51-57 Abstract Vinylene Carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolyte in graphite-lithium half-cells. We report its effect on the coulombic efficiency (as capacity shift) of graphite electrodes under various formation cycling conditions. Cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon showed that VC passivates the electrode against electrolyte reduction. The dQ/dV plots of the first lithiation of the graphite suggest that VC alters the SEI layer, and that by varying the cell formation rate, the initial ratio of ethylene carbonate to VC in the SEI layer can be controlled. VC was found to decrease first cycle efficiency and reversible capacity (in ongoing cycling) when used to excess. However, experiments with VC additive used with various formation rates did not show any decrease in capacity shift.

144

Crystalline structure transformation of carbon anodes during gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that crystalline structure transformation occurred in two stages during gasification. The first stage involved the consumption of disorganized carbon matter in the initial 15% conversion. Oxygen was found to be more reactive toward disorganized carbon at this stage of the gasification process compared to carbon dioxide. Following this stage, as more carbon was consumed, especially with the removal of smaller crystallites, it was found that the crystalline structure became more ordered with increasing conversion levels. This is due to the merging of neighboring crystallites, required to maintain the minimum energy configuration. In addition, the interaction between the pitch and the coke components was found to be strongly linked to the initial coke structure. 'Stress graphitization' occurred at the pitch-coke interface, which helps to enhance the structural development of the anodes. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kien N. Tran; Adam J. Berkovich; Alan Tomsett; Suresh K. Bhatia [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Effects of anode flooding on the performance degradation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks in a fuel cell vehicle can be inevitably exposed to harsh environments such as cold weather in winter, causing water flooding by the direct flow of condensed water to the electrodes. In this study, anode flooding was experimentally investigated with condensed water generated by cooling the anode gas line during a long-term operation (?1600 h). The results showed that the performance of the PEMFC was considerably degraded. After the long-term experiment, the thickness of the anode decreased, and the ratio of Pt to carbon in the anode increased. Moreover, repeated fuel starvation of the half-cell severely oxidized the carbon surface due to the high induced potential (>1.5 VRHE). The cyclic voltammogram of the anode in the half-cell experiments indicated that the characteristic feature of the oxidized carbon surface was similar to that of the anode in the single cell under anode flooding conditions during the long-term experiment. Therefore, repeated fuel starvation by anode flooding caused severe carbon corrosion in the anode because the electrode potential locally increased to >1.0 VRHE. Consequently, the density of the tri-phase boundary decreased due to the corrosion of carbons supporting the Pt nanoparticles in the anode.

Mansu Kim; Namgee Jung; KwangSup Eom; Sung Jong Yoo; Jin Young Kim; Jong Hyun Jang; Hyoung-Juhn Kim; Bo Ki Hong; EunAe Cho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode dielectric coating Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

during cell conditioning and Summary: the catalyst slurries were coated onto the micro- porous layer, the anode and cathode were cured at 160 C... during cell conditioning...

148

Insights into the morphological changes undergone by the anode in the lithium sulphur battery system.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this thesis, the morphological changes of the anode surface in lithium sulphur cell, during early cycling, were simulated using symmetrical lithium electrode cells… (more)

Yalamanchili, Anurag

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Biofilm formation by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 towards fundamental understanding of anode respiring communities.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Microbial fuel cells are bioelectrochemical devices where, on the anode, microorganisms oxidize complex carbon sources and reduce the electrode via complex mechanisms of extra-cellular electron… (more)

Roy, Jared

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Development of an inert ceramic anode to reduce energy consumption in magnesium production. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a dimensionally stable ceramic anode for production of magnesium metal in electrolytic cells, replacing the graphite anodes currently used by The Dow Chemical Company magnesium business. The work is based on compositional and design technology for a ceramic anode developed in the former Central Research Inorganic Laboratory. The approach selected is to use a ceramic semiconductor tube as the material to interface with the bath and gaseous atmosphere in the cell. The testing goal was to demonstrate six anodes surviving a 30 day test lifetime with acceptable wear rates and electrical performance in a laboratory scale magnesium cell test. State of the art slip casting techniques were used and advanced in the pursuit of a virtually flaw free ceramic anode shell. Novel core materials were also invented to allow for the complete, crack free fabrication of the laboratory scale anode. Two successive anodes were tested and exceeded the 30 day cell lifetime goal with excellent wear characteristics. More aggressive testing of the ceramic anode revealed that the anode had a rather narrow operating region.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic alumina supported Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Nanotube Mat as an Anode of Batteries for Medical Applications ... Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic alumina films Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrodeposition as anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxide overlayer Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo Collection: Engineering 56 Development of a Novel CO Tolerant Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anode Summary: :Ru alloy...

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative anode reaction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Technology Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Chemistry 5 Development of a Novel CO Tolerant Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anode Summary: of the...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode wire grids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Physics ; Engineering 54 Simple Template-Based Method to Produce Bradbury-Nielsen Gates Summary: are then anodized for a black finish to have higher contrast with...

156

Réactivité de l'anode et désulfuration : effet du niveau de calcination du coke.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Les propriétés du coke et la performance des anodes sont affectées par le niveau de calcination du coke. Une densité de coke (VBD) élevée implique… (more)

Bergeron-Lagacé, Charles-Luc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Pitch Production Using Solvent Extraction of Coal: Suitability as Carbon Anode Precursor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Albertan coal has been used to produce extracts as precursor for production of anode coke. Coal extractability was studied using digestion with Tetralin in a… (more)

Mohammad Ali Pour, Mehdi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodized titanium discs Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: As a specimen material, we chose sintered titanium. Chemically pure titanium powder was prepared by a rotating-anode... Internal Friction and Elastic Constants of...

159

Degradation Of Selected Organic Agrochemicals In Artificial Soil Slurry Systems By Anodic Fenton Treatment .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis investigated the application of anodic Fenton treatment to the degradation of several probe agrochemicals in model soil slurry systems. A kinetic model, called… (more)

Ye, Peng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

PEMFC reconfigured anodes for enhancing CO tolerance with air bleed.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Practical PEM fuel cells based on perfluorinated ionomer membranes (eg Nafion), most probably will use reformed fuel as primary source for the anode feed. The reformate, besides hydrogen, may contain trace amounts of carbon monoxide (CO. from a few to hundreds ppm), whose presence is detrimental to the cell performance. Energy conversion at fuel cells depends on highly dispersed carbon-supported Pt, where the hydrogen electro-oxidatisn takes place. However, CO strongly adsorbs on the Pt surface leading to a decreasing of the Pt active Surface area and consequently to losses in electrical current that are unacceptable for a practical device.

Uribe, F. J. (Francisco J.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

162

A study of the anodic polarization behavior of Zr(50)Cu(40-x)Al(10)Pd(x) BMG with scanning Auger microanalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anodic-polarization behaviors of Zr50Cu40-XAl10PdX (x = 0 and 7 atomic %) BMGs were investigated in 0.6 M NaCl electrolytes. Initial anodic polarization of both alloys yielded regions where small increases in the applied potential induced significant increases in the current density. Continued polarization of both BMGs resulted in diffusion controlled regimes. However, the limiting diffusion current density of Zr50Cu33Al10Pd7 was higher than that of Zr50Cu40Al10. Scanning Auger microanalysis was used to investigate the oxide formed during polarization and to analyze the chemistry within corrosion pits. The pits formed on both BMGs were enriched with Cu and Cl. Corrosion pits on Zr50Cu33Al10Pd7 were additionally enriched with Pd. A corrosion mechanism relating to the formation of CuCl and Cu2O is proposed based on both the polarization and microanalysis results.

Green, Brandice [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Benson, Roberto S [ORNL; Yokoyama, Y [Institute for Materials Research; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Chain T [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

164

Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Original formulation of spatially variant anodization for complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery oversampled at twice the Nyquist rate (2.OX). Here we report a spatially interpolating, noninteger-oversampled SVA sidelobe. The pixel's apparent IPR location is assessed by comparing its value to the sum of its value plus weighted comparable for exact interpolation. However, exact interpolation implies an ideal sine interpolator3 and large components may not be necessary. Note that P is the summation of IPR diagonal values. The value of a sine IPR on the diagonals is a sine-squared; values much less than cardinal direction (m, n) values. This implies that cardinal direction interpolation requires higher precision than diagonal interpolation. Consequently, we employed a smaller set. The spatially interpolated SVA used an 8-point/4-point sine interpolator described above. Table 1 shows the Table 1 results show a two-times speed-up using the 1.3x oversampled and spatially interpolated SVA over the Figure 1d. Detected results of 1.3x oversampled sine interpolated spatially variant

Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.; Yocky, David A.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

165

Pulsed klystrons with feedback controlled mod-anode modulators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a fast rise and fall, totem-pole mod-anode modulators for klystron application. Details of these systems as recently installed utilizing a beam switch tube ''on-deck'' and a planar triode ''off-deck'' in a grid-catch feedback regulated configuration will be provided. The grid-catch configuration regulates the klystron mod-anode voltage at a specified set-point during switching as well as providing a control mechanism that flat-top regulates the klystron beam current during the pulse. This flat-topped klystron beam current is maintained while the capacitor bank droops. In addition, we will review more modern on-deck designs using a high gain, high voltage planar triode as a regulating and switching element. These designs are being developed, tested, and implemented for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator refurbishment project, ''LANSCE-R''. An advantage of the planar triode is that the tube can be directly operated with solid state linear components and provides for a very compact design. The tubes are inexpensive compared to stacked semiconductor switching assemblies and also provide a linear control capability. Details of these designs are provided as well as operational and developmental results.

Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jerry, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rees, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film treatment of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a mercury film electrode Is presented. Nu- merlcal) frequency ( f ) and amount of metal depostted In the mercury layer (9R) and glves a response 6 tlmes

Kounaves, Samuel P.

167

Graphene–Nanotube–Iron Hierarchical Nanostructure as Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene–Nanotube–Iron Hierarchical Nanostructure as Lithium Ion Battery Anode ... In this study, we report a novel route via microwave irradiation to synthesize a bio-inspired hierarchical graphene–nanotube–iron three-dimensional nanostructure as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. ...

Si-Hwa Lee; Vadahanambi Sridhar; Jung-Hwan Jung; Kaliyappan Karthikeyan; Yun-Sung Lee; Rahul Mukherjee; Nikhil Koratkar; Il-Kwon Oh

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

168

Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa , Naoki Shikazonoa Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted more and more attentions in the last few decades hydrogen as a fuel and pure oxygen as an oxidant. Anode-reference static current method, with a current

Kasagi, Nobuhide

169

Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risø-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

170

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

Hobson, D.O.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

171

Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominatedImpedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance

Cui, Yi

172

Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystals as Stable Interfacial Layer for Improvement of Lithium Metal Anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitride, graphene Lithium ion batteries have been a great success as the power source for portable boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene directly on Cu metal current collectors. Lithium ions were able battery chemistry such as Si anodes,3,4 Li-S, and Li- air.5 Li metal anode has the highest specific

Cui, Yi

173

Short communication Hierarchical SiOx nanoconifers for Li-ion battery anodes with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxide Li rechargeable battery Anode Nanoconifer Nanowire Thermal evaporation a b s t r a c t Silicon subShort communication Hierarchical SiOx nanoconifers for Li-ion battery anodes with structural through a simple thermal evaporation process.

Jo, Moon-Ho

174

Nanostructured Polyaniline/Titanium Dioxide Composite Anode for Microbial Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimization of the anode shows that the composite with 30 wt % PANI gives the best bio- and electrocatalytic performance. ... The catalytic performance of the composite anode in microbial fuel cells can be optimized by adjusting the PANI percentage in the composite, and the composite with 30 wt % PANI gives the highest bio- and electrocatalytic performance. ... To optimize and develop energy prodn. ...

Yan Qiao; Shu-Juan Bao; Chang Ming Li; Xiao-Qiang Cui; Zhi-Song Lu; Jun Guo

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

175

Comparative Study of Plasma Anodization of Silicon in a Column of a dc Glow Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comparative study of plasma anodization of silicon in the column of a dc oxygen glow discharge is presented. Quantitative results for growth rates of silicon dioxide in the negative glow Faraday dark space positive column and the anode fall are given. It is observed that the growth rate is higher in the positive column than the other regions of the discharge.

M. A. Copeland; R. Pappu

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh...

177

Abnormal Cyclibility in Ni@Graphene Core–Shell and Yolk–Shell Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abnormal Cyclibility in Ni@Graphene Core–Shell and Yolk–Shell Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes ... A new graphene-based hybrid nanostructure is designed for anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. ...

Huawei Song; Hao Cui; Chengxin Wang

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

178

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

Influence of anode area and electrode gap on the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes arrays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to fabricate the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes arrays which were used in the photocatalytic degradation of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) by anodization, the influence of the electrode gap and anode area on the morphology ...

Min Wang; Li Jia; Shuangmei Deng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

183

Self-organization phenomena accompanying deformation-thermal instability during anodic etching of silicon in a HF solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model of self-organization during anodic etching in the preparation of porous silicon is proposed.

V. S. Kuznetsov; 1; 2A. V. Prokaznikov

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Ramsey, James A. (The Dalles, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE: MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS 9 (1998) 309 --311 Critical oxygen content in porous anodes of solid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in porous anodes of solid tantalum capacitors YU. POZDEEV-FREEMAN Vishay Israel Electronics Company anodes of solid tantalum capacitors and the current-voltage (I9V) characteristics of Ta2O5 amorphous layers formed on the anode surface have been performed. A strong correlation between a sharp increase

Palevski, Alexander

187

44 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 27, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Ultraviolet Imaging of the Anode Attachment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Anode Attachment in Transferred-Arc Plasma Cutting Byron L. Bemis and Gary S. Settles Abstract-- The anode phenomena occurring at the location of current transfer from the plasma jet to the plate affects imaging technique was used to visualize the anode attachment spot under various cut- ting conditions

Settles, Gary S.

188

Nitrogen blanketing front equilibria in dead end anode fuel cell operation Jixin Chen, Jason B. Siegel, and Anna G. Stefanopoulou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen blanketing front equilibria in dead end anode fuel cell operation Jixin Chen, Jason B the dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. A reduced order model is developed focusing on the species molar fraction in the anode channel. At equilibrium, hydrogen is present

Stefanopoulou, Anna

189

theoretical and applied fracture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

theoretical and applied fracture mechanics ELSEVIER Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 00 and Applied Fracture Mechanics 00 (1995) 000-000 Recently, some European countries developed defect specific. A suitable probabilistic fracture mechanic

Cizelj, Leon

190

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

191

Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

192

Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

194

Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A Damage Model for Degradation in the Electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells: Modeling the effects of sulfur and antimony in the anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over their designed lifetime, high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), can experience degradation in their electrochemical performance due to environmental conditions, operating conditions, contaminants, and other factors. Understanding the different degradation mechanisms in SOFCs and other electrochemical devices is essential to reducing performance degradation and increasing the lifetime of these devices. In this paper SOFC degradation mechanisms are discussed and a damage model is presented which describes performance degradation in SOFCs due to damage or degradation in the electrodes of the SOFC. A degradation classification scheme is presented that divides the various SOFC electrode degradation mechanisms into categories based on their physical effects on the SOFC. The application of the damage model and the classification method is applied to sulfur poisoning and antimony poisoning which occur in the anode of SOFCs. For sulfur poisoning the model is able to predict the degradation in SOFC performance based on the operating temperature and voltage of the fuel cell and the concentration of gaseous sulfur species in the anode. For antimony poisoning the effects of nickel removal from the anode matrix is investigated.

Ryan, Emily M.; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Effect of anode shape on pinch structure and X-ray emission of plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of anode shapes on pinch structure and X-ray emission of plasma focus device operated with cylindrical, diverging, oval and converging anode tips is reported. The pinch structure in the radial compression phase has been investigated by employing a triple pinhole camera. It has been observed that pinch structure as well as the X-ray emission of PF device strongly depends upon anode tip designs. For the first time the studies were carried out in two new shapes of anode tips that is the oval and the divergent one. It has been observed that the oval and diverging anode tips are more conducive for the formation of instabilities and hotspot generation. The studies of X-ray emission were also carried out by employing three channels of a p-i-n diode X-ray spectrometer in entire anode designs to corroborate the results of a triple pinhole camera. Additionally, the effective hard X-ray photon energy was also estimated by the radiography method for all the anode tip designs, which indirectly provide a qualitative idea of the generation of induced accelerating field in the pinched column during compression.

N. Talukdar; N.K. Neog; T.K. Borthkur

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

199

Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG) on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

Gouri Radhakrishnan; Brendan Foran; Michael V. Quinzio; Miles J. Brodie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers for use in lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this report, we introduce electrospun silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers (SCNFs) as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The one-dimensional structure of electrospun nanofibers provides porosity for the anode material. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the electrospun fibers reduce the volume expansion of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) and improve mechanical stability of the electrode. Both \\{CNTs\\} and carbon nanofibers enhance electronic conduction by connecting SiNPs in \\{SCNFs\\} for electrode reactions. These contribute to improved electrochemical performance of SCNF anode-based \\{LIBs\\} resulting in the enhancement of capacity and cycling ability.

Nguyen Trung Hieu; Jungdon Suk; Dong Wook Kim; Ok Hee Chung; Jun Seo Park; Yongku Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

High-performance tin oxide-nitrogen doped graphene aerogel hybrids as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Tin dioxide nanoparticles on nitrogen doped graphene aerogel (SnO2-NGA) hybrid are synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method and successfully applied in lithium-ion batteries as a free-standing anode. The electrochemical performance of SnO2-NGA hybrid is investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling, rate capability test, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the SnO2-NGA hybrid with freestanding spongy-like structure exhibit remarkable lithium storage capacity (1100 mAh g?1 after 100 cycles), good cycling stability and high rate capability. The outstanding performance is attributed to the uniform SnO2 nanoparticles, unique spongy-like structure and N doping defect for Li+ diffusion.

Chunhui Tan; Jing Cao; Abdul Muqsit Khattak; Feipeng Cai; Bo Jiang; Gai Yang; Suqin Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Argonne CNM News: Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Tijana Rajh Argonne nanoscientist Tijana Rajh holds a strip of material created from titanium dioxide nanotubes. A team of researchers led by Tijana Rajh (Group Leader, Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials NanoBio Interfaces Group), and Christopher Johnson (Argonne's Chemical Sciences & Engineering Division), working under a CNM user science project, discovered that nanotubes composed of titanium dioxide can switch their phase as a battery is cycled, gradually boosting their operational capacity. New batteries produced with this material can be recharged up to half of their original capacity in less than 30 seconds. By switching out conventional graphite anodes with titanium nanotube anodes, a surprising phenomenon occurs. As the battery cycles through

204

The Consumption of Carbon in the Electric Arc. No. III. The Anode Loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 February 1916 research-article The Consumption of Carbon in the Electric Arc. No. III. The Anode Loss W. G. Duffield Mary D. Waller The Royal Society is collaborating with...

1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode catalysts prepared Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel cells, by modifying both the anode and the cathode catalysts that will enable PEM fuel cell... catalyst as a separate phase - as nanoparticles. 2. ... Source: DOE Office of...

206

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodal transcranial direct Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

111:796806, 2009 796 J Neurosurg Volume 111 October 2009 Summary: of rTMS over the Trains of transcranial direct current stimulation antagonize motor cortex... of anodal tran-...

207

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-cathode microbial fuel Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 61 Visions on Energy Production Technologies for Finland up to 2030 Summary: turbine G G After- burner Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Anode...

208

Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material By Angela Hardin * February 25, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

209

Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Return to Search Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material Argonne National Laboratory CalBattery has worked with Argonne for...

210

Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - antigen circulating anodic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells Summary: . Y. Wang, F. Liu, Y. Sato and E. Sakaue, Dual-Pump Anode System with Circulating Liquid for Direct......

212

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer for organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)was used as the anode buffer layer in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene-based solar cells. The power conversion e...

Zisheng Su; Lidan Wang; Yantao Li; Haifeng Zhao; Bei Chu…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode solid oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) exhibit a number of attractive features... of anode and cathode materials for propane oxidation was tested in both flow- through and half... but not...

214

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Graphene sheets decorated with ZnO nanoparticles as anode materials for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ZnO/graphene composites were synthesized using a facile solution- ... 4 nm were densely and homogeneously deposited on graphene sheets. As the anode material for the lithium ion batteries, the ZnO/graphene compos...

Ling-Li Xu; Shao-Wei Bian; Kang-Lin Song

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Cobalt oxide–graphene nanocomposite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composites of Co3O4/graphene nanosheets are prepared and characterized by X- ... behavior as anode materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries is investigated by galvanostatic discharge/charge measurements...

Guiling Wang; Jincheng Liu; Sheng Tang…

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Direct hybridization of tin oxide/graphene nanocomposites for highly efficient lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A facile direct hybridization route to prepare SnO2/graphene nanocomposites for Li-ion battery anode application is demonstrated. Uniform distribution of...2 nanoparticles on graphene layers was enabled by a one-...

Dong Ok Shin; Hun Park; Young-Gi Lee; Kwang Man Kim…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

TiO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high rate lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple strategy to prepare a hybrid of nanocomposites of anatase TiO2/graphene nanosheets (GNS) as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries was reported. The morphology and crystal structure...2/GNS electrode ...

Yi-ping Tang ???; Shi-ming Wang ???; Xiao-xu Tan ???…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The effect of graphene nanosheets as an additive for anode materials in lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A small amount of graphene nanosheets was added to commercial graphite as an anode active material in lithium ion batteries and its effects were examined through a ... composite electrode containing 1 or 5 wt% graphene

Jae Hun Jeong; Dong-Won Jung; Byung-Sun Kong…

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Use of Carbon Mesh Anodes and the Effect of Different Pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, cloth, felt, or foam (4-6); reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) (7); graphite sheets, rods, and granules provide insulation between the electrodes and to reduce oxygen transfer from the cathode to the anode

222

Study of Anodic and Cathodic Catalysts for Water Electrolysis Activation of Membranes and Diaphragms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimization of the anodic and cathodic catalysts developed under the previous contract 067–76-EHI, with a view to identifying the best candidate for alkaline and acid electrolysis at temperatures up to 140°C,...

Placido M. Spaziante

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Rapid determination of trace concentrations of lead in gasoline by anodic stripping voltammetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anodic stripping voltammetry can be used for the determination of ?g/l concentrations of lead in gasoline. A gasoline sample is extracted with iodine monochloride reagent solution. An aliquot of the aqueous ph...

Pentti Laukkanen

224

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy, rechargeable Li-ion battery based on carbon nanotubewith Sb and SnSb0.5 as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon, 2003.Li, A review of application of carbon nanotubes for lithium ion battery

Zhao, Lin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode-Supported Cell Development - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Supported Cell Development- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide

227

Acidity and aluminum toxicity caused by iron oxidation around anode bars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil acidity and aluminum toxicity are serious environmental problems often found in humid temperate and tropical regions or in areas with acid rain. Iron oxidation in soils can also cause high concentrations of H{sup +}, which, in turn, causes an increase of Al{sup 3+} in the soil solution. To examine this problem, a study was undertaken to discover the cause of crop damage in crops planted over buried anode bars. Anode bars are part of an impressed current cathodic protection system for pipelines near Decatur, Illinois. Soil samples were collected from the problem site and from a non-problem site for comparison. Results showed that Fe oxidation around anode bars at the problem site is stimulated by electric current, a situation that results in high concentrations of H{sup +} and reduces soil pH to less than 3.0. Under the low pH condition, the content of available Al is very high, and therefore, the soil solution becomes toxic for soybean roots. Exchangeable Al was 360 to 700 ppm in soil immediately adjacent to anode bars but only 3 ppm in the soil midway between anode bars. The damage to the plants, such as reduced vegetative growth and lowered seed yield, developed in a circular pattern over the anode bars. Factors contributing to the problem were soil Fe content, rectifier voltage, and soil drainage.

Shen, S. [Dept. of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). ARS Eastern Regional Research Center] [Dept. of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). ARS Eastern Regional Research Center; Pepper, G.E.; Hassett, J.J.; Stucki, J.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Anodic dissolution of 304 stainless steel using atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work a new spectroelectrochemical method based on an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry has been developed and used to measure the elementary dissolution rates of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, and Cu simultaneously during linear scan voltammetry of a 304 stainless steel in the active region. Simultaneous dissolution was observed for all elements with the exception of copper, which appeared in solution at a potential approximately 100 mV more positive. The Tafel slopes for Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mn partial dissolution rates were measured around the corrosion potential and found to be identical within experimental error, between 59 and 68 mV/decade. The anodic dissolution of copper in acidic chloride and sulfate solutions was used to establish the quantitative relationship between the concentration transients and the dissolution rate. The residence time distribution of the electrochemical flow cell was determined using galvanostatic pulses of copper or stainless steel dissolution. The experimental residence time distribution could be approximated to a high degree of accuracy at both long and short times by a log-normal distribution. The effect of the residence time distribution on the shape of partial elemental current transients during linear scan voltammetry was investigated by numerical simulation.

Ogle, K.; Weber, S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

POSITION OPENING APPLIED STATISTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Assistant or Associate Professor of Applied Statistics. Employment Beginning: September 16, 2012 DescriptionPOSITION OPENING APPLIED STATISTICS Department of Decision Sciences Charles H. Lundquist College at the University of Oregon is seeking to fill one tenure-track faculty position in Applied Statistics. Rank

Shepp, Larry

231

Applied quantum mechanics 1 Applied Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that describe the time-dependent state . If can be expressed as a power series in the perturbing potential of a one dimensional har- monic oscillator. At time t = 0 a perturbation is applied where V0-dimensional rectangular potential well for which in the range and elsewhere. It is decided to control the state

Levi, Anthony F. J.

232

Applied Surface Science 266 (2013) 516 Interphase chemistry of Si electrodes used as anodes in Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Li-ion batteries Catarina Pereira-Nabaisa,b , Jolanta S´wiatowskaa, , Alexandre Chagnesb, , Franc made to increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), namely for electric vehicle applications. One way to improve the energy density of a battery is to use high specific capacity materials, e

Boyer, Edmond

233

Graphite coated with manganese oxide/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites as anodes in marine benthic microbial fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improving anode performance is of great significance to scale up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) for its marine application to drive oceanography instruments. In this study, manganese oxide (MnO2)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites are prepared to be as novel anodes in the \\{BMFCs\\} via a direct redox reaction between permanganate ions (MnO4?) and MWCNTs. The results indicate that the MnO2/MWCNTs anode has a better wettability, greater kinetic activity and higher power density than that of the plain graphite (PG) anode. It is noted that the MnO2 (50% weight percent)/MWCNTs anode shows the highest electrochemical performance among them and will be a promising material for improving bioelectricity production of the BMFCs. Finally, a synergistic mechanism of electron transfer shuttle of Mn ions and their redox reactions in the interface between modified anode and bacteria biofilm are proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance.

Yubin Fu; Jian Yu; Yelong Zhang; Yao Meng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

235

Cobalt Carbonate/ and Cobalt Oxide/Graphene Aerogel Composite Anodes for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cobalt Carbonate/ and Cobalt Oxide/Graphene Aerogel Composite Anodes for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries ... (1, 2) Commercial LIBs use graphite as the anode material with a low theoretical specific capacity of 372 mAh g–1, necessitating extensive research to develop substitute anode materials with higher energy/power densities for high performance LIBs to satisfy demanding applications like electric vehicles. ...

Mohammad Akbari Garakani; Sara Abouali; Biao Zhang; Curtis Alton Takagi; Zheng-Long Xu; Jian-qiu Huang; Jiaqiang Huang; Jang-Kyo Kim

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

TUDE SPECTROMTRIQUE DE LA LUMIRE MISE PAR LE PLA SMA ANODIQUE PENDANT L'EFFET D'ANODE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

99 �TUDE SPECTROM�TRIQUE DE LA LUMI�RE �MISE PAR LE PLA SMA ANODIQUE PENDANT L'EFFET D'ANODE DANS. Abstract. 2014 One can determine fundamental properties of anodic plasma by studiing Li and K isolated travaux ont eu pour objet l'étude électrochimique de l'effet d'anode (voir, par exemple [1

Boyer, Edmond

237

Analytical Chemistry Applied Mathematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical Chemistry Applied Mathematics Architectural Engineering Architecture Architecture Electricity Markets Environmental Engineering Food Process Engineering Food Safety & Technology Architecture Information Technology & Management Integrated Building Delivery Landscape Architecture Management

Heller, Barbara

238

How To Apply  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CSCEEE undergraduate students are encouraged to apply. Required Materials Current Resume Official University Transcript (with spring courses posted andor a copy of Spring...

239

Experimental Study of Hard X-ray Emission with Different Anode Tips in APF Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To investigate the effect of different anode tips on the hard X-ray (HXR) emission from APF plasma focus device (16 kV, 36 ?f, and...

M. Habibi; R. Amrollahi; G. R. Etaati

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

DELAYED COKING OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED COAL FOR PRODUCTION OF ANODE GRADE COKE: CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PRODUCTS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study investigates the feasibility of using high temperature solvent extraction of coal to produce feedstock for the production of anode grade coke through delayed… (more)

Karri, Vamsi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

242

Microstructural coarsening effects on redox instability and mechanical damage in solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In state-of-the-art high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) a porous composite of nickel and yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) is employed as the anode. The rapid oxidation of Ni into NiO is regarded as the main cause of the so-called reduction-oxidation (redox) instability in Ni/YSZ anodes due to the presence of extensive bulk volume changes associated with this reaction. As a consequence the development of internal stresses can lead to performance degradation and/or structural failure. In this study we employ a recently developed continuum formalism to quantify the mechanical deformation behavior and evolution of internal stresses in Ni/YSZ porous anodes due to re-oxidation. In our approach a local failure criterion is coupled to the continuum framework in order to account for the heterogeneous damage accumulation in the YSZ phase. The hallmark of our approach is the ability to track the spatial evolution of mechanical damage and capture the interaction of YSZ damaged regions with the local microstructure. Simulation results highlight the importance of the microstructure characterized by Ni to YSZ particle size ratio on the redox behavior and damage accumulation in as-synthesized SOFC anode systems. Moreover a redox-strain-to-failure criterion is developed to quantify the degree by which coarsened anode microstructures become more susceptible to mechanical damage during re-oxidation.

F. Abdeljawad; M. Haataja

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Gas conversion impedance: A test geometry effect in characterization of solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The appearance of an extra arc in impedance spectra obtained on high performance solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes is recognized when experiments are conducted in a test setup where the working and reference electrodes are placed in separate atmospheres. A simple continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is used to illustrate how anodes measured with the reference electrode in an atmosphere separate from the working electrode are subject to an impedance contribution from gas conversion. The gas conversion impedance is split into a resistive and a capacitive part, and the dependences of these parameters on gas composition, temperature, gas flow rate, and rig geometry are quantified. The fuel gas flow rate per unit of anode area is decisive for the resistivity, whereas the capacitance is proportional to the CSTR volume of gas over the anode. The model predictions are compared to actual measurements on Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia cermet anodes for SOFC. The contribution of the gas conversion overpotential to dc current-voltage characteristics is deduced for H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and shown to have a slope of RT/2F in a Tafel plot.

Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Materials Research Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ionization-enhanced currents to an anode in a magnetic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic-field effects are known to play an important role in determining current-collection characteristics of electrodes in magnetoplasmas. In the Parker-Murphy model of current collection, for example, the magnetic field excludes electrons that originate from outside a characteristic collection radius from reaching the anode. In this paper we show that these excluded electrons can dominate current collection through ionization effects, even at pressures well below the Paschen threshold for ionization. We demonstrate this by releasing a controlled current near a spherical anode in a magnetic field, and measuring the resultant anode current. The use of a spatially localized electron source reveals aspects of current collection that are not evident when a background plasma constitutes the electron source. We find that the anode current can exceed the source current by more than two orders of magnitude. The conditions are such that we can neglect the contribution to the anode current from secondary emission at the chamber wall. We therefore attribute the additional current to the flow of electrons released by ionization of the ambient neutral gas and show how the ionization arises from electron trapping.

R. G. Greaves and D. A. Boyd

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Applied Energy Programs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Energy Programs Applied Energy Programs Applied Energy Programs Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact and by improving the efficiency and reliability of the energy infrastructure. CONTACT US Acting Program Director Melissa Fox (505) 663-5538 Email Applied Energy Program Office serves as the hub connecting the Laboratory's scientific and technical resources to DOE sponsors, DoD programs, and to industry. The Applied Energy Program Office manages Los Alamos National Laboratory programs funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Offices of Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, and Fossil Energy. With energy use increasing across the nation and the

246

Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and 8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome August 20, 2010 - 5:18pm Addthis Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? An Argonne Scholar has figured out a way to convert grocery bags into carbon nanotubes that can be used as components for lithium-ion batteries. We have about three pounds of bacteria living in our gut -- most of which is helpful for our immune system development and metabolism. Scientists at Ames Laboratory are making batteries that are "greener" and more cost-efficient by using rare earth elements -- neodymium

247

Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

248

Effect of operating parameters and anode gas impurities upon polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are actively under development for transportation and other applications. Integration of a PEM fuel cell stack with a methanol reformer requires an understanding of single cell performance under a range of operating conditions using anode gas contaminated with impurities. The effect of temperature, pressure, and anode gas impurities on single cell PEM performance was investigated with platinum black electrodes. Single cell performance remained unchanged as temperature was varied between 80 and 100 at 3 atm pressure. High water partial pressures at 120C produced a mass transfer limiting current. While operation at 120C did not reverse CO{sub 2} poisoning, anode air addition proved effective. Air injection also decreased CO poisoning at injected concentrations up to 200 ppm CO. Higher single cell tolerance was observed for CH{sub 3}OH than CO. Up to 1 mole % CH{sub 3}OH in the gas phase reduced the current density by less than 10%.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

AEROSPACE SCIENCES Applied aerodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSPACE SCIENCES Applied aerodynamics This year saw significant progress in industry, research labs, and academia in the development of flow-control concepts, novel configuration aerodynamic concepts, and aerodynamic im- provement technologies for enhancing the fuel efficiency and performance

Xu, Kun

250

Applied large eddy simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2971-2983. doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0303 . Audio Supplement Audio Supplement Audio files from the Applied large eddy simulation...fidelity. | Whittle Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Effects of anode microstructures on durability of microtubular solid oxide fuel cells during internal steam reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract When hydrocarbons are used as a fuel in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), internal steam reforming increases the energy conversion efficiency and simplifies the system, including the balance-of-plant. However, conventional nickel–yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni–YSZ) anodes are prone to deterioration at high temperatures and high humidity. This paper focuses on effects in anode microstructure on performance and durability of microtubular SOFCs. The evaluations were conducted under high steam content and internal methane reforming conditions using Ni–YSZ anodes using acrylic resin and graphite pore formers. The initial cell performance was almost identical to that of \\{SOFCs\\} with anodes using acrylic resin and graphite pore formers in 40% H2–3% H2O at 700 °C. However, the anode using acrylic resin deteriorated rapidly in 40% H2–30% H2O over a period of 28 h. Furthermore, it generated almost no electric power by internal steam reforming of methane. The local oxidation of nickel particles was observed at the interface between the electrolyte and the deteriorated anodes. The anode using graphite pore former provided stable power generation in 40% H2–30% H2O, and was able to generate power in 10% CH4–30% H2O. The pore formers strongly affect fuel diffusivity in the SOFC anodes, which is an important factor in stable internal steam reforming of methane.

Hirofumi Sumi; Toshiaki Yamaguchi; Toshio Suzuki; Hiroyuki Shimada; Koichi Hamamoto; Yoshinobu Fujishiro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. I. INTRODUCTION Water produced at the cathode catalyst layer can diffuse back to the anode side due of the catalyst support in the cathode [4]. Therefore, scheduling an occasional purge of the anode volume that was observed via neutron imaging of an operational 53 cm2 PEMFC. Simulation results for the GDL and Membrane

Stefanopoulou, Anna

255

Addition of non-reacting gases to the anode flow field of DMFCs leading to improved performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as compared with hydro- gen-fed polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFCs), they offer the basic advantages through the polymer membrane, low electro-activity of methanol oxidation on anode, and severe cathode and searching for alternatives [7­14], to evaluating and optimizing anode catalysts and structures [15

Zhao, Tianshou

256

Reduced Graphene Oxide Wrapped FeS Nanocomposite for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with Improved Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reduced Graphene Oxide Wrapped FeS Nanocomposite for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with Improved Performance ... A new nanocomposite formulation of the FeS-based anode for lithium-ion batteries is proposed, where FeS nanoparticles wrapped in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are produced via a facile direct-precipitation approach. ...

Ling Fei; Qianglu Lin; Bin Yuan; Gen Chen; Pu Xie; Yuling Li; Yun Xu; Shuguang Deng; Sergei Smirnov; Hongmei Luo

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

Novel Pyrolyzed Polyaniline-Grafted Silicon Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Graphene Sheets As Li-Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel Pyrolyzed Polyaniline-Grafted Silicon Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Graphene Sheets As Li-Ion Battery Anodes ... The composite materials exhibit better cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency as anodes in lithium ion batteries, as compared to pure Si nanoparticles and physically mixed graphene/Si composites. ...

Zhe-Fei Li; Hangyu Zhang; Qi Liu; Yadong Liu; Lia Stanciu; Jian Xie

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

258

Relationship of chemical components and impurities of aluminum galvanic anodes upon the cathodic protection of marine structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum galvanic anodes form the principal basis for cathodic protection of offshore structures and marine vehicles. A satisfactory cathodic protection (CP) design using the galvanic mode must employ a valid anode. It follows, therefore, that highly responsible compositional consideration be associated with such anodes. Since applications extend from very low temperature to above ambient seawaters, this factor is addressed in the paper. Applications in sea muds and its effect upon anode behavior is also considered. Primary emphasis will be given the indium-activated alloys with occasional comparisons to the mercury-activated aluminum anodes. The grounds for this emphasis lies in the fact that the indium-activated anodes constitute the great majority of use. The data and observations discussed are based primarily on low temperature, ambient and higher temperature laboratory and pilot tests supplemented by user field applications over the last 25--30 years. Dependable aluminum anode performance in the subject waters and muds point to careful control of iron and copper impurities, coupled with the correct balance of indium, zinc and silicon. Generalized recommendations are presented with regard to composition. The future challenges of cathodic protection at greater seawater depths are also addressed. Possible effects upon anode current capacity and voltage are so related.

Schrieber, C.F.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial Suqin Ci a,c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial fuel cells Suqin Ci November 2011 Available online 20 November 2011 Keywords: Carbon nanotubes Nitrogen doping Anode Microbial. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical systems that directly convert chemical energy

260

A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas*[e] and Thomas Schleid[f] Abstract: A novel approach for the marking of deposited lithium on graphite anodes from

Schmidt, Volker

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

262

Journal of Power Sources 156 (2006) 345354 Development of PtRu-CeO2/C anode electrocatalyst for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Power Sources 156 (2006) 345­354 Development of PtRu-CeO2/C anode electrocatalyst a growing interest in the development of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) because when compared oxidation reac- tion on the anode and the oxygen reduction reaction on the cathode remains as one

Zhao, Tianshou

263

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery-cost, and environ- mentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on- graphene approach should offer

Cui, Yi

264

Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

Anodic bonding of glass-ceramics to stainless steel coated with intermediate SiO2 layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodic bonding between glass-ceramics and stainless steel (No. 430#) which was coated with SiO"2 layer were investigated. The SiO"2 layers with thickness comprised between 150 and 250nm were coated on stainless steel surfaces by sol-gel method, the ... Keywords: Anodic bonding, Glass-ceramics, Intermediate layer, SiO2, Stainless steel

Dehua Xiong; Jinshu Cheng; Hong Li; Wei Deng; Kai Ye

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Fabrication of TiO2 film with different morphologies on Ni anode and application in photoassisted water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anode of an alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis was modified by TiO2 photocatalysts with different morphologies. The water electrolysis was coupled with photocatalytic decomposition of water by irradiation of UV light on the modified anode. And a feasible process for the hydrogen production of water electrolysis assisted by photocatalysis (WEAP) was proposed and experimentally confirmed. The results show that the highly ordered, vertically oriented tubular arrays structure on Ni anode surface has better hydrogen production performance than random TiO2. In WEAP process, the maximum rate of hydrogen production is 2.77 ml/(h*cm2) when the anode modified by ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays, compared to traditional alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis with Ni anode, H2-production rate increased by 139%.

Hongbo He; Aiping Chen; Hui Lv; Haijun Dong; Ming Chang; Chunzhong Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Applied Science/Techniques  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Science/Techniques Applied Science/Techniques Applied Science/Techniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class soft x-ray facility are developed at the ALS itself. The optical components in use at the ALS-mirrors and lenses optimized for x-ray wavelengths-require incredibly high-precision surfaces and patterns (often formed through extreme ultraviolet lithography at the ALS) and must undergo rigorous calibration and testing provided by beamlines and equipment from the ALS's Optical Metrology Lab and Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics. New and/or continuously improved experimental techniques are also a crucial element of a thriving scientific facility. At the ALS, examples of such "technique" highlights include developments in lensless imaging, soft x-ray tomography, high-throughput protein analysis, and high-power coherent terahertz radiation.

268

Efficient organic light-emitting diode using semitransparent silver as anode Huajun Peng, Xiuling Zhu, Jiaxin Sun, Zhiliang Xie, Shuang Xie,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient organic light-emitting diode using semitransparent silver as anode Huajun Peng, Xiuling A semitransparent silver layer is investigated as the anode for organic light-emitting devices OLEDs. A bottom-emitting OLED using the modified, semitransparent silver anode, demonstrates improved current

269

40th Joint Propulsion Conference, Fort Lauderdale, FL, July 11-14, 2004 Effect of Segmented Anodes On the Beam Profile of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

40th Joint Propulsion Conference, Fort Lauderdale, FL, July 11-14, 2004 Effect of Segmented Anodes was investigated. A BPT-2000 magnetic circuit was retrofitted with a segmented anode with thermal measurement capabilities. Current was shared between shims and main anode by changing the voltage on the shim. A Faraday

King, Lyon B.

270

Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia-Xin Sun,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia (TOLED) with pure aluminum metal layer as the bottom anode has been fabricated. The brightness as high as that of the TOLED with additional high work function silver deposited on aluminum as the anode

271

Information Science, Computing, Applied Math  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capabilities ISC Applied Math science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Information Science, Computing, Applied Math National security depends on science and...

272

Direct comparison between X-ray nanotomography and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructure characterization of a solid oxide fuel cell anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been applied to characterize the microstructure of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode. A direct comparison between the results of both methods is conducted on the same region of the microstructure to assess the spatial resolution of the nano-CT microstructure, SEM being taken as a reference. A registration procedure is proposed to find out the position of the SEM image within the nano-CT volume. It involves a second SEM observation, which is taken along an orthogonal direction and gives an estimate reference SEM image position, which is then refined by an automated optimization procedure. This enables an unbiased comparison between the cell porosity morphologies provided by both methods. In the present experiment, nano-CT is shown to underestimate the number of pores smaller than 1 ?m and overestimate the size of the pores larger than 1.5 ?m. - Highlights: ? X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and SEM are used to characterize an SOFC anode. ? A methodology is proposed to compare the nano-CT and SEM data on the same region. ? The spatial resolution of the nano-CT data is assessed from that comparison.

Quey, R., E-mail: quey@emse.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); École des Mines de Saint-Étienne, CNRS UMR 5307, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Étienne, Cedex 2 (France); Suhonen, H., E-mail: heikki.suhonen@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Laurencin, J., E-mail: jerome.laurencin@cea.fr [CEA-Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cloetens, P., E-mail: peter.cloetens@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Bleuet, P., E-mail: pierre.bleuet@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Conductive Anodic Filament Enhancement the Presence of a Polyglycol -Containing Flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Under certain environmental conditions, printed wiring boards (CAF), is a result of an electrochemical corrosion process that initiates at the anode and proceeds process involves two steps [2]. The first is a physical degradation of the fibedepoxy bond

Bennett, Gisele

274

A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas of natural gas has been developed. The model simultaneously solves mass, energy transport equations emission level, and multiple fuel utilization. SOFC can operate with various kinds of fuels such as natural

Boyer, Edmond

275

Adaptable Silicon–Carbon Nanocables Sandwiched between Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as Lithium Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adaptable Silicon–Carbon Nanocables Sandwiched between Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as Lithium Ion Battery Anodes ... Despite rapidly growing interest in the application of graphene in lithium ion batteries, the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical cycling is not fully understood. ...

Bin Wang; Xianglong Li; Xianfeng Zhang; Bin Luo; Meihua Jin; Minghui Liang; Shadi A. Dayeh; S. T. Picraux; Linjie Zhi

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interest in using nanomaterials for advanced lithium-ion battery electrodes, par- ticularly for increasingSolution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Candace K. Chan, Reken N. Patel storage capacity (theoretical values of 4200 vs 372 mAh/g for graphite). How- ever, the insertion

Cui, Yi

277

Optical Properties of ZrO2–Containing Anodic Coatings on Aluminum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anodic oxide coatings (AOC) formed at the potentials of spark breakdowns...2ZrF6) contain up to 36 wt.% of Zr. The modification of ZrO2 in AOC is tetragonal. The reflection coefficients of AOC have been measured ...

P. M. Nedozorov; K. N. Kilin; T. P. Yarovaya…

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently attracted extensive attention due to the high theoretical energy density and potential low cost. Even so, significant challenges prevent widespread adoption, including continuous dissolution and consumption of active sulfur during cycling. Here we present a fundamentally new design using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on the anode. The lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial self-regulated solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer to actively control the electrochemical reaction while minimizing the deleterious side reactions on the surface and bulk lithium metal. Continuous corrosion and contamination of lithium anode by dissolved polysulfides is largely mitigated. Excellent electrochemical performance has been observed. Li-S cell incorporating the hybrid design retain a capacity of more than 800 mAh g-1 for 400 cycles, corresponding to only 11% fade and a Coulombic efficiency above 99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide new lessons for protecting metal anodes in other energy storage devices.

Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D.; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

279

TOWARDS ELIMINATION OF THE ANODE EFFECT AND PERFLUOROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM HALL-HROULT CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the perfluorocarbons (PFCs) CF4 and C2F6 (1). Owing to the high global warming potentials of these gases (2 that trace levels of CF4 are present in the anode off-gas during #12;periods of normal operation (5

Sadoway, Donald Robert

280

Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell Jeff Lillibridge Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Advisor: Mikko Haataja #12;What is a solid oxide fuel cell microstructuralcoarsening processes to electrochemical performancein solid oxide fuel cells: An integrated modeling approach

Petta, Jason

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281

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Alex and Aerospace Engineering Background Solid oxide fuel cells lose mechanical stability and functionality when oxidize (redox reaction) instead of the hydrogen fuel [2]. This conversion to NiO exerts a volumetric

Petta, Jason

282

Effect of magnetic field profile on the anode fall in a Hall-effect thruster dischargea...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the plasma, and not in the non-neutral sheath near the cathode like in regular glow and arc discharges. Thus of the magnetic field configuration on the anode fall in an E B discharge of a Hall thruster is studied both of Hall thrusters is based on electro- static acceleration of heavy ions in crossed electric and mag

283

Experimental Investigation of Degradation in PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the current level affects degradation rate. The fuel cell membrane failures were predicated by high current Arbor Michigan 48109 Fuel cell durability and cost are two important concerns for commercializing Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems. A Dead-Ended Anode (DEA) system has lower cost

Stefanopoulou, Anna

284

Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells Vanessa Lanas, Bruce E. Logan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected (You et al., 2007), carbon cloth (Wang et al., 2009), and activated carbon fiber felt (Zhu et al., 2011 27 August 2013 Available online 5 September 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Carbon brush anode

285

Graphene/silicon nanocomposite anode with enhanced electrochemical stability for lithium-ion battery applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A graphene/silicon nanocomposite has been synthesized, characterized and tested as anode active material for lithium-ion batteries. A morphologically stable composite has been obtained by dispersing silicon nanoparticles in graphene oxide, previously functionalized with low-molecular weight polyacrylic acid, in eco-friendly, low-cost solvent such as ethylene glycol. The use of functionalized graphene oxide as substrate for the dispersion avoids the aggregation of silicon particles during the synthesis and decreases the detrimental effect of graphene layers re-stacking. Microwave irradiation of the suspension, inducing reduction of graphene oxide, and the following thermal annealing of the solid powder obtained by filtration, yield a graphene/silicon composite material with optimized morphology and properties. Composite anodes, prepared with high-molecular weight polyacrylic acid as green binder, exhibited high and stable reversible capacity values, of the order of 1000 mAh g?1, when cycled using vinylene carbonate as electrolyte additive. After 100 cycles at a current of 500 mA g?1, the anode showed a discharge capacity retention of about 80%. The mechanism of reversible lithium uptake is described in terms of Li–Si alloying/dealloying reaction. Comparison of the impedance responses of cells tested in electrolytes with or without vinylene carbonate confirms the beneficial effects of the additive in stabilizing the composite anode.

F. Maroni; R. Raccichini; A. Birrozzi; G. Carbonari; R. Tossici; F. Croce; R. Marassi; F. Nobili

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene composited as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene (SnO2-TiO2.../G) ternary nanocomposite as high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries was prepared via a simple reflux method. ... The graphite oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene

Shan-Shan Chen; Xue Qin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Crumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Jiayan Luo, Xin Zhao Information ABSTRACT: Submicrometer-sized capsules made of Si nanoparticles wrapped by crumpled graphene dispersion of micrometer-sized graphene oxide (GO) sheets and Si nanoparticles were nebulized to form aerosol

Huang, Jiaxing

288

CoOcarbon nanofiber networks prepared by electrospinning as binder-free anode materials for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced properties Ming Zhang,ab Evan Uchaker,a Shan Hu,a Qifeng Zhang(II) acetate and polyacrylonitrile by an electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. The XPS results with diameters of 200 nm. As binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the discharge capacities of such Co

Cao, Guozhong

289

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

290

Conduction in Multiphase ParticulateFibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitectured carbon networks, typically in the form electronically February 7, 2003. Several promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitecturedConduction in Multiphase ParticulateÃ?Fibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

Sastry, Ann Marie

291

Uncertainty Studies of Real Anode Surface Area in Computational Analysis for Molten Salt Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines how much cell potential changes with five differently assumed real anode surface area cases. Determining real anode surface area is a significant issue to be resolved for precisely modeling molten salt electrorefining. Based on a three-dimensional electrorefining model, calculated cell potentials compare with an experimental cell potential variation over 80 hours of operation of the Mark-IV electrorefiner with driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. We succeeded to achieve a good agreement with an overall trend of the experimental data with appropriate selection of a mode for real anode surface area, but there are still local inconsistencies between theoretical calculation and experimental observation. In addition, the results were validated and compared with two-dimensional results to identify possible uncertainty factors that had to be further considered in a computational electrorefining analysis. These uncertainty factors include material properties, heterogeneous material distribution, surface roughness, and current efficiency. Zirconium's abundance and complex behavior have more impact on uncertainty towards the latter period of electrorefining at given batch of fuel. The benchmark results found that anode materials would be dissolved from both axial and radial directions at least for low burn-up metallic fuels after active liquid sodium bonding was dissolved.

Sungyeol Choi; Jaeyeong Park; Robert O. Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson; Kwang-Rag Kim; Il Soon Hwang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

SUSTAINABILITY WHO CAN APPLY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUNDED BY CALL FOR SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH STUDENT WHO CAN APPLY Undergraduate and graduate Participate in the Global Change & Sustainability Center's Research Symposium; attend workshops with faculty or publish in the U's student-run sustainability publication to be released in May 2014. Are you conducting

293

Polarization effects in intermediate temperature, anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anode-supported sold oxide fuel cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) + YSZ cathode, and Ni + YSZ anode were fabricated and their performance was evaluated between 650 and 800 C with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities measured were {approximately} 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C and {approximately} 0.82 W/cm{sup 2} at 650 C. Voltage (V) vs. current density (i) traces were nonlinear; V vs. i exhibited a concave-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {ge} 0] at low values of i and a convex-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {le} 0] at higher values of i, typical of many low temperature fuel cells. Analysis of concentration polarization based on transport of gaseous species through porous electrodes, in part, is used to explain nonlinear V vs. i traces. The effects of activation polarization in the Tafel limit are also included. It is shown that in anode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature can be due either to activation or concentration polarization, or both. By contrast, in cathode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature is entirely due to activation polarization. From the experimentally observed V vs. i traces for anode-supported cells, effective binary diffusivity of gaseous species on the anodic side was estimated to be between {approximately} 0.1 cm{sup 2}/s at 650 C and {approximately} 0.2 cm{sup 2}/s at 800 C. The area specific resistance of the cell (ohmic part), varied between {approximately} 0.18 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 650 C and {approximately} 0.07 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 800 C with an activation energy of {approximately} 65 kJ/mol.

Kim, J.W.; Virkar, A.V.; Fung, K.Z.; Mehta, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasma in front of a positively biased electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stability of an anode spot plasma, which is an additional high density plasma generated in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in ambient plasma, is a critical issue for its utilization to various types of ion sources. In this study, operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasmas are experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of the bias current flowing into the positively biased electrode and the properties of ambient plasma reveal that unstable nature of the anode spot is deeply associated with the reduction of double layer potential between the anode spot plasma and the ambient plasma. It is found that stability of the anode spot plasma can be improved with increasing the ionization rate in ambient plasma so as to compensate the loss of electrons across the double layer or with enlarging the area of the biased electrode to prevent electron accumulation inside the anode spot. The results obtained from the present study give the guideline for operating conditions of anode spot plasmas as an ion source with high brightness.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Dang, Jeong-Jeung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Applied Science/Techniques  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Science/Techniques Print Applied Science/Techniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class soft x-ray facility are developed at the ALS itself. The optical components in use at the ALS-mirrors and lenses optimized for x-ray wavelengths-require incredibly high-precision surfaces and patterns (often formed through extreme ultraviolet lithography at the ALS) and must undergo rigorous calibration and testing provided by beamlines and equipment from the ALS's Optical Metrology Lab and Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics. New and/or continuously improved experimental techniques are also a crucial element of a thriving scientific facility. At the ALS, examples of such "technique" highlights include developments in lensless imaging, soft x-ray tomography, high-throughput protein analysis, and high-power coherent terahertz radiation.

296

Electrochemical behaviors of co-deposited Pb/Pb–MnO2 composite anode in sulfuric acid solution – Tafel and EIS investigations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxygen evolution kinetics and anodic layer properties of Pb/Pb–MnO2 composite anode during the 72 h galvanostatic electrolysis in H2SO4 solution were investigated with Quasi-stationary polarization (Tafel) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results revealed that the anodic activity and reaction kinetics varied a lot during the electrolysis for it is a process indicating the formation and stabilization of anodic layer. At the very beginning of electrolysis, the composite anode exhibited very high oxygen evolution activity since the reaction was controlled by the transformation step of intermediates. Then, its oxygen evolution activity was largely diminished and the rate determination step (rds) became the formation and adsorption of first intermediate, S–OHads. In the prolonged electrolysis, the anodic potential gradually decreased and the final stable value was comparable to industrial Pb–Ag (1.0%) anode. On the stable anodic layer after 72 h, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was still controlled by the formation and adsorption of intermediate, and the adsorption resistance took a dominant part in the whole impedance. Besides, compared with Pb–Ag and Pb anode, although OER at the stable state were all controlled by the intermediate adsorption process, the adsorption resistance of Pb/Pb–MnO2 anode was much smaller than the other two due to the existence of MnO2 particles and large amount of ?-PbO2 in the stable anodic layer.

Yanqing Lai; Yuan Li; Liangxing Jiang; Wang Xu; Xiaojun Lv; Jie Li; Yexiang Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

"Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

It all began in 2001, when three NREL researchers took their thin-film It all began in 2001, when three NREL researchers took their thin-film expertise from window technology research and applied it to a solid-state, thin-film lithium battery. The researchers knew that lithium batteries tended to degrade quickly because the fragile lithium metal anode was on the top of the battery, where any cracks in the encapsulant could lead to rapid failure. The team developed the concept of building the battery in reverse order, depositing first the solid-state electrolyte, made of lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON), then the cathode, a metal oxide. Lithium is typically intercalated (chemically trapped) within the cathode material. Placing an initial charge on the battery causes the lithium ions to migrate out of the cathode

298

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

Tao, Thomas

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

299

Applied ALARA techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

Waggoner, L.O.

1998-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

300

for Applied Linguistics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per calendar year, promptly at intervals of three months. Each pack is to contain two numbers of the Finite String. The difficulties of the first year of publication of AJCL are responsible for the d'elayed, production of this ~ack, which also contains Volume 11, Number 4 of TFS. ~k would be a rash editor indeed who guaranteed promptness without caveat. The present editbr must warn the subscriber that'the end of the diLf.iculti-es is not yet fixed for a date certa.in. AMERICAN JQURNAL OF COMPL'TATIONAL LINGUISTICS is published by the Center for Applied Linguistics for the Association for Computational Linguistics.

Assistant Nancy Jokovl Ch

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

Applied Optoelectronics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optoelectronics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Applied Optoelectronics Place: Sugar Land, Texas Zip: 77478 Product: Applied Optoelectronics designs, develops, and manufactures...

302

ORISE: Applied health physics projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied health physics projects The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides applied health physics services to government agencies needing technical support...

303

Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Hybrid of Co3Sn2@Co Nanoparticles and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as a Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid of Co3Sn2@Co Nanoparticles and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as a Lithium Ion Battery Anode ... VO2 Nanowires Assembled into Hollow Microspheres for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium Batteries ...

Nasir Mahmood; Chenzhen Zhang; Fei Liu; Jinghan Zhu; Yanglong Hou

2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Chemisorption and anodic oxidation of aromatic molecules on Pd electrode surfaces: studies by UHV-EC-STM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

yields an edge-vertical oriented diphenolic species. (iii) The extent of anodic oxidation of the chemisorbed organic strongly depends upon its initial orientation; only the flat-adsorbed species are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide. (iv...

Chen, Xiaole

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

307

Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous SnO2 composites as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mesoporous metal oxides such as SnO2...exhibit a superior electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their large surface areas and ... collapse during the charge–discharge pro...

Shuhua Jiang; Wenbo Yue; Ziqi Gao; Yu Ren; Hui Ma…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

TiO2 nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anatase TiO2...nanoparticles in situ grown on nitrogen-doped, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully synthesized ... as an anode material for the lithium ion battery. The nanosized TiO2 particles wer...

Dan Li; Dongqi Shi; Zongwen Liu; Huakun Liu…

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A silicon nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide composite anode with excellent nanoparticle dispersion to improve lithium ion battery performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composite anodes of Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets with highly dispersed...+...electrochemistry by becoming highly involved in the charge–discharge reaction mechanisms as indicat...

Rhet C. de Guzman; Jinho Yang; Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

In situ synthesis of SnO2 nanosheet/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel SnO2/graphene composite has been synthesized via an in...2 nanosheets are uniformly grown on graphene support. The as-prepared products were characterized ... used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

Hongdong Liu; Jiamu Huang; Chengjie Xiang…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Anisotropic Investigation of Hard X-ray Emission with Flat Anode Tips in APF Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper behavior of hard X-ray (HXR) anisotropy and its intensity along the anode bar from APF plasma focus facility (16 kV, 36 ?f, and...

M. Habibi; R. Amrollahi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_NETL_ liquid metal anode.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes U.S. Dept of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 Harry Abernathy, Kirk Gerdes, Randy Gemmen Phone: (304)285-4342, Kirk.Gerdes@NETL.DOE.GOV Fuel cells are one of the most efficient methods for converting the chemical energy in coal directly to electrical energy, minimizing the amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants produced per kilowatt of electricity even before scrubbing and carbon sequestration. To use coal as a fuel source, even the most tolerant solid ceramic fuel cell systems require prior gasification of the coal into syngas, which significantly adds to total system cost. By replacing the ceramic fuel electrode of a traditional high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a liquid metal

313

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

314

A microfocus x-ray source based on a nonmetal liquid-jet anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate stable operation of a nonmetallic anode in an electron-impact x-ray source. A high-brightness electron beam is focused on a {approx}70 m/s speed, {approx}10 {mu}m diameter methanol jet producing stable x-ray emission with peak spectral brightness at {approx}5.4x10{sup 5} photons/(sx{mu}m{sup 2}xsrx0.1%BW). The jet is fully evaporated in the interaction point. The shape of a simulated spectrum using Monte Carlo methods shows good agreement with experimental data, and the theoretical brightness values give an upper limit for the achievable x-ray emission from jets with very high velocities. Using this anode concept, all compounds and elements found in liquid form are potentially usable for x-ray generation.

Tuohimaa, T.; Ewald, J.; Schlie, M.; Hertz, H. M.; Vogt, U. [Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Fernandez-Varea, J. M. [Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

315

Improving dielectric performance in anodic aluminum oxide via detection and passivation of defect states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic and ionic transports in 32–56?nm thick anodic aluminum oxide films are investigated before and after a 1-h anneal at 200–400?°C in argon. Results are correlated to their defect density as measured by the Mott-Schottky technique. Solid state measurements show that electronic conduction upon annealing is hindered by an increase in the Schottky emission barrier, induced by a reduction in dopant density. Using an electrochemical contact, the films fail rapidly under cathodic polarization, unless defect density is decreased down to 10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}, resulting in a three order of magnitude reduction in current and no visible gas evolution. Under anodic polarization, the decrease in defect density delays the onset of ionic conduction as well as further oxide growth and failure.

Mibus, M.; Zangari, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Jensen, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Hu, X.; Reed, M. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Knospe, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

316

Using Heteropolyacids in the Anode Catalyst Layer of Dimethyl Ether PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, polarization experiments were performed on a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DMEFC). The experimental setup allowed for independent control of water and DME flow rates. Thus the DME flow rate, backpressure, and water flow rate were optimized. Three heteropoly acids, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and silicotungstic acid (STA) were incorporated into the anode catalyst layer in combination with Pt/C. Both PTA-Pt and STA-Pt showed higher performance than the Pt control at 30 psig of backpressure. Anodic polarizations were also performed, and Tafel slopes were extracted from the data. The trends in the Tafel slope values are in agreement with the polarization data. The addition of phosphotungstic acid more than doubled the power density of the fuel cell, compared to the Pt control.

Ferrell III, J. R.; Turner, J. A.; Herring, A. M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 ?m thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Portici Research Centre, p.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Co3O4/Carbon Aerogel Hybrids as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co3O4/Carbon Aerogel Hybrids as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties ... A facile hydrothermal and sol–gel polymerization route was developed for large-scale fabrication of well-designed Co3O4 nanoparticles anchored carbon aerogel (CA) architecture hybrids as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with improved electrochemical properties. ... carbon aerogel; oxide; hybrid; mesoporous structure; lithium-ion battery ...

Fengbin Hao; Zhiwei Zhang; Longwei Yin

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

319

Adsorbate-induced corrosion: anodic dissolution of palladium induced by chemisorbed iodine in halide-free acid solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADSORBATE-INDUCED CORROSION: ANODIC DISSOLUTION OF PALLADIUM INDUCED BY CHEMISORBED IODINE IN HALIDE-FREE ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis JANEMARIE A. SCHIMPF Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry ADSORBATE-INDUCED CORROSION: ANODIC DISSOLUTION OF PALLADIUM INDUCED BY CHEMISORBED IODINE IN HALIDE-FREE ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis JANEMARIE A. SCHIMPF Approved...

Schimpf, Janemarie A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

A novel method for preparing anode cermets for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for fabrication of metal-cermet anodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been developed. Highly porous, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were prepared using a mixture of zircon fibers (YSZp, Si-stabilized, and {lt}0.3% Si) and normal YSZ powders (YSZd). The films remained highly porous following calcination up to 1,550 C, after which either Cu or Ni could be incorporated by impregnation with the nitrate salts. For Cu cermets, the performance increased with metal loading to at least 40% Cu. At 800 C using H{sub 2} as the fuel and a 230 {micro}m, YSZ electrolyte, the current-voltage (I-V) curves for either a Cu- or Ni-cermet anode formed using this new method were found to be identical to the I-V curve for a Ni cermet formed using traditional methods. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the anode films remained porous even with addition of Cu, so that additional modification was possible. Tests of this concept through the addition of ceria by impregnation with the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} led to an additional increase in the cell performance.

Craciun, R.; Park, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Vohs, J.M.; Wang, C.; Worrell, W.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Thermal Cyclability of Reactive Air Braze Seals in Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The popularity of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has increased in tandem with the ability to fabricate thinner gas-tight yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers, which can now be routinely produced on the order of 7 to 10 ?m thick. While this has significantly improved power output and decreased the required fuel cell operating temperatures, the ability to reliably seal fuel cells remains a concern. The seals must be hermetic and be robust enough to retain their hermeticity even under the extreme operating conditions of SOFCs. Perhaps the largest contributor to stresses experienced by the seal is the fact that the SOFC is an assembly of many different materials with different thermal expansion properties. Although every effort is made to minimize thermal expansion mismatches across the seals, the stresses developed during thermal cycling still jeopardize seal integrity. Reactive air brazing (RAB), a method of joining that employs a metallic, and therefore non-brittle, seal material has been used to seal electrolyte/anode bilayers, such as those in anode-supported SOFCs, to Crofer-22 alloy. The results of rupture strength testing will be reported for as-brazed and thermally cycled samples and the effect of thermal cycling on the RAB seal microstructure will be shown

Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Weil, K. Scott

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

323

Corrosion rate and anodic dissolution behavior of a B2-iron aluminide alloy in sulfuric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrochemical investigation was conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of an iron aluminide (B2-FeAl) alloy (with 24 wt% Al) in sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) under potentiodynamic polarization conditions. Corrosion rates were determined using the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) technique, in which simultaneous computations of the Tafel slopes were obtained by a curve-fitting procedure. The corrosion rate of B2-FeAl was comparable to high-purity iron at the beginning of immersion but increased noticeably with time, showing significantly diminished corrosion resistance after several hours of immersion. At small anodic overpotentials, the polarization curve showed an active dissolution region, with the anodic current dependent upon potential and pH, which suggested an anodic process under iron dissolution control. Active corrosion of B2-FeAl was believed to follow an initial selective dissolution of the aluminum constituent. The rate-determining step of the process was the charge-transfer reaction of iron, similar to that for iron-chromium alloys. However, a significant difference between aluminum and chromium existed in the poorer performance of aluminum as an alloying element in inhibiting active dissolution of iron-based alloys.

Frangini, S. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Energie, Rome (Italy). Div. Nuovi Materiali

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fabrication and Performance of Ni-YSZ Anode Supported Cell for Coal Derived Syngas Application by Tape Casting and Spin Coating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ni-YSZ anode supported cell has been developed for direct utilization of coal derived syngas as fuel in the temperature range of 700-850° C. The porous Ni-YSZ anode substrate was prepared based on processes of slip casting and lamination of anode tape. Then thin-film YSZ electrolyte was deposited on pre-sintered anode substrate via a colloidal spin coating technique and an optimized final sintering route. Dense and crackfree YSZ electrolyte was successfully obtained after sintering at 1440C for 4hrs. Processing factors like pre-sintering of anode, solvent, coating cycles and sintering route on the final properties of YSZ film was studied. A power density of 0.62W/cm2 has been achieved for the anode supported cell tested in 97%H2/3%H2O at 800°C. EIS test results indicated the cell performance was essentially influenced by interfacial resistance and charge transfer process.

Gong, Mingyang (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Jiang, Yinglu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Johnson, C.D.; Xingbo, Liu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

326

School of Applied Technology School of Applied Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

School of Applied Technology School of Applied Technology Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Campus Illinois Institute of Technology 201 E. Loop Road Wheaton, IL 60187 630.682.6000 www.iit.edu/applied tech/ Dean and Academic Director, Information Technology and Management Programs: C. Robert Carlson Director of Operations

Heller, Barbara

327

School of Applied Technology School of Applied Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

School of Applied Technology School of Applied Technology Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Campus Illinois Institute of Technology 201 E. Loop Road Wheaton, IL 60187 630.682.6000 www.iit.edu/applied tech/ Dean Technology and Management Programs: Mazin Safar Director, Marketing & Development: Scott Pfeiffer Director

Heller, Barbara

328

Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: Investigation of rotating-anode x-ray tube heat loadability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures, a closed bore hybrid x-ray/MRI (CBXMR) system is proposed in which an x-ray C-arm will be positioned with its isocenter {approx_equal}1 m from the entrance of a clinical MRI scanner. This system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to improve clinical outcome. A key component of the CBXMR system will be a rotating anode x-ray tube to produce high-quality x-ray images. There are challenges in positioning an x-ray tube in the magnetic fringe field of the MRI magnet. Here, the effects of an external magnetic field on x-ray tube induction motors of radiography x-ray tubes and the corresponding reduction of x-ray tube heat loadability are investigated. Anode rotation frequency f{sub anode} was unaffected when the external magnetic field B{sub b} was parallel to the axis of rotation of the anode but decreased when B{sub b} was perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The experimental f{sub anode} values agreed with predicted values to within {+-}3% over a B{sub b} range of 0-30 mT. The MRI fringe field at the proposed location of the x-ray tube mounted on the C-arm ({approx_equal}4 mT) reduced f{sub anode} by only 1%, so x-ray tube heat loadability will not be compromised when using CBXMR systems for percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. Eddy current heating power in the rotor due to an MRI fringe field was found to be two orders of magnitude weaker than the heating power produced on the anode due to a fluoroscopic exposure, so eddy current heating had no effect on x-ray tube heat loadability.

Bracken, John A.; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Lucas MRS Center, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, California 94305-5488 (United States); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Structural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Available online 5 March 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Perovskite Oxide anode Redox Sulfur tolerance Solid oxide fuel cells with LaSr2Fe2CrO9-­Gd0.1Ce0.9O2- composite anodes were tested in H2, H2S-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode is Ni-8-mole% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which performs very

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

330

Increasing desalination by mitigating anolyte ph imbalance using catholyte effluent addition in a multi-anode, bench scale microbial desalination cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode… (more)

Davis, Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effect of Nickel-Phosphorus Interactions on Structural Integrity of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated experimental/modeling approach was utilized to assess the structural integrity of Ni - yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) porous anode supports followed the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation on coal gas containing trace amounts of phosphorus impurities. Phosphorus was chosen as a typical impurity exhibiting strong interactions with the nickel followed by second phase formation. Tests were performed using Ni-YSZ anode-supported button cells exposed to 0.5-10 ppm of phosphine in synthetic coal gas at 700-800oC. The extent of Ni-P interactions was determined by a post-test scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Severe damage to the anode support due to nickel phosphide phase formation and extensive crystal coalescence was revealed, resulting in electric percolation loss. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual anode support microstructures to assist in degradation mechanism explanation. Volume expansion induced by the Ni phase alteration was found to produce high stress levels such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode became possible under the operating conditions. These results emphasize the need for extensive coal gas cleanup when used as a fuel for SOFCs.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

The use of synthetic hydrocalcite as a chloride-ion getter for a barrier aluminum anodization process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chloride ion contamination at parts per billion concentrations plaques electrochemists studying barrier anodic aluminum oxide film growth and anodic aluminum oxide capacitor manufacturers. Chloride ion contamination slows film growth and reduces film quality. We have demonstrated that synthetic hydrocalcite substantially reduces the detrimental effects of chloride ion contamination in an aqueous electrolyte commonly used to grow barrier anodic aluminum oxide. We have determined that problems arise if precautions are not taken when using synthetic hydrocalcite as a chloride-ion getter in an aqueous electrolyte. Synthetic hydrocalcite is somewhat hydrophobic. If this powder is added directly to an aqueous electrolyte, some powder disperses; some floats to the top of the bath and forms scum that locally impedes anodic film formation. Commercially available powder contains a wide range of particle sizes including submicrometer-sized particles that can escape through filters into the electrolyte and cause processing problems. These problems can be over come if (1) the getter is placed in filter bags, (2) a piece of filter paper is used to skim trace amounts of getter floating on the top of the bath, (3) dummy runs are performed to scavenge chloride-ion loaded getter micelles dispersed in the bath, and (4) substrates are rinsed with a strong stream of deionized water to remove trace amounts of powder after anodization.

Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Investigation of Efficiency in Applied Field MagnetoPlasmaDynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supported me from over the ocean ever since my first day at Princeton and eventually joined me so we would by characterization of the various power dissipation mechanisms in AF-MPDTs led by the acceleration power and anode sheath power components. A semi-empirical model is derived, to explain anode sheath voltage fall in AF

Choueiri, Edgar

334

Investigation of Efficiency in Applied Field MagnetoPlasmaDynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, who supported me from over the ocean ever since my first day at Princeton and eventually joined me so of the various power dissipation mechanisms in AF-MPDTs with a focus on the acceleration power and anode sheath power components. A semi-empirical model is derived to explain anode sheath voltage fall in AF- MPDTs

Choueiri, Edgar

335

Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

Stephen Everett Treimer

2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

336

VSe2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Unprecedented VSe2/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized through a hydrothermal route. A large number of hexagonal \\{VSe2\\} sheets anchored on the graphene sheets can be observed. The thicknesses and lengths of \\{VSe2\\} sheets are controlled by graphene sheets. VSe2/graphene nanocomposite prepared with 15 mg graphite oxide (VSe2/G-15) exhibits the best electrochemical lithium storage properties such as charge/discharge capacities, cycle stability and rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

Yaping Wang; Binbin Qian; Huanhuan Li; Liang Liu; Long Chen; Haobin Jiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

NFRC Procedures for Applied Films  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Films Applied Films Last update: 12/10/2013 07:29 PM NFRC now has a procedure for adding applied films to substrates in Optics5 and importing those applied film constructions into WINDOW5 to be used in a whole product calculation. The information presented below is provided to help simulators with this process. Feel free to contact us at WINDOWHelp@lbl.gov with questions or comments. NFRC Applied Film Procedure Applied Film Procedures (approved by NFRC) (PDF file) Approved Applied Film List (IGDB 33.0) (PDF file) NFRC Laminate Procedure Training Powerpoint with Examples (This Powerpoint presentation was used in the NFRC web based training sessions in December 2006 and January 2007) PowerPoint Presentation (PPT file) PowerPoint Presentation (PDF file) Help and Troubleshooting

338

Intermetallic Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

339

Characteristics of Enzyme-Based Hydrogen Fuel Cells Using an Oxygen-Tolerant Hydrogenase as the Anodic Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a fuel cell adaptable for variable fuel and oxidant supply, three limiting conditions were examined: (1) the anode and cathode separated by a Nafion membrane and 100% H2 and 100% O2 fed to the separate compartments, (2) a membrane-free mixed feed cell with a fuel-rich (96% H2) hydrogen/oxygen mixture, and (3) a membrane-free mixed feed cell with a fuel-weak (4% H2) hydrogen/air mixture. ... Enzymes permit diversification of fuels; conventional fuel cells are currently restricted to hydrogen or methanol, whereas enzymes can use biological fuels such as glucose or fructose. ... Thus, the second active anode jump-starts the first, inactivated anode, analogous to recharging the flat battery of one car with the live battery of another. ...

Annemarie F. Wait; Alison Parkin; Gregory M. Morley; Luciano dos Santos; Fraser A. Armstrong

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

340

Using an 80% CF4+20% CO2 gas mixture to recover aged anode wires in proportional chambers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique to recover a gas proportional counter with an aged anode wire using a glow discharge in an 80%CF4+20%CO2 gas mixture, has been developed and tested. Studies of aging effects were carried out under sustained irradiation by an intense 90Sr ?-source of straw proportional counters operated with a 60%Ar+30%CO2+10%CF4 gas mixture. Special attention was paid to the aging mechanism of the anode wires. Our experience showed that using a given gas mixture the swelling of the anode wires is a typical mode of aging that leads to degradation of the gas gain. The proposed method restores the gas gain and the signal amplitude in the damaged zone of the wire. SEM/XEM analysis confirmed that the tungsten oxide deposits have been removed.

G.E. Gavrilov; D.A. Aksenov; R. Conti; A.A. Fetisov; A.G. Krivchitch; D.A. Maysuzenko; N.Yu. Shvecova; V.M. Vakhtel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

31 - 25240 of 31,917 results. 31 - 25240 of 31,917 results. Download CX-005696: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alaska-Tribe-Native Village of Mekoryuk CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 03/01/2011 Location(s): Mekoryuk, Alaska Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005696-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-001227: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 114 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/16/2010 Location(s): Big Hill, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-001227-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-006423: Categorical Exclusion Determination North Carolina-City-High Point CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1

342

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

20, 2010 20, 2010 CX-001669: Categorical Exclusion Determination Install Fence Around Bryan Mound K-9 Training Area CX(s) Applied: B1.11 Date: 04/20/2010 Location(s): Freeport, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office April 7, 2010 CX-001518: Categorical Exclusion Determination Re-seal Polyurethane Overcoat on BH Substation Relay Building 814 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/07/2010 Location(s): Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office March 16, 2010 CX-001227: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 114 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/16/2010 Location(s): Big Hill, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office March 3, 2010 CX-001004: Categorical Exclusion Determination

343

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.3 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

February 22, 2011 February 22, 2011 CX-005371: Categorical Exclusion Determination West Hackberry Off-Site Services Contract, 2011-2013 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 02/22/2011 Location(s): West Hackberry, Texas Office(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office February 22, 2011 CX-005370: Categorical Exclusion Determination Clean and Inspect West Hackberry (WHT-14) Brine Tank CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 02/22/2011 Location(s): West Hackberry, Louisiana Office(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office February 22, 2011 CX-005369: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 103 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 02/22/2011 Location(s): Texas Office(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office February 10, 2011 CX-005510: Categorical Exclusion Determination

344

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

10, 2012 10, 2012 CX-008350: Categorical Exclusion Determination Re-work Bryan Mound 30" Crude Oil Pipeline Mainline Valves CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/10/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office April 10, 2012 CX-008349: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replacement Anode Bed on West Hackberry 42-inch Crude Oil Pipeline at Gum Cove Road CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/10/2012 Location(s): Louisiana Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office March 28, 2012 CX-008351: Categorical Exclusion Determination Transport and Perform TD&I on Big Hill TX-29 Transformer CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/28/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office February 23, 2012 CX-007816: Categorical Exclusion Determination

345

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B3.6 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

December 8, 2010 December 8, 2010 CX-004664: Categorical Exclusion Determination On-Site Controlled Environment Agriculture Production of Biomass and Biofuels CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/08/2010 Location(s): Tucson, Arizona Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory December 7, 2010 CX-004820: Categorical Exclusion Determination Uranium Oxide Synthesis CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/07/2010 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Savannah River Operations Office December 7, 2010 CX-004819: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gas-Filled Radiation Detector with Carbon Nanotube Anode CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/07/2010 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Savannah River Operations Office December 7, 2010 CX-004818: Categorical Exclusion Determination

346

Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL] [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To improve the performance and durability of a dead-ended anode (DEA) fuel cell, it is important to understand and characterize the degradation associated with the DEA operation. To this end, the multiple degradation phenomena in DEA operation were investigated via systematic experiments. Three lifetime degradation tests were conducted with different cell temperatures and cathode relative humidities, during which the temporal evolutions of cell voltage and high frequency resistance (HFR) were recorded. When the cathode supply was fully humidified and the cell temperature was mild, the cathode carbon corrosion was the predominant degradation observed from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) of postmortem samples. The catalyst layer and membrane thickness were measured at multiple locations across the cell active area in order to map the degradation patterns. These observations confirm a strong correlation between the cathode carbon corrosion and the anode fuel starvation occurring near the cell outlet. When the cathode supply RH reduced to 50%, membrane pin-hole failures terminated the degradation test. Postmortem analysis showed membrane cracks and delamination in the inlet region where membrane water content was the lowest.

Toyoaki Matsuura; Jixin Chen; Jason B. Siegel; Anna G. Stefanopoulou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Hard Carbon Wrapped in Graphene Networks as Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hard carbon enveloped with graphene networks was fabricated by a facile and scalable method. In the constructed architecture, hard carbon offers large lithium storage and flexible graphene layers can provide a highly conductive matrix for enabling good contact between particles and facilitate the diffusion and transport of electrons and ions. As a consequence, the hybrid anode exhibits enhanced reversible capacity (500 mAh g?1 at current density of 20 mA g?1), rate capability (400 mAh g?1 at 0.2 C, 290 mAh g?1 at 1 C, 250 mAh g?1 at 2 C, and 200 mAh g?1 at 5 C, 1C = 400 mA g?1) and cycle performance. We believe that the outstanding synergetic effect between the graphene networks and the hard carbon structures induces the superior lithium storage performance of the overall electrode by maximally utilizing the electrochemically active graphene and hard carbon particles. As far as we know, the hard carbon/graphene hybrids were firstly fabricated as anode in lithium-ion batteries.

Xiang Zhang; Changling Fan; Lingfang Li; Weihua Zhang; Wei Zeng; Xing He; Shaochang Han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

An Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Based on a Graphene Anode and a Lithium Iron Phosphate Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Based on a Graphene Anode and a Lithium Iron Phosphate Cathode ... To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development. ... A full Li-ion battery (Figure 4a) is obtained by coupling the Cu-supported graphene nanoflake anode with a lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4, that is, a cathode commonly used in commercial batteries. ...

Jusef Hassoun; Francesco Bonaccorso; Marco Agostini; Marco Angelucci; Maria Grazia Betti; Roberto Cingolani; Mauro Gemmi; Carlo Mariani; Stefania Panero; Vittorio Pellegrini; Bruno Scrosati

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

New-Concept CO-Tolerant Anode Catalysts Using a Rh Porphyrin-Deposited PtRu/C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We tried to counteract this problem using a CO oxidation electrocatalyst. ... In the development of a stationary proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), CO in reformed gas remains a severe problem because it dramatically poisons the Pt anodes of PEMFC even at very low concentrations of less than 100 ppm. ... In the CO tolerance of conventional PtRu catalysts, this reaction has a less significant role than electronic effects of Ru on Pt.(39) Electrocatalysts that can oxidize CO at low potentials would be useful for the development of CO-tolerant anode catalysts for reformate gas. ...

Shin-ichi Yamazaki; Masaru Yao; Zyun Siroma; Tsutomu Ioroi; Kazuaki Yasuda

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

353

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery ... Yu, A.; Park, H. W.; Davies, A.; Higgins, D.; Chen, Z.; Xaio, X.Free-Standing Layer-by-Layer Hybrid Thin Film of Graphene-MnO2 Nanotube as Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries J. Phys. ...

Fathy M Hassan; Abdel Rahman Elsayed; Victor Chabot; Rasim Batmaz; Xingcheng Xiao; Zhongwei Chen

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability ... Ge Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries ...

Jingshan Luo; Jilei Liu; Zhiyuan Zeng; Chi Fan Ng; Lingjie Ma; Hua Zhang; Jianyi Lin; Zexiang Shen; Hong Jin Fan

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

355

Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoAnode for Li-ion Batteries SRNL-L9100-2009-00153p1.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries at a glance  patent pending  increase energy density  longer cyclic life  replaces graphite anodes  simple and lower cost manufacturing Current carbon-based anodes are fabricated through a series of processes of mixing carbon, binder and conductive additives in organic solution, pasting the slurry on current collector and baking to remove solvent. It involves intensive labor, fire safety and environment emission control resulting in high cost. Background Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy, has developed new anodes for lithium-ion batteries that are reported to increase the energy density four-fold. It is

356

Journal of Applied Ecology 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Applied Ecology 2004 41, 922­933 © 2004 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing that might guide management decisions. We tested whether ideas from landscape ecology (local vs. landscape-scale, Sacramento River, succession, vegetation Journal of Applied Ecology (2004) 41, 922­933 Introduction More than

Holl, Karen

357

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C7, supple'ment au n07, Tome 40, ~ u i l l e t1979, page C7-443 EFFECTS OF NEGATIVE AIR CORONAS ON PLANE ANODE FOILS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF NEGATIVE AIR CORONAS ON PLANE ANODE FOILS A. Goldman and R.S. sigrnondX. Ecole SupQrieure d, negative low current point-to-plane coronas in atmosphe- ric density air with A1 or Au foil anodes gas reactions in coronas. - Preliminary studies at LPD and ELIOM showed that A1 foil anodes

Boyer, Edmond

358

Nano-sized Li-Fe composite oxide prepared by a self-catalytic reverse atom transfer radical polymerization approach as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel Self-catalytic Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (RATRP) approach that can provide the radical initiator and the catalyst by the system itself is used to synthesize a nano-sized Li-Fe composite oxide powder in large scale. Its crystalline structure and morphology have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that the composite is composed of nano-sized LiFeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Its electrochemical properties are evaluated by charge/discharge measurements. The results show that the Li-Fe composite oxide is an excellent anode material for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance (1249 mAh g{sup -1} at 100th cycle) and outstanding rate capability (967 mAh g{sup -1} at 5 C). Such a self-catalytic RATRP approach provides a way to synthesize nano-sized iron oxide-based anode materials industrially with preferable electrochemical performance and can also be applied in other polymer-related area.

Yue, G.Q.; Liu, C.; Wang, D.Z. [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversions, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversions, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Y.; Yuan, Q.F.; Xu, R.; Zhao, F.G. [Amperex Technology Ltd, Guanggong Dongguan 523080 (China)] [Amperex Technology Ltd, Guanggong Dongguan 523080 (China); Chen, C.H., E-mail: cchchen@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversions, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Conversion of Hydroperoxoantimonate Coated Graphenes to Sb2S3@Graphene for a Superior Lithium Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of Hydroperoxoantimonate Coated Graphenes to Sb2S3@Graphene for a Superior Lithium Battery Anode ... We describe a method for conformal coating of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by stibnite nanocrystallites. ... antimony sulfide; stibnite; reduced graphene oxide; lithium battery; sulfurization ...

Petr V. Prikhodchenko; Jenny Gun; Sergey Sladkevich; Alexey A. Mikhaylov; Ovadia Lev; Yee Yan Tay; Sudip K. Batabyal; Denis Y. W. Yu

2012-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

360

Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry voltammetry, Zinc, Lab-on-a-chip sensor, Dopamine, Evaporated Bi film electrode DOI: 10.1002/elan.201300349 1 negative potential window. Most importantly, it is much less toxic than mercury and is environmentally

Papautsky, Ian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

In situ redox cycle of a nickelYSZ fuel cell anode in an environmental transmission electron microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anode. The results reveal that the transfer transmission electron microscopy (ETEM); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Reduction; Oxidation; Density functional theory (DFT) 1. Introduction Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is a promising energy conversion

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

362

In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental Q. Jeangros1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental TEM Q, Denmark Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of a large, high fuel utilization or a shut down without protection gas. The important expansion during oxidation

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

363

Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

364

Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation and Design of H2S Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel cell and it normally operates in the range of 850 to 1000 C. Coal syngas has been considered for use in SOFC systems to produce electric power, due to its high temperature and high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. However, coal syngas also has contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Among these contaminants, H{sub 2}S is detrimental to electrode material in SOFC. Commonly used anode material in SOFC system is nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ). The presence of H{sub 2}S in the hydrogen stream will damage the Ni anode and hinder the performance of SOFC. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of anode (Ni-YSZ) deterioration by H{sub 2}S. The study used computation methods such as quantum chemistry calculations and molecular dynamics to predict the model for anode destruction by H{sub 2}S. This was done using binding energies to predict the thermodynamics and Raman spectroscopy to predict molecular vibrations and surface interactions. On the experimental side, a test stand has been built with the ability to analyze button cells at high temperature under syngas conditions.

Gerardine G. Botte; Damilola Daramola; Madhivanan Muthuvel

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Factors Affecting Limiting Current in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells or Debunking the Myth of Anode Diffusion Polarization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limiting current densities for solid oxide fuel cells were measured using both button cells and a flow-through cell. The cell anodes were supplied mixtures of humidified hydrogen and various inert gasses. It was demonstrated that the true limiting current in flow-through cells is reached when either: the hydrogen is nearly or completely depleted at the anode-electrolyte interface near the outlet; or when the concentration of steam at that interface becomes high enough to interfere with adsorption or transport of the remaining hydrogen near the triple-phase boundaries. Choice of inert gas had no effect on limiting currents in the flow-through tests, indicating that diffusion within the porous anode had no significant effect on cell performance at high currents. In the button cells, the apparent limiting currents were significantly changed by the choice of inert gas, indicating that they were determined by diffusion through the bulk gas within the support tube. It was concluded that the apparent limiting currents measured in button cells are influenced more by parameters of the experimental setup, such as the proximity of the fuel tube outlet, than by the physical properties of the anode.

Chick, Lawrence A.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Simner, Steven P.; Kirby, Brent W.; Powell, Michael R.; Canfield, Nathan L.

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

366

The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence devices q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure including a trans- parent anode, an organic active layer, and a metallic cathode. It has recently zinc oxide films have been actively investigated as alternate materials to ITO because zinc oxide consisted of Al as a cathode, Al2O3 as an electro transport layer, Alq3 as a luminously layer, TPD as a hole

Boo, Jin-Hyo

367

Enhanced lithium storage performance in three-dimensional porous SnO2-Fe2O3 composite anode films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As one of the most promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), SnO2 attracts wide research attention. The practical application of SnO2 anodes, however, is mainly hampered by huge volume variation during cycling and large initial irreversible capacity. In this paper, three-dimensional porous SnO2-Fe2O3 composite films have been fabricated using the electrostatic spray deposition technique. As an anode for LIBs, the hierarchical porous SnO2-Fe2O3 film possesses a high reversible capacity (1034.1 mAh g-1) and a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 82.9% at a current density of 0.2 A g-1. At the same time, it shows good capacity retention with a capacity of 1025.6 mAh g-1 after 240 cycles and excellent rate performance. The enhanced lithium storage performance should be attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO2 and Fe2O3, as well as the three-dimensional hierarchical porous structure. The results demonstrate that such a three-dimensional porous composite anode shows great potential for application in high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

Tianzhi Yuan; Yinzhu Jiang; Yong Li; Dan Zhang; Mi Yan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

CuGeO3 nanowires covered with graphene as anode materials of lithium ion batteries with enhanced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CuGeO3 nanowires covered with graphene as anode materials of lithium ion batteries with enhanced one-step route was developed to synthesize crystalline CuGeO3 nanowire/graphene composites (CGCs). Crystalline CuGeO3 nanowires were tightly covered and anchored by graphene sheets, forming a layered structure

Lin, Zhiqun

369

Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis cell operation using two different wastewaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) differ from those in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) due to the intrusion), as well as water desalination (Cao et al., 2009). The production of hydrogen from non-fermentable sub

370

Influence of heat-treatment on lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ? Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ? Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.

Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly increase the methanol-crossover rate, producing an unfavorable * Corresponding author. DepartmentEffect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a

Zhao, Tianshou

372

Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light-emitting Diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ABSTRACT Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO that MTDATA matches better with AZO than CuPc, which served as hole injection layer. Keywords: Aluminum doped

373

Glass-capillary collimator for distance compensation and partial monochromatization at rotating-anode X-ray generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A straight glass capillary is used for distance compensation at the spatially inaccessible direct-drive side of rotating-anode X-ray generators. Construction and alignment are discussed and its suitability is demonstrated by a precession photograph of hen egg lysozyme.

Müller, J.J.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

Basoli, Francesco [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Photosensor Characterization for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: Silicon Photomultiplier versus Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photomultiplier tube technology has been the photodetector of choice for the technique of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes since its birth more than 50 years ago. Recently, new types of photosensors are being contemplated for the next generation Cherenkov Telescope Array. It is envisioned that the array will be partly composed of telescopes using a Schwarzschild-Couder two mirror design never built before which has significantly improved optics. The camera of this novel optical design has a small plate scale which enables the use of compact photosensors. We present an extensive and detailed study of the two most promising devices being considered for this telescope design: the silicon photomultiplier and the multi-anode photomultiplier tube. We evaluated their most critical performance characteristics for imaging gamma-ray showers, and we present our results in a cohesive manner to clearly evaluate the advantages and disadvantages that both types of device have to offer in the context of GeV-TeV gamma...

Bouvier, Aurelien; Johnson, Caitlin; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Williams, David; Otte, Nepomuk; Strausbaugh, Robert; Hidaka, Naoya; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hinton, Jim; White, Richard; Errando, Manel; Mukherjee, Reshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films prepared by metal catalytic etching of silicon wafers and pyrolyzing of carbon aerogel were used for lithium-ion battery anodes. The films exhibited an excellent first discharge capacity of 3344 ? mAh ? g ? 1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 84% at a rate of 150 ? mA ? g ? 1 between 2 and 0.02 V and a significantly enhanced cycling performance i.e. a reversible capacity of 1326 ? mAh ? g ? 1 was retained after 40 cycles. These improvements were attributed to the uniform and continuous carbon coatings which increased electronic contact and conduction and buffered large volume changes during lithium ion insertion/extraction.

Rui Huang; Xing Fan; Wanci Shen; Jing Zhu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Anodic oxygen-transfer electrocatalysis at iron-doped lead dioxide electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research illustrated in this thesis was performed under the guidance of Professor Dennis C. Johnson beginning in March 1987. Chapter 2 concentrates on the development and electrocatalytic properties of iron-doped {beta}-PbO{sub 2} films on noble-metal substrates. Chapter 3 focuses attention on the preparation and characterization of iron-doped {beta}-PbO{sub 2} films on titanium substrates (Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti). Chapter 4 discusses anodic evolution of ozone at Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes. Chapter 5 describes electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone (BQ) at Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes. In addition, the Appendix includes another published paper which is a detailed study of {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} films deposited on various types of stainless steel substrates.

Feng, Jianren

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Production of energetic neutral particles and low energy electrons from four anode rods ion source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The factors affecting the energetic neutral current, the low energy electron current, and the positive ion current emerging from a four-anode-rods ion source have been studied using argon gas. The neutral and electron current were measured using a simple, new technique. It was found that the energetic neutral current and the electron current depend on the positive ion current and the gas pressure. The ratio of the neutral and electron current to the positive ion current increases by increasing the gas pressure. Also it was found that at a pressure equal to 9 × 10{sup ?4} mmHg, the ratio of the neutral to the positive ion current reaches 2.34 while the ratio of the electron current to the positive ion current reaches 1.7.

Mostafa, O. A.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority P.N.13759, Inchas, Cairo (Egypt)] [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority P.N.13759, Inchas, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Applied Sedimentology | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sedimentology Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Applied Sedimentology Author R.C. Salley Published Academic Press, 2000 DOI Not Provided...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

temperature heat pumps applied to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very high- temperature heat pumps applied to energy efficiency in industry Application June 21th 2012 Energy efficiency : A contribution to environmental protection Kyoto Copenhage Emission, plastics Partnership : EDF R&D Bil

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

382

IIT SCHOOL OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT IIT SCHOOL OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY PREPARING SKILLED INDIVIDUALS, INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES, SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT, SUSTAINABILITY AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY. #12;BE ONE to assess, implement, and utilize current technologies, and to learn how to manage industrial operations

Heller, Barbara

383

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anode-supported cells comprising Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) YSZ electrolyte, and composite cathodes containing a mixture of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub (3-{delta})} (LSM) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub (3-{lambda})} (LSGM) were fabricated. The relative proportions of LSGM and LSM were varied between 30 wt.% LSGM + 70 wt.% LSM and 70 wt.% LSGM + 30 wt.% LSM, while the firing temperature was varied between 1000 and 1200 C. The cathode interlayer composition had a profound effect on cathode performance at 800 C with overpotentials ranging between 60 and 425 mV at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibiting a minimum for 50 wt.% LSGM + 50 wt.% LSM. The cathodic overpotential decreased with increasing firing temperature of the composite interlayer in the range 1000 {le} T {le} 1150 C, and then increased dramatically for the interlayer fired at 1200 C. The cell with the optimized cathode interlayer of 50 wt.% LSM + 50 wt.% LSGM fired at 1150 C exhibited an area specific cell resistance of 0.18 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and a maximum power density of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Chemical analysis revealed that LSGM reacts with YSZ above 1000 C to form the pyrochlore phase, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The formation of the pyrochlore phase at the interface between the LSGM/LSM composite cathode and the YSZ electrolyte limits the firing time and temperature of the cathode interlayer.

Anil V. Virkar

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

384

Non-conductive TiO2 as the anode catalyst support for PEM water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The applicability of a non-conductive TiO2 as the support of the anodic catalyst for PEM water electrolysis was tested. Three TiO2 samples with different specific surface areas were modified by IrO2 using a modified version of the Adams fusion method. A constant weight ratio of IrO2/TiO2 of 0.6 was maintained in all cases. The size, specific surface area and morphology of IrO2 electrocatalyst crystallites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The electron conductivity of compressed catalyst powders was evaluated. Their electrochemical properties were studied on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) and finally in a laboratory electrolyser. Utilization of the TiO2 support resulted in a reduction in the size of the IrO2 crystallites. It was found that the lower the specific surface area of the supports, the higher was the electrochemical activity of the catalyst. This is most likely due to the formation of a conductive IrO2 film on the surface of non-conductive supports. For the supports with a higher surface area, the amount of IrO2 used was not sufficient to form an adequately compact film. This resulted in high electron resistance of such a catalyst. The RDE results were confirmed by a laboratory electrolysis test. Taken together with the excellent stability of TiO2 in an anodic environment, these results suggest that these materials are promising supports if the appropriate amount of iridium is deposited.

Petr Mazúr; Jakub Polonský; Martin Paidar; Karel Bouzek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

21 - 4630 of 28,905 results. 21 - 4630 of 28,905 results. Download CX-011002: Categorical Exclusion Determination ePATHS - Electric Phase Change Material Assisted Thermal Heating System CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09/12/2013 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-011002-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-011032: Categorical Exclusion Determination Novel Non-Carbonate Based Electrolytes for Silicon Anodes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/10/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-011032-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-011033: Categorical Exclusion Determination Novel Non-Carbonate Based Electrolytes for Silicon Anodes

386

Low electrical potential anode modified with Fe/ferric oxide and its application in marine benthic microbial fuel cell with higher voltage and power output  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Low voltage and power output limit the widespread application of marine benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFCs). To increase the cell power, a Fe/Ferric oxide modified anode fabricating by electrolytic deposition is reported here. The novel anode has a lower surface contact angle and higher wettability, which favors the adhesion of bacteria. It is firstly demonstrated that the electrical potential of the modified anode is about ?775 mV, much lower than that of the plain graphite (about ?450 mV). Open circuit potential of BMFC with the modified anode is about 1050 ± 50 mV, while the potential for the plain cells is only 700 ± 50 mV. In comparison with the plain graphite, the modified anode presents a 393-fold exchange current density and a higher kinetic activity. The output power reaches 7.4 × 10?2 mW cm?2, 17.4-fold higher than that of the plain graphite. A composite mechanism of both chemical and microbial enhancement of the modified anode is proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance. The modified anode has potential for high-power output cell and novel voltage-booster design to make the BMFC utilization feasibility.

Yubin Fu; Qian Xu; Xuerong Zai; Yuanyuan Liu; Zhikai Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

BNL | Accelerators for Applied Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accelerators for Applied Research Accelerators for Applied Research Brookhaven National Lab operates several accelerator facilities dedicated to applied research. These facilities directly address questions and concerns on a tremendous range of fields, including medical imaging, cancer therapy, computation, and space exploration. Leading scientists lend their expertise to these accelerators and offer crucial assistant to collaborating researchers, pushing the limits of science and technology. Interested in gaining access to these facilities for research? See the contact number listed for each facility. RHIC tunnel Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)-positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis-produces commercially unavailable radioisotopes for use by the

388

Development of a Novel Non-Consumable Anode for Electrowinning Primary Aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal goal of the project was to determine through theoretical considerations and from chemical and electrochemical laboratory studies the technical and economic feasibility for the substitution and retrofitting of an SOFC-type anode for today's carbon anode in a cell for electrowinning primary Al. However, solubility measurements showed that no value of cryolite ratio can exist where the solubilities of the solid electrolyte components (zirconia and especially yttria) would be small relative to the alumina solubility. Therefore, the utilization of the proposed SOFC-type anode cannot be realized for any cell involving a cryolite-base solvent. However, the project suggested that the SOFC-type anode scheme might be successful if the solvent/electrolyte for electrowinning Al could be changed to a fused sulfate melt. During the solubility experiments, electrochemical probes were developed, and a bath characterization was defined, to measure quantitatively the acid-base character of cryolite melts. The measured acid-base behavior was then used to correlate the alumina solubility in cryolite over a wide range of cryolite ratio at 1300K. A mathematical modeling of the alumina solubility as a function of basicity identified three solutes of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in cryolite-base melts: Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}OF{sub 6}, Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 4}, and Na{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 6} as acidic, neutral and basic solutes, respectively. For the first time, the stereochemistry (geometries) of these complex solutes was clarified. For the non-oxygen containing Al-F complex anions, Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6} and NaAlF{sub 4} were also considered as solutes, and some NaF (but no AlF{sub 3}) could remain in the melts. The previously suggested solute Na{sub 2}AlF{sub 5} was found to be unstable. The strong complexing in the cryolite/alumina system means that the bath is highly buffered so that a significant shift in basicity is not possible and therefore the alumina solubility does not vary greatly. The maximum solubility for alumina occurs at a cryolite ratio of about four. The method used for theoretical modeling of the alumina solubility in the NaF-AlF{sub 3} system involved the simultaneous solution of all possible equilibria in the bath coupled with element balances, similar to the software program SOLGASMiX. Such an analysis identified the dominant complex oxyfluoride solutes in the system and provided a quantitative evaluation for their stabilities. With these new values added to the thermodynamic data bank, the solubilities of other oxides in cryolite could be analyzed. Thus new papers by other authors on the solubilities of NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, FeO/FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and TiO{sub 2} in cryolite were interpreted differently than the original authors to identify the solute ions and provide quantitative data for their stabilities in these systems: Na{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}, Na{sub 4}NiF{sub 6}, Na{sub 2}FeF{sub 4}, Na{sub 4}FeF{sub 6}, FeF{sub 2}, Na{sub 4}TiO{sub 2}F{sub 4}, NaTIOF{sub 3}, and Na{sub 3}TiO{sub 3}F. Again the stereochemistry for these solutes was described by simple geometric (octahedral and tetrahedral) arrangements of large anions about a smaller cation. In the case of the solubilities for the oxides of iron and nickel, the data and explanations would be useful in understanding the dissolution of the proposed Fe,Ni oxide composite for the oxygen-evolving inert anode. The research on this project has demonstrated the correct method to analyze the complicated equilibria in such a complex solution, and exposed as inadequate (incorrect) the existing (log-log) method of treating only one or two equilibria in isolation. In response to a high priority from the 2002 Aluminum Roadmapping report, two sensors were proposed to measure the dissolved alumina content in cryolite. Because of the high cost of the necessary BN hardware, however, confirming experiments were not undertaken. Hole-in-tube type sensors were designed and demonstrated for the measurement of Mg activity/concentration in binary Al-Mg melts and for Li activ

Robert A. Rapp; Y. Zhang

2003-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

The case for applied astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Features The case for applied astronomy Martin Elvis Martin Elvis is an astronomer...Elvis looks at our golden age of astronomy and gives his personal view of what the future may hold for space and astronomy research, as that golden age hits......

Martin Elvis

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

apply skills & experience build skills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

senior apply skills & experience junior build skills sophomore research & execute freshman explore options1 2 3 4 s u p p o r t4-year career action plan parent about the center for career development Remind your student that it is never too soon or too late to seek an internship or summer job. build

Alvarez, Pedro J.

391

Applying Science to Everyday Life  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Applying Science to Everyday Life ... Basic science ideas and their application appear regularly in people’s daily lives. ... It should be the goal of chemistry educators and other teachers of science to provide their students (and others when given the opportunity) with an appreciation of some basic principles. ...

Norbert J. Pienta

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

392

Journal of Applied Ecology 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

herbivores provide goods and income to rural communities, have major impacts on land use and habitats-Bianchet REVIEW The management of wild large herbivores to meet economic, conservation and environmental is applied to their management across the globe. To be effective, however, management has to be science

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

393

APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING Manuscript Draft  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the heat pump from the grid during the two hours of electrical peak power · Design of a new heat exchangerAPPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING Manuscript Draft TITLE: Experimental assessment of a PCM to air heat This paper presents a heat exchanger prototype containing PCM material designed to provide a 1kW heating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Applied Sustainability Political Science 319  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Applied Sustainability Political Science 319 College of Charleston Spring 2013 Day/Time: TH 1 Address: fisherb@cofc.edu Office: 284 King Street, #206 (Office of Sustainability) Office Hours: by appt sustainability. It will focus on the development of semester-long sustainability projects, from conception

Young, Paul Thomas

395

In Situ X-ray Study of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation on Graphene as a Model Li-ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Situ X-ray Study of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation on Graphene as a Model Li-ion Battery Anode ... Li-ion batteries; solid electrolyte interphase; graphene; graphite; X-ray scattering ...

Sudeshna Chattopadhyay; Albert L. Lipson; Hunter J. Karmel; Jonathan D. Emery; Timothy T. Fister; Paul A. Fenter; Mark C. Hersam; Michael J. Bedzyk

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

396

Laterally confined graphene nanosheets and graphene/SnO2 composites as high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are desirable for applications that require high ... demonstrate the advantageous rate capability of few-layered graphene nanosheets, with widths of 100–200 nm,...

Zhiyong Wang; Hao Zhang; Nan Li; Zujin Shi; Zhennan Gu; Gaoping Cao

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Spin-coated silicon nanoparticle/graphene electrode as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Si has been considered as a promising anode material but its practical application has been severely hindered due to poor cyclability caused by the large volume change during charge/discharge. A new and effective...

Xiaosi Zhou; An-Min Cao; Li-Jun Wan; Yu-Guo Guo

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Significant impact of 2D graphene nanosheets on large volume change tin-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sn-based materials have attracted much attention as anodes in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to their low cost, high theoretical capacities, and high energy density. However, their practical applications are limited by the poor cyclability originating from the huge volume changes. Graphene nanosheets (GNSs), a novel two-dimensional carbon sheet with one atom thickness and one of the thinnest materials, significantly address the challenges of Sn-based anodes as excellent buffering materials, showing great research interests in LIBs. In this review, various nanocomposites of GNSs/Sn-based anodes are summarized in detail, including binary and ternary composites. The significant impact of 2D \\{GNSs\\} on the volume change of Sn-based anodes during cycling is discussed, along with with their preparation methods, properties and enhanced LIB performance.

Yang Zhao; Xifei Li; Bo Yan; Dejun Li; Stephen Lawes; Xueliang Sun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

A facile bubble-assisted synthesis of porous Zn ferrite hollow microsphere and their excellent performance as an anode in lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pure porous hollow Zn ferrite (ZnFe2O4) microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a facile bubble assisted method in the presence of ammonium acetate (NH4Ac) as an anode material in lithium ion battery. ...

Lingmin Yao; Xianhua Hou; Shejun Hu; Qiang Ru…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

In search of high performance anode materials for Mg batteries: computational studies of Mg in Ge, Si, and Sn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present ab initio studies of structures, energetics, and diffusion properties of Mg in Si, Ge, and Sn diamond structures to evaluate their potential as insertion type anode materials for Mg batteries. We show that Si could provide the highest specific capacities (3817 mAh g-1) and the lowest average insertion voltage (~0.15 eV vs. Mg) for Mg storage. Nevertheless, due to its significant percent lattice expansion (~216%) and slow Mg diffusion, Sn and Ge are more attractive; both anodes have lower lattice expansions (~120 % and ~178 %, respectively) and diffusion barriers (~0.50 and ~0.70 eV, respectively for single-Mg diffusion) than Si. We show that Mg-Mg interactions at different stages of charging can decrease significantly the diffusion barrier compared to the single atom diffusion, by up to 0.55 eV.

Malyi, Oleksandr I; Manzhos, Sergei; 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.114

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Task 1: Modeling Study of CO Effects on Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Anodes Task 2: Study of Ac Impedance as Membrane/Electrode Manufacturing Diagnostic Tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide poisoning of polymer electrolyte fuel cell anodes is a key problem to be overcome when operating a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) on reformed fuels. CO adsorbs preferentially on the precious metal surface leading to substantial performance losses. Some recent work has explored this problem, primarily using various Pt alloys in attempts to lower the degree of surface deactivation. In their studies of hydrogen oxidation on Pt and Pt alloy (Pt/Sn, Pt/Ru) rotating disk electrodes exposed to H{sub 2}/CO mixtures, Gasteiger et al. showed that a small hydrogen oxidation current is observed well before the onset of major CO oxidative stripping (ca. 0.4 V) on Pt/Ru. However, these workers concluded that such current observed at low anode overpotentials was too low to be of practical value. Nonetheless, MST-11 researchers and others have found experimentally that it is possible to run a PEFC, e.g., with a Pt/Ru anode, in the presence of CO levels in the range 10--100 ppm with little voltage loss. Such experimental results suggest that, in fact, PEFC operation at significant current densities under low anode overpotentials is possible in the presence of such levels of CO, even before resorting to air bleeding into the anode feed stream. The latter approach has been shown to be effective in elimination of Pt anode catalyst poisoning effects at CO levels of 20--50 ppm for cells operating at 80 C with low Pt catalyst loading. The effect of oxygen bleeding is basically to lower P{sub CO} down to extremely low levels in the anode plenum thanks to the catalytic (chemical) oxidation of CO by dioxygen at the anode catalyst. In this modeling work the authors do not include specific description of oxygen bleeding effects and concentrate on the behavior of the anode with feed streams of H{sub 2} or reformate containing low levels of CO. The anode loss is treated in this work as a hydrogen and carbon monoxide electrode kinetics problem, but includes the effects of dilution of the feedstream with significant fractions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and of mass transport losses in the gas diffusion backing. Not included in the anode model are ionic resistance and diffusion losses in the catalyst layer. They are looking to see if the overall pattern of polarization curves calculated based on such a purely kinetic model indeed mimics the central features of polarization curves observed for PEFCs operating on hydrogen with low levels of CO.

Thomas E. Springer

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies -Computer Technology Applied Computer Security and Forensics Technology -Bachelor of Technical and Applied Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies - Computer Technology Applied Computer Security (2.000) grade. #12;Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies - Computer Technology Applied Computer and Forensics Technology - Bachelor of Technical and Applied Studies RE-BTAS-TAS-CTAC Regional College Catalog

Khan, Javed I.

403

Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

Van Kleeck, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fentiman, A.W. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Retaining the 3D Framework of Zinc Sponge Anodes upon Deep Discharge in Zn–Air Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

zinc; zinc?air; batteries; morphology; energy; three-dimensional architecture ... Zinc-based batteries offer many appealing characteristics, including low-cost components, water-based electrolytes, and high energy density, yet their broader applicability has been limited by suboptimal performance of the Zn anode, which undergoes complex chemical and electrochemical reactions during operation. ... discharge depth-of-discharge specific capacityaverage dischargespecific energy Rcell,initialc Rcell,post?dischargec ...

Joseph F. Parker; Eric S. Nelson; Matthew D. Wattendorf; Christopher N. Chervin; Jeffrey W. Long; Debra R. Rolison

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ultra Strong Silicon-Coated Carbon Nanotube Nonwoven Fabric as a Multifunctional Lithium-Ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultra Strong Silicon-Coated Carbon Nanotube Nonwoven Fabric as a Multifunctional Lithium-Ion Battery Anode ... Developing technologies to produce flexible batteries with good performance in combination with high specific strength is strongly desired for weight- and power-sensitive applications such as unmanned or aerospace vehicles, high-performance ground vehicles, robotics, and smart textiles. ... Ferrocene dissolved in the fuel served as the source for iron catalyst particles. ...

Kara Evanoff; Jim Benson; Mark Schauer; Igor Kovalenko; David Lashmore; W. Jud Ready; Gleb Yushin

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction at the Ni/YSZ Anode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from First Principles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of ab initio simulations we here provide a comprehensive scenario for hydrogen oxidation reactions at the Ni/zirconia anode of solid oxide fuel cells. The simulations have also revealed that in the presence of water chemisorbed at the oxide surface, the active region for H oxidation actually extends beyond the metal/zirconia interface unraveling the role of water partial pressure in the decrease of the polarization resistance observed experimentally.

Clotilde S. Cucinotta; Marco Bernasconi; Michele Parrinello

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

407

The influence of composition of carbon steels on anodic- and cathodic reaction rate in CO{sub 2} corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out with pure iron and carbon steels in CO{sub 2} containing brine in the temperature range 25--70 C. The anodic dissolution of iron takes place by two different mechanisms. Low pH and low corrosion rates favored dissolution in the active state. This process is charge transfer controlled and has a Tafel slope of 30--50 mV/decade. The reaction rate at a given potential increased about proportionally with the hydroxyl concentration. A change in the dissolution mechanism took place at a pH about 4 to so called prepassive dissolution. This process is little influenced by pH, but affected by agitation of the solution. The steels followed the same trend. However, the anodic dissolution rate at a given potential and pH differed for the various steels to a factor of three compared with pure iron. The response of the current density to an instantaneous pH change was sluggish. This and other observations support the view that the anodic dissolution of iron is controlled by species adsorbed at the metal surface. Also the kinetics of the cathodic liberation of hydrogen is complex and varies significantly with the test conditions. The reaction rate is hardly 100% activation controlled under any conditions of practical interest and is seldom purely diffusion controlled. Tests with ten different carbon steels showed that both the anodic and cathodic reaction rates at a given potential exhibited large variations with composition and structure of the steels. The behavior of a steel at low pH gives little guidance for its performance at high pH. The parameters responsible for the individual behavior of the steels were not identified.

Videm, K. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Center for Materials Research

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Nevada applied ecology group publications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since January 1972, the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center (NAEIC), Information Research and Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has provided technical information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) relevant to the behavior of specific radionuclides, primarily plutonium and americium, in the environment, with special emphasis on pathways to man. This bibliography represents a summary of the biomedical and environmental studies conducted by the NAEG and its contractors. The bibliography focuses on research sponsored by the NAEG. Subject areas of the publications include cover studies of soil, vegetation, animals, microorganisms, resuspension, and meteorology. All references in this publication are stored in a computerized form that is readily available for searches upon request to NAEG and it contractors. 558 refs.

Chilton, B.D.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Cox, T.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Self-ordering anodized nanotubes: Enhancing the performance by surface plasmon for dye-sensitized solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, electrochemical anodization has been used to prepare uniform TiO{sub 2} nanotube array photoelectrode. The average internal diameter, tube length and wall thickness of the optimized morphology is {approx}180 nm, 14 {mu}m and 10 nm, respectively. It was found that the tube diameter increases with the anodization voltage. Diffraction data reveals that the nanotubes consist solely of anatase phase. Back illuminated geometry of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), with nanotubes grown at 60 V for 2 h, gave a cell performance of 4.5%. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are loaded with silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The Ag particle size is controlled resulting in solar conversion efficiency to increase by 22%. The DSSC based on TiO{sub 2} nanotube with Ag nanoparticles shows power conversion efficiency of 5.5%. Detailed characterization are performed, presented and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Enhanced solar conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by decorating TiO{sub 2} nanotube array with Ag nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform array of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes synthesized via electrochemical anodization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Back illuminated DSSC gave a cell performance of 4.5%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are loaded with Ag nanoparticles, which increased the power conversion efficiency to 5.5%.

Agarwala, S., E-mail: agarwala.shweta@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Ho, G.W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Three-dimensional microstructural changes in the Ni–YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode during operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microstructural evolution in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cermet anodes has been investigated using X-ray nanotomography along with differential absorption imaging. SOFC anode supports composed of Ni and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were subjected to extended operation and selected regions were imaged using a transmission X-ray microscope. X-ray nanotomography provides unique insight into microstructure changes of all three phases (Ni, YSZ, pore) in three spatial dimensions, and its relation to performance degradation. Statistically significant 3D microstructural changes were observed in the anode Ni phase over a range of operational times, including phase size growth and changes in connectivity, interfacial contact area and contiguous triple-phase boundary length. These observations support microstructural evolution correlated to SOFC performance. We find that Ni coarsening is driven by particle curvature as indicated by the dihedral angles between the Ni, YSZ and pore phases, and hypothesize that growth occurs primarily by means of diffusion and particle agglomeration constrained by a pinning mechanism related to the YSZ phase. The decrease in Ni phase size after extended periods of time may be the result of a second process connected to a mobility-induced decrease in the YSZ phase size or non-uniform curvature resulting in a net decrease in Ni phase size.

Nelson G. J.; Chu Y.; Grew, K.N.; Izzo Jr. J.R.; Lombardo, J.J.; Harris, W.M.; Faes, A.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Van herle, J.; Wang, S.; Virkar, A.V.; Chiu, W.K.S.

2012-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

412

Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Bi, [ORNL; Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

Droemer, Darryl W. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Bennett, Nichelle L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Laboratories

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

414

Performance of Ni/ScSZ cermet anode modified by coating with Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} for a SOFC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Ni/scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) cermet anode was modified by coating with nano-sized gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC, Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2}) within the pores of the anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed in the anode characterizations. Open circuit voltages (OCVs) increased from 1.027 to 1.078 V, and the maximum power densities increased from 238 to 825 mW/cm{sup 2}, as the operating temperature of a SOFC with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode was increased from 700 to 850 deg. C in humidified hydrogen. The coating of nano-sized Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} particle within the pores of the porous Ni/ScSZ anode significantly improved the performance of anode supported cell. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) illustrated that the cell with Ni/ScSZ anode exhibited far greater impedances than the cell with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode. Consequently, 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode could be used as a novel anode material for a SOFC due to better electrochemical performance.

Huang Bo [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)]. E-mail: huangbo2k@hotmail.com; Ye, X.F. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, S.R. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Nie, H.W. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, R.Z. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wen, T.L. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

415

Master of Science in Applied Educational Psychology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Master of Science in Applied Educational Psychology Distance Education Program A 36-credit hour distance education Selected Courses in Applied Educational Psychology Courses offered via distance education for the Applied Educational Psychology program are taught by faculty with esteemed national

Tennessee, University of

416

Assistant Professor Position In Applied Social Psychology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assistant Professor Position In Applied Social Psychology Applied Social Psychology Program Department of Psychology Colorado State University Job Description and Qualifications The Department of Psychology at Colorado State University invites applications for one tenure- track position in Applied Social

417

Applying Quantum Principles to Psychology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed.

Jerome R Busemeyer; Zheng Wang; Andrei Khrennikov; Irina Basieva

2014-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

418

Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Apply Apply for Weatherization Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Google Bookmark Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Delicious Rank Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Digg Find More places to share Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on AddThis.com... Plans, Implementation, & Results Weatherization Assistance Program Weatherization Services

419

Characterization of Sodium Ion Electrochemical Reaction with Tin Anodes: Experiment and Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tin anodes show a rich structure and reaction chemistry which we have investigated in detail. Upon discharge five plateaus are observed corresponding to -Sn, an unidentified phase (Na/Sn = 0.6), an amorphous phase (Na/Sn = 1.2), a hexagonal R-3m Na5Sn2, and fully sodiated Na15Sn 4. With charging there are six plateaus, which are related to the formation of Na5Sn2 followed by the formation of amorphous phases and -Sn. Upon cycling the formation of metastable Na5Sn2 seems to be suppressed, leading to a single charge plateau at 0.2 V. Theoretical voltages calculated from existing crystal structures using DFT provide a good match with constant current measurements, however, the voltage is more negative compared to quasi-equilibrium measurements (GITT). Search for additional (meta)stable phases using cluster-expansion method predicts many phases lower in energy than the convex hull, including the R-3m Na5Sn2 phase characterized experimentally. The presence of multiple phases in varying lattices with very similar formation energy suggests why the reaction mechanism is non-reversible. Interpretation of M ssbauer spectroscopy data is not yet elucidated due to the very low recoil-free fraction of the materials. The electrode surface is terminated with a SEI layer rich in carbonates such as Na2CO3 and Na alkyl carbonates as evidenced by XPS. After a full charge at 2V, strong evidence for the formation of oxidized Sn4+ is obtained. Subjecting the electrode to a rest after a full charge at 2 V reveals that aging in the electrolyte reduces the oxidized Sn4+ into Sn2+ and Sn0, and concomitantly suppresses the electrolyte decomposition represented by an anomalous discharge plateau at 1.2 V. Thereby, the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte during discharge is caused by nanosized Sn particles covered by oxidized Sn4+ and not by pure metallic Sn.

Baggetto, Loic [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ganesh, Panchapakesan [ORNL] [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL] [ORNL; Jumas, Dr. Jean-Claude [Institut Charles Gerhardt, University of Montpellier II, FRANCE] [Institut Charles Gerhardt, University of Montpellier II, FRANCE; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on platinum electrode in alkaline medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms strong metal complexes and is often used to remove scale from heat-transfer equipment and to decontaminate equipment exposed to radioactive material. However, the resultant waste in the form of EDTA-metal complex is hard to treat due to the high stability of such complexes. The anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in alkaline medium on a smooth platinum electrode. Bulk electrolysis indicated that stable organic intermediates (formaldehyde and glyoxal) are formed during the oxidation of EDTA and that complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} can be achieved. The proposed pathway suggests that the acetate groups in EDTA are initially oxidized, generating formaldehyde and ethylenediamine. The rest potential of EDTA (0.066 to 0.164 V vs. Hg/HgO) was observed to be higher than for other organic species. In alkaline medium, very little EDTA oxidation was found to occur on bare platinum. Limiting-current behavior due to PtO formation was observed immediately positive of the rest potential. Tafel behavior (Tafel slope 120 mV/dec) was observed in the potential region positive of the cessation of the bulk of oxide film formation and negative of the onset of O{sub 2} evolution. The reaction order of EDTA was determined to be {approximately}0.5, and that of OH{sup {minus}} was close to zero. The reaction mechanism consistent with the experimental data involves Temkin-type adsorption and a first-electron-transfer rate-determining step.

Pakalapati, S.N.R.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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421

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZloque C7, suppZdment au n07, Tome 40, JuiZZet 1979, page C7-463 ANODE REGION OF HIGH CURRENT ARC DISCHARGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZloque C7, suppZdment au n07, Tome 40, JuiZZet 1979, page C7- 463 ANODE investigations of the anode near-electrode layer i n high current arc ( I "102- 1 0 ~ 8 )burning freely i n of near-anode plasma with cathode erosion ma- terial, which is inherent i n spot operation mode

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

Applied Materials | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Materials Materials Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Address 3050 Bowers Avenue Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95054 Sector Solar Stock Symbol AMAT Website http://www.appliedmaterials.co Coordinates 37.3775749°, -121.9794416° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.3775749,"lon":-121.9794416,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

423

Microstructure degradation of YSZ in Ni/YSZ anodes of SOFC operated in phosphine-containing fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of trace (ppm) phosphine with the nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode of commercial solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated and evaluated for both synthesis gas and hydrogen fuels in an effort to examine P–Y reactions. The Ni poisoning effects reported in literature were confirmed and degradation was examined by electrochemical methods and post-test microstructural and chemical analyses. The results indicate that P-induced degradation rates and mechanisms are fuel dependent and that degradation of cells operated in synthesis gas (syngas) with phosphine is more severe than that of cells operated in hydrogen with phosphine. As reported in published literature, a cell operated in syngas containing 10 ppm phosphine demonstrated significant microstructural degradation within the Ni phase, including formation of Ni–P phases concentrated on the outer layer of the anode and significant pitting corrosion in the Ni grains. In this research, a previously undetected YPO{sub 4} phase is observed at the YSZ/YSZ/Ni triple grain junctions located at the interface with the YSZ electrolyte. Tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) and cubic-YSZ (c-YSZ) domains with sizes of several tens of nanometers are also newly observed along the Ni/YSZ interface. These observations contrast with data obtained for a cell operated in dry hydrogen with phosphine, where no YPO{sub 4} phase is observed and the alternating t-YSZ and c-YSZ domains at the Ni/YSZ interface are smaller with typical sizes of 5–10 nm. The data imply that electrolyte attack by P is a potentially debilitating mode of degradation in SOFC anodes, and that the associated reaction mechanisms and rates are worthy of further examination.

Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Zondlod, John; Celik, Ismail; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

Jung, Mi, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung [Korea Printed Electronics Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Jeollabuk-do, 561-844 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Si-Hyung [School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we report the microstructural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H2 over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 5–10 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hacket, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Zueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Self-assembled porous MoO2/graphene microspheres towards high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Three dimensional (3D) porous self-assembled MoO2/graphene microspheres are successfully synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal process in a short reaction time followed by thermal annealing. Such rationally designed multifunctional hybrid nanostructure is constructed from interconnected MoO2 nanoparticles (3–5 nm), which is self-assembled into ordered nanoporous microspheres via strong electrostatic attraction between graphene sheets and MoO2 nanoparticles. The MoO2/graphene hybrid structure delivers a high reversible capacity with significantly enhanced cycling stability (?1300 mAh g?1 after 80 cycles at C/10 rate) and excellent rate capability (913 and 390 mAh g?1 at 2C and 5C rates, respectively), when used as an anode material. The microspheres are interconnected and well encapsulated by the flexible graphene sheets, which not only accommodates large volume change but also increases the electrical conductivity of the hybrid structure. Moreover, nanoporous voids present in the 3D framework facilitate effective electrolyte penetration and make a direct contact with the active MoO2 nanoparticles, thereby greatly enhancing lithium ion transport. The strategic combination of self-assembly, nanoporous voids, 3D network and intriguing properties of graphene sheets provides excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for Lithium ion battery applications.

Kowsalya Palanisamy; Yunok Kim; Hansu Kim; Ji Man Kim; Won-Sub Yoon

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Ultrafine tin oxide on reduced graphene oxide as high-performance anode for sodium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Na-ion Battery is attractive alternative to Li-ion battery due to the natural abundance of sodium resource. Searching for suitable anode materials is one of the critical issues for Na-ion battery due to the low Na-storage activity of carbon materials. In this work, we synthesized a nanohybrid anode consisting of ultrafine SnO2 anchored on few-layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by a facile hydrothermal route. The SnO2/rGO hybrid exhibits a high capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability. The hybrid can deliver a high charge capacity of 324 mAh gSnO2?1 at 50 mA g?1. At 1600 mA g?1 (2.4C), it can still yield a charge capacity of 200 mAh gSnO2?1. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g?1, the hybrid can retain a high charge capacity of 369 mAh gSnO2?1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ex situ transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the origin of the excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties of SnO2/rGO.

Yandong Zhang; Jian Xie; Shichao Zhang; Peiyi Zhu; Gaoshao Cao; Xinbing Zhao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we report the micro-structural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~ 5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~ 11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~ 51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H{sub 2} over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 5–10 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

430

Effects of ionic conductivities of zirconia electrolytes on polarization properties of platinum anodes in solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To find a clue for the design of high-performance electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), the polarization properties of Pt electrodes attached to zirconia electrolytes with various ionic conductivities were investigated at 800-1000[degree]C. The IR-free anodic polarization in hydrogen was greatly affected by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, and it obeyed the Tafel equation. The exchange current density increased in proportion to the square of the ionic conductivity for all electrolytes operated at 800-1000[degree]C, while the transfer coefficient (n[alpha][sub o] = 2) was independent of the temperature and of the conductivity of electrolytes. According to our analysis, the rate-determining step is not a simple electron transfer from oxide ions but a recombination step involving discharged oxygen atoms adsorbed on the Pt electrode/electrolyte interface; an increase in the rate of transport of oxide ions to the interface, for example, by using an electrolyte with higher-ionic conductivity, reduces the anodic overpotential greatly. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Manabu; Watanabe, Masahiro (Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan))

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

431

How to Apply for the ENERGY STAR®  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Join us to learn about applying for ENERGY STAR Certification in Portfolio Manager. Understand the value of the ENERGY STAR certification, see the step-by-step process of applying, and gain tips to...

432

Investigation of Efficiency in Applied Field MagnetoPlasmaDynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

my deepest gratitude. My wife Sivan, who supported me from over the ocean ever since my first day of the various power dissipation mechanisms in AF-MPDTs focused on the acceleration power and anode sheath power, and thus affects the scalability of the acceleration power component with current. It is also demonstrated

Choueiri, Edgar

433

Investigation of Efficiency in Applied Field MagnetoPlasmaDynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the ocean ever since my first day at Princeton and eventually joined me so we would become a true family. I of the various power dissipation mechanisms in AF-MPDTs with a focus on the acceleration and anode sheath power affects the scalability of the acceleration power component with current. It is demonstrated

Choueiri, Edgar

434

Investigation of Efficiency in Applied Field MagnetoPlasmaDynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the ocean ever since my first day at Princeton and eventually joined me so we would become a true family. I of the various power dissipation mechanisms in AF-MPDTs focused on the acceleration power and anode sheath power, and thus affects the scalability of the acceleration power component with current. It is demonstrated

Choueiri, Edgar

435

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies Computer Technology Applied Computer Security and Forensics Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies ­ Computer Technology Applied Computer Security-division credit hours #12;Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies ­ Computer Technology Applied Computer Security and Forensics Technology ­ Bachelor of Technical and Applied Studies [RE-BTAS-TAS-CTAC] Regional College Catalog

Sheridan, Scott

436

Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cell based on La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3--  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cell based-supported solid oxide fuel cells consisting of nickel-gadolinium doped ceria (NiO-CGO, 60:40 wt%) anode-CGO cathode 1. Introduction Single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFCs) have received many attentions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Master of Science in Applied Educational Psychology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Master of Science in Applied Educational Psychology Distance Education Program A 36-credit hour settings. Selected Courses in Applied Educational Psychology Courses offered via distance education for the Applied Educational Psychology program are taught by faculty with esteemed national and international

Tennessee, University of

438

SYLLABUS--GEOGRAPHY (GEOG)-455 APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYLLABUS--GEOGRAPHY (GEOG)-455 APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY Spring 2006 Time: T-R 12:30-1:45 p.m. (BOL B95-455-001-lec@uwm.edu Textbooks: Thompson-Perry, Applied Climatology: principles and practice, (1997, graduate students will prepare a 10 page (2500 word minimum) paper on a project using applied climatology

Saldin, Dilano

439

Department of Applied Physics Introductory Handbook  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Applied Physics Introductory Handbook Version 2009-05-29 #12;2 Phone: +46 (0) 8 5537 8102 www.aphys.kth.se Visiting address Roslagstullsbacken 21 Delivery address KTH Applied Physics AlbaNova University Center Roslagsvägen 30B 114 19 Stockholm Postal address KTH Applied Physics AlbaNova University

Haviland, David

440

ORIGINAL Open Access Immobilization of anode-attached microbes in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) may not be culturable using standard in vitro agar-plating techniques, making and directly isolated on an electrode. While colonies can be developed from single cells on an electrode-of-concept immobilization approach that allows exoelectrogenic activity of cells on an electrode based on applying a layer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The effect of applied electric field on pulsed radio frequency and pulsed direct current plasma jet array  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we compare the plasma plume propagation characteristics of a 3-channel pulsed RF plasma jet array and those of the same device operated by a pulsed dc source. For the pulsed-RF jet array, numerous long life time ions and metastables accumulated in the plasma channel make the plasma plume respond quickly to applied electric field. Its structure similar as 'plasma bullet' is an anode glow indeed. For the pulsed dc plasma jet array, the strong electric field in the vicinity of the tube is the reason for the growing plasma bullet in the launching period. The repulsive forces between the growing plasma bullets result in the divergence of the pulsed dc plasma jet array. Finally, the comparison of 309 nm and 777 nm emissions between these two jet arrays suggests the high chemical activity of pulsed RF plasma jet array.

Hu, J. T.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P. [National State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); Iza, F.; Kong, M. G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Multiphysics simulation to improve the understanding of Pressure Wave Propagation techniques applied to composite polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

principles involved by this technique. Vs(t) Ground HVDC GroundGround Dielectric Cathode Focused LASER Anode Indian ink Pressure wave LIPP method i(t) - Vs(t) Ground HVDC GroundGround Dielectric Cathode Focused LASER Anode Indian ink Pressure wave LIPP method i(t) Vs(t) Ground HVDC GroundGround Dielectric Cathode

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Radio frequency emission from high-pressure xenon arcs: A systematic experimental analysis of the underlying near-anode plasma instability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure Xe discharge lamps at DC operation can show unwanted strong RF (radio-frequency) emission to beyond 1 GHz, correlated to a sharp periodic lamp-voltage instability in the near-anode plasma with a pulse repetition rate {epsilon} of 1-10 MHz. The physical origin of the instability is unclear. Here, its existence and pulse rate have been measured as a function of arc current I = 0.2-1.2 A and anode temperature T{sub a} = 1700-3400 K independently, in experimental lamps with pure-tungsten electrodes and a Xe operating pressure around p = 10 MPa. Surprisingly, the instability is not affected by I or current density j but exists if T{sub a} is lower than a threshold value around 2800-2900 K. The pulse rate {epsilon} is simply a rising linear function of the inverse anode temperature 1/T{sub a}, with only a small I-dependent correction. The average anode heat load is slightly lower in the unstable regime and possibly depends on {epsilon}. The results allow a consistent re-interpretation of earlier and present experimental observations and should be both a valuable help in practical lamp engineering and a tight constraint for future theories of this effect.

Hechtfischer, Ulrich [Philips Lighting, GBU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, 52068 Aachen (Germany)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Dr. Evanston, IL 60208 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been the center of research activities with the goal of improving energy

Marks, Laurence D.

445

Three-dimensionally macroporous graphene-supported Fe3O4 composite as anode material for Li-ion batteries with long cycling life and ultrahigh rate capability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe3O4 is an attractive conversion reaction-based anode material with high theoretical capacity (928 mA h g?1...). However, the poor cycling and rate performance hinder its applications in Li-ion batteries. In thi...

Delong Ma; Shuang Yuan; Zhanyi Cao

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

[11] Cui L, Hu L, Choi JW, Cui Y. Light-weight free-standing carbon nanotube-silicon films for anodes of lithium ion batteries.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for anodes of lithium ion batteries. ACS Nano 2010;4:3671­8. [12] Krivchenko VA, Pilevsky AA, Rakhimov AT online 6 October 2011 A B S T R A C T Chemically modified graphenes (CMGs) are promising candidates 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Graphene has excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal

447

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz, Sorina Udroiu, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat, Michle Pijolat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz Single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC) are an alternative concept to traditional SOFC-gas-shift equilibrium. Introduction Fifteen years ago, Hibino (1) has shown the feasibility of a fuel cell consisting

Boyer, Edmond

448

Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

449

Electrolyte electroreflectance study of the effects of anodization and of chemomechanical polish on Hg1?x Cd x Te  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We havw shown that electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) can be used as a sensitive probe to study the effects of processing agents on the near surface bulk. Our results indicate that Br2/methanol may be damaging Hg?annealed materials to a depth of about 600 Angstroms depleting them in Cd and leaving their surfaces covered with a Te?rich layer. While it is possible to remove the damaged layer anodization?dissolution steps our results show that such a procedure must be terminated when the undamaged material has been reached. If it is continued the difference between the rates at which the Cd and Hg diffuse through the oxide would again deplete the interface in Cd.

A. Lastras?Martinez; U. Lee; J. Zehnder; P. M. Raccah

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Field Trial of impressed current, sacrificial anode, constant voltage and intermittent cathodic protection on a steel reinforced coastal bridge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Equipment has been designed and installed for a field trial being conducted on a coastal reinforced concrete bridge with a newly installed cathodic protection (CP) system. The purpose of the field trial is to determine the optimum form of intermittent CP for protecting coastal bridges. The forms of CP that were considered for the field trial are: (1) impressed current CP as the control; (2) currentinterrupted ICCP; (3) corrosion rate monitoring device controlled ICCP; (4) constant voltage CP; and (5) sacrificial anode CP. Once the test is initiated, the performance of these four forms of CP on a coastal RC bridge and their effectiveness in providing protection to reinforcing steel will be is compared with that achieved by present Oregon Department of Transportation ICCP practices. Details are presented on the set up of the experiment and the logic used to control CP intermittently. The field trial is scheduled to be started early 2007.

Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Williamson, K.M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A. (Intercorr International Inc.); Cryer, C.B. (ODOT); Tran, H. (ODOT)

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Gram-Scale Synthesis of Graphene-Mesoporous SnO2 Composite as Anode for Lithium-ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The gram-scale synthesis of graphene based mesoporous SnO2 composite (G-M-SnO2) has been successfully realized based on kirkendall effect. When used as anode for lithium ion batteries, it delivers a high reversible capacity of 1354 mAhg?1 after 50 cycles at 100 mAg?1 and excellent rate capability of 664 mAhg?1 at 2 Ag?1. The outstanding lithium storage performance mainly results from the synergistic effect of the ultrasmall SnO2 and conductive graphene nanoparticles, which not only enhanced the conductivity of the whole electrode but also provide buffer matrix for the expansion of SnO2 nanoparticles during charge-discharge process. Furthermore, the ultra-small size of SnO2 shortens the diffusion length of Li+/e? in SnO2.

Xiaowu Liu; Xiongwu Zhong; Zhenzhong Yang; Fusen Pan; Lin Gu; Yan Yu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Life Cycle Environmental Impact of High-Capacity Lithium Ion Battery with Silicon Nanowires Anode for Electric Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The grid electricity used in this analysis is average U.S. electricity mix with 89.56% of nonrenewable energies. ... The results demonstrate that the major opportunity for reducing the life cycle impacts of the battery pack is to use clean energy supply for battery operation, such as solar and wind electricity, which could reduce these environmental impacts significantly. ... All the above analyses including the life cycle inventory analysis, impact analysis, uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis together confirm that the LIB pack using SiNW anode from metal-assisted chemical etching could have environmental impacts comparable with those of conventional battery pack, while significantly increasing the battery energy storage and extending the driving range of EVs in the future. ...

Bingbing Li; Xianfeng Gao; Jianyang Li; Chris Yuan

2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

Applied Math and Statistics: Applied Math Minor Curriculum Chart: 2013-2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applied Math and Statistics: Applied Math Minor Curriculum Chart: 2013-2014 http://matlab-training.soe.ucsc.edu/ PROBABILITY THEORY OR AMS 131 Introduction to Probability Theory CE 107 Mathematical Methods of Systems by the department. #12;Applied Math and Statistics: Applied Math Minor Curriculum Chart: 2013-2014 http

Stuart, Josh

454

Postdoctoral Position in Applied Mathematics Seminar for Applied Mathematics of ETH Zurich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Postdoctoral Position in Applied Mathematics Seminar for Applied Mathematics of ETH Z¨urich The Seminar for Applied Mathematics (SAM) of ETH Z¨urich offers a post- doctoral position in applied a competitive salary according to the standards of ETH Z¨urich as well as the opportunity to work

Feichtinger, Hans Georg

455

PhD Position in Applied Mathematics Seminar for Applied Mathematics of ETH Zurich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PhD Position in Applied Mathematics Seminar for Applied Mathematics of ETH Z¨urich The Seminar for Applied Mathematics (SAM) of ETH Z¨urich offers a PhD position in applied mathematics. The main research teaching load. The successful candidate will receive a competitive salary according to the standards of ETH

Feichtinger, Hans Georg

456

An air-breathing microfluidic formic acid fuel cell with a porous planar anode: experimental and numerical investigations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports the fabrication, characterization and numerical simulation of an air-breathing membraneless laminar flow-based fuel cell with carbon-fiber-based paper as an anode. The fuel cell uses 1 M formic acid as the fuel. Parameters from experimental results were used to establish a three-dimensional numerical model with COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation predicts the mass transport and electrochemical reactions of the tested fuel cell using the same geometry and operating conditions. Simulation results predict that the oxygen concentration over an air-breathing cathode is almost constant for different flow rates of the fuel and electrolyte. In contrast, the growth of a depletion boundary layer of the fuel over the anode can be the major reason for low current density and low fuel utilization. At a low flow rate of 10 µl min?1, simulation results show a severe fuel diffusion to the cathode side, which is the main reason for the degradation of the open-circuit potential from 0.78 V at 500 µl min?1 to 0.58 V at 10 µl min?1 as observed in experiments. Decreasing the total flow rate 50 times from 500 µl min?1 to 10 µl min?1 only reduces the maximum power density approximately two times from 7.9 to 3.9 mW cm?2, while fuel utilization increases from 1.03% to 38.9% indicating a higher fuel utilization at low flow rates. Numerical simulation can be used for further optimization, to find a compromise between power density and fuel utilization.

Seyed Ali Mousavi Shaegh; Nam-Trung Nguyen; Siew Hwa Chan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Characterization of plasma ion source utilizing anode spot with positively biased electrode for stable and high-current ion beam extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operating conditions of a rf plasma ion source utilizing a positively biased electrode have been investigated to develop a stably operating, high-current ion source. Ion beam characteristics such as currents and energies are measured and compared with bias currents by varying the bias voltages on the electrode immersed in the ambient rf plasma. Current-voltage curves of the bias electrode and photographs confirm that a small and dense plasma, so-called anode spot, is formed near an extraction aperture and plays a key role to enhance the performance of the plasma ion source. The ion beam currents from the anode spot are observed to be maximized at the optimum bias voltage near the knee of the characteristic current-voltage curve of the anode spot. Increased potential barrier to obstruct beam extraction is the reason for the reduction of the ion beam current in spite of the increased bias current indicating the density of the anode spot. The optimum bias voltage is measured to be lower at higher operating pressure, which is favorable for stable operation without severe sputtering damage on the electrode. The ion beam current can be further enhanced by increasing the power for the ambient plasma without increasing the bias voltage. In the same manner, noble gases with higher atomic number as a feedstock gas are preferable for extracting higher beam current more stably. Therefore, performance of the plasma ion source with a positively biased electrode can be enhanced by controlling the operating conditions of the anode spot in various manners.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Applied Intellectual Capital AIC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip: 94501-1010 Product: Applied Intellectual Capital (AIC) was founded in 1999 to fund technology development in clean energy, clean water and sustainable resources. References:...

459

Corrections APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES, BIOPHYSICS AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrections APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES, BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction gene, MyHC-IIb, which is thought under most circumstances not to be expressed. The physiological

Spudich, James A.

460

Applied Films Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name: Applied Films Corporation Place: Longmont, Colorado Zip: 80504 Sector: Services, Solar Product: Provider of thin film deposition equipment and services, particularly to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies Fraud Examination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies ­ Fraud Examination ­ Bachelor of Technical and Applied of Fraud Examination 3 C COMT 36318 Survey of Information Security, Internet Fraud and Computer Forensics to Fraud Examination 3 C JUS 22100 Basic Interviewing 3 C Major Requirement 3 C See note 2 on page 2

Sheridan, Scott

462

GRANT APPLICATION I am applying for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GRANT APPLICATION I am applying for a: Faculty Research Travel Grant ($2,000 Maximum) The funds University Guidelines. Partnership Grant ($2,000 Maximum) The funds must be applied to costs directly related to travel (airfare, accommodation, and meals). This grant is not intended for general costs

463

UNL Core for Applied Genomics and Ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNL Core for Applied Genomics and Ecology Bioinformatics training Roche 454 GS-FLX Registration, Microbiomes, Variant Analysis, Whole Genomes, Transcriptomes Data Analysis and Statistics CAGE database and employer. University of Nebraska-Lincoln*Core for Applied Genomics and Ecology* 323 Filley Hall *Lincoln

Farritor, Shane

464

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

01 - 7310 of 26,764 results. 01 - 7310 of 26,764 results. Download CX-008348: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replace Big Hill Raw Water Intake System Oil Water Separator Tank with Concrete Tank CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/16/2012 Location(s): Louisiana Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-008348-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-008349: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replacement Anode Bed on West Hackberry 42-inch Crude Oil Pipeline at Gum Cove Road CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/10/2012 Location(s): Louisiana Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-008349-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-008350: Categorical Exclusion Determination Re-work Bryan Mound 30" Crude Oil Pipeline Mainline Valves

465

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

81 - 7490 of 28,905 results. 81 - 7490 of 28,905 results. Download CX-006995: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/22/2011 Location(s): Canada and Singapore, Other Location, Indiana, Michigan, Nevada, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006995-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-006909: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Cost Manufacturing of High-Capacity Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/29/2011 Location(s): California, Michigan, North Carolina, Tennesee Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006909-categorical-exclusion-determination

466

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

21 - 8230 of 26,764 results. 21 - 8230 of 26,764 results. Download CX-001227: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 114 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/16/2010 Location(s): Big Hill, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-001227-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-001002: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replace Bryan Mound Oil/Water Separators CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/01/2010 Location(s): Bryan Mound, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-001002-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-001003: Categorical Exclusion Determination West Hackberry Tank (WHT)-1 and WHT-10 Liner Removal/Reline

467

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

81 - 5590 of 8,172 results. 81 - 5590 of 8,172 results. Download CX-006753: Categorical Exclusion Determination Coupled High Capacity Silicon Anode and Novel Cathode Cells for Automotive Applications CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09/13/2011 Location(s): Maplewood, Minnesota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006753-categorical-exclusion-determination-0 Download CX-006754: Categorical Exclusion Determination Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/13/2011 Location(s): Atlanta, Georgia Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006754-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-006755: Categorical Exclusion Determination

468

Catalytic biofilm formation by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and anode characterization by expanded uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, high-density planktonic cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are grown aerobically to early stationary phase. After washing the cells and removing from original medium, the culture is exposed to an anaerobic environment in an electrochemical cell. An applied potential of ?0.30 V vs Ag/AgCl is applied to the working electrode and the corresponding current is measured via chronoamperometry. Current begins to increase within 2–3 h stabilizing at 5 h. Cyclic voltammetry was measured at 5 h indicating the initial stages a kinetically limited biofilm and again at 24 h with an apparently more stable catalytic biofilm. At this point, the biofilm appears to suffer mass transport limitation as the catalytic wave dominates the shape of the voltammogram, similar to voltammograms reported for Geobacter spp. Polarization curves are also reported herein, further demonstrating a large increase of current near the oxidation potential of what is believed to be the terminal protein complex (MtrC/OmcA) of the trans-membrane cytochrome cascade, the Mtr pathway. Additional characterization and comparison between replicates of the biofilm is made using the idea of expanded uncertainty. This novel approach in reporting measured results for microbial fuel cells elucidates specific electrochemical parameters for appropriate comparison between systems and laboratories.

Jared N. Roy; Sofia Babanova; Kristen E. Garcia; Jose Cornejo; Linnea K. Ista; Plamen Atanassov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Applied Materials Inc AMAT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc AMAT Inc AMAT Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95052-8039 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of equipment used in solar (silicon, thin-film, BIPV), semiconductor, and LCD markets. References Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) is a company located in Santa Clara, California . References ↑ "Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Applied_Materials_Inc_AMAT&oldid=342244" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes

470

Applied Materials Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Turbine Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Wind Turbine Facility Applied Materials Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Applied Materials Developer Applied Materials Energy Purchaser Applied Materials Location Gloucester MA Coordinates 42.62895426°, -70.65153122° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.62895426,"lon":-70.65153122,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

471

How to Apply??? Students wishing to apply for a position in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as grounds maintenance and landscaping responsibilities. Work Schedule: The workHow to Apply??? Students wishing to apply for a position in the landscape your application package to: Cranbrook Educational Community Landscape Horticulture

472

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Nov. 2006, p. 73457348 Vol. 72, No. 11 0099-2240/06/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/AEM.01444-06  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the anode surface of a microbial fuel cell converting acetate to electricity. Cells at a distance from the anode remained viable, and there was no decrease in the efficiency of current production cell anode in order to produce electricity could potentially be a limiting factor in power production

Lovley, Derek

473

Vehicle Technologies Office: Applied Battery Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Applied battery research addresses the barriers facing the lithium-ion systems that are closest to meeting the technical energy and power requirements for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric...

474

Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Applied Field Research Initiative Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. Led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Initiative is a collaborative effort that leverages Department of Energy (DOE) investments in basic science and applied research and the work of site contractors to address the complex deep vadose zone contamination challenges. Challenge Many vadose zone environments within the DOE complex consist of complex stratified layers of unconsolidated and water-unsaturated sediments that are, in many places, con-

475

Roadmap: Applied Engineering Applied Engineering and Technology Management Bachelor of Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roadmap: Applied Engineering ­ Applied Engineering and Technology Management ­ Bachelor of Science [AT-BS-AENG-AETM] College of Applied Engineering, Sustainability and Technology Catalog Year: 2013­2014 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 28-Feb-13/JS This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan

Sheridan, Scott

476

Roadmap: Applied Engineering Applied Engineering and Technology Management Bachelor of Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roadmap: Applied Engineering ­ Applied Engineering and Technology Management ­ Bachelor of Science [AT-BS-AENG-AETM] College of Applied Engineering, Sustainability and Technology Catalog Year: 2012­2013 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 21-May-12/JS This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan

Sheridan, Scott

477

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies -Computer Technology General -Bachelor of Technical and Applied Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies - Computer Technology General - Bachelor of Technical;Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies - Computer Technology General - Bachelor of Technical and Applied-Mar-14/JSK This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major. However

Khan, Javed I.

478

SOFC Anode Interaction with Trace Coal Syngas Species U.S. Dept of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SOFC Anode Interaction with Trace Coal Syngas Species SOFC Anode Interaction with Trace Coal Syngas Species U.S. Dept of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 Gregory Hackett, Kirk Gerdes, Randall Gemmen Phone: (304)285-5279, Gregory.Hackett@NETL.DOE.GOV Utilization of coal as a fuel source for highly efficient integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power generation facilities is technologically and environmentally attractive. IGFC plants are expected to offer the highest efficiency coal gasification processes, even when carbon capture and storage systems are included in the design. One element of IGFC research at the National Energy Technology Laboratory is the investigation of syngas cleanup processes for these integrated systems. Of particular interest are the effects of trace elements naturally contained in

479

Improving the microstructure and electrochemical performance of carbon nanofibers containing graphene-wrapped silicon nanoparticles as a Li-ion battery anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, graphene-wrapped Si nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon composite nanofibers (CCNFs) with G/Si, is fabricated by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. In \\{CCNFs\\} with G/Si, Si \\{NPs\\} are distributed and preserved inside the CNF surface because the graphene wrapping the Si \\{NPs\\} help prevent agglomeration and ensure a good dispersion of Si \\{NPs\\} inside the CNF matrix. 20-GSP prepared from a weight ratio of 20 wt% of G/Si to polyacrylonitrile exhibits stable capacity retention and a reversible capacity of above 600 mAh g?1 up to 100 cycles. The high cycling performance and superior reversible capacity of the 20-GSP anode can be attributed to the one-dimensional nanofibrous structure with non-agglomerated Si \\{NPs\\} in the CNF matrix, which promotes charge transfer, maintains a stable electrical contact, and buffers the Si volume expansion.

So Yeun Kim; Kap Seung Yang; Bo-Hye Kim

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anode cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Thermodynamic analysis of interactions between Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) anodes and trace species in a survey of coal syngas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of trace contaminants in syngas derived from coal gasification on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. The effluents from 15 different gasification facilities were considered to assess the impact of fuel composition on anode susceptibility to contamination. For each syngas case, the study considers the magnitude of contaminant exposure resulting from operation of a warm gas cleanup unit at two different temperatures and operation of a nickel-based SOFC at three different temperatures. Contaminant elements arsenic (As), phosphorous (P), and antimony (Sb) are predicted to be present in warm gas cleanup effluent and will interact with the nickel (Ni) components of a SOFC anode. Phosphorous is the trace element found in the largest concentration of the three contaminants and is potentially the most detrimental. Poisoning was found to depend on the composition of the syngas as well as system operating conditions. Results for all trace elements tended to show invariance with cleanup operating temperature, but results were sensitive to syngas bulk composition. Synthesis gas with high steam content tended to resist poisoning.

Andrew Martinez; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; James Postona

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

482

One-pot synthesis of a metal–organic framework as an anode for Li-ion batteries with improved capacity and cycling stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal–organic framework is a kind of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, a 3D metal–organic framework Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC (BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of Co{sup 2+} with a bio-inspired renewable organic ligand 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid through a solvothermal method. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this material exhibited an excellent cyclic stability as well as a large reversible capacity of ca. 650 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 50 mA g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles within the voltage range of 0.02–3.0 V, higher than that of other BDC based anode. - Graphical abstract: The PXRD pattern and the cycleability curves (inset) of Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC was synthesized through a one pot solvothermal process. • The solvent had a great effect on the purity of this material. • This material was used as anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC showed improved capacity and cycling stability.

Gou, Lei, E-mail: Leigou@chd.edu.cn; Hao, Li-Min; Shi, Yong-Xin; Ma, Shou-Long; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Lei; Li, Dong-Lin, E-mail: dlli@chd.edu.cn; Wang, Kang

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Ni?GDC Anode?Supported Ceria Electrolyte Film and Its Application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper 10–20% samaria?doped ceria (10 SDC and 20 SDC) electrolyte films were successfully prepared by a citrate sol?gel route combined with a sol suspension spray coating technique. The characterization and microstructure of the thin film were investigated by XRD and FE?SEM. The results show that the SDC film prepared was pure fluorite type nanocrystalline homogenous and almost fully dense as well as indicate the flexibility of adjustable SDC chemical compositions. Electrochemical performance of a single cell based on the thin 20 SDC film with thickness of 500 nm and La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3?? (LSCF) as cathode material was examined. The cell provided an OCV of 0.83 V at 600?°C which was close to that of the thicker ceria cell (10 ?m) and maximum power densities of 41 90 78 32? mW ? cm 2 at 600 700 800 and 900?°C respectively. It was demonstrated that the thin SDC film less than several ?m showed a good combination with the porous Ni?GDC anode substrate and good insulating ability for electrons migration at temperatures less than 700?°C. The thin ceria electrolyte prepared was potential to use for the IT?SOFCs.

H. Lin; C. Ding; K. Kumada; Y. Tsutai; C. Wada; T. Hashida

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Anode-supported micro-tubular SOFCs fabricated by a phase-inversion and dip-coating process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple phase-inversion process is successfully combined with a dip-coating process to fabricate anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several processing parameters were systematically investigated to optimize cell microstructure and performance, including the amount of pore former used in the support substrate and the number of electrolyte coatings. Single cells with ?240 ?m thick NiO-YSZ support and 10 ?m thick YSZ electrolyte were successfully fabricated, demonstrating peak power densities of 752 and 277 mW cm{sup ?2} at 800 and 600 °C, respectively, when a composite cathode consisting of La{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} and Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2??} was used. This simple fabrication technique can be readily used for optimization of fuel cell microstructures and for cost-effective fabrication of high-performance SOFCs, potentially reducing the cost of SOFC technologies.

Chen, Changcheng; Liu, Mingfei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Meilin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Performance of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Thin Bi-Layer Electrolyte by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anode-supported yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/samaria doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolytes with uniform thickness and high density were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at 1000 degrees C. Fuel cells with such bi-layer electrolytes were fabricated and tested, yielding open circuit voltages from 0.94 to 1.0 V at 600-700 degrees C. Power densities from 0.4 to 1.0 W cm{sup -2} at 0.7 V were achieved in air at temperatures of 600-700 degrees C. Cell performance was improved in flowing oxygen, with an estimated peak power density of over 2 W cm{sup -2} at 650 degrees C, assuming the same overall resistance over the entire range of current density. The high cell performance was attributed to the very low ohmic resistance of the fuel cell, owing to the small thickness of the electrolyte. Stable performance was also demonstrated in that the voltage of the fuel cell showed very little change at a constant current density of 1 A cm{sup -2} during more than 400 hours of operation at 650 degrees C in flowing oxygen. SEM analysis of the fuel cell after testing showed that the bi-layer electrolyte had retained its chemical and mechanical integrity.

Lu, Zigui; Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Fisher, Daniel; Wu, Naijuan; Ignatiev, Alex

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Embedding nano-silicon in graphene nanosheets by plasma assisted milling for high capacity anode materials in lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The lithium storage performance of silicon (Si) is improved substantially by forming composite of nano-Si particles embedded homogeneously in graphene nanosheets (GNs) using a simple discharge plasma assisted milling (P-milling) method. The synergistic effect of the rapid heating of the plasma and the mechanical ball mill grinding with nano-Si as nanomiller converted the graphite powder to \\{GNs\\} with the integration of nano-Si particles in the in-situ formed GNs. This composite structure inhibits the agglomeration of nano-Si and improves electronic conductivity. The cycling stability and rate capability are enhanced, with a stable reversible capacity of 976 mAhg?1 at 50 mAg?1 for the P-milled 20 h nano-Si/GNs composite. A full cell containing a commercial LiMn2O4 cathode is assembled and demonstrated a satisfying utilization of the P-milled nano-Si/GNs composite anode with stable working potential. This composite shows promise for application in lithium ion batteries.

Wei Sun; Renzong Hu; Hui Liu; Meiqin Zeng; Lichun Yang; Haihui Wang; Min Zhu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Facile synthesis of MnO and nitrogen-doped carbon nanocomposites as anode material for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract MnO and nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by a facile thermal-decomposing method using the mixture of glycine and manganese acetate as precursor. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrochemical results show that the as-prepared MnO/N-C achieves a reversible capacity of 473 mAh g?1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g?1 and the capacities of 631.4, 547.7, 443.1, 294.7, and 161.8 mAh g?1 at the current densities of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mA g?1, respectively. The superior cycling and rate performances is attributed to the nanocomposite structure, in which nanosized MnO particles shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions and the N-doped carbon cushions the volume change and improves the electronic conductivity of electrode.

Song Qiu; Xinzhen Wang; Guixia Lu; Jiurong Liu; Cuizhu He

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Anodically electrodeposited Co+Ni mixed oxide electrode: preparation and electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution in alkaline media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co+Ni mixed oxides on Ni substrate were prepared through anodic electrodeposition from Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with five different Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratios beside only Co{sup 2+}. By the electrochemical measurements, the optimum performance in electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media was obtained on the Co+Ni mixed oxide deposited from the solution containing Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratio of 1:1. The mixed oxide is corresponding to about 68at% Co contents with spinel-type NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase and porosity surface structure. The electrochemical kinetic parameters including exchange current density, Tafel slopes, reaction order with respect to [OH{sup -}] and standard electrochemical enthalpy of activation were analyzed also. A possible mechanism involving the formation of a physisorbed hydrogen peroxide intermediate in a slow electrochemical step was presented, which accounts for the values of the experimental results.

Wu Gang [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: wugang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Derui [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Mitsuo, Kurachi [Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8283 (Japan); Xu Boqing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Applied Process Engineering Laboratory | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Applied Process Engineering Laboratory Applied Process Engineering Laboratory Name Applied Process Engineering Laboratory Address 350 Hills Street, Suite #101 Place Richland, Washington Zip 99354 Region Pacific Northwest Area Coordinates 46.3389754°, -119.2716263° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.3389754,"lon":-119.2716263,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

490

Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium (MIRAGE) Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP green logo.png FIND MORE DIA TOOLS This tool is part of the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership. Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium (MIRAGE) Agency/Company /Organization: International Food Policy Research Institute, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (CEPII) Focus Area: Economic Development Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Macroeconomic Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.ifpri.org/book-5076/ourwork/program/mirage-model RelatedTo: Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) Data Base

491

How to Apply | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

How to Apply How to Apply How to Apply Awards are made through a formal process that has changed dramatically since 2011. So let us walk you through it step by step. "Innovation pays." - John Kao, Innovation Nation Submit a Letter of Intent On October 28, 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced on the DOE SBIR website a preview version of the technical topics for which it will later accept funding applications. These topics will be found on the DOE's Funding Opportunity Announcements page. The EE SBIR page lists those topics that are cleantech (specific to EERE). We also recommend that you sign up for the EE-SBIR and DOE-SBIR mailing lists. The EE SBIR mailing list signup is at https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USEERE/subscriber/new?topic_id=USEERE_442.

492

Applied Field Research Initiative Attenuation Based Remedies  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PA00133 - March 2011 PA00133 - March 2011 Applied Field Research Initiative Attenuation Based Remedies in the Subsurface Located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, the Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) was established to develop the tools, approaches and technologies that will be required to address the technical challenges associated characteriza- tion, remediation and long-term monitoring of recalcitrant compounds in the subsurface at Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) sites. The ABRS AFRI site provides a unique setting for researchers in both applied and basic science fields. A wealth of subsurface data is available to support research activities and remedial decision making.

493

Applied Ventures LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Applied Ventures LLC Applied Ventures LLC Name Applied Ventures LLC Address 3050 Bowers Avenue Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95054 Region Southern CA Area Product Venture capital. Number of employees 1-10 Phone number (408) 727-5555 Website http://www.appliedventures.com Coordinates 37.37751°, -121.978721° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.37751,"lon":-121.978721,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

494

Meta-analysis in applied ecology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...varied with time, not space, suggesting that local...across species, sites, space and time. Applied ecologists...August 2009). An initial library of more than 500 analyses...pointers from medicine and public health. Conserv. Biol...effects across species, space and time, but exploring...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

APPLIED MATHEMATICS & COMPUTATIONAL SCI. (AS) {AMCS}  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLIED MATHEMATICS & COMPUTATIONAL SCI. (AS) {AMCS} 510. (MATH410) Complex Analysis. 520. (MATH420. (MATH432) Game Theory. 567. (BE 567) Mathematical and Computational Modeling of Biological Systems. (M) Prerequisite(s): BE 324 and BE 350. This is an introductory course in mathematical biology. The emphasis

Carpick, Robert W.

496

Applying Knowledge Management techniques for building corporate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applying Knowledge Management techniques for building corporate memories Ian Watson AI-CBR Computer-based reasoning and knowledge management... www.ai-cbr.org ...coincidentally I've just written a book about this... ...plug the book!!! www.ai-cbr.org Outline · Talk about ­ Knowledge ­ Knowledge management ­ Why CBR

Watson, Ian

497

Applying Quantitative Marketing Techniques to the Internet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Blattberg and Deighton [1991] laid out a good framework for Internet marketing in their articleApplying Quantitative Marketing Techniques to the Internet by Alan L. Montgomery Carnegie Mellon with clickstream data. I illustrate these four modeling techniques and discuss their potential for solving Internet

Faloutsos, Christos

498

Faculty of Engineering Bachelor of Applied Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Environmental Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Industrial Engineering and Mechanical, Automotive & MaterialsFaculty of Engineering Bachelor of Applied Science in Engineering The demands on professional engineers around the world are increasing in terms of what they must address: our society must confront

499

Applying Global Optimization in Structural Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure Dynamic loading Challenges "Dwarfing visitors, the 70-foot-tall Corliss steam engine powered steam engine in the world. Of engines like the Corliss, William Dean Howells wrote, 'In these thingsApplying Global Optimization in Structural Engineering Dr. George F. Corliss Electrical

500

NONLOCAL COMPUTATIONAL METHODS APPLIED TO COMPOSITE STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to model the degradation of organic or ceramic matrix composites structures (OMC or CMC) even under simple description of heterogeneous materia ls like organic or ceramic matrix composites. New sophisticatedNONLOCAL COMPUTATIONAL METHODS APPLIED TO COMPOSITE STRUCTURES N. GERMAIN1, F. FEYEL1 and J. BESSON

Boyer, Edmond