National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for animals nitrogen fertilization

  1. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2013-03-19

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

  2. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Junhua; Aulich, Ted R; Ignatchenko, Alexey V

    2015-04-14

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia are disclosed. Embodiments include (1) ammonium nitrate produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source: (3) ammonia produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source.

  3. Nitrogen fertilization challenges the climate benefit of cellulosic biofuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruan, Leilei; Bhardwaj, Ajay K.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cellulosic biofuels are intended to improve future energy and climate security. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is commonly recommended to stimulate yields but can increase losses of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and other forms of reactive N, including nitrate. We measured soil N2O emissions and nitrate leaching along a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) high resolution N-fertilizer gradient for three years post-establishment. Results revealed an exponential increase in annual N2O emissions that each year became stronger (R2 > 0.9, P < 0.001) and deviated further from the fixed percentage assumed for IPCC Tier 1 emission factors. Concomitantly, switchgrass yields became less responsivemore » each year to N fertilizer. Nitrate leaching (and calculated indirect N2O emissions) also increased exponentially in response to N inputs, but neither methane (CH4) uptake nor soil organic carbon changed detectably. Overall, N fertilizer inputs at rates greater than crop need curtailed the climate benefit of ethanol production almost two-fold, from a maximum mitigation capacity of–5.71 ± 0.22 Mg CO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 56 kgNha–1 to only –2.97 ± 0.18 MgCO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 196 kgNha–1. In conclusion, minimizing N fertilizer use will be an important strategy for fully realizing the climate benefits of cellulosic biofuel production.« less

  4. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2012-04-10

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

  5. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-03-18

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 -) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18- species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications ofmore » 56 kg N ha-1 in a fieldscale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period.We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3 - concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. In conclusion, our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.« less

  6. Animations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The animations shown on this page are designed and meant to help understand basic geothermal concepts, and are not meant as exhaustive and detailed depictions of technical principles. Rather, they...

  7. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production.

  8. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1996-05-14

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

  9. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Miller, Warren K.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  10. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1993-07-06

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  11. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Miller, Warren K.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  12. Animation Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow these design and coding requirements.

  13. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The

  14. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products from animals (e.g., milk, honey, and eggs) Small and big game animals (e.g., rabbits, deer, and elk) on neighboring properties around LANL Deer and elk that are killed by...

  15. National Fertilizer Development Center

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    h-L National Fertilizer Development Center May 15, 1980 nww Hr. William Et Mott, Director Environmental Control Technology Division Office of Environment Dcpartiaent of Energy Washington, DC 20545 Dear Mr. Mott: This is in response to your letter of May 5 requesting ccmments on a report dated Xarct; 1930 which summarizes a preliminary radiological survey of facilities used in the early 1950's for studies of recovery of uranium from leached zone ore. I have made a few suggested changes to the

  16. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  17. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  18. Nitrogen spark denoxer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Henry K.; Novick, Vincent J.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.

    1997-01-01

    A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  19. Over 150years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receivingmorenitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P less

  20. ARM - Measurement - Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNitrogen ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Nitrogen All gaseous compounds of nitrogen including N2, N2O, and NOx. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  1. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oxides of Nitrogen Oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone have a lesser effect on the atmosphere than carbon dioxide and methane, but as you will see they are important contributors to the greenhouse

  2. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  3. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  4. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions

  5. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receivingmore » nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P < 0.0001). The z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P < 0.0001), from 0.225 in the control plot to 0.419 in the fertilized plot. Soil fertilization, plant diversity, and spatial distance had roughly equal contributions in shaping the microbial functional community structure, while soil geochemical variables contributed less. Results indicated that long-term agricultural practice could alter the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Determining the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity and its response to human activities is important but challenging in microbial ecology. Most studies to date are based on different sites that may not be truly

  6. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; Hirsch, Penny R.; Sun, Bo; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receiving nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P < 0.0001). The z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P < 0.0001), from 0.225 in the control plot to 0.419 in the fertilized plot. Soil fertilization, plant diversity, and spatial distance had roughly equal contributions in shaping the microbial functional community structure, while soil geochemical variables contributed less. Results indicated that long-term agricultural practice could alter the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Determining the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity and its response to human activities is important but challenging in microbial ecology. Most studies to date are based on different sites that may not be truly comparable or on

  7. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  8. Cargill Fertilizer Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCargillFertilizerBiomassFacility&oldid397286" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  9. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2, 2015 A rabbit on LANL land. A rabbit on Los Alamos National Laboratory land. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We sample many plants and animals, including wild and domestic crops, game animals, fish, and food products from

  10. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment ...

  11. Aqueous phase removal of nitrogen from nitrogen compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of compounds containing nitrogen present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the types of nitrogen compounds present in a waste stream, (2) determining the concentrations of nitrogen compounds, (3) balancing oxidized and reduced form of nitrogen by adding a reactant, and (4) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 300.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., thereby resulting in less harmful nitrogen and oxygen gas, hydroxides, alcohols, and hydrocarbons.

  12. Beware of migrating animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now that daylight is growing shorter and nights and evenings are cooler, large game animals have begun their seasonal migrations and are more likely to travel during...

  13. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle arrays for ... Title: Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle arrays for ...

  14. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Pinnau, Ingo; Segelke, Scott

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  15. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  16. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  17. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  18. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment; Years 11 and 12, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report examines the results from the eleventh and twelfth years (2002 and 2003) of the Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. Experimental fertilization has occurred with an adaptive management approach since 1992 in order to restore productivity lost as a result of upstream dams. One of the main objectives of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are a main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kootenay Lake is located between the Selkirk and Purcell mountains in southeastern British Columbia. It has an area of 395 km2, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to Kootenay Lake in 2002 and 2003 was similar to that added from 1992 to 1996. After four years of decreased fertilizer loading (1997 to 2000), results indicated that kokanee populations had declined, and the decision was made to increase the loads again in 2001. The total load of fertilizer in 2002 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 206.7 tonnes of nitrogen. The total fertilizer load in 2003 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 240.8 tonnes of nitrogen. Additional nitrogen was added in 2003 to compensate for nitrogen depletion in the epilimnion. The fertilizer was applied to a 10 km stretch in the North Arm from 3 km south of Lardeau to 3 km south of Schroeder Creek. The maximum surface water temperature in 2002, measured on July 22, was 22 C in the North Arm and 21.3 C in the South Arm. In 2003, the maxima were recorded on August 5 at 20.6 C in the North Arm and on September 2 at 19.7 C in the South Arm. The maximum water temperature in the West Arm was 18.7 C on September 2, 2003. Kootenay Lake had oxygen-saturated water throughout the sampling season with values ranging from about 11-16 mg/L in 2002 and 2003. In both years, Secchi depth followed the expected

  19. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  20. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and

  1. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  2. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dweikat, Ismail; Clemente, Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  3. Animation Requirements for the Web

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) design and coding requirements.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  5. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  6. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  7. Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia

  8. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soils characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soils fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soils fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted

  9. METHOD OF FIXING NITROGEN FOR PRODUCING OXIDES OF NITROGEN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for fixing nitrogen from air by compressing the air, irradiating the compressed air in a nuclear reactor, cooling to remove NO/ sub 2/, compressing the cooled gas, further cooling to remove N/sub 2/O and recirculating the cooled compressed air to the reactor.

  10. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  11. Methane generation from animal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    The conversion of manure to biogas via anaerobic digestion is described. The effluent resulting from the conversion retains fertilizer value and is environmentally acceptable. Discussion is presented under the headings: methane formation in the digester; the Tarleton State Poultry Waste to Methane production system; operating experience at Tarleton State; economics of biogas production from poultry waste; construction cost and biogas value; energy uses; feed and waste processing; and advantages of anaerobic digestion. (DMC)

  12. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment, Technical Report 1999-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    The Arrow Lakes food web has been influenced by several anthropogenic stressors during the past 45 years. These include the introduction of mysid shrimp (Mysis relicta) in 1968 and 1974 and the construction of large hydroelectric impoundments in 1969, 1973 and 1983. The construction of the impoundments affected the fish stocks in Upper and Lower Arrow lakes in several ways. The construction of Hugh Keenleyside Dam (1969) resulted in flooding that eliminated an estimated 30% of the available kokanee spawning habitat in Lower Arrow tributaries and at least 20% of spawning habitat in Upper Arrow tributaries. The Mica Dam (1973) contributed to water level fluctuations and blocked upstream migration of all fish species including kokanee. The Revelstoke Dam (1983) flooded 150 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 80 km of tributary streams which were used by kokanee, bull trout, rainbow trout and other species. The construction of upstream dams also resulted in nutrient retention which ultimately reduced reservoir productivity. In Arrow Lakes Reservoir (ALR), nutrients settled out in the Revelstoke and Mica reservoirs, resulting in decreased productivity, a process known as oligotrophication. Kokanee are typically the first species to respond to oligotrophication resulting from aging impoundments. To address the ultra-oligotrophic status of ALR, a bottom-up approach was taken with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of liquid fertilizer from 1999 to 2004). Two of the main objectives of the experiment were to replace lost nutrients as a result of upstream impoundments and restore productivity in Upper Arrow and to restore kokanee and other sport fish abundance in the reservoir. The bottom-up approach to restoring kokanee in ALR has been successful by replacing nutrients lost as a result of upstream impoundments and has successfully restored the productivity of Upper Arrow. Primary production rates increased, the phytoplankton community responded

  13. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  14. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  15. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J.R. Simplot Don plant in Pocatello, Idaho, repaired boiler feed water pumps such as the ... Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy ...

  16. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  17. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  18. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  19. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  20. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  1. Oil recovery by nitrogen flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronde, H.; Hagoort, J.

    1992-03-01

    The general objective of the project is the Establishment of technical and economic design criteria and evaluation tools for oil and condensate recovery by Nitrogen Injection. The main objective has been divided into the following specific objectives: Determination of the effect of oil composition on the oil recovery; Investigation of the pros and cons of slim-tube experiments as a tool for the design and evaluation of nitrogen flooding; Measurement and calculation of the minimum miscibility pressures (MMP) for nitrogen flooding.

  2. Production of nitrogen from air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, C.; Duckett, M.; Limb, D.I.

    1985-01-29

    In the single column process for the recovery of nitrogen from air wherein reflux for the distillation is provided by condensing a first portion of the overhead stream by indirect heat exchange in a reflux condenser with oxygen-rich liquid from the bottom of the column which has been subjected to a first expansion to an intermediate pressure, refrigeration for the process is provided by work expanding evaporated oxygen-rich liquid from the reflux condenser, and prior to said first expansion, the oxygen-rich liquid recovered from the bottom of the column is sub-cooled by indirect heat exchange in a sub-cooler with the work-expanded evaporated oxygen-rich liquid, nitrogen recovery is increased by work expanding the evaporated oxygen-rich liquid at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the reflux condenser or by first passing it through said sub-cooler at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the reflux condenser and thereafter work-expanding it at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the sub-cooler, and feeding the work-expanded evaporated oxygen-rich liquid directly to the sub-cooler.

  3. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  4. Weldability of nitrogen-enhanced HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, F.C.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy and Charpy-V-Notch (CVN) testing were used to characterize two Ti-V microalloyed steels which contained 130 and 30 ppm of nitrogen with respect to weldability. Particular emphasis has been placed on the understanding of the heat input-microstructure-toughness relationship in the high nitrogen HSLA steel. Within the 1 to 3 kJ/mm heat input range, the high nitrogen steel exhibited coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) toughness superior to that of the low nitrogen steel. The transition temperatures (measured at 50 ft-lb impact energy) were, in average, 15 to 60 C lower than those presented by the low nitrogen steel. Quantitative metallography results showed that high nitrogen steel CGHAZs have smaller austenite grain size and larger amount of grain boundary ferrite. Combining the microstructural information and toughness data, it was concluded that for the high nitrogen steel to exhibit superior properties than the low nitrogen steel, the final HAZ microstructure must contain at least 60% of lathy (bainitic) phases, balanced with ferritic products.

  5. Predicting Electrochemical Windows of Nitrogen Containing Aromatic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecules - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 20, 2014, Research Highlights Predicting Electrochemical Windows of Nitrogen Containing Aromatic Molecules Various nitrogen containing aromatic base molecules and a descriptive relationship derived to predict their reduction potentials is shown. Scientific Achievement A descriptive relationship is derived for computing reduction potentials of quinoxaline derivatives from the orbital energies of the neutral molecules without

  6. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  7. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F.

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate

  8. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines ...

  9. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process for separating nitrogen from methane using ...

  10. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data You are accessing a document from the ...

  11. Fuel Cell Animation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Animation Fuel Cell Animation This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Learn more about water emissions from fuel cell vehicles. View text version of animation.

  12. Biogeophysical effects of CO2-fertilization on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C; Phillips, T J

    2006-04-26

    CO{sub 2}-fertilization affects plant growth, which modifies surface physical properties, altering the surface albedo, and fluxes of sensible and latent heat. We investigate how such CO{sub 2}-fertilization effects on vegetation and surface properties would affect the climate system. Using a global three-dimensional climate-carbon model that simulates vegetation dynamics, we compare two multi-century simulations: a ''Control'' simulation with no emissions, and a ''Physiol-noGHG'' simulation where physiological changes occur as a result of prescribed CO{sub 2} emissions, but where CO{sub 2}-induced greenhouse warming is not included. In our simulations, CO{sub 2}-fertilization produces warming; we obtain an annual- and global-mean warming of about 0.65 K (and land-only warming of 1.4 K) after 430 years. This century-scale warming is mostly due to a decreased surface albedo associated with the expansion of the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests. On decadal time scales, the CO{sub 2} uptake by afforestation should produce a cooling effect that exceeds this albedo-based warming; but if the forests remain in place, the CO{sub 2}-enhanced-greenhouse effect would diminish as the ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere, whereas the albedo effect would persist. Thus, on century time scales, there is the prospect for net warming from CO{sub 2}-fertilization of the land biosphere. Further study is needed to confirm and better quantify our results.

  13. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  14. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  15. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  16. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2005-03-08

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  17. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  18. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  19. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Plants and Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Click to subscribe to NNSS News Plants and Animals Wild Horses at the NNSS Because of its physical ...

  20. Smart Grid Animation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smart Grid Animation Smart Grid Animation Addthis An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser....

  1. Solar evaporation of fertilizers/ag-chemical aqueous mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ash, D.H.; Salladay, D.G.; Norwood, V.M. ); Guinn, G.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Even when best management practices are employed, dealers can have 2000 to 7000 gallons of fertilizer/pesticide rinsewaters each year that cannot be used on nonlabel crops or indiscriminately applied or disposed of without violating Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pesticide label application regulations. A novel, easily implemented solution for reduction of these rinsewaters has been developed at the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) working with researchers from the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Researchers have developed a passive flat-plate solar evaporator. It is a stainless steel/glass unit approximately 8inches [times] 7inches [times] 5inches, and can be produced on an assembly line basis for less than $4000 each. NFERC technologists will use these units for environmental research and demonstration projects at other universities and dealers this year. Each unit can evaporate 900--1200 gallons of water per year.

  2. Ocean Fertilization and Other Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2008-07-29

    In order to evaluate ocean fertilization in the larger context of other proposed strategies for reducing the threat of the global warming, a wide range of different climate change mitigation approaches are compared in terms of their long-term potential, stage of development, relative costs and potential risks, as well as public acceptance. This broad comparative analysis is carried out for the following climate change mitigation strategies: supply-side and end-use efficiency improvements, terrestrial and geological carbon sequestration, CO2 ocean disposal and iron fertilization, nuclear power, and renewable energy generation from biomass, passive solar, solar thermal, photovoltaics, hydroelectric and wind. In addition, because of the inherent problems of conducting an objective comparative cost-benefit analysis, two non-technological solutions to global warming are also discussed: curbing population growth and transitioning to a steady-state economy.

  3. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  4. Massive Changes in Genome Architecture Accompany the Transition to Self-Fertility in the filamentous Fungus Neurospora tetrasperma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, Christoper; Stajich, Jason; Jacobson, David; Nativ, Donald; Lapidus, Alla; Foster, Brian; Aerts, Andrea; Riley, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor; Taylor, John

    2011-05-16

    A large region of suppressed recombination surrounds the sex-determining locus of the self-fertile fungus Neurospora tetrasperma. This region encompasses nearly one-fifth of the N. tetrasperma genome and suppression of recombination is necessary for self-fertility. The similarity of the N. tetrasperma mating chromosome to plant and animal sex chromosomes and its recent origin (5 MYA), combined with a long history of genetic and cytological research, make this fungus an ideal model for studying the evolutionary consequences of suppressed recombination. Here we compare genome sequences from two N. tetrasperma strains of opposite mating type to determine whether structural rearrangements are associated with the nonrecombining region and to examine the effect of suppressed recombination for the evolution of the genes within it. We find a series of three inversions encompassing the majority of the region of suppressed recombination and provide evidence for two different types of rearrangement mechanisms: the recently proposed mechanism of inversion via staggered single-strand breaks as well as ectopic recombination between transposable elements. In addition, we show that the N. tetrasperma mat a mating-type region appears to be accumulating deleterious substitutions at a faster rate than the other mating type (mat A) and thus may be in the early stages of degeneration.

  5. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Xiang, Fen-Fen; Gao, Li; Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Wen-Jie

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2{sup −/−}) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2{sup −/−} female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells.

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Animals NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Animals Coyotes, kit foxes, pronghorn antelope, desert tortoises, sidewinder snakes, bald eagles, kangaroo rats and peregrine falcons are just a few of the more than 1,500 animal species found on the Nevada National Security Site. Instructions: Click the document THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details. Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information. Thumbnail Category Number

  7. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation This animation demonstrates the multiple safety systems in hydrogen-fueled ...

  8. Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web When producing videos, animations, and audio for the Web, consider the ...

  9. Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web Requirements Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web ...

  10. Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility For accessibility, ...

  11. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receives Energy Assessment | Department of Energy Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment This case study describes how a DOE energy assessment helped the J.R. Simplot Company identify ways to reduce energy use in its Pocatello, Idaho, plant's steam system. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment

  12. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  13. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of ...

  14. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  15. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print Wednesday, 25 February 2009 00:00 The behavior of the core hole...

  16. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  17. ARM: AOS: Oxides of Nitrogen Analyzer (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hygroscopic growth; Inorganic chemical composition; Methane concentration; Nitrogen; Ozone; Ozone Concentration; Particle number concentration; Particle size distribution; Trace ...

  18. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prev Next Title: Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  19. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions

  20. Nitrogen doping study in ingot niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Makita, Junki

    2015-09-01

    Thermal diffusion of nitrogen in niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities at temperature ~800 °C has resulted in the increase in quality factor with a low-field Q-rise extending to Bp > 90 mT. However, the maximum accelerating gradient of these doped cavities often deteriorates below the values achieved by standard treatments prior to doping. Here, we present the results of the measurements on ingot niobium cavities doped with nitrogen at 800 °C. The rf measurements were carried out after the successive electropolishing to remove small amount of material from the inner surface layer. The result showed higher breakdown field with lower quality factor as material removal increases.

  1. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2004-11-23

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

  2. Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1998-05-01

    This project was directed toward understanding at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels of how photosynthetic organisms adapt to long-term nitrogen-deficiency conditions is quite incomplete even though limitation of this nutrient is the most commonly restricts plant growth and development. For our work on this problem, the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was grown in continuous cultures in which steady-state levels of nitrogen can be precisely controlled. N-limited cells exhibit the classical symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient, chlorosis and slow growth rates, and respond to nitrogen provision by rapid greening and chloroplast differentiation. We have addressed three aspects of this problem: (1) the regulation of pigment synthesis; (2) control of expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins; (3) changes in metabolic and electron transport pathways that enable sustained CO{sub 2} fixation even though they cannot be readily converted into amino and nucleic acids. For the last, principle components are: (a) enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity intimately associated with photosynthates, and (b) the occurrence in thylakoids of a supplemental electron transport pathway that facilitates reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Together, these distinguishing features of N-limited cells are likely to enable cell survival, especially under conditions of high irradiance stress.

  3. Nitrogen Deposition: A Component of Global Change Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norby, Richard J.

    1997-12-31

    The global cycles of carbon and nitrogen are being perturbed by human activities that increase the transfer from large pools of nonreactive forms of the elements to reactive forms that are essential to the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere. The cycles are closely linked at all scales, and global change analyses must consider carbon and nitrogen cycles together. The increasing amount of nitrogen originating from fossil fuel combustion and deposited to terrestrial ecosystems as nitrogen oxides could increase the capacity of ecosystems to sequester carbon thereby removing some of the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and slowing the development of greenhouse warming. Several global and ecosystem models have calculated the amount of carbon sequestration that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition based on assumptions about the allocation of nitrogen among ecosystem components with different carbon-nitrogen ratios. They support the premise that nitrogen deposition is responsible for a an increasing terrestrial carbon sink since industrialization began, but there are large uncertainties related to the continued capacity of ecosystems to retain exogenous nitrogen. Whether terrestrial ecosystems continue to sequester additional carbon will depend in part on their response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which is widely thought to be constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ecosystem models generally support the conclusion that the responses of ecosystems to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide will be larger, and the range of possible responses will be wider, in ecosystems with increased nitrogen inputs originating as atmospheric deposition.

  4. Nutrient dynamics and nitrogen trace gas flux during ecosystem development in montane rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, R.H.; Vitousek, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of nitrogen trace gas emissions, soil nitrogen flux, and nutrient availability were evaluated at five sites that form a chronosequence in Hawaiian montane rain forest. The estimated age of basaltic parent material from which soils developed at the Kilauea site was 200 yr, 6000 yr at the Puu Makaala site, 185000 yr at the Kohala site, 1.65 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Molokai site, and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Kauai site. Peak net N mineralization and nitrification values were found in soils from the 185000-yr-old Kohala site. Nitrogen content of foliage and leaf litter was highest in the intermediate age sites (Puu Makaala and Kohala) and N and P retranslocation was lowest at the Puu Makaala site. Soil cores fertilized with nitrogen had significantly higher rates of root ingrowth than control cores at the two youngest sites (200 and 6000 yr old) but not in older sites (185000 and 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old sites) and total fine root growth into control cores was greatest at the Kohala site. The highest N{sub 2}O emissions were found at the 185000-yr-old Kohala site, while the highest combined flux of N{sub 2}O + NO was observed at the 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old Kauai site. While overall N{sub 2}O emission rates were correlated with rates of N transformations, soil water content appeared to influence the magnitude of emissions of N{sub 2}O and the ratios of emissions of NO vs. N{sub 2}O. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred when water-filled pore space (WFPS) values were >40%, with highest emissions in at least two sites observed at WFPS values of 75%. Among sites, high N{sub 2}O emissions were associated with high soil N transformation rates. Large NO fluxes were observed only at the Kauai site when WFPS values were <60%. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard; Fink, Raymond Keith

    1999-07-01

    The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL ABUNDANCES ON NITROGEN IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-20

    The dominant form of nitrogen provided to most solar system bodies is currently unknown, though available measurements show that the detected nitrogen in solar system rocks and ices is depleted with respect to solar abundances and the interstellar medium. We use a detailed chemical/physical model of the chemical evolution of a protoplanetary disk to explore the evolution and abundance of nitrogen-bearing molecules. Based on this model, we analyze how initial chemical abundances provided as either gas or ice during the early stages of disk formation influence which species become the dominant nitrogen bearers at later stages. We find that a disk with the majority of its initial nitrogen in either atomic or molecular nitrogen is later dominated by atomic and molecular nitrogen as well as NH{sub 3} and HCN ices, where the dominant species varies with disk radius. When nitrogen is initially in gaseous ammonia, it later becomes trapped in ammonia ice except in the outer disk where atomic nitrogen dominates. For a disk with the initial nitrogen in the form of ammonia ice, the nitrogen remains trapped in the ice as NH{sub 3} at later stages. The model in which most of the initial nitrogen is placed in atomic N best matches the ammonia abundances observed in comets. Furthermore, the initial state of nitrogen influences the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, which has been detected in protoplanetary disks. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is found to be indicative of an N{sub 2} abundance greater than n{sub N{sub 2}}/n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup ?6} in addition to tracing the CO snow line. Our models also indicate that NO is potentially detectable, with lower N gas abundances leading to higher NO abundances.

  7. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  8. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  10. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  11. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2C to 4C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  12. PROTOSOLAR AMMONIA AS THE UNIQUE SOURCE OF TITAN's NITROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandt, Kathleen E.; Mousis, Olivier; Gautier, Daniel

    2014-06-20

    The origin of Titan's nitrogen-rich atmosphere is thought to be ammonia ice, but this has not yet been confirmed. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether the building blocks of Titan formed within the Saturnian subnebula or in the colder protosolar nebula (PSN). Recent measurements of the nitrogen isotope ratio in cometary ammonia, combined with evolutionary constraints on the nitrogen isotopes in Titan's atmosphere provide firm evidence that the nitrogen in Titan's atmosphere must have originated as ammonia ice formed in the PSN under conditions similar to that of cometary formation. This result has important implications for the projected D/H ratio in cometary methane, nitrogen isotopic fractionation in the PSN and the source of nitrogen for Earth's atmosphere.

  13. Effect of oil revenue on the fertility pattern in Iran, 1952-1976

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassirpour, M.

    1984-01-01

    Counter to expectation based on the experience of developed nations, in Iran the increase of oil revenue from 1952 to 1975 was not accompanied by a decline in the fertility rate. To identify possible determinants of fertility behavior, the following hypotheses were tested: 1) developmental factors such as urbanization, high school or higher education of females, types of occupation and female labor force participation, have a direct negative impact; 2) the developmental variables have an indirect negative effect on fertility through the mean age at first marriage; 3) mean age at first marriage has a direct negative effect on fertility; and 4) in the provinces (Central, Khuzestan, Esfahan, E. Azarbijan) where large amounts of oil revenue was allocated, the fertility rate is lower than the fertility rate in other provinces where small amounts of oil revenue were distributed. Among developmental variables, high school and college education of females aged 15-29 as well as mean age at first marriage of females, or, lower proportion of married females age 20-24 were found to be important factors in depressing the fertility rate.

  14. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  15. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control | Department of Energy Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Presentation given by Los Alamos National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about robust nitrogen

  17. Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    70. annual meeting of the Federation of American Society for Experimental Biology, St. ... CELLS; GROWTH; NITROGEN MUSTARD; CALCIUM; CELL MEMBRANES; CHOLINE; LIPOSOMES; MICE; ...

  18. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf (875.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Steel Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Steel: ...

  19. Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen -...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen - implications for the intramolecular potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman spectroscopy in hot...

  20. Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen Doping in LithiumSulfur ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode ...

  1. Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of High-Areal-Capacity Sulfur Cathode with Exceptional Cycling Stability for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon ...

  2. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    Development of Models will Help Predict and Control Hydrogen and Nitrogen Levels in Electric Arc Furnace and Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking

  3. Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.V.; Maloney, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

  4. Method and apparatus for nitrogen oxide determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining nitrogen oxide content in a high temperature process gas, which involves withdrawing a sample portion of a high temperature gas containing nitrogen oxide from a source to be analyzed. The sample portion is passed through a restrictive flow conduit, which may be a capillary or a restriction orifice. The restrictive flow conduit is heated to a temperature sufficient to maintain the flowing sample portion at an elevated temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source, to thereby provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate within the restrictive flow conduit cannot occur. The sample portion is then drawn into an aspirator device. A heated motive gas is passed to the aspirator device at a temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source. The motive gas is passed through the nozzle of the aspirator device under conditions sufficient to aspirate the heated sample portion through the restrictive flow conduit and produce a mixture of the sample portion in the motive gas at a dilution of the sample portion sufficient to provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate from the mixture cannot occur at reduced temperature. A portion of the cooled dilute mixture is then passed to analytical means capable of detecting nitric oxide.

  5. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, J.; Qi, X.; Souza, L.; Luo, Y.

    2015-10-20

    Nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive researches have been done to explore whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in plant and litter pools but not in soil pool. Thus, the basis of PNL occurrencemorepartially exists. However, CO2 enrichment also significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth over time was observed. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, our synthesis showed that CO2 enrichment increased soil ammonium (NH4+) but decreased nitrate (NO3-). The different responses of NH4+ and NO3-, and the consequent biological processes, may result in changes in soil microenvironment, community structures and above-belowground interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and the feedback to climate change.less

  6. Languages and interfaces for facial animation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

  7. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory animals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the US. This report diseases activities conducted in 1983, including committees on animal models and genetic stocks, infectious diseases of mice and rats, environmental conditions in animal rooms, and care and use of laboratory animals. (ACR)

  8. Catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2010-04-06

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  9. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  10. Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

  11. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K.; Vernazza, Francesco; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melaminecyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamineuric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ? Melamine in food and feed. ? Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ? Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ? Recent EFSA risk assessment. ? Animal and human health.

  12. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  13. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Qiu, Dongming; Dritz, Terence Andrew; Neagle, Paul; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Arora, Ravi; Lamont, Michael Jay; Pagnotto, Kristina M.

    2007-07-31

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  15. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Hoover, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  16. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  17. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating ...

  18. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  19. METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z.; Grundy, W. M.; Romanishin, W.; Vilas, F. E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  1. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-06-04

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

  2. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  3. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  5. Structural and electronic properties of dense liquid and amorphous nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boates, B; Bonev, S A

    2011-02-11

    We present first-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of liquid nitrogen in the pressure-temperature range of 0-200 GPa and 2000-6000 K. The molecular-polymerization and molecular-atomic liquid phase boundaries have been mapped over this region. We find the polymeric liquid to be metallic, similar to what has been reported for the higher-temperature atomic fluid. An explanation of the electronic properties is given based on the structure and bonding character of the transformed liquids. We discuss the structural and bonding differences between the polymeric liquid and insulating solid cubic-gauche nitrogen to explain the differences in their electronic properties. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism responsible for charge transport in polymeric nitrogen systems to explain the conductivity of the polymeric fluid and the semi-conducting nature of low-temperature amorphous nitrogen.

  6. Observational studies of interstellar and solar-nebula nitrogen chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the high cosmic abundance of nitrogen, chemical models of nitrogen-bearing species in the interstellar medium and the primordial solar nebula have not been constrained significantly by observations. Essentially nothing is known about the abundance of the simplest and most stable nitrogen compound N{sub 2} in astronomical sources. Ion-molecule chemistry models of interstellar clouds predict molecular ions to be formed primarily in cold, quiescent gas. The only well-studied molecular ion in dense clouds, HCO{sup +}, is very abundant in regions of energetic outflow from young stars, contrary to model predictions. Therefore, observations of another molecular ion are needed to better understand ion-molecule models. Here the author presents millimeter-wave observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward galactic molecular clouds. These data can provide constraints on both the nitrogen and ion-molecular chemistry in the interstellar medium.

  7. Substitutional Nitrogen in Nanodiamond and Bucky-Diamond Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2005-09-15

    The inclusion of dopants (such as nitrogen) in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Although most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain a small fraction of nitrogen, it is still unclear whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticle. Presented here are density functional tight binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional nitrogen in nanodiamond and bucky-diamond particles. The results predict that nitrogen is likely to be positioned at the surface of both hydrogenated nanodiamond and (dehydrogenated) bucky-diamond, and that the coordination of the dopants within the particles is dependent upon the surface structure.

  8. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  9. Amplification of subnanosecond nitrogen laser pulses in UV dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.; Rayner, D.M.; Malatesta, V.; Hackett, P.A.

    1982-12-01

    The performance of a short pulse netrogen laser system have been improved by replacing the subatmospheric TE nitrogen laser amplifier with a XV xenon chloride excimer pumped dye amplifier. (AIP)

  10. Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tarun, M. C.; Iqbal, M. Zafar; McCluskey, M. D.

    2011-04-14

    Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. Thus the deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence bandmore » relative to the vacuum level.« less

  11. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  12. Model Captures How Nitrogen Limitation Affects Hydrological Processes...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    nitrogen cycles (CLM-CN), the carbon and water coupling in leaf-level photosynthetic ... speeding their growth and altering how they use water and interact with the climate. ...

  13. Hydrogen and nitrogen control in ladle and casting operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R. J.; Misra, Siddhartha

    2005-01-15

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly.

  14. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-07-15

    A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

  15. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

  16. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print Wednesday, 25 February 2009 00:00 The behavior of the core hole created in molecular x-ray photoemission experiments has provided molecular scientists with a valuable window through which to probe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules. But the answer to one fundamental quantum question-whether the core hole is localized or delocalized-has remained elusive for diatomic

  17. Video and Animation Requests | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Video and Animation Requests Please fill in the form below. Videographer Brian Marczewski will contact you to discuss your project needs in more detail. Name * Phone Number * E-mail Address * Request * Needed by * Month Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Day Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Year Year 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Open popup calendar File Upload Files must be less than 2 MB. Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png

  18. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  19. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  20. Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

    2014-02-11

    An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

  1. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  2. Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home NNSA Blog Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex Keck A sharp eye and a lot of luck led to an interesting discovery at Pantex ...

  3. ATHENA desktop human "body" could reduce need for animal drug...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATHENA could reduce need for animal drug tests ATHENA desktop human "body" could reduce need for animal drug tests ATHENA project team is developing four human organ constructs that ...

  4. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-10

    The nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one of themore » basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3−) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3− ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.« less

  5. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory animals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying existing and required facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the United States. This report discusses activities conducted in 1982. (ACR)

  6. Carbon dioxide enrichment: Data on the response of cotton to varying CO{sub 2}, irrigation, and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Kimball, B.A.; Mauney, J.R.; La Morte, R.L.; Guinn, G.; Nakayama, F.S.; Radin, J.W.; Mitchell, S.T.; Parker, L.L.; Peresta, G.J.; Nixon, P.E. III; Savoy, B.; Harris, S.M.; MacDonald, R.; Pros, H.; Martinez, J.; Lakatos, E.A.

    1992-06-01

    This document presents results from field CO{sub 2}-enrichment experiments conducted over five consecutive growing seasons, 1983--1987. These results comprise data concerning the effects of continuous CO{sub 2} enrichment on the growth of cotton under optimal and limiting levels of water and nitrogen. Unlike many prior C0{sub 2} enrichment experiments in growth chambers or greenhouses, these studies were conducted on field-planted cotton at close to natural conditions using the open-top chamber approach. Measurements were made on a variety of crop response variables at intervals during the growing season and upon crop harvest. The initial experiment examined the effects of varying C0{sub 2} concentration only. In the following two seasons, the interactive effects of C0{sub 2} concentration and water availability were studied. In the final two seasons, the effects of the three-way interaction between C0{sub 2} concentration, water availability, and nitrogen fertility were investigated. The data comprise three types of information: identification variables (such as year, institution and situ codes, and treatment regimens), intermediate growth measurements (such as plant height, leaf area index, number of flowers, and dry weight of leaves) taken at various times during the growing season, and crop harvest results (such as lint yield, seed yield, and total aboveground dry biomass). They are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NAP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NAP consists of this document and a magnetic tape (or a floppy diskette, upon request) containing machine-readable files. This document provides sample listings of the CO{sub 2} enrichment response data as they appear on the magnetic tape or floppy diskette and provides detailed descriptions of the design and methodology of these experiments, as well as a complete hard copy listing of all of the data in the form of a supplemental text provided as an appendix.

  7. Carbon dioxide enrichment: Data on the response of cotton to varying CO sub 2 , irrigation, and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Kimball, B.A.; Mauney, J.R.; La Morte, R.L.; Guinn, G.; Nakayama, F.S.; Radin, J.W.; Mitchell, S.T.; Parker, L.L.; Peresta, G.J.; Nixon, P.E. III; Savoy, B.; Harris, S.M.; MacDonald, R.; Pros, H.; Martinez, J. ); Lakatos, E.A. (Arizona Univ., Tucs

    1992-06-01

    This document presents results from field CO{sub 2}-enrichment experiments conducted over five consecutive growing seasons, 1983--1987. These results comprise data concerning the effects of continuous CO{sub 2} enrichment on the growth of cotton under optimal and limiting levels of water and nitrogen. Unlike many prior C0{sub 2} enrichment experiments in growth chambers or greenhouses, these studies were conducted on field-planted cotton at close to natural conditions using the open-top chamber approach. Measurements were made on a variety of crop response variables at intervals during the growing season and upon crop harvest. The initial experiment examined the effects of varying C0{sub 2} concentration only. In the following two seasons, the interactive effects of C0{sub 2} concentration and water availability were studied. In the final two seasons, the effects of the three-way interaction between C0{sub 2} concentration, water availability, and nitrogen fertility were investigated. The data comprise three types of information: identification variables (such as year, institution and situ codes, and treatment regimens), intermediate growth measurements (such as plant height, leaf area index, number of flowers, and dry weight of leaves) taken at various times during the growing season, and crop harvest results (such as lint yield, seed yield, and total aboveground dry biomass). They are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NAP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NAP consists of this document and a magnetic tape (or a floppy diskette, upon request) containing machine-readable files. This document provides sample listings of the CO{sub 2} enrichment response data as they appear on the magnetic tape or floppy diskette and provides detailed descriptions of the design and methodology of these experiments, as well as a complete hard copy listing of all of the data in the form of a supplemental text provided as an appendix.

  8. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  9. Impact of Radiotherapy on Fertility, Pregnancy, and Neonatal Outcomes in Female Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wo, Jennifer Y.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation has many potential long-term effects on cancer survivors. Female cancer patients may experience decreased fertility depending on the site irradiated. Oncologists should be aware of these consequences and discuss options for fertility preservation before initiating therapy. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive review of the existing literature was conducted. Studies reporting the outcomes for female patients treated with cranio-spinal, abdominal, or pelvic radiation reporting fertility, pregnancy, or neonatal-related outcomes were reviewed. Results: Cranio-spinal irradiation elicited significant hormonal changes in women that affected their ability to become pregnant later in life. Women treated with abdomino-pelvic radiation have an increased rate of uterine dysfunction leading to miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and placental abnormalities. Early menopause results from low-dose ovarian radiation. Ovarian transposition may decrease the rates of ovarian dysfunction. Conclusions: There is a dose-dependent relationship between ovarian radiation therapy (RT) and premature menopause. Patients treated with RT must be aware of the impact of treatment on fertility and explore appropriate options.

  10. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard J. Fruehan; Siddhartha Misra

    2005-01-15

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly. Several steelmaking additions have been investigated in this research for their effect on the hydrogen and nitrogen content of steels. It has been established that calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) acts as a source of hydrogen. Carburizers, such as metallurgical coke, were found to result in no hydrogen pickup when added to liquid steel. Addition of petroleum coke, on the other hand, increased the hydrogen content of liquid steel. Ferroalloy such as medium carbon ferromanganese when added to the liquid iron was found to increase its nitrogen content, the increase being proportional to the amount of ferroalloy added. Similarly, addition of pitch coke, which had a significant nitrogen impurity, increased the nitrogen content of liquid iron. A mathematical model was developed to quantify the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen from the air bubbles entrained during tapping of liquid steel. During the bottom stirring of liquid metal in a ladle, the inert gas escaping from the top displaces the slag layer and often forms an open eye. The absorption of atmospheric nitrogen through the spout eye was estimated for different slag thickness and gas flow rate. The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive set of equations which could predict the nitrogen and hydrogen pickup from their various sources. Estimates of hydrogen and nitrogen pickup during the steel transfer operations such as tapping and ladle stirring and the predicted pickup from steelmaking additions were integrated into empirical equations. The comprehensive model is designed to predict the gas pickup under varying operating conditions such as the metal oxygen and sulfur content, the total tapping or stirring time, the stirring gas flow rate and the

  11. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  12. METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF BINARY NITROGEN-FLUORINE COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frazer, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A process is given for preparing binary nitrogenfluorine compounds, in particular, tetrafluorohydrazine (N/sub 2/F/sub 4/) and difluorodiazine (N/sub 2/ F/sub 2/), The process comprises subjecting gaseous nitrogen trifluoride to the action of an alternating current electrical glow discharge in the presence of mercury vapors. By the action of the electrical discharge, the nitrogen trifluoride is converted into a gaseous product comprising a mixture of tetrafluorohydrazine, the isomers of difluorodiazine, and other impurities including nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, silicon tetrafiuoride, and unreacted nitrogen trifluoride. The gaseous products and impurities are passed into a trap maintained at about - 196 deg C to freeze out the desired products and impurities with the exception of nitregen gas which passes off from the trap and is discarded. Subsequently, the desired products and remaining impurities are warmed to the gaseous state and passed through a silica gel trap maintained at about - 55DEC, wherein the desired tetrafluorohydrazine and difluorodiazine products are retained while the remaining gaseous impurities pass therethrough. The desired products are volatilized from the silica gel trap by heating and then separated by gas chrounatography means into the respective tetrafluorohydrazine and difluorodiazine products. (A.e.C)

  13. Direct visualization of atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Gao, Hong-Jun [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Xiao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Berger, Reinhard; Feng, Xinliang, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Mllen, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    We have fabricated atomically precise nitrogen-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by using the on-surface synthesis technique combined with the nitrogen substitution of the precursors. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy indicate that the well-defined nanoribbons tend to align with the neighbors side-by-side with a band gap of 1.02?eV, which is in good agreement with the density functional theory calculation result. The influence of the high precursor coverage on the quality of the nanoribbons is also studied. We find that graphene nanoribbons with sufficient aspect ratios can only be fabricated at sub-monolayer precursor coverage. This work provides a way to construct atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons.

  14. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Kenichi; Joseph Heremans, F.; Bassett, Lee C.; Myers, Bryan A.; Toyli, David M.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.; Palmstrom, Christopher J.; Awschalom, David D.

    2012-08-20

    We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of synthetic diamond using an in situ nitrogen delta-doping technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite their proximity to the surface, doped NV centers with depths (d) ranging from 5 to 100 nm display long spin coherence times, T{sub 2} > 100 {mu}s at d = 5 nm and T{sub 2} > 600 {mu}s at d {>=} 50 nm. The consistently long spin coherence observed in such shallow NV centers enables applications such as atomic-scale external spin sensing and hybrid quantum architectures.

  15. Method of detoxifying animal suffering from overdose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehlhorn, Rolf J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for accumulating drugs or other chemicals within synthetic, lipid-like vesicles by means of a pH gradient imposed on the vesicles just prior to use is described. The method is suited for accumulating molecules with basic or acid moieties which are permeable to the vesicles membranes in their uncharged form and for molecules that contain charge moieties that are hydrophobic ions and can therefore cross the vesicle membranes in their charged form. The method is advantageous over prior art methods for encapsulating biologically active materials within vesicles in that it achieves very high degrees of loading with simple procedures that are economical and require little technical expertise, furthermore kits which can be stored for prolonged periods prior to use without impairment of the capacity to achieve drug accumulation are described. A related application of the method consists of using this technology to detoxify animals that have been exposed to poisons with basic, weak acid or hydrophobic charge groups within their molecular structure.

  16. Method of manufacturing semiconductor having group II-group VI compounds doped with nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Price, Kent J.; Ma, Xianda; Makhratchev, Konstantin

    2005-02-08

    A method of making a semiconductor comprises depositing a group II-group VI compound onto a substrate in the presence of nitrogen using sputtering to produce a nitrogen-doped semiconductor. This method can be used for making a photovoltaic cell using sputtering to apply a back contact layer of group II-group VI compound to a substrate in the presence of nitrogen, the back coating layer being doped with nitrogen. A semiconductor comprising a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, and a photovoltaic cell comprising a substrate on which is deposited a layer of a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, are also included.

  17. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  18. Analysis of 33 MeV Nitrogen irradiated UHMWPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosso, Mariela del; Chappa, Veronica; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo

    2007-10-26

    In this work, we irradiated UHMWPE with 33 MeV Nitrogen ions, at several fluences, to generate surface modifications without affecting the bulk properties. These modifications were quantified by means of wear resistance tests and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. Experimental results show an optimum ion fluence value that maximizes UHMWPE wear resistance.

  19. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  20. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  1. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  2. Preparation of high nitrogen compound and materials therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2006-10-10

    The high-nitrogen compound of the formula ##STR00001## was prepared. Pyrolysis of the compound yields carbon nitrides C.sub.2N.sub.3 and C.sub.3N.sub.5. The carbon nitrides vary in their density, texture, and morphology.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Example Layout (Text Version) Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Billings Hospital - Small Animal

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Facility - University of Chicago - IL 01 Billings Hospital - Small Animal Facility - University of Chicago - IL 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Billings Hospital, Small Animal Facility, University of Chicago (IL 01) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP due to limited scope of activities and 15 day half-life of P-32 Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Small Animal Facility, U. of Chicago IL.01-1 Location: University of Chicago , Chicago , Illinois IL.01-1 Evaluation Year:

  5. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Stack (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  6. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Components (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  7. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  8. ATHENA desktop human "body" reduces need for animal drug tests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATHENA desktop human "body" ATHENA desktop human "body" reduces need for animal drug tests ATHENA project team is developing four human organ constructs that are based on a ...

  9. Jefferson Lab's Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device for the German Cancer Research Center March Smith Mark Smith, Detector Group Biomedical Imaging Physicist and project manager for ...

  10. Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Use these quality assurance (QA) checklists to ensure your audio files, flash animations, podcasts, and videos meet all Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) standards.

  11. Study of fuel-nitrogen reactions in rich, premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of nitrogen-containing species involved in fuel-nitrogen reactions have been studied in atmospheric-pressure fuel-rich hydrogen/oxygen/argon flames. The fuel-nitrogen reaction mechanism was investigated by addition of ammonia, nitric oxide, or hydrogen cyanide alone or with various hydrocarbons to a base flame. Profiles of stable nitrogen species and hydroxyl radical were measured in the post-flame gases. Results show that an initial rapid decay of nitric oxide added to a hydrogen/oxygen/argon flame to approximately 60% of its initial value occurs within 1.0 mm of the burner surface (0.5 msec). The primary reaction for removal of nitric oxide was found to be H + NO + M = HNO + M. The reaction of nitric oxide with various hydrocarbons to form hydrogen cyanide was found to be first order in both the initial hydrocarbon concentration and the initial nitric oxide concentration. A kinetic model was developed that only partially predicts the results obtained. Analysis showed that, by varying the heat of formation of imidogen within the limits of its uncertainty, agreement between the calculations and the data could be improved for nitric oxide and nitrogen. However, the amine, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide profiles were found not to be significantly affected. The significant discrepancy between the measured and calculated ammonia profiles is discussed in terms of the model predictions of both the ammonia formation and decay rates. The reaction: NM + H = N + H/sub 2/ is identified as a key rate-controlling step for removal of amine species in these flames. Evidence from the data and theoretical calculations suggests that the rate of this reaction at the current flame conditions may be as much as a factor of ten slower than the previously reported value.

  12. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  13. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  14. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  15. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, P.

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  16. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  17. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  18. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption After Energy Assessment | Department of Energy Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment This case study describes how Terra Nitrogen Company saved 497,000 MMBtu and $3.5 million yearly after upgrading the steam system in its ammonia plant in Verdigris, Oklahoma. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant

  19. Annealing Behavior of Ion-implanted Nitrogen in D9 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Magudapathy, P.; Kennedy, John

    2011-07-15

    Nitrogen isotope N{sup 15} was implanted at the sub-surface of D9 steel. The resonance nuclear reaction analysis was used to probe the implanted nitrogen as a function of depth. The as-implanted D9 sample was isochronally annealed and by observing the broadening of nitrogen depth profile at various annealing junctures, activation energy for nitrogen diffusion in steel was deduced.

  20. Methods of detection and identificationoc carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhalivyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2013-11-12

    Methods for detecting and identifying carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials are disclosed. The methods may comprise detection of photo-nuclear reaction products of nitrogen and carbon to detect and identify the carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials.

  1. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2031 et seq.)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers.

  3. Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2031 et seq.) (1966)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers.

  4. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  5. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  6. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  7. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  8. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  9. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert

    2000-01-01

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  10. Temperature Mapping of Nitrogen-doped Niobium Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makita, Junki; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati

    2015-09-01

    It was recently shown that diffusing nitrogen on the inner surface of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities at high temperature can improve the quality factor of the niobium cavity. However, a reduction of the quench field is also typically found. To better understand the location of rf losses and quench, we used a thermometry system to map the temperature of the outer surface of ingot Nb cavities after nitrogen doping and electropolishing. Surface temperature of the cavities was recorded while increasing the rf power and also during the quenching. The results of thermal mapping showed no precursor heating on the cavities and quenching to be ignited near the equator where the surface magnetic field is maximum. Hot-spots at the equator area during multipacting were also detected by thermal mapping.

  11. Sulfide stress cracking resistance of nitrogen-strengthened stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaugh, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes sulfide stress cracking tests performed on a number of these alloys. Most were found to be somewhat susceptible to cracking, depending on the stress level. It was determined that this was due to their high manganese content. The mechanism responsible for cracking was not firmly established. One commercial nitrogen-strengthened stainless steel, XM19, was highly resistant to sulfide stress cracking despite a manganese content of 5%. This difference is attributed to the superior corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  12. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print The behavior of the core hole created in molecular x-ray photoemission experiments has provided molecular scientists with a valuable window through which to probe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules. But the answer to one fundamental quantum question-whether the core hole is localized or delocalized-has remained elusive for diatomic molecules in which both atoms are the same element. An international team of scientists

  13. Nitrogen molecule activation by excited states of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Zamora, M.; Novaro, O.; Ruiz, M.E. )

    1990-04-05

    Ab initio molecular orbital studies that include variational (with a multiconfiguration reference state of 200 states) and perturbational (including over 3 million configurations) configuration interaction calculations were addressed to the interaction of nitrogen molecules with copper. The Cu ground state {sup 2}S and first two excited states {sup 2}P and {sup 2}D were studied as they interact in different geometrical approaches (including side-on and end-on geometries) with ground-state N{sub 2} molecules.

  14. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print The behavior of the core hole created in molecular x-ray photoemission experiments has provided molecular scientists with a valuable window through which to probe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules. But the answer to one fundamental quantum question-whether the core hole is localized or delocalized-has remained elusive for diatomic molecules in which both atoms are the same element. An international team of scientists

  15. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print The behavior of the core hole created in molecular x-ray photoemission experiments has provided molecular scientists with a valuable window through which to probe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules. But the answer to one fundamental quantum question-whether the core hole is localized or delocalized-has remained elusive for diatomic molecules in which both atoms are the same element. An international team of scientists

  16. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print The behavior of the core hole created in molecular x-ray photoemission experiments has provided molecular scientists with a valuable window through which to probe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules. But the answer to one fundamental quantum question-whether the core hole is localized or delocalized-has remained elusive for diatomic molecules in which both atoms are the same element. An international team of scientists

  17. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  18. Nitrogen-doped zirconia: A comparison with cation stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jong-Sook . E-mail: jong-sook.lee@fkf.mpg.de; Lerch, Martin; Maier, Joachim

    2006-01-15

    The conductivity behavior of nitrogen-doped zirconia is compared with that of zirconia doped with lower-valent cations and discussed in the framework of defect-defect interactions. While nominally introducing the same number of vacancies as yttrium, nitrogen dopants introduced in the anion sublattice of zirconia lead to substantially different defect kinetics and energetics. Compared to the equivalent yttrium doping nitrogen doping in the Y-Zr-O-N system substantially increases the activation energy and correspondingly decreases the conductivity at temperatures below 500{sup -}bar C in the vacancy range below 4mol%. The comparison of N-doped zirconia and zirconia systems doped with size-matched cation stabilizers, such as Sc, Yb and Y, shows that elastically driven vacancy-vacancy ordering interactions can phenomenologically account for the temperature- and composition-dependence. It is striking that materials with superior high-temperature conductivities due to weak dopant-vacancy interactions undergo severe deterioration at low temperature due to the strong vacancy-ordering. The analysis also explains qualitatively similar effects of Y co-doping in Yb-, Sc-, and N-doped zirconia. Small amount of Y in N-doped zirconia as well as in Sc-doped zirconia appears to hinder the formation of the long-range ordered phase and thus enhance the conductivity substantially.

  19. FeN foils by nitrogen ion-implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Wang, Jian-Ping; Al Mehedi, Md; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-05-07

    Iron nitride samples in foil shape (free standing, 500 nm in thickness) were prepared by a nitrogen ion-implantation method. To facilitate phase transformation, the samples were bonded on the substrate followed by a post-annealing step. By using two different substrates, single crystal Si and GaAs, structural and magnetic properties of iron nitride foil samples prepared with different nitrogen ion fluences were characterized. α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} phase in iron nitride foil samples was obtained and confirmed by the proposed approach. A hard magnetic property with coercivity up to 780 Oe was achieved for the FeN foil samples bonded on Si substrate. The feasibility of using nitrogen ion implantation techniques to prepare FeN foil samples up to 500 nm thickness with a stable martensitic phase under high ion fluences has been demonstrated. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain this result. This proposed method could potentially be an alternative route to prepare rare-earth-free FeN bulk magnets by stacking and pressing multiple free-standing thick α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} foils together.

  20. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro, E-mail: saiki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-03-31

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3?eV to 5.4?eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  1. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources » Energy Basics » Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player A wind turbine works on a simple principle. This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100

  2. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player A wind turbine works on a simple principle. This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above

  3. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  4. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Cates, Michael R.; Franks, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  5. Fuel Cell Animation (Text Version) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Fuel cell shown with its ...

  6. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  7. Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For accessibility, Section 508 requires text versions of video, audio, and animations.  Follow the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) requirements for developing a text...

  8. Anatomic and Functional Imaging of Tagged Molecules in Animals - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Anatomic and Functional Imaging of Tagged Molecules in Animals Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Contact TJNAF About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired.DescriptionThe apparatus comprises a

  9. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen fueled vehicles have multiple safety systems that detect and prevent the accidental release of hydrogen. There are sensors that detect leaks, a computer that monitors fuel flow, and an excess flow shut-off valve. Hydrogen tanks also have a pressure release device, much like those on natural gas water heaters in our homes. If a leak is

  10. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  11. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  12. Direct determination of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen under kinetically well defined conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Freund, H.; Kwiatek, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    Recent developments in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy methods have made it possible to directly quantify nitrogen functionalities in complex solid and nonvolatile carbonaceous systems such as coal and kerogen. The kinds of nitrogen forms present in different organic matter type kerogens and the influences of sample maturity have not yet been established via these new direct methods. It is generally recognized that much of the nitrogen in coal and kerogen originated from the remains of organisms rich in amino groups yet it is believed that heterocyclic nitrogen compounds are the dominate forms present in petroleum, kerogen and coal. For coal, XPS results show that pyrrolic nitrogen is the most abundant form, followed by pyridinic and quaternary types. The relative amount of different nitrogen decreases with increasing coal ranks XPS has been used in the present work to quantify the amounts of different nitrogen functionalities initially present in Green River kerogen (Type 1) and Bakken kerogen (Type II) and to follow the changes that happen as a result of low-temperature pyrolysis under kinetically well defined conditions. Small amounts of amine and quaternary type nitrogen species were found in fresh Green River kerogen samples in addition to the more abundant pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen forms. Following pyrolysis to simulate the early conversion chemistry kerogen to light gases, pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen are the dominant forms. These results are compared to the results for Bakken kerogen and coal.

  13. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  14. Development of photocatalyst by combined nitrogen and yttrium doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Matiullah; Cao, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The simulated compensated YN{sub SUB} co-doped TiO{sub 2} model can reasonably explain the experimental observations. Calculation results show that substitutional Y at Ti sites and substitutional N at O sites with an oxygen vacancy give stable configuration, reduced band gap, better visible light absorption and enhance separations of photoexcited charge carriers. The experimental observations confirmed the theoretical findings. - Highlights: (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method. The Y doping concentration was varied from 0.01 to 1.38 at%. 0.05% (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} shows enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. Compensated and noncompensated ab-initio calculations were performed. Calculation results reasonably explained the experimental findings. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide co-doped with yttrium and nitrogen with different yttrium doping concentration has been synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method without any post calcination for crystallization. Irrespective of the yttrium doping concentration, all the synthesized samples were composed of pure anatase phase with good crystallinity. And the synthesized co-doped samples have spherical morphology with uniform particle size distribution. The absorption edge of the co-doped TiO{sub 2} was shifted toward visible light region depicting that the intrinsic band gap of TiO{sub 2} was affected by the co-doping. Among the different samples, the co-doped sample with 0.05% yttrium doping concentration exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. Compensated and non-compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} models were simulated using density functional theory to explain the experimental findings. The calculation results show that the compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} model may reasonably explain the experimental observations due to its stable

  15. Technological modifications in the nitrogen oxides tradable permit program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linn, J.

    2008-07-01

    Tradable permit programs allow firms greater flexibility in reducing emissions than command-and-control regulations and encourage firms to use low cost abatement options, including small-scale modifications to capital equipment. This paper shows that firms have extensively modified capital equipment in the Nitrogen Oxides Budget Trading Program, which covers power plants in the eastern United States. The empirical strategy uses geographic and temporal features of the program to estimate counterfactual emissions, finding that modifications have reduced emission rates by approximately 10-15 percent. The modifications would not have occurred under command-and-control regulation and have reduced regulatory costs.

  16. Optical excitation of paramagnetic nitrogen in chemical vapor deposited diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeff, C.F.; Rohrer, E.; Nebel, C.E.; Stutzmann, M.; Guettler, H.; Zachai, R.

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond films by electron-spin-resonance (ESR), light-induced (L)ESR, and the constant photoconductivity method have identified dispersed substitutional nitrogen (P1 center) as the main paramagnetic form of N incorporated in the CVD diamond. The density of N-related paramagnetic states is strongly affected by illumination and heat treatment. It is found that the P1 center in CVD diamond gives rise to a deep donor state about 1.5 eV below the conduction band. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John D.; Meikrantz, David H.; Tuggle, Dale G.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

  18. Alignment of the diamond nitrogen vacancy center by strain engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karin, Todd [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dunham, Scott [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fu, Kai-Mei [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a sensitive probe of magnetic field and a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing. The performance of many NV-based devices improves by aligning the NV(s) parallel to a single crystallographic direction. Using ab initio theoretical techniques, we show that NV orientation can be controlled by high-temperature annealing in the presence of strain under currently accessible experimental conditions. We find that (89??7)% of NVs align along the [111] crystallographic direction under 2% compressive biaxial strain (perpendicular to [111]) and an annealing temperature of 970?C.

  19. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  20. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, S.M.; Habash, D.Z.

    2009-07-02

    Glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonium into amino acids, thus it is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism. The cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase assimilate ammonium derived from primary nitrogen uptake and from various internal nitrogen recycling pathways. In this way, cytosolic glutamine synthetase is crucial for the remobilization of protein-derived nitrogen. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase is encoded by a small family of genes that are well conserved across plant species. Members of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene family are regulated in response to plant nitrogen status, as well as to environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability and biotic/abiotic stresses. The complex regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase at the transcriptional to post-translational levels is key to the establishment of a specific physiological role for each isoenzyme. The diverse physiological roles of cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoenzymes are important in relation to current agricultural and ecological issues.

  1. Sub-ambient carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2015-04-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption on carbon surface can be enhanced by doping the surface with heterogeneous atoms, which can increase local surface affinity. This study presents the carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene at low pressures (<100 kPa). Graphene was exposed to nitrogen plasma, which dopes nitrogen atoms into carbon hexagonal lattice, mainly in pyridinic and pyrrolic forms. It is found that nitrogen doping significantly improves the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at all temperatures, due to the enrichment of local Lewis basic sites. In general, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters suggest that doped nitrogen sites have nearly same adsorption energy of surface defects and residual functional groups. The isosteric heat of adsorption remains in physisorption range, which falls with surface coverage, suggesting the distribution of magnitude of adsorption energy. The absolute values of isosteric heat and entropy of adsorption are slightly increased upon nitrogen doping.

  2. Thermodynamic processes associated with frostbite in the handling of liquid nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W. L.; Cook, C. R.

    2014-01-29

    It is often taught that exposure to liquid nitrogen will cause frostbite or more severe damage to exposed skin tissue. However, it is also demonstrated that a full hand can be briefly immersed in liquid nitrogen without damage. To better understand and possibly visualize the effects of human tissue exposure to liquid nitrogen, a series of tests were conducted using simulated hands and arms composed of molded gelatin forms. The simulated hands and arms were immersed, sprayed, or splashed with liquid nitrogen both with and without state of the art personal protective equipment. Thermocouples were located within the test articles to allow for thermal mapping during the freezing process. The study is aimed to help understand frostbite hazards and the time constants involved with the handling of liquid nitrogen to improve future safety protocols for the safe handling of cryogenic fluids. Results of the testing also show the limits to handling liquid nitrogen while using various means of protection.

  3. Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1980-01-01

    Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

  4. Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report | Department of Energy Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in

  5. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A.; D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W.; Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M.; Klusek, Z.

    2014-06-21

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 510 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  6. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mechanism, carbon-nitrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond formation occurs in a concerted fashion. Article Title: A Highly Enantioselective Zirconium Catalyst for Intramolecular...

  7. Patterns of Nitrogen Utilization in Deep-Sea Syntrophic Consortia (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wiegel, Detlef

    2011-04-26

    Victoria Orphan from Caltech discusses "Patterns of nitrogen utilization in deep-sea syntrophic consortia" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  8. Separation of carbon and nitrogen isotopes by selective photodissociation azo or diazo compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao-Lin [Walnut Creek, CA

    1977-12-20

    Separation of isotopes, particularly of carbon or nitrogen, is achieved by the selective photodissociation of an azo compound or a diazoalkane, particularly azomethane or diazomethane.

  9. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

  10. Theory of nitrogen doping of carbon nanoribbons: Edge effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Jie; Turnbull, Joseph; Lu, Wenchang; Oak Ridge National Lab.; Boguslawski, Piotr; Univ. of Warsaw; Bernholc, J.; Oak Ridge National Lab.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of a carbon nanoribbon is profoundly affected by its one-dimensional character, symmetry, and interaction with edge states. Using state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, including hybrid exact-exchange density functional theory, we find that, for N-doped zigzag ribbons, the electronic properties are strongly dependent upon sublattice effects due to the non-equivalence of the two sublattices. For armchair ribbons, N-doping effects are different depending upon the ribbon family: for families 2 and 0, the N-induced levels are in the conduction band, while for family 1 the N levels are in the gap. In zigzag nanoribbons, nitrogen close to the edge is amore » deep center, while in armchair nanoribbons its behavior is close to an effective-mass-like donor with the ionization energy dependent on the value of the band gap. In chiral nanoribbons, we find strong dependence of the impurity level and formation energy upon the edge position of the dopant, while such site-specificity is not manifested in the magnitude of the magnetization.« less

  11. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  12. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C.

    1984-01-01

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  13. Scientific documentary animation: How much accuracy is enough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N.L.

    1992-02-06

    Scientific documentary animation presents final results, and thus has a somewhat different purpose than the scientific visualization used in their discovery. For an audience of non-specialists, production quality in the graphics, pacing, narration, music, and story-telling are important. However, the animation need only be qualitatively correct in order to communicate the desired information. When physical simulations are used to produce animated movement, the laws of motion can be adjusted to give a nicer appearance, to allow for easier programming, to compensate for incompatible time or size scales, or to artifically push things in a desired direction. Graphic tricks may even be used to disguise inadequacies in the simulation. Biological structures which are not yet completely understood may be given an arbitrary or approximate form in order to show their function. But in illustrating mathematics, it is often easy to be completely accurate.

  14. Scientific documentary animation: How much accuracy is enough?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N.L.

    1992-02-06

    Scientific documentary animation presents final results, and thus has a somewhat different purpose than the scientific visualization used in their discovery. For an audience of non-specialists, production quality in the graphics, pacing, narration, music, and story-telling are important. However, the animation need only be qualitatively correct in order to communicate the desired information. When physical simulations are used to produce animated movement, the laws of motion can be adjusted to give a nicer appearance, to allow for easier programming, to compensate for incompatible time or size scales, or to artifically push things in a desired direction. Graphic tricks may even be used to disguise inadequacies in the simulation. Biological structures which are not yet completely understood may be given an arbitrary or approximate form in order to show their function. But in illustrating mathematics, it is often easy to be completely accurate.

  15. Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E.; Norby, Richard J.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2014-10-13

    In C3 plants, CO2 concentrations drop considerably along mesophyll diffusion pathways from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts where CO2 assimilation occurs. Global carbon cycle models have not explicitly represented this internal drawdown and so overestimate CO2 available for carboxylation and underestimate photosynthetic responsiveness to atmospheric CO2. An explicit consideration of mesophyll diffusion increases the modeled cumulative CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) for global gross primary production (GPP) from 915 PgC to 1057 PgC for the period of 1901 to 2010. This increase represents a 16% correction, large enough to explain the persistent overestimation of growth rates of historical atmospheric CO2 by Earthmore » System Models. Without this correction, the CFE for global GPP is underestimated by 0.05 PgC yr-1ppm-1. This finding implies that the contemporary terrestrial biosphere is more CO2-limited than previously thought.« less

  16. International radiobiology archives of long-term animal studies. I. Descriptions of participating institutions and studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, G.B.; Watson, C.R.; Sugahara, T.; Okada, S.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes archived radiobiology animal studies. Information is presented on experimental details, pathology, radioactivity, results, dosimetry, status, and animal type employed.

  17. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A. Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha{sup −1} sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha{sup −1} triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg{sup −1} PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms.

  18. Self-protecting transistor oscillator for treating animal tissues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doss, James D.

    1980-01-01

    A transistor oscillator circuit wherein the load current applied to animal tissue treatment electrodes is fed back to the transistor. Removal of load is sensed to automatically remove feedback and stop oscillations. A thermistor on one treatment electrode senses temperature, and by means of a control circuit controls oscillator transistor current.

  19. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ying; Shao, Yuyan; Matson, Dean W.; Li, Jinghong; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-05

    Chemical doping with foreign atoms is an effective method to intrinsically modify the properties of host materials. Among them, nitrogen (N) doping plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of carbon materials. Recently, graphene as a true 2-dimensional carbon material has shown fascinating applications in bioelectronics and biosensors. In this paper, we report a facile strategy to prepare N-doped graphene by using plasma treatment of pristine graphene synthesized via chemical method. Meanwhile, a possible schematic diagram has been proposed to detail the structure of N-doped graphene. By controlling the exposure time, N percentage in host grapheme can be regulated ranging from 0.11% to 1.35%. Moreover, the as prepared N-doped graphene has displayed high electrocatalytic activity to hydrogen peroxide and further been used for glucose biosensing with concentration as low as 0.01 mM in the presence of interferences.

  20. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2008-08-19

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  1. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2008-05-27

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  2. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  3. Adsorption configurations of two nitrogen atoms on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rani, Babita, E-mail: babitabaghla15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 002 and Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India); Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We present calculations for different possible configurations of two nitrogen adatoms on graphene using the code VASP, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Two N atoms adsorbed on the graphene sheet can share a bond in two ways. They take positions either just above two adjacent carbon atoms or they form a bridge across opposite bonds of a hexagon in the graphene sheet. Both these configurations result into structural distortion of the sheet. Another stable configuration involving two N atoms consists of an N{sub 2} molecule which is physisorbed at a distance 3.69 on the graphene sheet. Two N atoms can also be adsorbed on alternate bridge sites of neighbouring hexagons of graphene. This configuration again leads to distortion of the sheet in perpendicular direction.

  4. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernndez, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  5. Properties of nitrogen implanted and electron beam annealed bulk ZnO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, J.; Carder, D. A.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R. J.

    2010-05-15

    The optical properties of bulk ZnO ion implanted with nitrogen ions, at an energy of 23 keV have been studied as a function of implantation fluence and electron beam (EB) annealing conditions. Nuclear reaction analysis and Raman results have revealed the implanted N concentration and its structural changes with respect to various nitrogen ion fluences. The optical properties of nitrogen implanted bulk ZnO were investigated by low temperature photoluminescence measurements. An enhanced peak at 3.235 eV has been attributed to donor-accepter pair (DAP) emission involving the implanted N acceptor in ZnO. The emission near 3.3085 eV is attributed to a free electron to acceptor transition. We also report a broad band emission feature at {approx}3.09 eV in the nitrogen implanted with 1-2x10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2} and EB annealed at 800-900 deg. C. This is assigned to a thermally activated nitrogen acceptor transition as it is unique only to nitrogen implanted samples. An ionization energy of 377 meV indicates that this line may correspond to a significantly less shallow acceptor level. In addition an increase in the intensity and dominance of this DAP line in nitrogen implanted samples over the other acceptor transitions was observed with increasing annealing time and temperatures. It is shown that EB annealing offers a method of enhanced nitrogen activation when compared to a more conventional furnace approach.

  6. Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Heikoop; Heather Throckmorton

    2015-05-15

    Dataset includes nitrate concentrations for polygonal active layer samples, snowmelt; ammonium concentrations for active layer samples; nitrate isotopes for active layer samples, snowmelt, permafrost; ammonium isotopes for active layer samples; and nitrogen isotopes for soils and dissolved organic nitrogen extracted from soil pore waters.

  7. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  8. Preparation of carbon nanoparticles and carbon nitride from high nitrogen compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2009-09-01

    The high-nitrogen compound 3,6-di(azido)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DiAT) was synthesized by a relatively simple method and used as a precursor for the preparation of carbon nanospheres and nanopolygons, and nitrogen-rich carbon nitrides.

  9. Device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhilavyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Laptev, Valery Dmitrievich; Pakhomov, Nikolay Ivanovich; Shvedunov, Vasily Ivanovich; Rykalin, Vladimir Ivanovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2014-03-25

    A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.

  10. Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen in Cobalt Nitride and Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Spheres for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Xing; Liu, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Zhuang, Guilin; Li, Xiaonian; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jian-guo; Su, Dang S.

    2015-06-15

    The need for inexpensive and high-activity oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts has attracted considerable research interest over the past years. Here we report a novel hybrid that contains cobalt nitride/nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres (CoxN/NHCS) as a high-performance catalyst for ORR. The CoxN nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed and confined in the hollow NHCS shell. The performance of the resulting CoxN/NHCS hybrid was comparable with that of a commercial Pt/C at the same catalyst loading toward ORR, but the mass activity of the former was 5.7 times better than that of the latter. The nitrogen in both CoxN and NHCS, especially CoxN, could weaken the adsorption of reaction intermediates (O and OOH), which follows the favourable reaction pathway on CoxN/NHCS according to the DFT-calculated Gibbs free energy diagrams. Our results demonstrated a new strategy for designing and developing inexpensive, non-precious metal electrocatalysts for next-generation fuels. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Basic Research Program (973 program, No. 2013CB733501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21306169, 21101137, 21136001, 21176221 and 91334013). Dr. D. Mei is supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  11. Graphical User Interface Color Display Animation Interaction Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-05

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of a calculation, typically generated by RELAP5 or other code. This display consists of one or more picture, called masks, that mimic the host code input. This mask can be animated to display user-specified code output information mapped as colors, dials, moving arrows, etc., on the mask. The user can also interact with the control systems of the hostmore » input file as the execution progresses, thereby controlling aspects of the calculation. The Computer Visual System (CVS) creates, edits, and animates the the masks for use in the NPA.« less

  12. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  13. The nature of fluctuations in a double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu Xin; Yan Jianhua; Yu Liang; Cen, Kefa; Cheron, Bruno

    2007-09-24

    The dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet is investigated by combined means of the fast Fourier transform, correlation function, and Wigner distribution. The restrike mode is identified as the fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which indicates that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the power supply undulation and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. It is further found that the double anode torch could inhibit and reduce the restrike phenomenon.

  14. Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1983-10-01

    This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

  15. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2004-06-22

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  16. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  17. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  18. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. ); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. ); Cropp, J.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  19. Nitrogen Deposition to and Cycling in a Deciduous Forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Carreiro, Margaret; Davis, Melissa L.; Hartley, Anne; Jensen, Bjame; Oliphant, Andrew; Randolph, Melissa J. C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2001-01-01

    The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N) deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF). The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N flux of approximately 6 mg-N m -2 day -1 during the 2000 growing season, with approximately 40% coming from dry deposition of ammonia (NH 3 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), and particle-bound N. Wet deposition and throughfall measurements indicate significant canopy uptake of N (particularly NH 4 +) at themore » site, leading to a net canopy exchange (NCE) of –6 kg-N ha -1 for the growing season. These data are used in combination with data on the aboveground C:N ratio, litterfall flux, and soil net N mineralization rates to indicate the level of potential perturbation of C sequestration at this site.« less

  20. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  1. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces betweenmore » plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N

  2. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces between plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration

  3. Evidence for foliar endophytic nitrogen fixation in a widely distributed subalpine conifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Carper, Dana L.; Vandehey, Nick; O'Neil, James; Frank, A. Carolin

    2016-02-01

    Coniferous forest nitrogen (N) budgets indicate unknown sources of N. A consistent association between limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and potential N2-fixing acetic acid bacteria (AAB) indicates that native foliar endophytes may supply subalpine forests with N.

  4. Incidence of High Nitrogen in Sintered Uranium Dioxide: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B. Narasimha; Anuradha, M.; Yadav, R.B.; Jayaraj, R.N

    2005-05-15

    Nitrogen content, above the specified limit of 75 {mu}g(gU){sup -1}, was encountered in sintered uranium dioxide in the course of its manufacture. The cause was traced to the sintering process, wherein carbon, a degradation product of the die wall or admixed lubricant, was retained in the compact as a result of inadvertent reversal of gas flow in the sintering furnace. In the presence of carbon, the uranium dioxide reacted with nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere to form nitride. The compacts with high nitrogen were also those with low sintered density, arising from low green density. The low green density was due to filling problems of an inhomogeneous powder. The experiments carried out establish the causes of high nitrogen to be the carbon residue from lubricant when the UO{sub 2} is sintered in a cracked ammonia atmosphere.

  5. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly

  6. Modifications of Superconducting Properties of Niobium Caused by Nitrogen Doping Recipes for High Q Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vostrikov, Alexander; Checchin, Mattia; Grassellino, Anna; Kim, Young-Kee; Romanenko, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    A study is presented on the superconducting properties of niobium used for the fabrication of the SRF cavities after treating by recently discovered nitrogen doping methods. Cylindrical niobium samples have been subjected to the standard surface treatments applied to the cavities (electro-polishing, l 20°C bake) and compared with samples treated by additional nitrogen doping recipes routinely used to reach ultra-high quality factor values (>3· 1010 at 2 K, 16 MV/m). The DC magnetization curves and the complex magnetic AC susceptibility have been measured. Evidence for the lowered field of first flux penetration after nitrogen doping is found suggesting a correlation with the lowered quench fields. Superconducting critical temperatures Tc = 9.25 K are found to be in agreement with previous measurements, and no strong effect on the critical surface field (Bd) from nitrogen doping was found.

  7. Fast nanoscale addressability of nitrogen-vacancy spins via coupling to a dynamic ferromagnetic vortex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wolf, M. S.; Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2016-06-14

    The core of a ferromagnetic vortex domain creates a strong, localized magnetic field, which can be manipulated on nanosecond timescales, providing a platform for addressing and controlling individual nitrogen-vacancy centre spins in diamond at room temperature, with nanometre-scale resolution. Here, we show that the ferromagnetic vortex can be driven into proximity with a nitrogen-vacancy defect using small applied magnetic fields, inducing significant nitrogen-vacancy spin splitting. We also find that the magnetic field gradient produced by the vortex is sufficient to address spins separated by nanometre-length scales. By applying a microwave-frequency magnetic field, we drive both the vortex and the nitrogen-vacancymore » spins, resulting in enhanced coherent rotation of the spin state. Lastly, we demonstrate that by driving the vortex on fast timescales, sequential addressing and coherent manipulation of spins is possible on ~ 100 ns timescales.« less

  8. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment (October 2007) (497.87 KB) More Documents & Publications J.R. Simplot: ...

  9. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  10. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory - Touch An Animal Day 2016

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Photo Album Savannah River Ecology Laboratory's 8th Annual "Touch An Animal Day!" August 20, 2016 Once again a fun day was had by all! Click on an image for a larger view. Special thanks to the following individuals for their help with this event: Matt Baker Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin Dr. Kurt Buhlmann Joseph Colbert Zoë Cooper Fanny Coutelot Mackenzie Dix Carol Eldridge Larry Eldridge Dean Fletcher Wes Flynn Dr. Whit Gibbons Judy Greene-McLeod Matt Hamilton David Keiter Linda Lee

  11. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  14. Preparation of nanoporous metal foam from high nitrogen transition metal complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.; Son, Steven F.; Oschwald, David M.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren L.

    2006-11-28

    Nanoporous metal foams are prepared by ignition of high nitrogen transition metal complexes. The ammonium salts of iron(III) tris[bi(tetrazolato)-amine], cobalt(III) tris(bi(tetrazolato)amine), and high nitrogen compounds of copper and silver were prepared as loose powders, pressed into pellets and wafers, and ignited under an inert atmosphere to form nanoporous metal foam monoliths having very high surface area and very low density.

  15. Investigations into the chemical structure based selectivity of the microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brocato, Terisse A.; Hess, Ryan F.; Moorman, Matthew; Simonson, Robert J.

    2015-10-28

    The nitrogen and phosphorus atoms are constituents of some of the most toxic chemical vapors. Nitrogen-phosphorus gas chromatograph detectors (NPDs) rely on selective ionization of such compounds using ionization temperatures typically greater than 600 C. NPDs have previously been reported to be 7*104 and 105 more sensitive for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, than for carbon. Presented here is an investigation of the structure-based selectivity of a microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector (?NPD). The ?NPD presented here is smaller than a dime and can be placed in a system that is 1/100th the size of a commercial NPD. Comparison of responses of such devices to homologous anilines (p-methoxyaniline, p-fluoroaniline, and aniline) revealed that detection selectivity, determined by the ratio of ?NPD to nonselective flame ionization detector (FID) peak areas, is correlated with acid disassociation pKa values for the respective analine. Selectivity was determined to be greatest for p-methoxyaniline, followed by p-fluoroaniline, with aniline having the smallest response. The limit of detection for a nitrogen containing chemical, p-methoxyaniline, using the ?NPD was determined to be 0.29 ng compared to 59 ng for a carbon chemical containing no nitrogen or phosphorus, 1,3,5-trimethybenzene. The ?NPD presented here has increased detection for nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the FID and with a slight increase in detection of carbon compounds compared to commercial NPD's sensitivity to nitrogen and carbon.

  16. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air | Department of Energy Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_bowser.pdf (615.73 KB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Technology Workshop Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) R&D - Presentation by Argonne National Laboratory, June 2011 Diesel Engine

  17. Ab Initio Investigation of the Melting Line of Nitrogen at High Pressure |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Investigation of the Melting Line of Nitrogen at High Pressure Authors: Donadio, D., Spanu, L., Duchemin, I., Gygi, F., Galli, G. Understanding the behavior of molecular systems under pressure is a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. In the case of nitrogen, the determination of the phase diagram and, in particular, of the melting line, are largely open problems. Two independent experiments have reported the presence of a maximum in the

  18. Investigations into the chemical structure based selectivity of the microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brocato, Terisse A.; Hess, Ryan F.; Moorman, Matthew; Simonson, Robert J.

    2015-10-28

    The nitrogen and phosphorus atoms are constituents of some of the most toxic chemical vapors. Nitrogen-phosphorus gas chromatograph detectors (NPDs) rely on selective ionization of such compounds using ionization temperatures typically greater than 600 °C. NPDs have previously been reported to be 7*104× and 105× more sensitive for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, than for carbon. Presented here is an investigation of the structure-based selectivity of a microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector (μNPD). The μNPD presented here is smaller than a dime and can be placed in a system that is 1/100th the size of a commercial NPD. Comparison of responses of suchmore » devices to homologous anilines (p-methoxyaniline, p-fluoroaniline, and aniline) revealed that detection selectivity, determined by the ratio of μNPD to nonselective flame ionization detector (FID) peak areas, is correlated with acid disassociation pKa values for the respective analine. Selectivity was determined to be greatest for p-methoxyaniline, followed by p-fluoroaniline, with aniline having the smallest response. The limit of detection for a nitrogen containing chemical, p-methoxyaniline, using the μNPD was determined to be 0.29 ng compared to 59 ng for a carbon chemical containing no nitrogen or phosphorus, 1,3,5-trimethybenzene. The μNPD presented here has increased detection for nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the FID and with a slight increase in detection of carbon compounds compared to commercial NPD's sensitivity to nitrogen and carbon.« less

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai Brent Auvermann Saqib Mukhtar Sergio C. Capareda Cady Engler Wyatte Harman J.N. Reddy, Robert DeOtte David B. Parker Dr. B.A. Stewart

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  2. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten, Brent W. Auvermann, Saqib Mukhtar, Sergio Caperada Cady R. Engler, Wyatte Harman Reddy JN Robert Deotte

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  3. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Sinsabaugh; D.R. Zak; D.L. Moorhead

    2008-02-19

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.

  4. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yanjie; Ji Min; Li Ruying; Qin Feifei

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  5. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  6. Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji-lu Chen

    1993-12-31

    Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

  7. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  8. Small animal electric and magnetic field exposure systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, R.C.; Dietrich, F.M.

    1993-10-01

    Laboratory evaluation of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and cancer in animals requires exposure of relatively large numbers of animals, usually rats or mice, to 60-Hz fields under very well controlled conditions for periods of up to two years. This report describes two exposure systems, the first of which is based on modifications of an existing electric field exposure system to include magnetic field exposure capability. In this system, each module houses 576--768 mice, which can be exposed to electric field levels of up to 100 kV/m and magnetic field levels of up to 10 Gauss. When a module was operated at 10 Gauss, measured levels of noise and vibration fell substantially below the detection threshold for humans. Moreover, temperature rise in the coils did not exceed 12{degrees}C at the 10 Gauss level. Specifications and test results for the second system, which provides magnetic field exposure capability only, are similar, except that each module houses 624--780 mice. After installation of the second system at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, additional results were obtained. This report provides a complete description of the engineering design, specifications, and test results for the completed systems.

  9. Bioconversion of animal manure into electricity and a liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, J.R.; Iannotti, E.L.; Stahl, T.; Garcia, A. III; Harris, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated farm energy system operating at Columbia, Missouri converted animal manure into thermal and electrical energy and a liquid fuel. An anaerobic digester converted 510 kg of volatile solids into 285 m/sup 3/ of biogas consisting of 55% methane. An internal combustion engine coupled to an electrical generator produced 408 kWh/day of electricity and 3 GJ/day of thermal energy. An ethanol production plant converted thermal and electrical energy into 85 liters of ethanol. Subtracting the thermal and electrical demands of the digester and ethanol plant, the system produced a net energy of 277 kWh of electricity, 750 MJ of thermal energy and 85 liters of ethanol. 9 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  11. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  12. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome After Abdominal Irradiation That Included or Excluded the Pelvis in Childhood Tumor Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudour, Helene; Chastagner, Pascal; Claude, Line; Desandes, Emmanuel; Klein, Marc; Carrie, Christian; Bernier, Valerie

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate fertility after abdominal and/or pelvic irradiation in long-term female survivors. Methods and Materials: Puberty and pregnancy outcome were analyzed in female survivors of childhood cancer (aged <18 years) treated with abdominal and/or pelvic radiotherapy (RT) at one of two French centers (Nancy and Lyon) between 1975 and 2004. Data were obtained from medical records and questionnaires sent to the women. Results: A total of 84 patients who had received abdominal and/or pelvic RT during childhood and were alive and aged more than 18 years at the time of the study made up the study population. Of the 57 female survivors treated with abdominal RT that excluded the pelvis, 52 (91%) progressed normally through puberty and 23 (40%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Of the 27 patients treated with pelvic RT, only 10 (37%) progressed normally through puberty and 5 (19%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Twenty-two women (seventeen of whom were treated with pelvic RT) had certain subfertility. A total of 50 births occurred in 28 women, with one baby dying at birth; one miscarriage also occurred. There was a high prevalence of prematurity and low birth weight but not of congenital malformations. Conclusions: Fertility can be preserved in patients who undergo abdominal RT that excludes the pelvis, taking into account the other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents) are taken into account. When RT includes the pelvis, fertility is frequently impaired and women can have difficulty conceiving. Nevertheless, pregnancies can occur in some of these women. The most important factor that endangers a successful pregnancy after RT is the total dose received by the ovaries and uterus. This radiation dose has to be systematically recorded to improve our ability to follow up patients.

  13. Short-term exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol decreases the fertility of sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Irv R.; Skillman, Ann D.; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G.; Nagler, James J.

    2003-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly used oral contraceptive that has been increasingly detected in sewage effluents. This study determined whether EE2 exposure adversely affected reproduction in sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed male trout to graded water concentrations of EE2 (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/ L) for 62 d leading up to the time of spawning. Semen and blood plasma samples were removed from each fish. Semen was used to fertilize groups of eggs from one nonexposed female. As a measure of fertility, eggs were incubated for 28 d after fertilization to determine the proportion that attained the eyed stage of embryonic development. Additional endpoints also measured included sperm motility, spermatocrit, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, testis histology, and circulating plasma levels of the sex steroids 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20-DHP) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Exposure to 1,000 ng/L of EE2 caused complete mortality of the treatment group by day 57. Exposure to lower EE2 water concentrations (10 and 100 ng/L) caused an increase in sperm density, while a significant reduction in testis mass was observed only in the 100-ng/L exposure group. Most significantly, semen harvested from fish exposed to 10 and 100 ng/L EE2 caused an approximately 50% reduction in the number of eggs attaining the eyed stage of embryonic development. Plasma levels of 17,20-DHP in exposed fish were roughly twice the level of the controls, while levels of 11-KT were significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100 ng/L EE2. These results suggest that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to detrimental reproductive effects of short-term exposures to environmentally relevant levels of EE2.

  14. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-07-07

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  15. Production and characterization of a nitrogen-implanted Fe standard to calibrate PIGE measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, C. L.; Silva, T. F.; Added, N.; Santos, H. C.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-11

    Three calibration standard was produced by ion implantation of nitrogen in samples of Armco iron (99.7% iron). The samples was irradiated with nitrogen ion beams at several different energies (between 4 keV and 40 keV), and the ion doses were adjusted to obtain an uniform depth profile, using simulations with SRIM code. Two standards, one thick and other a foil (1.62mg/cm{sup 2}), was irradiated at same time with total nominal dose of 6.6×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} distributed in a region of 100 nm in depth, with an average concentration of 9.0% nitrogen in iron. The third sample uses the same profile, but with a small dose, 1.1×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} and average concentration of 1.5% nitrogen. The characterization of the implanted samples was done using RBS and NRA techniques to quantification of nitrogen.

  16. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Il; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-08-15

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  17. Electride support boosts nitrogen dissociation over ruthenium catalyst and shifts the bottleneck in ammonia synthesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kitano, Masaaki; Kanbara, Shinji; Inoue, Yasunori; Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Sushko, Peter V.; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Hara, Michikazu; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-03-30

    We actively sough novel approaches to efficient ammonia synthesis at an ambient pressure so as to reduce the cost of ammonia production and to allow for compact production facilities. It is accepted that the key is the development of a high-performance catalyst that significantly enhances dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond, which is generally considered a rate-determining step. Here we examine the kinetics of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope exchange and hydrogen adsorption/desorption reactions for a recently discovered efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis --ruthenium-loaded 12CaO∙7AI2O3 electride (Ru/C12A7:more » $$\\bar{e}$$ )--and find that the rate controlling step of ammonia synthesis over Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ is not dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond but the subsequent formation of N-Hn species. A mechanism of ammonia synthesis involving reversible storage and release of hydrogen atoms on the Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ surface is proposed on the basis of observed hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics.« less

  18. Low temperature combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate NOx from large bore natural gas fueled engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biruduganti, M.; Gupta, S.; Sekar, R.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature combustion is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NO{sub x} emissions levels set by the regulatory agencies. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a well known technique to realize low NO{sub x} emissions. However, EGR has many built-in adverse ramifications that negate its advantages in the long term. This paper discusses nitrogen enrichment of intake air using air separation membranes as a better alternative to the mature EGR technique. This investigation was undertaken to determine the maximum acceptable level of nitrogen enrichment of air for a single-cylinder spark-ignited natural gas engine. NO{sub x} reduction as high as 70% was realized with a modest 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving fuel conversion efficiency (FCE). Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance in terms of power density, FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N{sub 2} enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing nitrogen enrichment was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with nitrogen enrichment is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NO{sub x} emissions.

  19. Evaluation of CALPUFF nitrogen deposition modeling in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Area using NADP data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, M.; Mayes, P.; Sherwell, J.

    1998-12-31

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system has been used to estimate nitrogen deposition in an area surrounding Baltimore and the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay. Comprehensive NO{sub x} emissions inventories and meteorological data bases have been developed to conduct the modeling. This paper discusses the results of an evaluation of predicted nitrogen wet deposition rates compared to measured rates at two NADP/NTN sites in Maryland, Wye and White Rock. Underprediction of wet deposition rates is investigated through the use of sensitivity and diagnostic evaluations of model performance. A suggested change to the calculation of NO{sub x} transformation rates involving an alternative specification of minimum NO{sub x} concentrations was made to CALPUFF and the performance evaluation was re-done. Results of the new evaluation show significantly improved model performance, and therefore the modification is tentatively proposed for use in further applications of CALPUFF to the assessment of nitrogen deposition in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  20. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M.; Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsss, H.; Thakur, S.; Maiti, K.

    2014-09-15

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25?eV and a fluence of approximately 5??10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6??6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  1. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  2. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  3. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part I: Health outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-06-01

    We have carried out a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide increases the incidence and severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. Between January 1988 and June 1990, 1,315 infants were enrolled into the study at birth and followed with prospective surveillance for the occurrence of respiratory infections and monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in their homes. The subjects were healthy infants from homes without smokers; they were selected with stratification by type of cooking stove at a ratio of four to one for gas and electric stoves. Illness experience was monitored by a daily diary of symptoms completed by the mother and a telephone interview conducted every two weeks. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as involving the lower respiratory tract; all other respiratory illnesses were designated as involving the upper respiratory tract. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was estimated by two-week average concentrations measured in the subjects' bedrooms with passive samplers. This analysis is limited to the 1,205 subjects completing at least one month of observation; of these, 823 completed the full protocol, contributing 82.8% of the total number of days during which the subjects were under observation. Incidence rates for all respiratory illnesses, all upper respiratory illness, all lower respiratory illnesses, and lower respiratory illness further divided into those with any wheezing, or wet cough without wheezing, were examined within strata of nitrogen dioxide exposure at the time of the illness, nitrogen dioxide exposure during the prior month, and type of cooking stove. Consistent trends of increasing illness incidence rates with increasing exposure to nitrogen dioxide were not evident for either the lagged or unlagged exposure variables.

  4. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  5. Modeling fatty acid relationships in animal waste anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.T.; Bolte, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) relationships are important in the anaerobic digestion of animal wastes as they (acetic, propionic and butyric) are direct precursors of methane, either through direct conversion of acetate or through the intermediate formation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Thus, they are essential compounds in the biological conversion of heterogenous wastes to useable products. VFA's are also known inhibitors in the biological conversion process if their concentrations are sufficiently high. Thus, VFA's are simultaneously essential for the process and can be toxic agents should they be present in excess quantities. This relationship makes quantifying VFA's in the modeling studies essential to accurately predicting digester failure or success. A highly correlated relationship between the level of acetic acid and/or the propionic to acetic acid ratio in digesters that were successful and in digesters that failed has been shown. These data have been used to calibrate an original comprehensive methanogenesis model and along with the addition of dual-use substrate kinetics for the simultaneous catalysis of propionate and butyrate, have produced a much improved prediction of the VFA relationships observed in operating anaerobic digesters. This manuscript describes the addition of the dual-use substrate kinetics and the modification of the kinetic parameters of the original methanogenic model and compared the simulated output of the original and modified models to demonstrate the improved predictive ability. (Refs. 12).

  6. Multi-omics analysis reveals regulators of the response to nitrogen limitation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Kim, Young -Mo; Nicora, Carrie D.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Hu, Dehong; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2016-02-25

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that stores lipids in response to limitation of nitrogen. Furthermore, while the enzymatic pathways responsible for neutral lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica are well characterized, regulation of these pathways has received little attention. We therefore sought to characterize the response to nitrogen limitation at system-wide levels, including the proteome, phosphoproteome and metabolome, to better understand how this organism regulates and controls lipid metabolism and to identify targets that may be manipulated to improve lipid yield.

  7. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster in gas jet under liquid nitrogen temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han Jifeng; Yang Chaowen; Miao Jingwei; Fu Pengtao; Luo Xiaobing; Shi Miangong

    2010-09-15

    The generation of hydrogen clusters in gas jet is tested using the Rayleigh scattering method under liquid nitrogen temperature of 79 K. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster is studied and it is found that the cluster formation is greatly affected by the number of expanded molecules. The well designed liquid nitrogen cold trap ensured that the hydrogen cluster would keep maximum size for maximum 15 ms during one gas jet. The scattered light intensity exhibits a power scaling on the backing pressure ranging from 5 to 48 bar with the power value of 4.1.

  8. Defect Chemistry Study of Nitrogen Doped ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miami University: Dr. Lei L. Kerr Wright State University: Dr. David C. Look and Dr. Zhaoqiang Fang

    2009-11-29

    Our team has investigated the defect chemistry of ZnO:N and developed a thermal evaporation (vapor-phase) method to synthesis p-type ZnO:N. Enhanced p-type conductivity of nitrogen doped ZnO via nano/micro structured rods and Zn-rich Co-doping process were studied. Also, an extended X-Ray absorption fine structure study of p-type nitrogen doped ZnO was conducted. Also reported are Hall-effect, photoluminescence, and DLTS studies.

  9. Hopewell Beneficial CO2 Capture for Production of Fuels, Fertilizer and Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UOP; Honeywell Resins & Chemicals; Honeywell Process Solutions; Aquaflow Bionomics Ltd

    2010-09-30

    conductivity sensors is suitable for process control of algae cultivation in an open pond systems. This project concluded that the Hopewell wastewater is very suitable for algal cultivation but the potential for significant CO2 sequestration from the plant stack gas emissions was minimal due to the high endogenous CO2 generation in the wastewater from the organic wastewater content. Algae cultivation was found to be promising, however, for nitrogen remediation in the Hopewell wastewater.

  10. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost region is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.

  11. First-principles study on the interaction of nitrogen atom with ?uranium: From surface adsorption to bulk diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Qiulei; Deng, Huiqiu E-mail: hqdeng@gmail.com; Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Hu, Wangyu; Ao, Bingyun; Chen, Piheng

    2014-04-28

    Experimental studies of nitriding on uranium surfaces show that the modified layers provide considerable protection against air corrosion. The bimodal distribution of nitrogen is affected by both its implantation and diffusion, and the diffusion of nitrogen during implantation is also governed by vacancy trapping. In the present paper, nitrogen adsorption, absorption, diffusion, and vacancy trapping on the surface of and in the bulk of ?uranium are studied with a first-principles density functional theory approach and the climbing image nudged elastic band method. The calculated results indicate that, regardless of the nitrogen coverage, a nitrogen atom prefers to reside at the hollow1 site and octahedral (Oct) site on and below the surface, respectively. The lowest energy barriers for on-surface and penetration diffusion occur at a coverage of 1/2 monolayer. A nitrogen atom prefers to occupy the Oct site in bulk ?uranium. High energy barriers are observed during the diffusion between neighboring Oct sites. A vacancy can capture its nearby interstitial nitrogen atom with a low energy barrier, providing a significant attractive nitrogen-vacancy interaction at the trapping center site. This study provides a reference for understanding the nitriding process on uranium surfaces.

  12. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost regionmore » is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.« less

  13. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory anaimals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the US. This report discusses activities conducted in 1981, including committees, a task force on Ectromelia, and the Animal Models and Genetic Stocks Information Exchange Program. (ACR)

  14. Awake Animal Imaging at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Awake Animal Imaging at BNL Print Text Size: A A ... The Biomedical Engineering program which is part of the Center for Translational ...

  15. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Ju Won; Sharma, Ronish; Meduri, Praveen; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Lemmon, John P.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; McGrail, B. Peter; Nune, Satish K.

    2014-05-28

    Electrochemical performance of the existing state-of-the art capacitors is not very high, key scientific barrier is that its charge storage mechanism wholly depends on adsorption of electrolyte on electrode. We present a novel method for the synthesis of nitrogen -doped porous carbons and address the drawback by precisely controlling composition and surface area. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon was synthesized using a self-sacrificial template technique without any additional nitrogen and carbon sources. They exhibited exceptionally high capacitance (239 Fg-1) due to additional pseudocapacitance originating from doped nitrogen. Cycling tests showed no obvious capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, which meets the requirement of commercial supercapacitors. Our method is simple and highly efficient for the production of large quantities of nitrogen-doped porous carbons.

  16. Characterization of an atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, X.; Cheron, B. G.; Yan, J. H.; Yu, L.; Cen, K. F.

    2008-05-15

    In the framework of studies devoted to hazardous waste destruction, an original dc double anode plasma torch has been designed and tested, which produces an elongated, weak fluctuation and reproducible plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet are investigated through the oscillations of electrical signals by combined means of fast Fourier transform and Wigner distribution. In our experiment, the restrike mode is identified as the typical fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra and Wigner distributions exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which reveals that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the undulation of the power supply and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. In addition, the microscopic properties of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber are investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy, which yields excitation, electronic, rotational, and vibrational temperatures, as well as the electron number density. The results allow us to examine the validity criteria of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc. The measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma in the core region is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions.

  17. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  18. Enhancing Graphene Capacitance by Nitrogen: Effects of Doping Configuration and Concentration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhan, Cheng; Cummings, Peter; Jiang, De-en

    2016-01-08

    Recent experiments have shown that nitrogen doping enhances capacitance in carbon electrode supercapacitors. However, a detailed study of the effect of N-doping on capacitance is still lacking. In this paper, we study the doping concentration and the configuration effect on the electric double-layer (EDL) capacitance, quantum capacitance, and total capacitance. It is found that pyridinic and graphitic nitrogens can increase the total capacitance by increasing quantum capacitance, but pyrrolic configuration limits the total capacitance due to its much lower quantum capacitance than the other two configurations. We also find that, unlike the graphitic and pyridinic nitrogens, the pyrrolic configuration's quantummore » capacitance does not depend on the nitrogen concentration, which may explain why some capacitance versus voltage measurements of N-doped graphene exhibit a V-shaped curve similar to that of undoped graphene. Our investigation provides a deeper understanding of the capacitance enhancement of the N-doping effect in carbon electrodes and suggests a potentially effective way to optimize the capacitance by controlling the type of N-doping.« less

  19. N-type droping of nanocrystalline diamond films with nitrogen and electrodes made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.

    2004-09-21

    An electrically conducting n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having no less than 10.sup.19 atoms/cm.sup.3 of nitrogen is disclosed. A method of making the n-doped UNCD. A method for predictably controlling the conductivity is also disclosed.

  20. Neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO: The {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C.; Evans, S. M.; Halliburton, L. E.

    2014-03-14

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is used to characterize the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions associated with neutral nitrogen acceptors in zinc oxide. Data are obtained from an n-type bulk crystal grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method. Singly ionized nitrogen acceptors (N{sup −}) initially present in the crystal are converted to their paramagnetic neutral charge state (N{sup 0}) during exposure at low temperature to 442 or 633 nm laser light. The EPR signals from these N{sup 0} acceptors are best observed near 5 K. Nitrogen substitutes for oxygen ions and has four nearest-neighbor cations. The zinc ion along the [0001] direction is referred to as an axial neighbor and the three equivalent zinc ions in the basal plane are referred to as nonaxial neighbors. For axial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine parameters are A{sub ‖} = 37.0 MHz and A{sub ⊥} = 8.4 MHz with the unique direction being [0001]. For nonaxial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn parameters are A{sub 1} = 14.5 MHz, A{sub 2} = 18.3 MHz, and A{sub 3} = 20.5 MHz with A{sub 3} along a [101{sup ¯}0] direction (i.e., in the basal plane toward the nitrogen) and A{sub 2} along the [0001] direction. These {sup 67}Zn results and the related {sup 14}N hyperfine parameters provide information about the distribution of unpaired spin density at substitutional neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO.

  1. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application

  2. Improved Recovery from Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs, Volume 4, Comparison of Methane, Nitrogen and Flue Gas for Attic Oil. February 14, 1995 - October 13, 1996. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolcott, Joanne; Shayegi, Sara

    1997-01-13

    Gas injection for attic oil recovery was modeled in vertical sandpacks to compare the process performance characteristics of three gases, namely methane, nitrogen and flue gas. All of the gases tested recovered the same amount of oil over two cycles of gas injection. Nitrogen and flue gas recovered oil more rapidly than methane because a large portion of the methane slug dissolved in the oil phase and less free gas was available for oil displacement. The total gas utilization for two cycles of gas injection was somewhat better for nitrogen as compared to methane and flue gas. The lower nitrogen utilization was ascribed to the lower compressibility of nitrogen.

  3. Effect of nitrogen on the growth of boron doped single crystal diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Karna, Sunil; Vohra, Yogesh

    2013-11-18

    Boron-doped single crystal diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on synthetic (100) Type Ib diamond substrates using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. A modification in surface morphology of the film with increasing boron concentration in the plasma has been observed using atomic force microscopy. Use of nitrogen during boron doping has been found to improve the surface morphology and the growth rate of films but it lowers the electrical conductivity of the film. The Raman spectra indicated a zone center optical phonon mode along with a few additional bands at the lower wavenumber regions. The change in the peak profilemore » of the zone center optical phonon mode and its downshift were observed with the increasing boron content in the film. Furthermore, sharpening and upshift of Raman line was observed in the film that was grown in presence of nitrogen along with diborane in process gas.« less

  4. Nitrogen Atom Energy Distributions in a Hollow-cathode Planar Sputtering Magnetron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.N. Ruzic; M.J. Goeckner; Samuel A. Cohen; Zhehui Wang

    1999-06-01

    Energy distributions of N atoms in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N I 8216.3 , well-separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson's nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of {chi}w , was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with VFTRIM results, we propose that the energetic N atoms are generated from N2+ ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode.

  5. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project was focused on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate deaminase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative C-N bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments resulted in the isolation of microbial cultures that utilize aromatic amides as sole nitrogen sources, several amidase genes were cloned and were included in directed evolution experiments to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. During the second year of the project (October, 2003-September, 2004) enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating a mixed bacterial culture that can utilize 2-aminobiphenyl as a sole nitrogen source, directed evolution experiments were focused on the aniline dioxygenase enzyme that is capable of deaminating aniline, and expression vectors were constructed to enable the expression of genes encoding C-N bond cleaving enzymes in Rhodococcus hosts. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the

  6. Boron- and Nitrogen-Substituted Graphene Nanoribbons as Efficient Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gong, Yongji; Fei, Huilong; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Shubin; Ye, Gonglan; Liu, Zheng; Peng, Zhiwei; Lou, Jun; Vajtai, Robert; et al

    2015-02-02

    Here, we show that nanoribbons of boron- and nitrogen-substituted graphene can be used as efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Optimally doped graphene nanoribbons made into three-dimensional porous constructs exhibit the highest onset and half-wave potentials among the reported metal-free catalysts for this reaction and show superior performance compared to commercial Pt/C catalyst. Moreover, this catalyst possesses high kinetic current density and four-electron transfer pathway with low hydrogen peroxide yield during the reaction. Finally, first-principles calculations suggest that such excellent electrocatalytic properties originate from the abundant edges of boron- and nitrogen-codoped graphene nanoribbons, which significantly reduce the energymore » barriers of the rate-determining steps of the ORR reaction.« less

  7. Thinking outside the channel: Modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helton, Ashley; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Meyer, Judy; Wollheim, Wilfred; Peterson, Bruce; Mulholland, Patrick J; Bernhardt, Emily; Stanford, Jack; Arango, Clay; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dodds, Walter; Gregory, Stanley; Hall, Robert; Hamilton, Stephen; Johnson, Sherri; McDowell, William; Potter, Jody; Tank, Jennifer; Thomas, Suzanne; Valett, H. Maurice; Webster, Jackson; Zeglin, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural and urban development alters nitrogen and other biogeochemical cycles in rivers worldwide. Because such biogeochemical processes cannot be measured empirically across whole river networks, simulation models are critical tools for understanding river-network biogeochemistry. However, limitations inherent in current models restrict our ability to simulate biogeochemical dynamics among diverse river networks. We illustrate these limitations using a river-network model to scale up in situ measures of nitrogen cycling in eight catchments spanning various geophysical and land-use conditions. Our model results provide evidence that catchment characteristics typically excluded from models may control river-network biogeochemistry. Based on our findings, we identify important components of a revised strategy for simulating biogeochemical dynamics in river networks, including approaches to modeling terrestrial-aquatic linkages, hydrologic exchanges between the channel, floodplain/riparian complex, and subsurface waters, and interactions between coupled biogeochemical cycles.

  8. Method and apparatus for cooling high temperature superconductors with neon-nitrogen mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laverman, Royce J.; Lai, Ban-Yen

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for cooling high temperature superconducting materials (HTSC) to superconductive temperatures within the range of 27.degree. K. to 77.degree. K. using a mixed refrigerant consisting of liquefied neon and nitrogen containing up to about ten mole percent neon by contacting and surrounding the HTSC material with the mixed refrigerant so that free convection or forced flow convection heat transfer can be effected.

  9. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. MTR then located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; the units will be delivered in mid-2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  10. Influence of nitrogen in the shielding gas on corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, R.B.; Kamat, H.S.; Ghosal, S.K.; De, P.K.

    1999-10-01

    The influence of nitrogen in shielding gas on the corrosion resistance of welds of a duplex stainless steel (grade U-50), obtained by gas tungsten arc (GTA) with filler wire, autogenous GTA (bead-on-plate), electron beam welding (EBW), and microplasma techniques, has been evaluated in chloride solutions at 30 C. Pitting attack has been observed in GTA, electron beam welding, and microplasma welds when welding has been carried out using pure argon as the shielding gas. Gas tungsten arc welding with 5 to 10% nitrogen and 90 to 95% argon, as the shielding gas, has been found to result in an improved pitting corrosion resistance of the weldments of this steel. However, the resistance of pitting of autogenous welds (bead-on-plate) obtained in pure argon as the shielding gas has been observed to remain unaffected. Microscopic examination, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the presence of nitrogen in the shielding gas in the GTA welds not only modifies the microstructure and the austenite to ferrite ratio but also results in a nearly uniform distribution of the various alloying elements, for example, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum among the constituent phases, which are responsible for improved resistance to pitting corrosion.

  11. Electron trap level of hydrogen incorporated nitrogen vacancies in silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonoda, Ken'ichiro Tsukuda, Eiji; Tanizawa, Motoaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-03-14

    Hydrogen incorporation into nitrogen vacancies in silicon nitride and its effects on electron trap level are analyzed using simulation based on density functional theory with temperature- and pressure-dependent hydrogen chemical potential. If the silicon dangling bonds around a nitrogen vacancy are well separated each other, hydrogen incorporation is energetically stable up to 900 °C, which is in agreement with the experimentally observed desorption temperature. On the other hand, if the dangling bonds strongly interact, the incorporation is energetically unfavorable even at room temperature because of steric hindrance. An electron trap level caused by a nitrogen vacancy becomes shallow by the hydrogen incorporation. An electron is trapped in a deep level created by a silicon dangling bond before hydrogen incorporation, whereas it is trapped in a shallow level created by an anti-bonding state of a silicon-silicon bond after hydrogen incorporation. The simulation results qualitatively explain the experiment, in which reduced hydrogen content in silicon nitride shows superior charge retention characteristics.

  12. Global NOx Measurements in Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-03-01

    Turbulent hydrogen diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen are currently being studied to assess their ability to achieve the DOE Turbine Programs aggressive emissions goal of 2 ppm NOx in a hydrogen-fueled IGCC gas turbine combustor. Since the unstrained adiabatic flame temperatures of these diluted flames are not low enough to eliminate thermal NOx formation the focus of the current work is to study how the effects of flame residence time and global flame strain can be used to help achieve the stated NOx emissions goal. Dry NOx measurements are presented as a function of jet diameter nitrogen dilution and jet velocity for a turbulent hydrogen/nitrogen jet issuing from a thin-lipped tube in an atmospheric pressure combustor. The NOx emission indices from these experiments are normalized by the flame residence time to ascertain the effects of global flame strain and fuel Lewis Number on the NOx emissions. In addition dilute hydrogen diffusion flame experiments were performed in a high-pressure combustor at 2 4 and 8 atm. The NOx emission data from these experiments are discussed as well as the results from a Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling effort currently underway to help explain the experimental data.

  13. Li2S encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon for lithium sulfur batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Yuzi; Ashuri, Maziar; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-09-26

    Using high-energy ball milling of the Li2S plus carbon black mixture followed by carbonization of pyrrole, we have established a facile approach to synthesize Li2S-plus-C composite particles of average size 400 nm, encapsulated by a nitrogen-doped carbon shell. Such an engineered core–shell structure exhibits an ultrahigh initial discharge specific capacity (1029 mAh/g), reaching 88% of the theoretical capacity (1,166 mAh/g of Li2S) and thus offering the highest utilization of Li2S in the cathode among all of the reported works for the encapsulated Li2S cathodes. This Li2S/C composite core with a nitrogen-doped carbon shell can still retain 652 mAh/g after prolongedmore » 100 cycles. These superior properties are attributed to the nitrogen-doped carbon shell that can improve the conductivity to enhance the utilization of Li2S in the cathode. As a result, fine particle sizes and the presence of carbon black within the Li2S core may also play a role in high utilization of Li2S in the cathode.« less

  14. Synthesis and energetic properties of TAGDNAT: a new high-nitrogen material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of Bis-(triaminoguanidinium)3,3'-dinitro5,5'-azo-1,2,4-triazolate (TAGDNAT), a novel high-nitrogen molecule that derives its energy release from both a high heat of formation and intramolecular oxidation reactions. TAGDNAT shows promise as a propellant or explosive ingredient not only due to its high nitrogen content (66.35 wt%) but additionally due to its high hydrogen content (4.34 wt%). This new molecule has been characterized with respect to its morphology, sensitivity properties, explosive and combustion performance. The heat of formation of TAGDNAT was also experimentally determined. The results of these studies show that TAGDNAT has one of the gastest low-pressure burning rates (at 1000 PSI) we have yet measured, 6.79 cm/s at 100 p.s.i. (39% faster than triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT), a comparable high-nitrogen/high-hydrogen material). Furthermore, its pressure sensitivity is 0.507, a 33% reduction compared to TAGzT.

  15. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Logofatu, C.; Duta, A.; Isac, L.

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  16. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-05-31

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  17. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Ming-Show; Li, Dong; Chung, Yip-Wah; Sproul, William D.; Chu, Xi; Barnett, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  18. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Ming-Show; Li, Dong; Chung, Yin-Wah; Sproul, William D.; Chu, Xi; Barnett, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  19. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Xi Chu; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-03-10

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  20. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Chu, X.; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-07-07

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  1. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  2. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  3. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  4. 6.19 MicroPET Enhances Studies of Small Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is now a standard method for studying the metabolism of the brain, the heart, and cancer. ... R.W., Meadors, K., Phelps, M.E., "Brain imaging in small animals with MircoPET," ...

  5. The role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Petersen, K.L.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Landeen, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, and in minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. Plants will serve to minimize drainage and erosion, but present,the potential for growing roots into wastes. Animals burrow holes into the soil, and the burrow holes could allow water to preferentially drain into the waste. They also bring soil to the surface which, if wastes are incorporated, could present a risk for the dispersion of wastes into the environment. This report reviews work done to assess the role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford. It also reviews work done to understand the potential effects from climate change on the plants and animals that may inhabit barriers in the future.

  6. "Human-on-a-Chip" Technology Could Replace Animal Testing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Maren Hunsberger takes us "Inside the Lab" to learn about the "human-on-a-chip" project. | ... viruses, or drugs on human beings without resorting to animal or even human test subjects? ...

  7. Electrical signal analysis to assess the physical condition of a human or animal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

    2010-06-15

    The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

  8. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  9. Characteristic evaluation of cooling technique using liquid nitrogen and metal porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanno, Yusuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-29

    A remountable high-temperature superconducting magnet, whose segments can be mounted and demounted repeatedly, has been proposed for construction and maintenance of superconducting magnet and inner reactor components of a fusion reactor. One of the issues in this design is that the performance of the magnet deteriorates by a local temperature rise due to Joule heating in jointing regions. In order to prevent local temperature rise, a cooling system using a cryogenic coolant and metal porous media was proposed and experimental studies have been carried out using liquid nitrogen. In this study, flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling system using subcooled liquid nitrogen and bronze particle sintered porous media are evaluated through experiments in which the inlet degree of subcooling and flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The flow characteristics without heat input were coincided with Erguns equation expressing single-phase flow in porous materials. The obtained boiling curve was categorized into three conditions; convection region, nucleate boiling region and mixed region with nucleate and film boiling. Wall superheat did not increase drastically with porous media after departure from nucleate boiling point, which is different from a situation of usual boiling curve in a smooth tube. The fact is important characteristic to cooling superconducting magnet to avoid its quench. Heat transfer coefficient with bronze particle sintered porous media was at least twice larger than that without the porous media. It was also indicated qualitatively that departure from nucleate boiling point and heat transfer coefficient depends on degree of subcooling and mass flow rate. The quantitative evaluation of them and further discussion for the cooling system will be performed as future tasks.

  10. Analytical investigation of electrical breakdown properties in a nitrogen-SF{sub 6} mixture gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Byeon, Yong S.; Song, Ki B.; Choi, Eun H.; Ryu, Han-Yong; Lee, Jaimin

    2010-11-15

    The electrical breakdown properties in nitrogen gas mixed with SF{sub 6} are analytically investigated in this article by making use of the ionization and attachment coefficients of the mixed gas. The ionization coefficients of nitrogen and SF{sub 6} gas are obtained in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of the electron energy. The attachment coefficient of SF{sub 6} gas is also obtained in terms of the gas temperature T{sub e}. An algebraic equation is obtained, relating explicitly the electron breakdown temperature T{sub b} in terms of the SF{sub 6} mole fraction {chi}. It was found from this equation that the breakdown temperature T{sub b} increases from approximately 2 to 5.3 eV as the mole fraction {chi} increases from zero to unity. The breakdown temperature T{sub b} of the electrons increases very rapidly from a small value and then approaches 5.3 eV slowly as the SF{sub 6} mole fraction increases from zero to unity. This indicates that even a small mole fraction of SF{sub 6} in the gas dominates the electron behavior in the breakdown system. The breakdown electric field E{sub b} derived is almost linearly proportional to the breakdown electron temperature T{sub b}. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results. Therefore, it is concluded that even a small fraction of SF{sub 6} gas dominates nitrogen in determining the breakdown field. In this context, nearly 25% of the SF{sub 6} mole fraction provides a reasonable enhancement of the breakdown field for practical applications.

  11. ORIGIN OF THE UNUSUALLY LOW NITROGEN ABUNDANCES IN YOUNG POPULATIONS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    It is a longstanding problem that H II regions and very young stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have nitrogen abundances ([N/H]) that are a factor of {approx}7 lower than the solar value. We here discuss a new scenario in which the observed unusually low nitrogen abundances can be closely associated with recent collisions and subsequent accretion of H I high velocity clouds (HVCs) that surround the Galaxy and have low nitrogen abundances. We show that if the observed low [N/H] is limited to very young stars with ages less than {approx}10{sup 7} yr, then the collision/accretion rate of the HVCs onto the LMC needs to be {approx}0.2 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (corresponding to the total HVC mass of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) to dilute the original interstellar medium (ISM) before star formation. The required accretion rate means that even if the typical mass of HVCs accreted onto the LMC is {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, the Galaxy needs to have {approx}2500 massive HVCs within the LMC's orbital radius with respect to the Galactic center. The rather large number of required massive HVCs drives us to suggest that the HVCs are not likely to efficiently dilute the ISM of the LMC and consequently lower the [N/H]. We thus suggest the transfer of gas with low [N/H] from the Small Magellanic Cloud to the LMC as a promising scenario that can explain the observed low [N/H].

  12. Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-03-24

    The commonly adopted biogeochemistry spin-up process in an Earth system model (ESM) is to run the model for hundreds to thousands of years subject to periodic atmospheric forcing to reach dynamic steady state of the carbon–nitrogen (CN) models. A variety of approaches have been proposed to reduce the computation time of the spin-up process. Significant improvement in computational efficiency has been made recently. However, a long simulation time is still required to reach the common convergence criteria of the coupled carbon–nitrogen model. A gradient projection method was proposed and used to further reduce the computation time after examining the trend of the dominant carbon pools. The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) with a carbon and nitrogen component was used in this study. From point-scale simulations, we found that the method can reduce the computation time by 20–69% compared to one of the fastest approaches in the literature. We also found that the cyclic stability of total carbon for some cases differs from that of the periodic atmospheric forcing, and some cases even showed instability. Close examination showed that one case has a carbon periodicity much longer than that of the atmospheric forcing due to the annual fire disturbance that is longer than half a year. The rest was caused by the instability of water table calculation in the hydrology model of CLM4. The instability issue is resolved after we replaced the hydrology scheme in CLM4 with a flow model for variably saturated porous media.

  13. Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-03-24

    The commonly adopted biogeochemistry spin-up process in an Earth system model (ESM) is to run the model for hundreds to thousands of years subject to periodic atmospheric forcing to reach dynamic steady state of the carbon–nitrogen (CN) models. A variety of approaches have been proposed to reduce the computation time of the spin-up process. Significant improvement in computational efficiency has been made recently. However, a long simulation time is still required to reach the common convergence criteria of the coupled carbon–nitrogen model. A gradient projection method was proposed and used to further reduce the computation time after examining the trendmore » of the dominant carbon pools. The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) with a carbon and nitrogen component was used in this study. From point-scale simulations, we found that the method can reduce the computation time by 20–69% compared to one of the fastest approaches in the literature. We also found that the cyclic stability of total carbon for some cases differs from that of the periodic atmospheric forcing, and some cases even showed instability. Close examination showed that one case has a carbon periodicity much longer than that of the atmospheric forcing due to the annual fire disturbance that is longer than half a year. The rest was caused by the instability of water table calculation in the hydrology model of CLM4. The instability issue is resolved after we replaced the hydrology scheme in CLM4 with a flow model for variably saturated porous media.« less

  14. Sulfide stress-cracking resistance of nitrogen-strengthened stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaugh, R.R.

    1982-03-01

    A description is given of sulfide stress-cracking tests performed on a number of these alloys. Most were found to be somewhat susceptible to cracking, depending on the stress level. It was determined that this was due to their high manganese content. The mechanism responsible for cracking was not firmly established. One commercial nitrogen-strengthened stainless steel, XM19, was highly resistant to sulfide stress cracking despite a manganese content of 5%. This difference is attributed to the superior corrosion resistance of the alloy. 6 refs.

  15. Chemically durable nitrogen containing phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Delbert E.; Wilder, Jr., James A.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical durability of alkali phosphate glasses is improved by incorporation of up to 23 weight percent of nitrogen. A typical phosphate glass contains: 10 to 60 mole % of Li.sub.2 O, Na.sub.2 O or K.sub.2 O; 5-40 mole % of BaO or CAO; 0-1 to 10 mole % of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 40-70 mole % of P.sub.2 O.sub.5. Nitrides, such as AlN, are the favored additives.

  16. A Mechanistic Investigation of Nitrogen Evolution and Corrosion with Oxy-Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale Tree; Andrew Mackrory; Thomas Fletcher

    2008-12-31

    A premixed, staged, down-fired, pulverized coal reactor and a flat flame burner were used to study the evolution of nitrogen in coal contrasting differences in air and oxy-combustion. In the premixed reactor, the oxidizer was staged to produce a fuel rich zone followed by a burnout zone. The initial nominal fuel rich zone stoichiometric ratio (S.R.) of 0.85 selected produced higher NO reductions in the fuel rich region under oxy-combustion conditions. Air was found to be capable of similar NO reductions when the fuel rich zone was at a much lower S.R. of 0.65. At a S.R. of 0.85, oxy-combustion was measured to have higher CO, unburned hydrocarbons, HCN and NH{sub 3} in the fuel rich region than air at the same S.R. There was no measured difference in the initial formation of NO. The data suggest devolatilization and initial NO formation is similar for the two oxidizers when flame temperatures are the same, but the higher CO{sub 2} leads to higher concentrations of CO and nitrogen reducing intermediates at a given equivalence ratio which increases the ability of the gas phase to reduce NO. These results are supported by flat flame burner experiments which show devolatilization of nitrogen from the coal and char to be similar for air and oxy-flame conditions at a given temperature. A model of premixed combustion containing devolatilization, char oxidation and detailed kinetics captures most of the trends seen in the data. The model suggests CO is high in oxy-combustion because of dissociation of CO{sub 2}. The model also predicts a fraction (up to 20%, dependent on S.R.) of NO in air combustion can be formed via thermal processes with the source being nitrogen from the air while in oxy-combustion equilibrium drives a reduction in NO of similar magnitude. The data confirm oxy-combustion is a superior oxidizer to air for NO control because NO reduction can be achieved at higher S.R. producing better char burnout in addition to NO from recirculated flue gas being reduced

  17. Utilization of endless coiled tubing and nitrogen gas in geothermal well system maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McReynolds, A.S.; Maxson, H.L.

    1980-09-01

    The use of endless coiled tubing and nitrogen gas combine to offer efficient means of initiating and maintaining geothermal and reinjection well productivity. Routine applications include initial flashing of wells in addition to the surging of the formation by essentially the same means to increase production rates. Various tools can be attached to the tubing for downhole measurement purposes whereby the effectiveness of the tools is enhanced by this method of introduction to the well bore. Remedial work such as scale and fill removal can also be accomplished in an efficient manner by using the tubing as a work string and injecting various chemicals in conjunction with specialized tools to remedy downhole problems.

  18. Development of Nitrogen Oxide Closed System in the Future Reprocessing Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takaoku, Y.; Hattori, I.; Watanabe, T.; Moriya, N.; Sumida, Y.; Araya, S.; Homma, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Akai, Y.

    2007-07-01

    An aqueous reprocessing for spent fuels generates much wastes mainly including sodium nitrate as secondary waste, which has some kinds of difficulties in disposal. A process with salt-free reagent and complete recycle of nitric acid would resolve the problem, but development for such process is not easy. We propose the treatment system of sodium nitrate waste, which are termed 'Nitrogen Oxide Closed System' (NCS) as mentioned below. The system decomposes nitrate ion, and enables reuse of sodium in sodium nitrate with no generation of sodium nitrate waste. Accordingly, the NCS system allows the use of sodium salt reagents, and generation of excess acid in a reprocessing process. (authors)

  19. Nitrogen effects on crystallization kinetics of amorphous TiOxNy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hukari, Kyle; Dannenberg, Rand; Stach, E.A.

    2001-03-30

    The crystallization behavior of amorphous TiOxNy (x>>y) thin films was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kozolog (JMAK) theory is used to determine the Avrami exponent, activation energy, and the phase velocity pre-exponent. Addition of nitrogen inhibits diffusion, increasing the nucleation temperature, while decreasing the growth activation energy. Kinetic variables extracted from individual crystallites are compared to JMAK analysis of the fraction transformed and a change of 6 percent in the activation energy gives agreement between the methods. From diffraction patterns and index of refraction the crystallized phase was found to be predominantly anatase.

  20. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John J. Kilbane III

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project will focus on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate amidase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative CN bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. The project is on schedule and no major difficulties have been encountered. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments have resulted in the isolation of promising cultures that may be capable of cleaving C-N bonds in aromatic amides, several amidase genes have been cloned and are currently undergoing directed evolution to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. Future research will address expression of these genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis. Enrichment culture experiments and directed evolution experiments continue to be a main focus of research activity and further work is required to obtain an appropriate amidase that will selectively cleave C-N bonds in aromatic substrates. Once an appropriate amidase gene is obtained it must be combined with genes encoding an enzyme capable of converting carbazole to 2'aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol: specifically carA genes. The carA genes from two sources have been cloned and are ready for construction of C-N bond cleavage pathway

  1. Quantum Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells at nitrogen temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, D. A. Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Weishäupl, S.; Krupko, Y.; Portal, J.-C.

    2014-09-29

    We report on the observation of quantized Hall plateaus in a system of two-dimensional Dirac fermions, implemented in a 6.6 nm HgTe quantum well at magnetic fields up to 34 T at nitrogen temperatures. The activation energies determined from the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistivity are found to be almost equal for the filling factors ν of 1 and 2. This indicates that the large values of the g-factor (about 30–40) remain unchanged at very strong magnetic fields.

  2. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  3. Conversion of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen by reaction with a sulfided catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for removing ammonia from the sour water stream of a coal gasification process. The basic steps comprise stripping the ammonia from the sour water; heating the stripped ammonia to a temperature from between 400.degree. to 1,000.degree. F; passing the gaseous ammonia through a reactor containing a sulfided catalyst to produce elemental hydrogen and nitrogen; and scrubbing the reaction product to obtain an ammonia-free gas. The residual equilibrium ammonia produced by the reactor is recycled into the stripper. The ammonia-free gas may be advantageously treated in a Claus process to recover elemental sulfur. Iron sulfide or cobalt molybdenum sulfide catalysts are used.

  4. Charge carrier transport and separation in pristine and nitrogen-doped graphene nanowiggle heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lherbier, Aurélien; Liang, Liangbo; Charlier, Jean -Christophe; Meunier, Vincent

    2015-09-03

    Electronic structure methods are combined into a multiscale framework to investigate the electronic transport properties of recently synthesized pristine and nitrogen-doped graphene nanowiggles and their heterojunctions deposited on a substrate. The real-space Kubo-Greenwood transport calculations reveal that charge carrier mobilities reach values up to 1,000 cm2 V–1 s–1 as long as the amount of substrate impurities is sufficiently low. Owing to their type-II band alignment, atomically precise heterostructures between pristine and N-doped graphene nanowiggles are predicted to be excellent candidates for charge carrier separation devices with potential in photoelectric and photocatalytic water splitting applications.

  5. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  6. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  7. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A.; Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

  8. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1987-09-15

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

  9. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13

  10. Undoped and doped poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) as sensitive material for an impedimetric nitrogen dioxide gas dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, I.; Moos, R.; Neumann, K.; Thelakkat, M.

    2014-09-29

    This article presents a nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) detecting gas dosimeter based on poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) poly(TPD) as nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) sensitive layer. Gas dosimeters are suitable devices to determine reliably low levels of analytes over a long period of time. During NO{sub x} exposure, the analyte molecules are accumulated irreversibly in the sensing layer of the dosimeter enhancing the conductivity of the hole conducting poly(TPD), which can be measured by impedance spectroscopy. Due to their possibility for low cost production by simple printing techniques and very good physical, photochemical, and electrochemical properties, poly(TPD)s are suitable for application in gas dosimeters operated at room temperature. We studied the effect of doping with a Co(III)-complex in combination with a conducting salt on the dosimeter behavior. Compared to the undoped material, a strong influence of the doping can be observed: the conductivity of the sensing material increases significantly, the noise of the signal decreases and an unwanted recovery of the sensor signal can be prevented, leading to a NO{sub x} detection limit <10?ppm.

  11. High nitrogen corrosion resistant austenitic stainless steels made by hot isostatic compaction of gas atomized powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, G.O.; Eckenrod, J.J.; Rizzo, F.J.

    1996-10-01

    A model has been developed to design austenitic stainless steels containing 25 to 28% chromium, 22% nickel, 6% manganese, 4 to 8% molybdenum, and about 0.80% nitrogen. The newly developed steels have been produced by rapid solidification powder metallurgy (P/N4) with subsequent consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The resulting chemical compositions meet the criteria of the alloy design model, predicting a fully austenitic microstructure, a yield strength of about 620 MPa, a minimum Pitting Resistance Equivalence (PRE) number of 50, a sigma solvas temperature of less than 1,232 C, a nitrogen equilibrium partial pressure at 1,600 C of about 500 kPa, and an alloy cost factor of 0.6 or less relative to UNS N10276. The results of experimental investigations of these materials compared to the predictions of the design model are presented, in addition to evaluations of other HIP P/M processed austenitic and superaustenitic stainless steels, and nickel base corrosion resistant alloys.

  12. Evidence for the Formation of Nitrogen-Rich Platinum and Palladium Nitride Nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Baggetto, Loïc; Browning, James F.; Keum, Jong K.; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Papandrew, Alexander B.; Goenaga, Gabriel A.; Mullins, David R.; et al

    2013-12-03

    Here, we report evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles (Pt, Pd) prepared by reactive sputtering of the pure metal in a N2 plasma. The composition of the nanoparticles varies as a function of particle size and growth conditions. For the smallest particles the nitrogen content appears to be as high as 6.7 N atoms for each Pd atom or 5.9 N atoms for each Pt atom whereas bulk films have nominal compositions of Pt7.3N and Pd2.5N. The nanoparticles are metastable in air and moisture, slowly decomposing over several years. This paper describes the synthesis of these materialsmore » along with experimental evidence of the composition, oxidation state, and growth modes. Moreover, the catalytic properties of these N-rich nanoparticles were accessed by rotating disk electrode electrochemical studies, the liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol and gas phase CO oxidation and support the experimental evidence for the materials composition.« less

  13. Evidence for the Formation of Nitrogen-Rich Platinum and Palladium Nitride Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Baggetto, Loïc; Browning, James F.; Keum, Jong K.; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Papandrew, Alexander B.; Goenaga, Gabriel A.; Mullins, David R.; Bullock, Steven E.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2013-12-03

    Here, we report evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles (Pt, Pd) prepared by reactive sputtering of the pure metal in a N2 plasma. The composition of the nanoparticles varies as a function of particle size and growth conditions. For the smallest particles the nitrogen content appears to be as high as 6.7 N atoms for each Pd atom or 5.9 N atoms for each Pt atom whereas bulk films have nominal compositions of Pt7.3N and Pd2.5N. The nanoparticles are metastable in air and moisture, slowly decomposing over several years. This paper describes the synthesis of these materials along with experimental evidence of the composition, oxidation state, and growth modes. Moreover, the catalytic properties of these N-rich nanoparticles were accessed by rotating disk electrode electrochemical studies, the liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol and gas phase CO oxidation and support the experimental evidence for the materials composition.

  14. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore » fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  15. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  16. Fungi contribute critical but spatially varying roles in nitrogen and carbon cycling in acid mine drainage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mosier, Annika C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Frischkorn, Kyle R.; Ohm, Robin A.; Li, Zhou; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lipzen, Anna; Chen, Cindy; Johnson, Jenifer; et al

    2016-03-03

    The ecosystem roles of fungi have been extensively studied by targeting one organism and/or biological process at a time, but the full metabolic potential of fungi has rarely been captured in an environmental context. We hypothesized that fungal genome sequences could be assembled directly from the environment using metagenomics and that transcriptomics and proteomics could simultaneously reveal metabolic differentiation across habitats. We reconstructed the near-complete 27 Mbp genome of a filamentous fungus, Acidomyces richmondensis, and evaluated transcript and protein expression in floating and streamer biofilms from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system. A. richmondensis transcripts involved in denitrification and inmore » the degradation of complex carbon sources (including cellulose) were up-regulated in floating biofilms, whereas central carbon metabolism and stress-related transcripts were significantly up-regulated in streamer biofilms. Finally, these findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen availability, and environmental challenges. An isolated A. richmondensis strain from this environment was used to validate the metagenomics-derived genome and confirm nitrous oxide production at pH 1. Overall, our analyses defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen turnover for the same species of fungi growing in closely located but distinct biofilm niches.« less

  17. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine programs goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  19. Integration of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Metabolism in Escherichia coli--Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Wingreen, Ned s; Rabitz, Herschel A; Xu, Yifan

    2012-10-22

    A key challenge for living systems is balancing utilization of multiple elemental nutrients, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, whose availability is subject to environmental fluctuations. As growth can be limited by the scarcity of any one nutrient, the rate at which each nutrient is assimilated must be sensitive not only to its own availability, but also to that of other nutrients. Remarkably, across diverse nutrient conditions, E. coli grows nearly optimally, balancing effectively the conversion of carbon into energy versus biomass. To investigate the link between the metabolism of different nutrients, we quantified metabolic responses to nutrient perturbations using LC-MS based metabolomics and built differential equation models that bridge multiple nutrient systems. We discovered that the carbonaceous substrate of nitrogen assimilation, α-ketoglutarate, directly inhibits glucose uptake and that the upstream glycolytic metabolite, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, ultrasensitively regulates anaplerosis to allow rapid adaptation to changing carbon availability. We also showed that NADH controls the metabolic response to changing oxygen levels. Our findings support a general mechanism for nutrient integration: limitation for a nutrient other than carbon leads to build-up of the most closely related product of carbon metabolism, which in turn feedback inhibits further carbon uptake.

  20. Inactivation of E. Coli cell viability and DNA Photo-breakage by Pulsed Nitrogen Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheba, Ben Amar; Alzaag, Ali; Tilfah, Nafie A.

    2005-03-17

    The mutagenic and lethal effect of nitrogen laser radiation: 337.1 nm wave length, 1.5 millijoul pulse energy, 10 nanosecond pulse with and pulse repetition rate range from 1 to 50 Pulse/ second was evaluated on E. Coli cells. Results indicated that irradiation of E. coli JMP39 with pulse repetition of 8 , 16 , 32 pulse/sec, for 1, 5 , 10, 25 min respectively led to a significant decrease in cell count proportional to irradiation dose with significant increase in lacmutation frequency accompanied with some mutations in pattern of antibiotic resistance. The effect of nitrogen laser on the genomic content of the strain JMP39 was also studied by irradiating the total DNA with 30 pulse/second for 1 ,5, 15 , 30 min then subjected to both agarose gel electrophoresis and scanning spectrophotometry. The first technique revealed to DNA photo breakage and significant decrease in DNA absorbency was noticed by scanning spectrophotometry. This could be attributed to photo-decomposition resulted from multi-photo-excitation of UV-Laser pulses.

  1. Nitrogen availability as a control mechanism of secondary succession within a semiarid shrubland ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redente, E.F.; McLendon, T.

    1992-09-25

    Three experiments were conducted within a semiarid shrubland to test the role of nitrogen availability as a control mechanism in secondary succession. Secondary succession patterns were documented for seven years and effects of increased and decreased N availability levels, fumigation, and competition by early-seral species were tested. Differential responses by seral species were determined and related to successional patterns. Nitrogen availability was found to be a primary mechanism controlling the rate of succession. Relative growth rate was an important factor determining which species initially dominated and N availability became the primary control factor by the third year. As N availability increased, the rate of succession decreased. Conversely, as N availability was decreased, the rate of succession increased. The abundance of annuals was increased and abundance of perennials decreased by increased N availability. Tissue N concentration was related to lifeform and seral position, and these relationships were important in the transition from early- to mid-seral stages. Decomposer subsystem dynamics were correlated with seral community dynamics. The effect of fumigation was minimized by initially planting with late-seral species. A conceptual model of secondary succession is presented based on N availability, relative growth rate, lifeform, and decomposition dynamics.

  2. Nitrogen-tuned bonding mechanism of Li and Ti adatom embedded graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sangho; Chung, Yong-Chae, E-mail: yongchae@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    The effects of nitrogen defects on the bonding mechanism and resultant binding energy between the metal and graphene layer were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the graphitic N-doped graphene, Li adatom exhibited ionic bonding character, while Ti adatom showed features of covalent bonding similar to that of pristine graphene. However, in the cases of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures, partially covalent bonding characteristic occurred around N atoms in the process of binding with metals, and this particular bond formation enhanced the bond strength of metal on the graphene layer as much as it exceeded the cohesive energy of the metal bulk. Thus, Li and Ti metals are expected to be dispersed with atomic accuracy on the pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene layers. These results demonstrate that the bonding mechanism of metalgraphene complex can change according to the type of N defect, and this also affects the binding results. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: Nitrogen defects changed the bonding mechanism between metal and graphene. Bonding character and binding results were investigated using DFT calculations. Covalent bonding character occurred around pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene. Pyridinic and pyrrolic N atoms are effective for metal dispersion on the graphene.

  3. Laser separation of nitrogen isotopes by the IR+UV dissociation of ammonia molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apatin, V M; Klimin, S A; Laptev, V B; Lokhman, V N; Ogurok, D D; Pigul'skii, S V; Ryabov, E A

    2008-08-31

    The separation of nitrogen isotopes is studied upon successive single-photon IR excitation and UV dissociation of ammonia molecules. The excitation selectivity was provided by tuning a CO{sub 2} laser to resonance with {sup 14}NH{sub 3} molecules [the 9R(30) laser line] or with {sup 15}NH{sub 3} molecules [the 9R(10) laser line]. Isotopic mixtures containing 4.8% and 0.37% (natural content) of the {sup 15}NH isotope were investigated. The dependences of the selectivity and the dissociation yield for each isotopic component on the buffer gas pressure (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, Ar) and the ammonia pressure were obtained. In the limit of low NH{sub 3} pressures (0.5-2 Torr), the dissociation selectivity {alpha}(15/14) for {sup 15}N was 17. The selectivity mechanism of the IR+UV dissociation is discussed and the outlook is considered for the development of the nitrogen isotope separation process based on this approach. (laser isotope separation)

  4. Evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veith, Gabriel M; Lupini, Andrew R; Baggetto, Loic; Browning, Jim; Keum, Jong Kahk; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Papandrew, Alexander B; Goenaga Jimenez, Gabriel A; Mullins, David R; et al

    2014-01-01

    We report evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles (Pt, Pd) prepared by reactive sputtering of the pure metal in a N2 plasma. The composition of the nanoparticles varies as a function of particle size and growth conditions. For the smallest particles the nitrogen content appears to be as high as 6.7 N atoms for each Pd atom or 5.9 N atoms for each Pt atom whereas bulk films have nominal compositions of Pt7.3N and Pd2.5N. The nanoparticles are metastable in air and moisture, slowly decomposing over several years. This paper describes the synthesis of these materials alongmore » with experimental evidence of the composition, oxidation state, and growth modes. The catalytic properties of these N-rich nanoparticles were accessed by rotating disk electrode electrochemical studies, the liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol and gas phase CO oxidation and support the experimental evidence for the materials composition.« less

  5. Phytoremediation of a nitrogen-contaminated desert soil by native shrubs and microbial processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Glenn, Edward P.; Jordan, Fiona; Waugh, W. Joseph

    2016-02-24

    Here, we combined phytoremediation and soil microbial nitrification and denitrification cycles to reduce nitrate and ammonium levels at a former uranium mill site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Ammonia used in uranium extraction was present throughout the soil profile. Sulfate,applied as sulfuric acid to solubilize uranium, was also present in the soil. These contaminants were leaching from a denuded area where a tailings pile had been removed and were migrating away from the site in groundwater. We planted the source area with two deep-rooted native shrubs, Atriplex cansescens and Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and irrigated transplants for 11 years at 20% the ratemore » of potential evapotranspiration to stimulate growth, then discontinued irrigation for 4 years. Over 15 years, total nitrogen levels dropped 82%, from 347 to 64 mg kg–1. Analysis of δ15N supported our hypothesis that coupled microbial nitrification and denitrification processes were responsible for the loss of N. Soil sulfate levels changed little; however, evapotranspiration reduced sulfate leaching into the aquifer. For arid sites where traditional pump-and-treat methods are problematic, the Monument Valley data suggest that alternatives that incorporate native plants and rely on vadose zone biogeochemistry and hydrology could be a sustainable remediation for nitrogen contaminated soil.« less

  6. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were employed to measure about 37 major, minor, and trace elements in two standard reference materials: oyster tissue (SRM 1566) supplied by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and animal bone (H-5) supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Wherever the comparison exists, our data show excellent agreement with accepted values for each SRM. These SRM's are useful as reference standards for the analysis of biological materials. Additionally, the chondritic normalized rare earth element pattern of animal bone behaves as a smooth function of the ionic radii, as previously observed for biological materials.

  8. Metal-Organic Framework Derived Hierarchically Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanostructures as Novel Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Shaofang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Zhou, Yazhou; Yang, Guohai; Jeon, Ju Won; Lemmon, John P.; Du, Dan; Nune, Satish K.; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-10-01

    The hierarchically porous nitrogen-doped carbon materials, derived from nitrogen-containing isoreticular metal-organic framework-3 (IRMOF-3) through direct carbonization, exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity in alkaline solution for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This high activity is attributed to the 10 presence of high percentage of quaternary and pyridinic nitrogen, the high surface area as well as good conductivity. When IRMOF-3 was carbonized at 950 °C (CIRMOF-3-950), it showed four-electron reduction pathway for ORR and exhibited better stability (about 78.5% current density was maintained) than platinum/carbon (Pt/C) in the current durability test. In addition, CIRMOF-3-950 presented high selectivity to cathode reactions compared to commercial Pt/C.

  9. Study of nitrogen incorporation into GaInNAs: The role of growth temperature in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korpijaervi, V.-M.; Aho, A.; Tukiainen, A.; Laakso, A.; Guina, M.; Laukkanen, P.; Tuominen, M.

    2012-07-15

    GaInNAs has an important impact on developing GaAs-based optoelectronics and multijunction solar cells, but the complex nature of the nitrogen incorporation into GaInAs is still not fully understood. By combining x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we show that nitrogen incorporation is enhanced with increasing growth temperature in the range of 300-450 Degree-Sign C. We study the growth front and show that the surface reconstruction is (1 Multiplication-Sign 3) regardless of growth temperature in this range. The enhanced nitrogen incorporation can be modeled as a thermally activated process with activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  10. Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kridelbaugh, Donna M; Nelson, Josh C; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Graham, David E

    2013-01-01

    Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

  11. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-11

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowgroundmore » respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model–observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  12. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition loadings to the Chesapeake Bay: An initial analysis of the cost effectiveness of control options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this project was to examine whether programs to control regional airborne oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are cost-effective ways to reduce nitrogen loads to the Bay compared with other management scenarios. Regional control programs considered in this analysis include: the Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC), and a 0.15 pounds (lbs) per million British thermal unit (MMBtu) NOx emission limit applied to large fuel combustors in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (OTC) States. The effect of extending the OTR programs to wider areas of the country - whose emissions also influence the Bay - was also examined.

  13. Nitrogen-doped and simultaneously reduced graphene oxide with superior dispersion as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheol-Ho; Yun, Jin-Mun; Lee, Sungho; Jo, Seong Mu; Yoo, Sung Jong; Cho, Eun Ae; Khil, Myung-Seob; Joh, Han-Ik

    2014-11-15

    Nitrogen doped graphene oxide (Nr-GO) with properties suitable for electrocatalysts is easily synthesized using phenylhydrazine as a reductant at relatively low temperature. The reducing agent removes various oxygen functional groups bonded to graphene oxide and simultaneously dope the nitrogen atoms bonded with phenyl group all over the basal planes and edge sites of the graphene. The Nr-GO exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction reaction compared to the commercial carbon black and graphene oxide due to the electronic modification of the graphene structure. In addition, Nr-GO shows excellent dispersibility in various solvent due to the dopant molecules.

  14. Modeling of ns and ps laser-induced soft X-ray sources using nitrogen gas puff target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrba, P.; Vrbova, M.; Zakharov, S. V.

    2014-07-15

    Gas puff laser plasma is studied as a source of water window radiation with 2.88?nm wavelength, corresponding to quantum transition 1s{sup 2} ? 1s2p of helium-like nitrogen ions. Spatial development of plasma induced by Nd:YAG laser beam is simulated by 2D Radiation-Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic code Z*. The results for nitrogen gas layer (0.72?mm thickness, 1?bar pressure) and two different laser pulses (600 mJ/7?ns and 525 mJ/170 ps), corresponding to the experiments done in Laser Laboratory Gottingen are presented.

  15. Stabilizing shallow color centers in diamond created by nitrogen delta-doping using SF{sub 6} plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterkamp, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Scharpf, Jochen; Mller, Christoph; McGuinness, Liam Paul; Naydenov, Boris Jelezko, Fedor; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R. Jrgen

    2015-03-16

    Here we report the fabrication of stable, shallow (<5?nm) nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond by nitrogen delta doping at the last stage of the chemical vapor deposition growth process. The NVs are stabilized after treating the diamond in SF{sub 6} plasma, otherwise the color centers are not observed, suggesting a strong influence from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show the presence of only fluorine atoms on the surface, in contrast to previous studies, indicating very good surface coverage. We managed to detect hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance signal from protons in the immersion oil, revealing a depth of the NVs of about 5?nm.

  16. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    In the 2nd quarterly report, we discussed the lime/limestone process which precipitates N-S containing compounds by adding lime/limestone in a narrow pH range, and which can be an alternative to the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process. In this report, we focused on investigations of the lime/limestone process. First, we established an overall flow diagram for the lime/limestone process. Based on the diagram, we performed preliminary experimental investigations to outline practical process conditions. Out major investigations concerned about effects of pH on precipitation of the N-S compounds and precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds in a continuous crystallization system. We also performed an experimental investigation to study crystallization characteristic of the ammonium sulfate in the hydrolysis liquor. In studying effects of pH, we performed batch precipitation of the N-S compounds in a broad range of pH and investigated the effects of pH on the amount of required lime, the amount of the precipitate, and the fraction of N-S compounds precipitated. The result revealed the optimum range for precipitation of N-S compounds to be pH = 7.6--8.6. In studying continuous crystallization characteristics of the N-S compounds, a bench scale 4-liter continuous crystallization system was built to compare a typical Mixed-Suspension-Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer and Double-Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizer. In a preliminary test, the DDO was shown to be superior by increasing the average size of the precipitated crystals of N-S compounds from 97 {mu}m to 142 {mu}m and thus enhancing the filterability. In order to obtain information for a practical design of the lime/limestone process, we also set up a material balance for a 300 MWe power plant facility. A preliminary calculation showed that a process on the scale could produce approximately 56 tons ammonium sulfate fertilizer per day.

  17. Impact of struvite crystallization on nitrogen losses during composting of pig manure and cornstalk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren Limei; Schuchardt, Frank; Shen Yujun; Li Guoxue; Li Chunping

    2010-05-15

    An absorbent mixture of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) was added to compost mixtures of pig manure with cornstalk in different molar ratios (T1, 1:1; T2, 1:2; T3, 1:3) in order to examine its effect on controlling ammonia losses during composting. Based on the principle of struvite precipitation, and with an unamended trial as control (CK), an in-vessel composting experiment was conducted in fermenters (60 L with forced aeration) in which the absorbent mixture was added with proportions of 3.8%, 7.3% and 8.9% of dry weight for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results showed that the total nitrogen loss was reduced from 35% to 12%, 5% and 1% of initial N mass, respectively. In the final compost, the total nitrogen content in T1, T2 and T3 was improved by 10, 14, 12 g kg{sup -1}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N in T1, T2 and T3 was improved by 8, 9, and 10 g kg{sup -1}, respectively, compared with the unamended trial. The results of the germination index test showed that the maturity of treatment T2 was best among the four treatments in the final compost, followed by T1, CK and T3. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O:MAP) in the T1, T2 and T3 compost. Based on these results, the adsorbent mixture of Mg(OH){sub 2} + H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} could control nitrogen loss effectively during composting via struvite crystallization. However, an excess of phosphoric acid (1:3) had a negative influence on composting properties. The pH value decreased which led to reduced microorganism activity, and which finally resulted in reduced biodegradation of the organic matter.

  18. Wall loss of atomic nitrogen determined by ionization threshold mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sode, M. Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W.; Kersten, H.

    2014-11-21

    In the afterglow of an inductively coupled N{sub 2} plasma, relative N atom densities are measured by ionization threshold mass spectrometry as a function of time in order to determine the wall loss time t{sub wN} from the exponential decay curves. The procedure is performed with two mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber. t{sub wN} is determined for various pressures, i.e., for 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10?Pa. For this conditions also the internal plasma parameters electron density n{sub e} and electron temperature T{sub e} are determined with the Langmuir probe and the rotational temperature T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}} of N{sub 2} is determined with the optical emission spectroscopy. For T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}}, a procedure is presented to evaluate the spectrum of the transition ?{sup ?}=0??{sup ?}=2 of the second positive system (C{sup 3}?{sub u}?B{sup 3}?{sub g}) of N{sub 2}. With this method, a gas temperature of 610?K is determined. For both mass spectrometers, an increase of the wall loss times of atomic nitrogen with increasing pressure is observed. The wall loss time measured with the first mass spectrometer in the radial center of the cylindrical plasma vessel increases linearly from 0.31?ms for 3?Pa to 0.82?ms for 10?Pa. The wall loss time measured with the second mass spectrometer (further away from the discharge) is about 4 times higher. A model is applied to describe the measured t{sub wN.} The main loss mechanism of atomic nitrogen for the considered pressure is diffusion to the wall. The surface loss probability ?{sub N} of atomic nitrogen on stainless steel was derived from t{sub wN} and is found to be 1 for the present conditions. The difference in wall loss times measured with the mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber is attributed to the different diffusion lengths.

  19. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the worlds great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  20. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Shiller, Robert J [Yale University

    2010-09-01

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how ?animal spirits,? or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today?s global financial crisis.

  1. Livestock grazing for management of reclaimed land at Navajo Mine: Animal response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, D.C.; Gadzia, K.L.; Raisbeck, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Livestock responses dining grazing of reclaimed land were monitored at the Navajo Mine since 1994. The Navajo Mine Grazing Management Program (GNP) began in 1991 to prepare for bond release and return of reclaimed land to the Navajo Nation by demonstrating the ability of the land to sustain the post-mining land use of livestock grazing. Local Navajos, whose livestock are used in the GMP, are interested in the ability of the land to sustain their livestock. Sustainable livestock grazing implies the ability of animals to thrive, successfully reproduce and maintain the health of the land. Daily care and monitoring of livestock health was carried out by herders hired by the mining company. General animal health parameters including blood selenium levels were monitored quarterly. Livestock responses to grazing reclaimed land have been largely positive. Cows have produced healthy offspring and owners indicate satisfaction with calf size, and overall performance of the cows. Selenium and other blood testing parameters indicate no adverse effect on animal health to date. Hazards associated with reclamation and ongoing mining activities are important considerations for lands being reclaimed for livestock grazing as a post-mining land use and must be monitored carefully during any grazing program. Preliminary results indicate that planned grazing by cattle on reclaimed land at Navajo Mine is feasible and does not adversely affect animal health.

  2. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  3. USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

  4. Tapered fiber coupling of single photons emitted by a deterministically positioned single nitrogen vacancy center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebermeister, Lars Petersen, Fabian; Münchow, Asmus v.; Burchardt, Daniel; Hermelbracht, Juliane; Tashima, Toshiyuki; Schell, Andreas W.; Benson, Oliver; Meinhardt, Thomas; Krueger, Anke; Stiebeiner, Ariane; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Weinfurter, Harald; Weber, Markus

    2014-01-20

    A diamond nano-crystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center is optically selected with a confocal scanning microscope and positioned deterministically onto the subwavelength-diameter waist of a tapered optical fiber (TOF) with the help of an atomic force microscope. Based on this nano-manipulation technique, we experimentally demonstrate the evanescent coupling of single fluorescence photons emitted by a single NV-center to the guided mode of the TOF. By comparing photon count rates of the fiber-guided and the free-space modes and with the help of numerical finite-difference time domain simulations, we determine a lower and upper bound for the coupling efficiency of (9.5 ± 0.6)% and (10.4 ± 0.7)%, respectively. Our results are a promising starting point for future integration of single photon sources into photonic quantum networks and applications in quantum information science.

  5. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198{trademark}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klien, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198{trademark} getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198{trademark} stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful.

  6. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Comparison of non-thermal plasma techniques for abatement of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-01-11

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in atmospheric-pressure gas streams. Either electrical discharge or electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. Recent laboratory-scale experiments show that the electron beam method is remarkably more energy efficient than competing non-thermal plasma techniques based on pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge plasma. Preliminary cost analysis based on these data also show that the electron beam method may be cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  8. Nitrogen-doped porous aromatic frameworks for enhanced CO2 adsorption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fu, Jia; Wu, Jianzhong; Custelcean, Radu; Jiang, De-en

    2014-10-07

    Recently synthesized porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs) exhibit extremely high surface areas and exceptional thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Using computer-aided design, we propose new PAFs, designated as NPAFs, by introducing nitrogen-containing groups to the biphenyl unit and predict their CO2 adsorption capacities with grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. Among various NPAFs considered, one with imidazole groups shows the highest adsorption capacity for CO2 (11.5wt % at 1bar and 298K) , in comparison with 5wt % for the parent PAF (PAF- 1) at the same condition. At higher pressures (around 10bar) ,though, another NPAF with pyridinic N groups performs much bettermore » than the rest due to its greater pore volume in addition to the N functionality. This research suggests that adding N functionality to the organic linkers is a promising way to increase CO2 adsorption capacity of PAFs at ambient condition.« less

  9. Nitrogen-doped porous aromatic frameworks for enhanced CO2 adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Jia; Wu, Jianzhong; Custelcean, Radu; Jiang, De-en

    2014-10-07

    Recently synthesized porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs) exhibit extremely high surface areas and exceptional thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Using computer-aided design, we propose new PAFs, designated as NPAFs, by introducing nitrogen-containing groups to the biphenyl unit and predict their CO2 adsorption capacities with grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. Among various NPAFs considered, one with imidazole groups shows the highest adsorption capacity for CO2 (11.5wt % at 1bar and 298K) , in comparison with 5wt % for the parent PAF (PAF- 1) at the same condition. At higher pressures (around 10bar) ,though, another NPAF with pyridinic N groups performs much better than the rest due to its greater pore volume in addition to the N functionality. This research suggests that adding N functionality to the organic linkers is a promising way to increase CO2 adsorption capacity of PAFs at ambient condition.

  10. Epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen atomic sheet in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harada, Yukihiro Yamamoto, Masuki; Baba, Takeshi; Kita, Takashi

    2014-01-27

    We have grown an epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen (N) atomic sheet in GaAs by using the site-controlled N δ-doping technique. We observed a change of the electronic states in N δ-doped GaAs from the isolated impurity centers to the delocalized impurity band at 1.49 eV with increasing N-doping density. According to the excitation-power- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, the emission related to localized levels below the impurity band edge was dominant at low excitation power and temperature, whereas the effects of the localized levels can be neglected by increasing the excitation power and temperature. Furthermore, a clear Landau shift of the PL-peak energy was observed at several Tesla in the Faraday configuration, in contrast to the case in the impurity limit.

  11. Deterministic coupling of delta-doped nitrogen vacancy centers to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jonathan C.; Cui, Shanying; Zhang, Xingyu; Russell, Kasey J.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Bracher, David O.; Ohno, Kenichi; McLellan, Claire A.; Alemn, Benjamin; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania; Andrich, Paolo; Awschalom, David; Aharonovich, Igor

    2014-12-29

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to ?24?000 and mode volume V???0.47(?/n){sup 3} as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of ?20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.

  12. Optical probe investigation of laser ablated carbon plasma plume in nitrogen ambient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ravi Pratap; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-12-15

    We report the study of carbon plasma produced using 1064 nm laser in nitrogen ambient at atmospheric pressure using 2-dimensional fast imaging of ablated plume, optical emission spectroscopy, and optical probe at 532 nm for interferometry and shadowgraphy. The dominance of C{sub 2} and CN molecules over ionic species at later stages of expanding carbon plasma plume is reported. The observed ring structure in shadowgrams and change in the direction of fringe shift from positive to negative in recorded interferograms are correlated with the relative abundance of different species in the plasma plume as function of time delay with respect to ablating pulse. An agreement in observed onset time of formation of clusters/atomic species or low ionic species using different diagnostic techniques has been reported.

  13. Catalytic two-stage coal liquefaction process having improved nitrogen removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G.

    1991-01-01

    A process for catalytic multi-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce high yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquids containing low concentrations of nitogen compounds. First stage catalytic reaction conditions are 700.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1500-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure, with the space velocity maintained in a critical range of 10-40 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 catalyst settled volume. The first stage catalyst has 0.3-1.2 cc/gm total pore volume with at least 25% of the pore volume in pores having diameters of 200-2000 Angstroms. Second stage reaction conditions are 760.degree.-870.degree. F. temperature with space velocity exceeding that in the first stage reactor, so as to achieve increased hydrogenation yield of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products having at least 75% removal of nitrogen compounds from the coal-derived liquid products.

  14. Supplying LNG markets using nitrogen rejection units at Exxon Shute Creek Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanus, P.M.; Kimble, E.L.

    1995-11-01

    Interest is growing in the United States for using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) as an alternative transportation fuel for diesel and as a source of heating fuel. For gas producers, LNG offers a premium price opportunity versus conventional natural gas sales. To supply this developing market, two existing Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) at the Exxon Shute Creek Facility in Wyoming were modified allowing LNG extraction and truck loading for transport to customers. The modifications involved adding heat exchanger capacity to the NRUs to compensate for the refrigeration loss when LNG is removed. Besides allowing for LNG extraction, the modifications also debottlenecked the NRUs resulting in higher methane recovery and lower compression costs. With the modifications, the NRUs are capable of producing for sale 60,000 gpd (5 MMscfd gas equivalent) of high purity LNG. Total investment has been $5 million with initial sales of LNG occurring in September 1994.

  15. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir--East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2006-05-18

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 60% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen to about 40%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

  16. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir -- East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2006-03-23

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 50% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen back to about 42%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

  17. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, J. Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Gtari, Maher; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavromatis, K; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S.

    2013-01-01

    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  18. Use of a dynamic simulation model to understand nitrogen cycling in the middle Rio Grande, NM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meixner, Tom; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Oelsner, Gretchen; Brooks, Paul; Roach, Jesse D.

    2008-08-01

    Water quality often limits the potential uses of scarce water resources in semiarid and arid regions. To best manage water quality one must understand the sources and sinks of both solutes and water to the river system. Nutrient concentration patterns can identify source and sink locations, but cannot always determine biotic processes that affect nutrient concentrations. Modeling tools can provide insight into these large-scale processes. To address questions about large-scale nitrogen removal in the Middle Rio Grande, NM, we created a system dynamics nitrate model using an existing integrated surface water--groundwater model of the region to evaluate our conceptual models of uptake and denitrification as potential nitrate removal mechanisms. We modeled denitrification in groundwater as a first-order process dependent only on concentration and used a 5% denitrification rate. Uptake was assumed to be proportional to transpiration and was modeled as a percentage of the evapotranspiration calculated within the model multiplied by the nitrate concentration in the water being transpired. We modeled riparian uptake as 90% and agricultural uptake as 50% of the respective evapotranspiration rates. Using these removal rates, our model results suggest that riparian uptake, agricultural uptake and denitrification in groundwater are all needed to produce the observed nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, conveyance channels, and river as well as the seasonal concentration patterns. The model results indicate that a total of 497 metric tons of nitrate-N are removed from the Middle Rio Grande annually. Where river nitrate concentrations are low and there are no large nitrate sources, nitrate behaves nearly conservatively and riparian and agricultural uptake are the most important removal mechanisms. Downstream of a large wastewater nitrate source, denitrification and agricultural uptake were responsible for approximately 90% of the nitrogen removal.

  19. Transcriptional program for nitrogen starvation-induced lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garcia de Lomana, Adrian Lopez; Schäuble, Sascha; Valenzuela, Jacob; Imam, Saheed; Carter, Warren; Bilgin, Damla D.; Yohn, Christopher B.; Turkarslan, Serdar; Reiss, David J.; Orellana, Monica V.; et al

    2015-12-02

    Algae accumulate lipids to endure different kinds of environmental stresses including macronutrient starvation. Although this response has been extensively studied, an in depth understanding of the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) that controls the transition into lipid accumulation remains elusive. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to elucidate the transcriptional program that coordinates the nitrogen starvation-induced metabolic readjustments that drive lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that nitrogen starvation triggered differential regulation of 2147 transcripts, which were co-regulated in 215 distinct modules and temporally ordered as 31 transcriptional waves. An early-stage response was triggered within 12 minmore » that initiated growth arrest through activation of key signaling pathways, while simultaneously preparing the intracellular environment for later stages by modulating transport processes and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Subsequently, central metabolism and carbon fixation were remodeled to trigger the accumulation of triacylglycerols. Further analysis revealed that these waves of genome-wide transcriptional events were coordinated by a regulatory program orchestrated by at least 17 transcriptional regulators, many of which had not been previously implicated in this process. We demonstrate that the TRN coordinates transcriptional downregulation of 57 metabolic enzymes across a period of nearly 4 h to drive an increase in lipid content per unit biomass. Notably, this TRN appears to also drive lipid accumulation during sulfur starvation, while phosphorus starvation induces a different regulatory program. The TRN model described here is available as a community-wide web-resource at http://networks.systemsbiology.net/chlamy-portal. In conclusion, in this work, we have uncovered a comprehensive mechanistic model of the TRN controlling the transition from N starvation to lipid

  20. Nitrogen management in landfill leachate: Application of SHARON, ANAMMOX and combined SHARON-ANAMMOX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sri Shalini, S.; Joseph, Kurian

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant research on ammonia removal from leachate by SHARON and ANAMMOX process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Operational parameters, microbiology, biochemistry and application of the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SHARON-ANAMMOX process for leachate a new research and this paper gives wide facts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cost-effective process, alternative to existing technologies for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Address the issues and operational conditions for application in leachate treatment. - Abstract: In today's context of waste management, landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is considered to be one of the standard practices worldwide. Leachate generated from municipal landfills has become a great threat to the surroundings as it contains high concentration of organics, ammonia and other toxic pollutants. Emphasis has to be placed on the removal of ammonia nitrogen in particular, derived from the nitrogen content of the MSW and it is a long term pollution problem in landfills which determines when the landfill can be considered stable. Several biological processes are available for the removal of ammonia but novel processes such as the Single Reactor System for High Activity Ammonia Removal over Nitrite (SHARON) and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) process have great potential and several advantages over conventional processes. The combined SHARON-ANAMMOX process for municipal landfill leachate treatment is a new, innovative and significant approach that requires more research to identify and solve critical issues. This review addresses the operational parameters, microbiology, biochemistry and application of both the processes to remove ammonia from leachate.

  1. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C.; Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O.sub.2 /N.sub.2 selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 -cm/cm.sup.2 -sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  3. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J.; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  4. Reprocessing of ices in turbulent protoplanetary disks: Carbon and nitrogen chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri

    2014-08-01

    We study the influence of the turbulent transport on ice chemistry in protoplanetary disks, focusing on carbon- and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking the turbulent mixing in the vertical direction. Turbulence can bring ice-coated dust grains from the midplane to the warm irradiated disk surface, and the ice mantles are reprocessed by photoreactions, thermal desorption, and surface reactions. The upward transport decreases the abundance of methanol and ammonia ices at r ? 30 AU because warm dust temperature prohibits their reformation on grain surfaces. This reprocessing could explain the smaller abundances of carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules in cometary coma than those in low-mass protostellar envelopes. We also show the effect of mixing on the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) in two ways: (1) transport of ices from the midplane to the disk surface and (2) transport of atomic hydrogen from the surface to the midplane. The former enhances the COMs formation in the disk surface, while the latter suppresses it in the midplane. Then, when mixing is strong, COMs are predominantly formed in the disk surface, while their parent molecules are (re)formed in the midplane. This cycle expands the COMs distribution both vertically and radially outward compared with that in the non-turbulent model. We derive the timescale of the sink mechanism by which CO and N{sub 2} are converted to less volatile molecules to be depleted from the gas phase and find that the vertical mixing suppresses this mechanism in the inner disks.

  5. Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.Y.; Chen, C.-H.; Yeh, C.-M.; Hwang, J.; Liu, P.-C.; Lee, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-W.; Wei, H.K.; Kou, C.S.; Lee, C.-D.

    2005-10-15

    A plasma beam scanning treatment has been developed to modify the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film on the indium tin oxide glass. The plasma beam scanning treatment makes the a-C:H film an excellent layer for liquid-crystal alignment. The qualities of a-C:H films were characterized by using atomic force microscope, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscope. The ultrathin a-C:H films were deposited at 50% CH{sub 4}/(H{sub 2}+CH{sub 4}) gas ratio, 100 W radio-frequency power, and a gas pressure of 10 mtorr for 15 min by capacitive-coupled plasma chemical-vapor deposition method. The twist nematic cells were filled with liquid crystal (ZLI-2293) on the a-C:H film treated with different nitrogen plasma beam scanning time. The grooving mechanism is considered not responsible for the liquid-crystal (LC) alignment. Raman spectra suggest that a bond-breaking process of aromatic rings occurs in the a-C:H film. The O{sub 1s}, C{sub 1s}, and N{sub 1s} core-level spectra support that the nitrogen plasma beam scanning treatment induces a bond-breaking process of aromatic rings to create available carbon dangling bonds for the formation of C-O bonds. The newly formed C-O bonds are 'directional', which favor the LC alignment on the a-C:H film.

  6. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in LithiumSulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  7. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  8. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-18

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differedmore » from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  9. Nuclear Astrophysics Animations from the Nuclear Astrophysics Group at Clemson University

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Meyer, Bradley; The, Lih-Sin

    The nuclear astrophysics group at Clemson University in South Carolina develops on-line tools and computer programs for astronomy, nuclear physics, and nuclear astrophysics. They have also done short animations that illustrate results from research with some of their tools. The animations are organized into three sections. The r-Process Movies demonstrate r-Process network calculations from the paper "Neutrino Capture and the R-Process" Meyer, McLaughlin, and Fuller, Phys. Rev. C, 58, 3696-3710 (1998). The Alpha-Rich Freezeout Movies are related to the reference: Standard alpha-rich freezeout calculation from The, Clayton, Jin, and Meyer 1998, Astrophysical Journal, "Reaction Rates Governing the Synthesis of 44Ti" At the current writing, the category for Low Metallicity s-Process Movies has only one item called n, p, 13C, 14N, 54Fe, and 88Sr Time evolution in convective zone.

  10. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-04-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country.

  11. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of themore » newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.« less

  12. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented.

  13. Awake Animal Imaging at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Awake Animal Imaging at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613

  14. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  15. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  16. Jefferson Lab's Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device for the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    German Cancer Research Center | Jefferson Lab Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device for the German Cancer Research Center March Smith Mark Smith, Detector Group Biomedical Imaging Physicist and project manager for this effort, holds the tungsten box encasing the detector head for the mini gamma camera that Jefferson Lab's Detector Group built for the German Cancer Research Center. This photo was taken in December 2004 before the imaging device was disassembled for shipment to

  17. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  18. Design and implementation of a marine animal alert system to support Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Choi, Eric Y.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-08-08

    Power extracted from fast moving tidal currents has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. Device developers and utilities are pursuing deployment of prototype tidal turbines to assess technology viability, site feasibility, and environmental interactions. Deployment of prototype turbines requires permits from a range of regulatory authorities. Ensuring the safety of marine animals, particularly those under protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 has emerged as a key regulatory challenge for initial MHK deployments. The greatest perceived risk to marine animals is from strike by the rotating blades of tidal turbines. Development of the marine mammal alert system (MAAS) was undertaken to support monitoring and mitigation requirements for tidal turbine deployments. The prototype system development focused on Southern Resident killer whales (SRKW), an endangered population of killer whales that frequents Puget Sound and is intermittently present in the part of the sound where deployment of prototype tidal turbines is being considered. Passive acoustics were selected as the primary means because of the vocal nature of these animals. The MAAS passive acoustic system consists of two-stage process involving the use of an energy detector and a spectrogram-based classifier to distinguish between SKRW’s calls and noise. A prototype consisting of two 2D symmetrical star arrays separated by 20 m center to center was built and evaluated in the waters of Sequim Bay using whale call playback.

  19. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  20. Evaluation of nitrogen-rich macrocyclic ligands for the chelation of therapeutic bismuth radioisotopes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wilson, Justin J.; Ferrier, Maryline; Radchenko, Valery; Maassen, Joel R.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Batista, Enrique R.; Martin, Richard L.; Nortier, Francois M.; Fassbender, Michael E.; John, Kevin D.; et al

    2015-05-01

    The use of α-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy is a promising treatment strategy for small micro-metastatic disease. The radioisotope ²¹³Bi is a nuclide that has found substantial use for targeted α-therapy (TAT). The relatively unexplored aqueous chemistry of Bi³⁺, however, hinders the development of bifunctional chelating agents that can successfully deliver these Bi radioisotopes to the tumor cells. Here, a novel series of nitrogen-rich macrocyclic ligands is explored for their potential use as Bi-selective chelating agents. The ligands, 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpy), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(3-pyridazylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpyd), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(4-pyrimidylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpyr), and 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-pyrazinylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpz), were prepared by a previously reported method and investigated here for their abilitiesmore » to bind Bi radioisotopes. The commercially available and commonly used ligands 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and N-[(R)-2-amino-3-(p-isothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)- cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA) were also explored for comparative purposes. Radio-thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to measure the binding kinetics and stabilities of the complexes formed. The long-lived isotope, ²⁰⁷Bi (t1/2 = 32 years), was used for these studies. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also employed to probe the ligand interactions with Bi³⁺ and the generator parent ion Ac³⁺.In contrast to DOTA and CHX-A''-DTPA, these nitrogen-rich macrocycles selectively chelate Bi³⁺ in the presence of the parent isotope Ac³⁺. Among the four tested, Lpy was found to exhibit optimal Bi³⁺-binding kinetics and complex stability. Lpy complexes Bi³⁺ more rapidly than DOTA, yet the resulting complexes are of similar stability. DFT

  1. Simulation of coal and char nitrogen reactions in combustion. [Final report, September 1992--August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpaty, S.K.

    1993-10-01

    The observed rate of increase of N{sub 2}O (0.18% to 0.26% annually) is a matter of increasing concern both because N{sub 2}O is a greenhouse gas and has a major and unfavorable influence on the ozone layer (Weiss, 1981). The combustion contribution to the overall nitrous oxide budget is difficult to assess; yet the emission of N{sub 2}O from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has been identified in the past few years as significant. It was concluded in the European workshop, 1988 that the emission level from a coal-fired fluidized bed boiler is 50--200 ppM but it is only 1--20 ppM in boilers equipped with other types of combustion devices. For this reason it is worthwhile to investigate the emissions from FBC more thoroughly. Gaseous fuels (Miller and Bowman, 1989), but the N{sub 2}O emissions under fluidized bed conditions is poorly understood. In fluidized bed combustion, N{sub 2}O can arise from homogeneous gas phase reactions involving amines and cyano species (Hiltunen et al, 1991) or it can be formed from heterogeneous reactions (eg. char oxidation). Removal of N{sub 2}O can be brought about by gas phase reactions or by catalytic or non-catalytic heterogeneous reduction on char/limestone. This work was carried out with an objective of enhancing the fundamental understanding of coal and char nitrogen reaction pathways in fluidized bed combustion environment. The formation and destruction of HCN and N{sub 2}O under variety of influential parameters were investigated. This simulation contained a nonisothermal single particle combustion in a preheated reactor and a gas phase reaction are designed to stimulate the nitrogen chemistry in a circulating fluidzied bed. The LSODE differential equation solver used for single particle combustion and the CHEMKIN package, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, was applied for gas phase reactions. This computational work was done as an exploratory research program under the solicitation of the DOE fossil energy utilization.

  2. Evaluation of nitrogen-rich macrocyclic ligands for the chelation of therapeutic bismuth radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Justin J.; Ferrier, Maryline; Radchenko, Valery; Maassen, Joel R.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Batista, Enrique R.; Martin, Richard L.; Nortier, Francois M.; Fassbender, Michael E.; John, Kevin D.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2015-05-01

    The use of ?-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy is a promising treatment strategy for small micro-metastatic disease. The radioisotope Bi is a nuclide that has found substantial use for targeted ?-therapy (TAT). The relatively unexplored aqueous chemistry of Bi?, however, hinders the development of bifunctional chelating agents that can successfully deliver these Bi radioisotopes to the tumor cells. Here, a novel series of nitrogen-rich macrocyclic ligands is explored for their potential use as Bi-selective chelating agents. The ligands, 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpy), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(3-pyridazylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpyd), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(4-pyrimidylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpyr), and 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-pyrazinylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Lpz), were prepared by a previously reported method and investigated here for their abilities to bind Bi radioisotopes. The commercially available and commonly used ligands 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and N-[(R)-2-amino-3-(p-isothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)- cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA) were also explored for comparative purposes. Radio-thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to measure the binding kinetics and stabilities of the complexes formed. The long-lived isotope, ??Bi (t1/2 = 32 years), was used for these studies. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also employed to probe the ligand interactions with Bi? and the generator parent ion Ac?.In contrast to DOTA and CHX-A''-DTPA, these nitrogen-rich macrocycles selectively chelate Bi? in the presence of the parent isotope Ac?. Among the four tested, Lpy was found to exhibit optimal Bi?-binding kinetics and complex stability. Lpy complexes Bi? more rapidly than DOTA

  3. Indirect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Multi-Component Gas By Measuring The Speed Of Sound At Two States Of The Gas.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2004-10-12

    A methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a gas mixture. The molecular weight of the gas is modeled as a function of the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the speed of sound in the gas is measured at two states and diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, two equations for molecular weight can be equated and solved for the nitrogen concentration in the gas mixture.

  4. Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Min-Da.

    1993-05-25

    A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

  5. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V.

    2014-01-29

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented.

  6. Cryodeposition of nitrogen gas on a surface cooled by helium II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhuley, R. C.; Bosque, E. S.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2014-01-29

    Catastrophic loss of beam tube vacuum in a superconducting particle accelerator can be simulated by sudden venting of a long high vacuum channel cooled on its outer surface by He II. The rapid rush of atmospheric air in such an event shows an interesting propagation effect, which is much slower than the shock wave that occurs with vacuum loss at ambient conditions. This is due to flash frosting/deposition of air on the cold walls of the channel. Hence to characterize the propagation as well as the associated heat transfer, it is first necessary to understand the deposition process. Here we attempt to model the growth of nitrogen frost layer on a cold plate in order to estimate its thickness with time. The deposition process can be divided into two regimes- free molecular and continuum. It is shown that in free molecular regime, the frost growth can be modeled reasonably well using cryopump theory and general heat transfer relations. The continuum regime is more complex to model, given the higher rate of gas incident on cryosurface causing a large heat load on helium bath and changing cryosurface temperature. Results from the continuum regime are discussed in the context of recent experiments performed in our laboratory.

  7. Effect of process parameters on properties of argonnitrogen plasma for titanium nitride film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikia, Partha; Kakati, Bharat

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the effect of working pressure and input power on the physical properties and sputtering efficiencies of argonnitrogen (Ar/N{sub 2}) plasma in direct current magnetron discharge is investigated. The discharge in Ar/N{sub 2} is used to deposit TiN films on high speed steel substrate. The physical plasma parameters are determined by using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. A prominent change of electron temperature, electron density, ion density, and degree of ionization of Ar is found as a function of working pressure and input power. The results also show that increasing working pressure exerts a negative effect on film deposition rate while increasing input power has a positive impact on the same. To confirm the observed physical properties and evaluate the texture growth as a function of deposition parameters, x-ray diffraction study of deposited TiN films is also done.

  8. Convergence of microbial assimilations of soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in terrestrial ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Dafeng; King, Anthony Wayne; Song, Xia; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-11-27

    How soil microbes assimilate carbon-C, nitrogen-N, phosphorus-P, and sulfur-S is fundamental for understanding nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We compiled a global database of C, N, P, and S concentrations in soils and microbes and developed relationships between them by using a power function model. The C:N:P:S was estimated to be 287:17:1:0.8 for soils, and 42:6:1:0.4 for microbes. We found a convergence of the relationships between elements in soils and in soil microbial biomass across C, N, P, and S. The element concentrations in soil microbial biomass follow a homeostatic regulation curve with soil element concentrations across C, N, Pmore » and S, implying a unifying mechanism of microbial assimilating soil elements. This correlation explains the well-constrained C:N:P:S stoichiometry with a slightly larger variation in soils than in microbial biomass. Meanwhile, it is estimated that the minimum requirements of soil elements for soil microbes are 0.8 mmol C Kg–1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol N Kg–1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol P Kg–1 dry soil, and 0.1 mmol S Kg–1 dry soil, respectively. Lastly, these findings provide a mathematical explanation of element imbalance in soils and soil microbial biomass, and offer insights for incorporating microbial contribution to nutrient cycling into Earth system models.« less

  9. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  10. Consistent multi-internal-temperature models for vibrational and electronic nonequilibrium in hypersonic nitrogen plasma flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, Aurlien Bourdon, Anne Perrin, Marie-Yvonne

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a state-to-state vibrational and electronic collisional model is developed to investigate nonequilibrium phenomena behind a shock wave in an ionized nitrogen flow. In the ionization dynamics behind the shock wave, the electron energy budget is of key importance and it is found that the main depletion term corresponds to the electronic excitation of N atoms, and conversely the major creation terms are the electron-vibration term at the beginning, then replaced by the electron ions elastic exchange term. Based on these results, a macroscopic multi-internal-temperature model for the vibration of N{sub 2} and the electronic levels of N atoms is derived with several groups of vibrational levels of N{sub 2} and electronic levels of N with their own internal temperatures to model the shape of the vibrational distribution of N{sub 2} and of the electronic excitation of N, respectively. In this model, energy and chemistry source terms are calculated self-consistently from the rate coefficients of the state-to-state database. For the shock wave condition studied, a good agreement is observed on the ionization dynamics as well as on the atomic bound-bound radiation between the state-to-state model and the macroscopic multi-internal temperature model with only one group of vibrational levels of N{sub 2} and two groups of electronic levels of N.

  11. Triple point temperature of neon isotopes: Dependence on nitrogen impurity and sealed-cell model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavese, F.; Steur, P. P. M.; Giraudi, D.

    2013-09-11

    This paper illustrates a study conducted at INRIM, to further check how some quantities influence the value of the triple point temperature of the neon high-purity isotopes {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne. The influence of nitrogen as a chemical impurity in neon is critical with regard to the present best total uncertainty achieved in the measurement of these triple points, but only one determination is available in the literature. Checks are reported, performed on two different samples of {sup 22}Ne known to contain a N{sub 2} amount of 157⋅10{sup −6}, using two different models of sealed cells. The model of the cell can, in principle, have some effects on the shape of the melting plateau or on the triple point temperature observed for the sample sealed in it. This can be due to cell thermal parameters, or because the INRIM cell element mod. c contains many copper wires closely packed, which can, in principle, constrain the interface and induce a premelting-like effect. The reported results on a cell mod. Bter show no evident effect from the cell model and provide a value for the effect of N{sub 2} in Ne liquidus point of 8.6(1.9) μK ppm N{sub 2}{sup −1}, only slightly different from the literature datum.

  12. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal of the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.

  13. Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and its association with respiratory illness in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koo, L.C.; Ho, J.H.; Ho, C.Y.; Matsuki, H.; Shimizu, H.; Mori, T.; Tominaga, S. )

    1990-05-01

    In 1985, 362 primary schoolchildren and their 319 mothers were surveyed in Hong Kong to study the possible relationship of air pollution to respiratory illnesses. Using nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) measured by personal samplers as a measure of air pollution, the study aimed to identify the major sources of NO{sub 2} in the indoor environment and see whether its increased presence was associated with respiratory symptoms. The levels of NO{sub 2} among the mothers was found to increase by 21% if dust exposure was reported from the workplace, 18% if they used such cooking fuels as liquid petroleum gas or kerosene, 11% when kitchens did not have ventilating fans, and 10% when incense was burned at home. In terms of respiratory symptoms, an increase in NO{sub 2} levels of 19% was reported among those with allergic rhinitis and 18% among those with chronic cough. The levels of NO2 among children were correlated with levels measured in classrooms, all of which had opened windows so that the NO{sub 2} came from outdoors. No association was found between children's NO{sub 2} levels and respiratory symptoms. With the exception of smoking by the father and the children's NO{sub 2} levels, no association was found between smoking at home and NO{sub 2} levels.

  14. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  15. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Use of Combined Biogeochemical Model Approaches and Empirical Data to Assess Critical Loads of Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenn, Mark E.; Driscoll, Charles; Zhou, Qingtao; Rao, Leela E.; Meixner, Tom; Allen, Edith B.; Yuan, Fengming; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical and dynamic biogeochemical modelling are complementary approaches for determining the critical load (CL) of atmospheric nitrogen (N) or other constituent deposition that an ecosystem can tolerate without causing ecological harm. The greatest benefits are obtained when these approaches are used in combination. Confounding environmental factors can complicate the determination of empirical CLs across depositional gradients, while the experimental application of N amendments for estimating the CL does not realistically mimic the effects of chronic atmospheric N deposition. Biogeochemical and vegetation simulation models can provide CL estimates and valuable ecosystem response information, allowing for past and future scenario testing with various combinations of environmental factors, pollutants, pollutant control options, land management, and ecosystem response parameters. Even so, models are fundamentally gross simplifications of the real ecosystems they attempt to simulate. Empirical approaches are vital as a check on simulations and CL estimates, to parameterize models, and to elucidate mechanisms and responses under real world conditions. In this chapter, we provide examples of empirical and modelled N CL approaches in ecosystems from three regions of the United States: mixed conifer forest, desert scrub and pinyon- juniper woodland in California; alpine catchments in the Rocky Mountains; and lakes in the Adirondack region of New York state.

  17. Characterization of transfer layers on steel surfaces sliding against diamondlike carbon in dry nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Bindal, C.; Pagan, J.; Wilbur, P.

    1995-03-01

    Transfer layers on sliding steel surfaces play important roles in tribological performance of diamondlike carbon films. This study investigated the nature of transfer layers formed on M50 balls during sliding against diamondlike carbon (DLC) films (1.5 {mu}m thick) prepared by ion-beam deposition. Long-duration sliding tests were performed with steel balls sliding against the DLC coatings in dry nitrogen at room temperature and zero humidity. Test results indicated that the friction coefficients of test pairs were initially 0.12 but decreased steadily with sliding distance to 0.02-0.03 and remained constant throughout the tests, which lasted for more than 250,000 sliding cycles (30 km). This low-friction regime appeared to coincide with the formation of a carbon-rich transfer layer on the sliding surfaces of M50 balls. Micro-laser-Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the structure and chemistry of these transfer layers and to reveal their possible role in the wear and friction behavior of DLC-coated surfaces.

  18. Critical role of intercalated water for electrocatalytically active nitrogen-doped graphitic systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez, Ulises; Dumont, Joseph H.; Holby, Edward F.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Singh, Akhilesh; Mack, Nathan H.; Atanassov, Plamen; Cullen, David A.; More, Karren L.; et al

    2016-03-18

    Graphitic materials are very essential in energy conversion and storage because of their excellent chemical and electrical properties. The strategy for obtaining functional graphitic materials involves graphite oxidation and subsequent dissolution in aqueous media, forming graphene-oxide nanosheets (GNs). Restacked GNs contain substantial intercalated water that can react with heteroatom dopants or the graphene lattice during reduction. We demonstrate that removal of intercalated water using simple solvent treatments causes significant structural reorganization, substantially affecting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability of nitrogen-doped graphitic systems. Amid contrasting reports describing the ORR activity of GN-based catalysts in alkaline electrolytes, we demonstratemore » superior activity in an acidic electrolyte with an onset potential of ~0.9 V, a half-wave potential (E½) of 0.71 V, and a selectivity for four-electron reduction of >95%. Finally and further, durability testing showed E½ retention >95% in N2- and O2-saturated solutions after 2000 cycles, demonstrating the highest ORR activity and stability reported to date for GN-based electrocatalysts in acidic media.« less

  19. Modeling of dissociation and energy transfer in shock-heated nitrogen flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munafò, A.; Liu, Y.; Panesi, M.

    2015-12-15

    This work addresses the modeling of dissociation and energy transfer processes in shock heated nitrogen flows by means of the maximum entropy linear model and a newly proposed hybrid bin vibrational collisional model. Both models aim at overcoming two of the main limitations of the state of the art non-equilibrium models: (i) the assumption of equilibrium between rotational and translational energy modes of the molecules and (ii) the reliance on the quasi-steady-state distribution for the description of the population of the internal levels. The formulation of the coarse-grained models is based on grouping the energy levels into bins, where the population is assumed to follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at its own temperature. Different grouping strategies are investigated. Following the maximum entropy principle, the governing equations are obtained by taking the zeroth and first-order moments of the rovibrational master equations. The accuracy of the proposed models is tested against the rovibrational master equation solution for both flow quantities and population distributions. Calculations performed for free-stream velocities ranging from 5 km/s to 10 km/s demonstrate that dissociation can be accurately predicted by using only 2-3 bins. It is also shown that a multi-temperature approach leads to an under-prediction of dissociation, due to the inability of the former to account for the faster excitation of high-lying vibrational states.

  20. Structural Environment of Nitrogen in N-doped Rutile TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ohsawa, Takeo; Chambers, Scott A.

    2010-12-31

    We employ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to characterize the concentration-dependent structural properties of nitrogen doping into rutile TiO2. High quality N-doped TiO2 were prepared on rutile single crystal TiO2(110) substrates using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and Ti effusive sources. Films with N dopant concentrations at or below 2 at.% exhibited predominately substitutional doping based on NRA data, whereas films with concentrations above this limit resulted in little or no substitutional N and surfaces rich in Ti3+. The binding energy of the N 1s feature in XPS did not readily distinguish between these two extremes in N-doping, rendering features within 0.4 eV of each other and similar peak profiles. Although widely used to characterize the state of N in anion-doped TiO2 materials, we find that XPS is unsuitable for this task.

  1. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal ofmore » the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.« less

  2. Convergence of microbial assimilations of soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Dafeng; King, Anthony Wayne; Song, Xia; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-11-27

    How soil microbes assimilate carbon-C, nitrogen-N, phosphorus-P, and sulfur-S is fundamental for understanding nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We compiled a global database of C, N, P, and S concentrations in soils and microbes and developed relationships between them by using a power function model. The C:N:P:S was estimated to be 287:17:1:0.8 for soils, and 42:6:1:0.4 for microbes. We found a convergence of the relationships between elements in soils and in soil microbial biomass across C, N, P, and S. The element concentrations in soil microbial biomass follow a homeostatic regulation curve with soil element concentrations across C, N, P and S, implying a unifying mechanism of microbial assimilating soil elements. This correlation explains the well-constrained C:N:P:S stoichiometry with a slightly larger variation in soils than in microbial biomass. Meanwhile, it is estimated that the minimum requirements of soil elements for soil microbes are 0.8 mmol C Kg–1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol N Kg–1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol P Kg–1 dry soil, and 0.1 mmol S Kg–1 dry soil, respectively. Lastly, these findings provide a mathematical explanation of element imbalance in soils and soil microbial biomass, and offer insights for incorporating microbial contribution to nutrient cycling into Earth system models.

  3. Rate equations for nitrogen molecules in ultrashort and intense x-ray pulses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Ji -Cai; Berrah, Nora; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Cryan, James P.; Glownia, James M.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Buth, Christian

    2016-03-16

    Here, we study theoretically the quantum dynamics of nitrogen molecules (N2) exposed to intense and ultrafast x-rays at a wavelength ofmore » $$1.1\\;{\\rm{nm}}$$ ($$1100\\;{\\rm{eV}}$$ photon energy) from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser. Molecular rate equations are derived to describe the intertwined photoionization, decay, and dissociation processes occurring for N2. This model complements our earlier phenomenological approaches, the single-atom, symmetric-sharing, and fragmentation-matrix models of 2012 (J. Chem. Phys. 136 214310). Our rate-equations are used to obtain the effective pulse energy at the sample and the time scale for the dissociation of the metastable dication $${{\\rm{N}}}_{2}^{2+}$$. This leads to a very good agreement between the theoretically and experimentally determined ion yields and, consequently, the average charge states. The effective pulse energy is found to decrease with shortening pulse duration. This variation together with a change in the molecular fragmentation pattern and frustrated absorption—an effect that reduces absorption of x-rays due to (double) core hole formation—are the causes for the drop of the average charge state with shortening LCLS pulse duration discovered previously.« less

  4. Diffractive imaging of a rotational wavepacket in nitrogen molecules with femtosecond megaelectronvolt electron pulses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Jie; Guehr, Markus; Vecchione, Theodore; Robinson, Matthew S.; Li, Renkai; Hartmann, Nick; Shen, Xiaozhe; Coffee, Ryan; Corbett, Jeff; Fry, Alan; et al

    2016-04-05

    Imaging changes in molecular geometries on their natural femtosecond timescale with sub-Angström spatial precision is one of the critical challenges in the chemical sciences, as the nuclear geometry changes determine the molecular reactivity. For photoexcited molecules, the nuclear dynamics determine the photoenergy conversion path and efficiency. Here we report a gas-phase electron diffraction experiment using megaelectronvolt (MeV) electrons, where we captured the rotational wavepacket dynamics of nonadiabatically laser-aligned nitrogen molecules. We achieved a combination of 100 fs root-mean-squared temporal resolution and sub-Angstrom (0.76 Å) spatial resolution that makes it possible to resolve the position of the nuclei within the molecule.more » In addition, the diffraction patterns reveal the angular distribution of the molecules, which changes from prolate (aligned) to oblate (anti-aligned) in 300 fs. Lastly, our results demonstrate a significant and promising step towards making atomically resolved movies of molecular reactions.« less

  5. Comparison of environmental and isolate Sulfobacillus genomes reveals diverse carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Justice, Nicholas B.; Norman, Anders; Brown, Christopher T.; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-12-15

    Bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus are found worldwide as members of microbial communities that accelerate sulfide mineral dissolution in acid mine drainage environments (AMD), acid-rock drainage environments (ARD), as well as in industrial bioleaching operations. Despite their frequent identification in these environments, their role in biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. Here we report draft genomes of five species of the Sulfobacillus genus (AMDSBA1-5) reconstructed by cultivation-independent sequencing of biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, CA). Three of these species (AMDSBA2, AMDSBA3, and AMDSBA4) have no cultured representatives while AMDSBA1 is a strain of S. benefaciens, and AMDSBA5 a strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans. We analyzed the diversity of energy conservation and central carbon metabolisms for these genomes and previously published Sulfobacillus genomes. Pathways of sulfur oxidation vary considerably across the genus, including the number and type of subunits of putative heterodisulfide reductase complexes likely involved in sulfur oxidation. The number and type of nickel-iron hydrogenase proteins varied across the genus, as does the presence of different central carbon pathways. Only the AMDSBA3 genome encodes a dissimilatory nitrate reducatase and only the AMDSBA5 and S. thermosulfidooxidans genomes encode assimilatory nitrate reductases. Lastly, within the genus, AMDSBA4 is unusual in that its electron transport chain includes a cytochrome bc type complex, a unique cytochrome c oxidase, and two distinct succinate dehydrogenase complexes. Overall, the results significantly expand our understanding of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism within the Sulfobacillus genus.

  6. Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaoliang

    1996-03-01

    The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

  7. Development of technology in the production of fertilizers in ammoniation-granulation plants. Progress report No. 12, September 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Work conducted to demonstrate procedures and equipment to conserve about 83% of fuel oil used for drying and generating steam in the ammoniation-granulation plants is reported. The general mechanism of granulation is examined. Conventional ammoniation-granulation plants are described and the new pipe-cross reactor system is described and schematics of their design are presented. Results of some demonstration tests reveal that an average of 785,000 Btu's per ton of production is eliminated with the installation of the TVA pipe-cross reactor process. It also reduces atmospheric emissions. Data on investment cost and payback period of the installation of a pipe-cross reactor in an existing TVA granulation fertilizer plant are presented.

  8. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  9. Analysis of New High-Q0 SRF Cavity Tests by Nitrogen Gas Doping at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palczewski, Ari D.; Geng, Rongli; Reece, Charles E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to refine systematic understanding and establish confident process control, Jefferson Lab has joined with partners to investigate and thoroughly characterize the dramatically higher Q0 of 1.3 GHz niobium cavities first reported by FNAL in 2013[1]. With partial support from the LCLS-II project, JLab has undertaken a parametric study of nitrogen doping in vacuum furnace at 800 C followed by variable depth surface removal in the 5 - 20 ?m range. Q0 above 31010 are typical at 2.0 K and 16 MV/m accelerating field. We report observations from the single cell study and current interpretations. In addition to the parametric single cell study, we also report on the ongoing serial testing of six nitrogen-doped 9-cell cavities as baseline prototypes for LCLS-II.

  10. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen containing polymeric compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for making an additive for lubricant compositions comprising co-reacting: a monoolefin selected from the group consisting of butenes, propenes, pentenes, and mixtures of two or more thereof; sulfur; hydrogen sulfide; polymeric nitrogen-containing compound selected from the group consisting of succinimides, amides, imides, polyoxyazoline polymers and alkyl imidazoline compounds; and a catalytic amount of an amine selected from the group consisting of polyethylene amines and hydroxyl-containing amines; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric nitrogen-containing compound, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of 2 to 0.5, 0.001 to 0.4, and 0.5 to 0.7, respectively, and the concentration of amine being between 0.5 and 10 percent of the total weight of reactants.

  11. Changes in the structure and wear resistance of the surface layer of copper under treatment by nitrogen ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergeev, Victor P. E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru; Kalashnikov, Mark P. E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru; Rybalko, Evgeniya V. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru; Sungatulin, Alfred R. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru; Sergeev, Oleg V. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru; Zharkov, Stanislav Yu. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru

    2014-11-14

    The structural-phase state of the treated sample surface was investigated by TEM. It was shown by the TEM and VIMS method that the improvement of tribological properties of the copper samples can be associated with an increase of relaxation ability due to a significant increase of the nitrogen concentration in it, which is accompanied by the refinement of fcc-Cu main phase grain structure and the formation of nanopores or gas bubbles in the ion-modified surface layer. A high-dose implantation of nitrogen ions and copper samples increases the wear resistance in 1.5-4.5 times together with a counterbody from the same material in the argon environment. The microhardness of the copper samples also increases.

  12. Increased photocatalytic activity of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres from codoping with transition metals and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathis, John E.; Lieffers, Justin J.; Mitra, Chandrima; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Bi, Z.; Bridges, Craig A.; Kidder, Michelle K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2015-11-06

    The composition of anatase TiO2 was modified by codoping using combinations of a transition metal and nitrogen in order to increase its photocatalytic activity and extend it performance in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The transition metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) were added during the hydrothermal preparation of mesoporous TiO2 particles, and the nitrogen was introduced by post-annealing in flowing ammonia gas at high temperature. The samples were analyzed by SEM, XRD, BET, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was assessed by observing the change in methylene blue concentrations under both UV-vis and visible-only light irradiation. As a result, the photocatalytic activity of the (Mn,N), (Co,N), (Cu,N), and Ni,N) codoped TiO2 was significantly enhanced relative to (N) TiO2.

  13. Increased photocatalytic activity of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres from codoping with transition metals and nitrogen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mathis, John E.; Lieffers, Justin J.; Mitra, Chandrima; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Bi, Z.; Bridges, Craig A.; Kidder, Michelle K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2015-11-06

    The composition of anatase TiO2 was modified by codoping using combinations of a transition metal and nitrogen in order to increase its photocatalytic activity and extend it performance in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The transition metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) were added during the hydrothermal preparation of mesoporous TiO2 particles, and the nitrogen was introduced by post-annealing in flowing ammonia gas at high temperature. The samples were analyzed by SEM, XRD, BET, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was assessed by observing the change in methylene blue concentrations under both UV-vis andmore » visible-only light irradiation. As a result, the photocatalytic activity of the (Mn,N), (Co,N), (Cu,N), and Ni,N) codoped TiO2 was significantly enhanced relative to (N) TiO2.« less

  14. Gas-phase reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations and their nitrogen-containing analogs with H atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demarais, Nicholas J.; Yang, Zhibo; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 215 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: Nicholas.Demarais@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Zhibo.Yang@ou.edu, E-mail: Veronica.Bierbaum@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Theodore.Snow@Colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have studied the reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations and their nitrogen-containing analogs with H atoms. Reaction rate constants are measured at 300 K using a flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube. We have implemented the laser induced acoustic desorption technique to allow the study of large, non-volatile species in the gas phase. The extension of this work from previous studies shows that the reactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations with H atoms reaches a constant value for large cations. There is a small difference in reactivity when comparing molecules of different size and geometry; however, no difference in reactivity was found when nitrogen was incorporated into the ring.

  15. Neutronic evaluation of a non-fertile fuel for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in a boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    A new non-fertile, weapons-grade plutonium oxide fuel concept is developed and evaluated for deep burn applications in a boiling water reactor environment using the General Electric 8x8 Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) fuel assembly dimensions and pitch. Detailed infinite lattice fuel burnup results and neutronic performance characteristics are given and although preliminary in nature, clearly demonstrate the fuel`s potential as an effective means to expedite the disposition of plutonium in existing light water reactors. The new non-fertile fuel concept is an all oxide composition containing plutonia, zirconia, calcia, and erbia having the following design weight percentages: 8.3; 80.4; 9.7; and 1.6. This fuel composition in an infinite fuel lattice operating at linear heat generation rates of 6.0 or 12.0 kW/ft per rod can remain critical for up to 1,200 and 600 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), respectively, and achieve a burnup of 7.45 {times} 10{sup 20} f/cc. These burnups correspond to a 71--73% total plutonium isotope destruction and a 91--94% destruction of the {sup 239}Pu isotope for the 0--40% moderator steam void condition. Total plutonium destruction greater than 73% is possible with a fuel management scheme that allows subcritical fuel assemblies to be driven by adjacent high reactivity assemblies. The fuel exhibits very favorable neutron characteristics from beginning-of-life (BOL) to end-of-life (EOL). Prompt fuel Doppler coefficient of reactivity are negative, with values ranging between {minus}0.4 to {minus}2.0 pcm/K over the temperature range of 900 to 2,200 K. The ABWR fuel lattice remains in an undermoderated condition for both hot operational and cold startup conditions over the entire fuel burnup lifetime.

  16. High-dose radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is not associated with change in female fertility or any genetic risk to the offspring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bal, Chandrasekhar . E-mail: csbal@hotmail.com; Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, Madhavi; Chandrashekar, Narayana; Phom, Hentok; Murali, Nadig R.; Chandra, Prem; Pant, Gauri S.

    2005-10-01

    Background: We tried to evaluate the female fertility and genetic risk to the offspring from the exposure to high-dose {sup 131}I by assessing the pregnancy outcomes and health status of the children of female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had received therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Materials and Methods: From 1967 to 2002, a total of 1,282 women had been treated with {sup 131}I. Of these patients, 692 (54%) were in the reproductive age group (18-45 years). Forty women had a total of 50 pregnancies after high-dose {sup 131}I. Age at presentation ranged from 16 to 36 years (mean, 23 {+-} 4 years). Histopathology was papillary thyroid cancer in 32 cases and follicular thyroid cancer in 8 cases. Results: Single high-dose therapy was given in 30 cases, 2 doses were given in 7 cases, 3 doses were given in 2 cases, and four doses were given in 1 case in which lung metastases had occurred. In 37 patients (92%), disease was successfully ablated before pregnancy. Ovarian absorbed-radiation dose calculated by the MIRD method ranged from 3.5 to 60 cGy (mean, 12 {+-} 11 cGy). The interval between {sup 131}I therapy and pregnancy varied from 7 to 120 months (37.4 {+-} 28.2 months). Three spontaneous abortions occurred in 2 women. Forty-seven babies (20 females and 27 males) were born. Forty-four babies were healthy with normal birth weight and normal developmental milestones. Twenty women delivered their first baby after {sup 131}I therapy. The youngest child in our series is 11 months of age, and the oldest is 8.5 years of age. Conclusions: Female fertility is not affected by high-dose radioiodine treatment, and the therapy does not appear to be associated with any genetic risks to the offspring.

  17. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  18. Comparison of thermodynamics of nitrogen and sulfur removal in heavy oil upgrading: Part 1, Acyclic and monocyclic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, W.V.; Archer, D.G.; Chirico, R.D.; Strube, M.M.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the first in a series detailing the equilibrium thermodynamics associated with hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation reactions for organic compounds present as contaminants in crude fossil fuels. In this report acyclic and monocyclic aromatic and nonaromatic compounds are considered. Results for nitrogen and sulfur compounds are compared and contrasted using available thermodynamic data from the literature. Details of all calculations are provided, and all data sources are documented. 38 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  20. Low Temperature Combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate nox from large bore natural gas-filled engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biruduganti, M. S.; Gupta, S. B.; Sekar, R. R.

    2008-01-01

    Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NOx emissions levels set by regulatory agencies. This phenomenon can be realized by utilizing various advanced combustion control strategies. The present work discusses nitrogen enrichment using an Air Separation Membrane (ASM) as a better alternative to the mature Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR) technique currently in use. A 70% NOx reduction was realized with a moderate 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving Fuel Conversion Efficiency (FCE). The maximum acceptable Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA) in a single cylinder spark ignited natural gas engine was investigated in this paper. Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance both in terms of power density and FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N2 enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing NEA was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with NEA is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NOx emissions.