National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for anhydrous ethyl alcohol

  1. Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam | Department of Energy Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam UCLA Logo The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging

  2. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  3. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  4. Alcohol injection cuts diesel consumption on turbocharged tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edson, D.V.

    1980-07-21

    M and W Gear Co. of Gibson City, IL, are marketing a new alcohol- injection system that permits turbocharged diesel engines to burn alcohol and claims to cut diesel consumption by 30% and more. The alcohol fuel, a blend of alcohol and water, does not meet the diesel fuel until the alcohol has been atomized and sprayed through the intake manifold into the cylinders. It permits farmers to use home- still-produced ethanol without the added expense of refining to anhydrous composition.

  5. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  6. Method and apparatus for synthesizing anhydrous HNO.sub.3

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coon, Clifford L. (Fremont, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing anhydrous HNO.sub.3 from an aqueous solution of HNO.sub.3 includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.80V vs. SCE is preferred. Anhydrous or aqueous HNO.sub.3 may be disposed at the cathode within the electrochemical cell. Aqueous HNO.sub.3 having a water content of up to about 12% by weight is utilized to synthesize anhydrous HNO.sub.3.

  7. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (S. Hamilton, MA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a .sup.196 Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  8. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1993-06-01

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a [sup 196]Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  9. Method of synthesis of anhydrous thorium(IV) complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Cantat, Thibault

    2013-04-30

    Method of producing anhydrous thorium(IV) tetrahalide complexes, utilizing Th(NO.sub.3).sub.4(H.sub.2O).sub.x, where x is at least 4, as a reagent; method of producing thorium-containing complexes utilizing ThCl.sub.4(DME).sub.2 as a precursor; method of producing purified ThCl.sub.4(ligand).sub.x compounds, where x is from 2 to 9; and novel compounds having the structures: ##STR00001##

  10. Ethyl`s MMT ready to hit the road

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, J.

    1996-01-03

    After spending two decades and about $30 million on the fight to sell the fuel octane booster methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), Ethyl has started marketing the product. Ethyl president and chief operating officer Thomas Gottwald says he expects a profit from MMT from the outset. {open_quotes}MMT is a gangbuster new product,{close_quotes} says Paul Raman, an analyst with S.G. Warburg (New York), {open_quotes}and it will be very profitable for Ethyl.{close_quotes} Ethyl`s effort to bring MMT to market faced pressure from EPA and automakers. EPA says MMT should not be marketed until more research is done on health effects of the manganese-based additive. US automakers oppose MMT, fearing it will damage catalytic converters. Last October Ethyl won a federal appeals court decision compelling EPA to approve MMT use. Gottwald says the MMT fight has been well worth it: {open_quotes}We fought with our eye on the bottom line.{close_quotes}

  11. Method and apparatus for synthesizing anhydrous HNO/sub 3/. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coon, C.L.; Harrar, J.E.; Pearson, R.K.; McGuire, R.R.

    1982-07-20

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing anhydrous HNO/sub 3/ from an aqueous solution of HNO/sub 3/- includes oxidizing a solution of N/sub 2/O/sub 4//aqueous HNO/sub 3/ at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N/sub 2/O/sub 4//aqueous HNO/sub 3/ solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.80V vs. SCE is preferred. Anhydrous or aqueous HNO/sub 3/ may be disposed at the cathode within the electrochemical cell. Aqueous HNO/sub 3/ having a water content of up to about 12% by weight is utilized to synthesize anhydrous HNO/sub 3/.

  12. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  13. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  14. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  15. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  16. Alcohol conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  17. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Quong, Roland (Oakland, CA); Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  18. Dopant effects on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol: A dual-channel impedance spectroscopy and neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Lokendra P.; Richert, Ranko; Raihane, Ahmed; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2015-01-07

    A two-channel impedance technique has been used to study the relaxation behavior of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with polar and non-polar dopants at the few percent concentration level over a wide temperature and frequency range. The non-polar dopants shift both the Debye and the primary structural relaxation time in the same direction, to shorter times for 3-methylpentane and to longer times for squalane, consistent with the relative glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) of the components. By contrast, polar dopants such as water or methanol modify the ?-process towards slower dynamics and increased amplitude, while the Debye process is accelerated and with a decreased amplitude. This effect of adding water to alcohol is explained by water promoting more compact structures with reduced Kirkwood correlation factors. This picture is consistent with a shift in the neutron scattering pre-peak to lower scattering vectors and with simulation work on alcohol-water systems.

  19. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine qThe alkyl chain ...

  20. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  1. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L.; Googin, John M.; Griffith, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocarbon and surfactants are contacted with a solution of alcohol and water to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon-surfactant mixture.

  2. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  3. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  4. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  5. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  6. ESE Alcohol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ESE Alcohol Jump to: navigation, search Name: ESE Alcohol Place: Leoti, Kansas Zip: 67861 Product: Owner of a 6.6m litre per year ethanol plant Coordinates: 38.481425,...

  7. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deluga, Gregg A. (St. Paul, MN); Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN)

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  8. Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura Albiex | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura (Albiex) Place: Spain Product: Spanish bioethanol producer building a plant in Extremadura. References: Alcoholes...

  9. Reactions of Ethyl Groups on a Model Chromia Surface: Ethyl Chloride on Stoichiometric Alpha-Cr2O3(1012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.; Ma, Q; Cox, D

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of CH3CH2Cl over the nearly-stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3 (1 0 View the MathML source 2) surface yields gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2, CH3CH3, H2 and surface chlorine adatoms. The decomposition reaction is initiated via C-Cl bond cleavage to give a surface ethyl (CH3CH2-) intermediate. A rate-limiting ?-hydride elimination from the surface ethyl species produces gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2 and surface hydrogen atoms. Two parallel competing reactions form CH3CH3, via ?-hydride addition to remaining surface ethyl species (reductive elimination), and H2, via the combination of two surface hydrogen atoms. The chlorine freed from the dissociation of CH3CH2Cl binds at the five-coordinate surface Cr3+ sites on the stoichiometric surface and inhibits the surface chemistry via simple site blocking. No surface carbon deposition is observed from the thermal reaction of ethyl chloride, suggesting that ethyl intermediates are not primary coke forming intermediates in the dehydrogenation of ethane over (1 0 View the MathML source 2) facets of ?-Cr2O3.

  10. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  11. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  12. Branchial and renal pathology in the fish exposed chronically to methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.; Tewari, H.

    1988-08-01

    Pathological manifestations causally related to pesticide poisoning have been described in both surficial and internal tissues of the fishes. Among the various organomercurials are phenyl mercuric acetate, methyl mercuric dicyanidiamide, methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride, methoxy ethyl mercuric silicate etc. Of these, the methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride (MEMC) is used in agriculture as an antifungal seed dressing, and its toxicity is primarily manifest in the Hg/sup 2 +/ ion. This report describes pathogenesis of branchial and renal lesions in the common freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius exposed chronically to sublethal levels of MEMC. Prior to this, alterations in the peripheral blood and metabolite levels in response to experimental MEMC poisoning have been demonstrated in this species.

  13. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  14. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motored Engine | Department of Energy Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine qThe alkyl chain of fatty acid esters experience the typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequence; the alkyl chain length of fatty acid esters has a crucial impact on the ignition behavior of fatty acid esters PDF icon deer09_boehman.pdf More Documents & Publications Low

  15. Coupling of alcohols to ethers: The dominance of the surface S{sub N}2 reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.; Herman, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coupling of alcohols to ethers, important high value oxygenates, proceeds on acid catalysts via general pathways that uniquely control product composition, oxygen retention, chirality inversion, and kinetics. The dominant pathway is the S{sub N}2 reaction with competition of the alcohols for the surface acid sites. This is exemplified by formation of methyl(ethyl) isobutylether (M(E)IBE) from methanol(ethanol)/isobutanol mixtures, retention of oxygen ({sup 18}O) of the heavier alcohol, and optimum rate as a function of concentration of either reactant alcohol. The S{sub N}2 pathway in the confinement of zeolite pores exhibits additional features of a near-100% selectivity to dimethylether (DME) in H-mordenite and a near-100% selectivity to chiral inversion in 2-pentanol/ethanol coupling to 2-ethoxypentane in HZSM-5. A minor reaction pathway entails olefin or carbenium intermediates, as exemplified by the formation of methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) from methanol/isobutanol mixtures with oxygen retention of the lighter alcohol. Calculations of transition state and molecular modeling of the oxonium-involving pathways dramatically demonstrate how the reaction path selects the products.

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up

  17. Recovery of anhydrous hydrogen iodide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Keefe, Dennis R. (San Diego, CA); McCorkle, Jr., Kenneth H. (Del Mar, CA); de Graaf, Johannes D. (The Hague, NL)

    1982-01-01

    Relatively dry hydrogen iodide can be recovered from a mixture of HI, I.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. After the composition of the mixture is adjusted so that the amounts of H.sub.2 O and I.sub.2 do not exceed certain maximum limits, subjection of the mixture to superatmospheric pressure in an amount equal to about the vapor pressure of HI at the temperature in question causes distinct liquid phases to appear. One of the liquid phases contains HI and not more than about 1 weight percent water. Often the adjustment in the composition will include the step of vaporization, and the distinct layers appear following the increase in pressure of the vapor mixture. Adjustment in the composition may also include the addition of an extraction agent, such as H.sub.3 PO.sub.4, and even though the adjusted composition mixture contains a significant amount of such an agent, the creation of the distinct liquid phases is not adversely affected.

  18. Alcohol Fuels - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alcohol Fuels Alcohol Fuels Goals Advance a multiscale approach to collaborative reaction kinetic model development and validation, by focusing team efforts on particular alcohol fuels. The team's initial focus has been on n-butanol. This has recently broadened to include detailed kinetic modeling of other isomeric butanols, plus some comparisons with smaller alcohols and the corresponding ketones, aldehydes, and enols. In the future we expect to use what we have learned from the butanol study

  19. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Woodridge, IL); Heiberger, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  20. Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office: Project Peer Review Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation Abhijit Dutta, NREL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Enable research and development of cost-competitive biomass to liquid fuels by providing: - Techno-economic analysis (TEA) - Feedback to the research efforts Specific objective in 2012: Provide TEA and validate DOE BETO's goal to demonstrate technologies capable

  1. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  2. Pressure dispensable gelled alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monick, J.A.

    1982-12-28

    A pressurized fuel gel composition particularly suitable for igniting wood and charcoal consisting essentially of, by weight, 42-90% of at least one c1-c6 monohydric alcohol, 0.5-6% of water-soluble gelling agent, up to about 24% water and a correlated amount of propellant from 0.5% to 30% characterized by a gel structure which forms a shape retaining mass upon contact with wood or charcoal that is maintained during the burning of said composition. Also within the scope of the invention is an aerosol product comprising said pressurized composition enclosed within a pressure-tight container having valve means for expelling the composition.

  3. A jet-stirred reactor and kinetic modeling study of ethyl propanoate oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalfe, W.K.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M.; Togb e, C.; Dagaut, P.

    2009-01-15

    A jet-stirred reactor study of ethyl propanoate, a model biodiesel molecule, has been carried out at 10 atm pressure, using 0.1% fuel at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 and at temperatures in the range 750-1100 K with a constant residence time of 0.7 seconds. Concentration profiles of ethyl propanoate were measured together with those of major intermediates, ethylene, propanoic acid, methane and formaldehyde, and major products, water, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. This data was used to further validate a previously published detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, containing 139 species and 790 reversible reactions. It was found that this mechanism required a significant increase in the rate constant of the six-centered unimolecular elimination reaction which produces ethylene and propanoic acid in order to correctly reproduce the measured concentrations of propanoic acid. The revised mechanism was then used to re-simulate shock tube ignition delay data with good agreement observed. Rate of production and sensitivity analyses were carried out under the experimental conditions, highlighting the importance that ethylene chemistry has on the overall reactivity of the system. (author)

  4. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  5. HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance ...

  6. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via ...

  7. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ...

  8. Jilin Fuel Alcohol Company Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alcohol Company Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jilin Fuel Alcohol Company Ltd Place: Jilin, Jilin Province, China Zip: 132011 Product: One of the four Chinese government...

  9. Effect of alcohols on aqueous lysozyme-lysozyme interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of alcohols on aqueous lysozyme-lysozyme interactions from static light-scattering measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of alcohols on aqueous...

  10. Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-04-24

    Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

  11. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  12. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamicsquantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquidalcoholshas attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  13. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancharaiah, Y. V.; Francis, A. J.

    2015-02-19

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-?B expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ? Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ? MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ? MP and EP decreased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ? MP and EP reduced NF-?B expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ? MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  15. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nancharaiah, Y. V.; Francis, A. J.

    2015-02-19

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulationmore » of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.« less

  16. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Xylene, Ethyl acetate, Ethyl benzene, Ethyl ether, n-butyl alcohol, Cyclohexanone, Methanol, Cresols, Cresylic acid, Nitrobenzene, Carbon disulfide, Isobutanol, Pyridine,...

  17. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Xylene, Ethyl acetate, Ethyl benzene, Ethyl ether, n-Butyl alcohol, Cyclohexanone, Methanol, Cresols, Cresylic acid, Nitroobenzene, Carbon disulfide, Isobutanol, Pyridine, 2-...

  18. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Xylene, Ethyl acetate, Ethyl benzene, Ethyl ether, n-butyl alcohol, Cyclohexanone, Methanol, Cresols, Cresylic acid, Nitroobenzene, Carbon disulfide, Isobutanol, Pyridine, 2-...

  19. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  20. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  1. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, David S. (Palo Alto, CA); Blessing, James E. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  2. Microbes Produce High Yields of Fatty Alcohols From Glucose - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Microbes Produce High Yields of Fatty Alcohols From Glucose Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Fatty alcohols are used in detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants and personal care items. More than 1.3 million tons of fatty alcohols are used worldwide each year, representing a $3 billion market. Currently, fatty alcohols are produced either through the processing of natural fats and oils or from petrochemicals.

  3. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  4. Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One of the key aims of the research is to design and build a synthesis reactor that is optimized for the direct production of supercritical steam at 650C. Approach Ammonia ...

  5. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  6. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee's Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  7. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee's Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  8. A model system for QTL analysis: Effects of alcohol dehydrogenase genotype on alcohol pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, N.G.; Nightingale, B.; Whitfield, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    There is much interest in the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) - major genes which affect quantitative phenotypes. The relationship of polymorphism at known alcohol metabolizing enzyme loci to alcohol pharmacokinetics is a good model system. The three class I alcohol dehydrogenase genes are clustered on chromosome 4 and protein electrophoresis has revealed polymorphisms at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci. While different activities of the isozymes have been demonstrated in vitro, little work has been done in trying to relate ADH polymorphism to variation in ethanol metabolism in vivo. We previously measured ethanol metabolism and psychomotor reactivity in 206 twin pairs and demonstrated that most of the repeatable variation was genetic. We have now recontacted the twins to obtain DNA samples and used PCR with allele specific primers to type the ADH2 and ADH3 polymorphisms in 337 individual twins. FISHER has been used to estimate fixed effects of typed polymorphisms simultaneously with remaining linked and unlinked genetic variance. The ADH2*1-2 genotypes metabolize ethanol faster and attain a lower peak blood alcohol concentration than the more common ADH2*1-1 genotypes, although less than 3% of the variance is accounted for. There is no effect of ADH3 genotype. However, sib-pair linkage analysis suggests that there is a linked polymorphism which has a much greater effect on alcohol metabolism that those typed here.

  9. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  10. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  11. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  12. Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols Syngas from Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol and Alcohols into Syngas Ethanol and alcohols can be converted into syngas using a robust autothermal reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of carbon

  13. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled ...

  14. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007...

  15. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II.

  16. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  17. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav R. (Setauket, NY); Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. (Coram, NY)

    2001-01-01

    Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

  18. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Shakeel Ansari, G.A.

    2013-02-01

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a LieberDeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (? 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (? 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (? 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (13) and 3 (46) months. C and E represent pair-fed control and ethanol-fed rats, respectively. Highlights: ? Proteins related to ethanol-induced steatosis and mild steatohepatitis are identified. ? ADH1C and ALDH2 involved in alcohol metabolism are differentially expressed at 1 and 3 months. ? Discovery proteomics identified a group of proteins to serve as potential biomarkers. ? Using nonparametric analysis DDT is identified as a possible marker for liver damage.

  19. Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J.; Beller, Harry R.; Keasling, Jay D.; Chang, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  20. Office of Alcohol Fuels Program plan, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The goal of the Office of Alcohol Fuels is to promote the production, distribution, and use of alcohol fuels. The program objectives are defined and the strategy for implementation is described. An organizational model of the operation is included. The roles of the 3 program offices and various field offices are described. (DMC)

  1. STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 (07/03) OMB Control No. 1910-5122 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP) Alcohol Testing Form (Instructions for completing this form are attached.) STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN A. Employee Name __________________________________________________________________ (Print) First M.I. Last B. Employee ID No. __________________________________________________________ C. Employer Name __________________________________________________________

  2. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  3. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 ?g/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 ?g/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1? and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: Chronic ethanol feeding causes oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation in lungs of ADH deer mice. Chronic ethanol feeding generates FAEEs (nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) in lungs of ADH deer mice. Chronic ethanol feeding induces CYP2E1 in the lungs of ADH deer mice. Lack of ER homeostasis due to a prolonged ethanol feeding could trigger inflammation.

  4. Electro-autotrophic synthesis of higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-10-06

    The disclosure provides a process that converts CO.sub.2 to higher alcohols (e.g. isobutanol) using electricity as the energy source. This process stores electricity (e.g. from solar energy, nuclear energy, and the like) in liquid fuels that can be used as high octane number gasoline substitutes. Instead of deriving reducing power from photosynthesis, this process derives reducing power from electrically generated mediators, either H.sub.2 or formate. H.sub.2 can be derived from electrolysis of water. Formate can be generated by electrochemical reduction of CO.sub.2. After delivering the reducing power in the cell, formate becomes CO.sub.2 and recycles back. Therefore, the biological CO.sub.2 fixation process can occur in the dark.

  5. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  6. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  7. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol) PDF icon deer11ickes.pdf More ...

  8. Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass Authors: Chunxiang,Fu ; Xirong,Xiao ; Yajun,Xi ; Yaxin,Ge ; Fang,Chen ; Joseph,Bouton ; Richard A.,Dixon ; Zeng-Yu,Wang ; , Publication Date:

  9. Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2013 Opportunity This technology provides an advantageous means to convert syngas into a class of chemicals known as higher oxygenates as well as other long-chain hydrocarbons. Research is currently active on this patent-pending technology "Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Rh-based Lanthanum Zirconate Pyrochlores for Higher Alcohol

  10. Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis Improves the conversion of syngas from natural gas, coal, or biomass National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis (294 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This technology provides an advantageous means to

  11. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  12. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass | Department of Energy Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012. PDF icon Thermochemical Ethanol via

  13. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste via Gasification | Department of Energy Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification The Bioenergy Technologies Office develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and

  14. Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Johnathan E. (Kennewick, WA); Hu, Jianli (Kennewick, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Zhang, Xinjie (Burlington, MA)

    2010-01-19

    The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

  15. Use of alcohol in farming applications: alternative fuels utilization program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borman, G.L.; Foster, D.E.; Uyehara, O.A.; McCallum, P.W.; Timbario, T.J.

    1980-11-01

    The use of alcohol with diesel fuel has been investigated as a means of extending diesel fuel supplies. The ability to use ethanol in diesel-powered farm equipment could provide the means for increasing the near-term fuels self-sufficiency of the American farmer. In the longer term, the potential availability of methanol (from coal) in large quantities could serve to further decrease the dependency on diesel fuel. This document gives two separate overviews of the use of alcohols in farm equipment. Part I of this document compares alcohol with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels and describes several techniques for using alcohol in farm diesels. Part II of this document discusses the use of aqueous ethanol in diesel engines, spark ignition engines and provides some information on safety and fuel handling of both methanol and ethanol. This document is not intended as a guide for converting equipment to utilize alcohol, but rather to provide information such that the reader can gain insight on the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol in existing engines currently used in farming applications.

  16. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  17. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  18. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethyl benzene, Ethyl ether, Methyl Isobutyl Ketone, n-Butyl alcohol, Cyclohexanone, Methanol, Cresols, Cresylic acid, Nitrobenzene, Toluene, Carbon disulfide, Isobutanol,...

  19. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  20. Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants 2004 Diesel Engine...

  1. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  2. Hydrogen Atom Reactivity toward Aqueous tert-Butyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lymar S. V.; Schwarz, H.A.

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH {yields} H{sub 2} + {sm_bullet}CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 {+-} 0.05){Delta}H + (3.2 {+-} 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from {alpha}- and {beta}-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  3. Direct observation of surface ethyl to ethane interconversion uponC2H4 hydrogenation over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2004-12-10

    Time-resolved FT-IR spectra of ethylene hydrogenation over alumina-supported Pt catalyst were recorded at 25 ms resolution in the temperature range 323 to 473 K using various H2 flow rates (1 atm total gas pressure). Surface ethyl species (2870 and 1200 cm-1) were detected at all temperatures along with the gas phase ethane product (2954 and 2893 cm-1). The CH3CH2Pt growth was instantaneous on the time scale of 25ms under all experimental conditions. At 323 K, the decay time of surface ethyl (122 + 10 ms) coincides with the rise time of C2H6 (144 + 14 ms).This establishes direct kinetic evidence for surface ethyl as the kinetically relevant intermediate. Such a direct link between the temporal behavior of an observed intermediate and the final product growth in a heterogeneous catalytic system has not been demonstrated before to our knowledge. A fraction (10 percent) of the asymptotic ethane growth at 323 K is prompt, indicating that there are surface ethyl species that react much faster than the majority of the CH3CH2Pt intermediates. The dispersive kinetics is attributed to the varying strength of interaction of the ethyl species with the Pt surface caused by heterogeneity of the surface environment. At 473 K, the majority of ethyl intermediates are hydrogenated prior to the recording of the first time slice (24 ms), and a correspondingly large prompt growth of ethane is observed. The yield and kinetics of the surface ethylidyne are in agreement with the known spectator nature of this species.

  4. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

    2011-11-02

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  5. Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pope, James M.; Lahoda, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

  6. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  7. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  8. Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 electrocatalysts for oxidizing ethanol to CO2 (2,641 KB) <p> Scanning transmission electron micrograph showing uniform dispersion of the catalyst particles (bright spots) on the carbon support (dark background). The average particle size is about 1.5&nbsp;nm.</p> Scanning transmission electron

  9. Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Fuel Cells Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> Higher current indicates higher activity for catalyzing methanol oxidation in a fuel cell. Here the ternary electrocatalyst is comparable to the best commercially available catalyst for methanol oxidation.</p> Higher current indicates higher activity for catalyzing methanol oxidation in a fuel cell. Here the ternary electrocatalyst is comparable to the

  10. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  11. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations was initiated in 2009. Computational investigations were performed first to elucidate understanding of the nature of the catalytically active site. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that Mn likely exists as a metallic alloy with Rh in Rh-rich environments under reducing conditions at the temperatures of interest. After determining that reduced Rh-Mn alloy metal clusters were in a reduced state, the activation energy barriers of numerous transition state species on the catalytically active metal particles were calculated to compute the activation barriers of several reaction pathways that are possible on the catalyst surface. Comparison of calculations with a Rh nanoparticle versus a Rh-Mn nanoparticle revealed that the presence of Mn enabled the reaction pathway of CH with CO to form an adsorbed CHCO species, which was a precursor to C2+ oxygenates. The presence of Mn did not have a significant effect on the rate of CH4 production. Ir was observed during empirical catalyst screening experiments to improve the activity and selectivity of Rh-Mn catalysts. Thus, the addition of Ir to the Rh-Mn nanoparticles also was probed computationally. Simulations of Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles revealed that, with sufficient Ir concentrations, the Rh, Mn and Ir presumably would be well mixed within a nanoparticle. Activation barriers were calculated for Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles for several C-, H-, and O-containing transitional species on the nanoparticle surface. It was found that the presence of Ir opened yet another reactive pathway whereby HCO is formed and may undergo insertion with CHx surface moieties. The reaction pathway opened by the presence of Ir is in addition to the CO + CH pathway opened by the presence of Mn. Similar to Mn, the presence of Ir was not found to not affect the rate of CH4 production.

  12. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2, 2116-2127. 2. Zhu, Y., Jones, S.B., Biddy, M.J., Dagle, R.A., Palo, D.P., Bioresource Technology, 2012, 117, 341-351. 3. Gujar, A.C., Guda, V.K., Nolan, M., Yan W., Toghiani, H., White, M.G., Applied Catalysis A: General, 2009, 363, 115-121.

  13. Fluorohydrogenate Cluster Ions in the Gas Phase: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of the [1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium+][F(HF)2.3] Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary S. Groenewold; James E. Delmore; Michael T. Benson; Tetsuya Tsuda; Rika Hagiwara

    2013-12-01

    Electrospray ionization of the fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][F(HF)2.3] ionic liquid was conducted to understand the nature of the anionic species as they exist in the gas phase. Abundant fluorohydrogenate clusters were produced; however, the dominant anion in the clusters was [FHF-], and not the fluoride-bound HF dimers or trimers that are seen in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that HF molecules are bound to the clusters by about 30 kcal/mol. The DFT-calculated structures of the [FHF-]-bearing clusters show that the favored interactions of the anions are with the methynic and acetylenic hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium cation, forming planar structures similar to those observed in the solid state. A second series of abundant negative ions was also formed that contained [SiF5-] together with the imidazolium cation and the fluorohydrogenate anions that originate from reaction of the spray solution with silicate surfaces.

  14. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  15. Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Reduce Costs | Department of Energy Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs April 15, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis With support from EERE, researchers at Virent, Inc. in Madison developed new cost-effective methods to produce hydrogen from renewable resources like biomass-derived sugar and sugar alcohols. Hydrogen can be used with fuel cells to produce

  16. 01-12-1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner Document Number: NA Effective Date: 011998 File (public): PDF icon 01-12-1998...

  17. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  18. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene, Trichloroflouromethane, Acetone, Ethyl ether, Methanol, Methyl isobutyl ketone, n-Butyl alcohol, Xylene, Cresols, Cresylic acid,...

  19. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tetrachloroethylene; Trichloroethylene; Trichloroflouromethane; Acetone; Ethyl ether; Methanol; Methyl isobutyl ketone; n-Butyl alcohol; Xylene; Cresols; Cresylic acid;...

  20. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tetrachloroethylene; Trichloroethylene; Trichloroflouromethane; Acetone; Ethyl ether; Methanol; Methyl isobutyl ketone; n-Butyl alcohol; Xylene; 2- Ethoxyethanol; 2-Nitropropane;...

  1. TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  2. TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  3. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Ridge, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1982-11-30

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  4. Structure and thermodynamics of core-softened models for alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muna, Gianmarco; Urbic, Tomaz

    2015-06-07

    The phase behavior and the fluid structure of coarse-grain models for alcohols are studied by means of reference interaction site model (RISM) theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Specifically, we model ethanol and 1-propanol as linear rigid chains constituted by three (trimers) and four (tetramers) partially fused spheres, respectively. Thermodynamic properties of these models are examined in the RISM context, by employing closed formul for the calculation of free energy and pressure. Gas-liquid coexistence curves for trimers and tetramers are reported and compared with already existing data for a dimer model of methanol. Critical temperatures slightly increase with the number of CH{sub 2} groups in the chain, while critical pressures and densities decrease. Such a behavior qualitatively reproduces the trend observed in experiments on methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol and suggests that our coarse-grain models, despite their simplicity, can reproduce the essential features of the phase behavior of such alcohols. The fluid structure of these models is investigated by computing radial distribution function g{sub ij}(r) and static structure factor S{sub ij}(k); the latter shows the presence of a low?k peak at intermediate-high packing fractions and low temperatures, suggesting the presence of aggregates for both trimers and tetramers.

  5. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  6. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  7. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Ionizing radiation induced degradation of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy) -1,4-phenylene vinylene) in solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Batagin-Neto, A.; Lavarda, F. C.; Graeff, C. F. O.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we investigate the causes of the chromatic alteration observed in chloroform solutions of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) after gamma ray irradiation. Structural and chemical changes were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and complemented by electronic structure calculations. The results indicate chlorine incorporation in the polymer structure and main chain scission after irradiation. Based on our findings we propose that the main mechanism for the blue-shifts, observed in the UV-Vis absorption spectra of MEH-PPV after irradiation, is the result of a radical attack on the polymer main chain. Gamma rays generate radicals, Cl and CHCl{sub 2} from chloroform radiolysis that attack preferentially the vinyl double bonds of the polymer backbone, breaking the electronic conjugation and eventually the chain. Our results indicate that oxygen does not play a major role in the effect. Electronic spectra simulations were performed based on these assumptions reproducing the UV-Vis experimental results.

  9. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.

    1996-05-01

    Comprehensive tests were performed on an on-road vehicle in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority emissions test facility. All tests were with a transient chassis dynamometer. Tests included both a double arterial cycle of 768 s duration and an EPA heavy duty vehicle cycle of 1,060 s duration. The test vehicle was a 1994 pickup truck with a 5.9-L turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engine. Rapeseed methyl (RME) and ethyl esters (REE) and blends were compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel. Emissions data include all regulated emissions: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter (PM). In these tests the average of 100% RME and 100% REE reduced HC (52.4%), CO (47.6%), NO{sub x} (10.0%), and increases in CO{sub 2} (0.9%) and PM (9.9%) compared to the diesel control fuel. Also, 100% REE reduced HC (8.7%), CO (4.3%), and NO{sub x} (3.4%) compared to 100% RME. 33 refs., 1 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chopade, Shubham P. (East Lansing, MI) [East Lansing, MI; Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI) [Okemos, MI; Jackson, James E. (Haslett, MI) [Haslett, MI; Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-09-18

    The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

  11. Computational Studies of [Bmim][PF6]/n-Alcohol Interfaces with Many-Body Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present the results from molecular-dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems, and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase while the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ion liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotate more freely near the interface than in the bulk, while the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  12. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth | Department of Energy Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol) PDF icon deer11_ickes.pdf More Documents

  13. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Conway, Tyrrell (Gainesville, FL)

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  14. 01-12-1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory 1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/1998 File (public): PDF icon 01-12-1998

  15. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  16. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1988-02-16

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  17. 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryJay Keasling and Howard Chou of Berkeley Lab and the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have invented a fermentation process to produce 5-carbon alcohols from genetically modified E. coli host cells regardless of the

  18. HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Knock Avoidance | Department of Energy Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Direct injection of a second fuel (ethanol or methanol) is explored as a means of avoiding knock in turbocharged, high-compression ratio spark-ignited engines that could replace diesels in certain vocational applications. PDF icon deer08_blumberg.pdf More Documents &

  19. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass S. Phillips, A. Aden, J. Jechura, and D. Dayton National Renewable Energy Laboratory T. Eggeman Neoterics International, Inc. Technical Report NREL/TP-510-41168 April 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass S. Phillips, A. Aden, J.

  20. Process for the conversion of alcohols and oxygenates to hydrocarbons in a turbulent fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A. A.; Kam, A. Y.

    1985-04-23

    Improvements in converting C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ monohydric alcohols, particularly methanol, related oxygenates of said alcohols and/or oxygenates produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to light olefins, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons and/or distillate boiling range hydrocarbons are obtained in a fluidized bed of ZSM-5 type zeolite catalyst operating under conditions effective to provide fluidization in the turbulent regime.

  1. Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a Microbial Species -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a Microbial Species Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAn ORNL researcher developed a method for producing furfuryl alcohol (FA) through bioprocessing using a thermophilic microorganism. This organism has been shown to be highly resistant to the toxic effects of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and can propagate in the presence of over 48 g/L (500

  2. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (East Haven, CT)

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  3. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  4. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  5. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  6. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel-alcohol plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengtson, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    An anaerobic-digestion system, coupled with a fuel-alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm-energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components; a hog finishing house with a manure pit; a solids handling pump to feed the manure; and a 13,000-gallon railroad tank car as the main digester vessel and pump to transfer effluent from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digester was operated for sufficient time to demonstrate the use of hot water in an automated digester temperature control system. Sufficient biogas was produced to demonstrate the use of biogas in a converted propane boiler.

  7. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  8. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.; Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.; Rejai, Bahman; Bain, Richard L.; Overend, Ralph P.

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  9. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  10. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  11. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, Paul T. (Arlington Heights, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  12. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification March 2010 Adapted from reports prepared by: C Valkenburg Y Zhu CW Walton BL Thompson MA Gerber SB Jones DJ Stevens of the Pacifc Northwest National Laboratory A two volume report "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology" & "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evalua- tion of the Production of Mixed Alcohols" is available

  13. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  14. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (East Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  15. Design Case Summary. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburg, C.; Zhu, Y.; Walton, C. W.; Thompson, B. L.; Gerber, M. A.; Jones, S. B.; Stevens, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

  16. Distinguishing tautomerism in the crystal structure of (Z)-N-(5-ethyl-2,3-di-hydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylidene) -4-methylbenzenesulfonamide using DFT-D calculations and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Bond, Andrew D.; Johansson, Kristoffer E.; Van de Streek, Jacco

    2014-08-01

    The crystal structure of (Z)-N-(5-ethyl-2,3-di-hydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylidene) -4-methylbenzenesulfonamide contains an imine tautomer, rather than the previously reported amine tautomer. The tautomers can be distinguished using dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations and by comparison of calculated and measured {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectra. The crystal structure of the title compound, C{sub 11}H{sub 13}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}, has been determined previously on the basis of refinement against laboratory powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data, supported by comparison of measured and calculated {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectra [Hangan et al. (2010 ▶). Acta Cryst. B66, 615–621]. The mol@@ecule is tautomeric, and was reported as an amine tautomer [systematic name: N-(5-ethyl-1,3,4-thia@@diazol-2-yl)-p-toluene@@sulfonamide], rather than the correct imine tautomer. The protonation site on the mol@@ecule’s 1,3,4-thia@@diazole ring is indicated by the inter@@molecular contacts in the crystal structure: N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are established at the correct site, while the alternative protonation site does not establish any notable inter molecular inter@@actions. The two tautomers provide essentially identical Rietveld fits to laboratory PXRD data, and therefore they cannot be directly distinguished in this way. However, the correct tautomer can be distinguished from the incorrect one by previously reported qu@@anti@@tative criteria based on the extent of structural distortion on optimization of the crystal structure using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. Calculation of the {sup 13}C SS-NMR spectrum based on the correct imine tautomer also provides considerably better agreement with the measured {sup 13}C SS-NMR spectrum.

  17. Controlled etching of hexagonal ZnO architectures in an alcohol thermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Junshu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    An alcohol thermal technique was applied to the controlled growth of hexagonal ZnO architectures via selective chemical etching. ZnO microdisks were produced first under mild alcohol thermal conditions in presence of formamide. Due to a higher surface energy/atomic density of Zn{sup 2+} {l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} than that of the other faces, hexagonal ZnO microring was obtained by selectively etching positive polar surface of disk-like precursor with a high density of planar defects at the center. The selective etching of ZnO is related to its crystallographic characteristics of surface polarity and chemical activities, which opens a new opportunity for the shape-controlled synthesis of wurtzite-structured materials.

  18. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian

    2013-08-27

    The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

  19. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  20. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  1. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  2. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI)

    2004-01-13

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  3. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  4. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2002-11-12

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  5. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Guangkuan; Di, Zhiyong; Zhao, Qingjie

    2014-09-26

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity.

  6. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  7. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  8. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 ; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Meiling; Jia, Dongwei; Gu, Jianxin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  9. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a ? hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an ? hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  10. The role of acetate in alcohol-induced alterations of uterine glucose metabolism in the mouse during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simm, B. ); Murdoch, R.N. )

    1990-01-01

    The acute exposure of mice to ethanol during post-implantation pregnancy has been reported to cause alterations in the levels of several glycolytic intermediates in the uterus, suggesting a possible indirect mechanism of alcohol embryo-toxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess whether the ethanol metabolite, acetate is implicated in this phenomenon. Blood and uterine alcohol concentrations in day 9 - pregnant Quackenbush Swiss mice were maximal 15 minutes after the intraperitoneal injection of ethanol, and fell to almost negligible levels 6 hours later. In response to this treatment, the levels of blood and uterine acetate increased, liver glycogen decreased, plasma glucose increased, and uterine glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P), and citrate increased. When acetate was administered to pregnant mice in amounts approximating those generated by exposure to alcohol, the levels of uterine F-6-P and citrate increased while other metabolic parameters remained unaffected. The administration of 4-methylpyrazole to mice subsequently treated with alcohol produced conditions of alcohol exposure in the absence of ethanol-derived acetate and depressed the ethanol-induced rise in uterine G-6-P and citrate.

  11. Global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria, L.A.B.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the direct and indirect global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil. In order to do that, it quantifies emissions of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} in terms of CO{sub 2}-equivalent units for time spans of 20, 100 and 500 years. It shows that the consideration of CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} emissions in addition to CO{sub 2} provides an important contribution for better understanding the total warming impact of transportation fuels in Brazil.

  12. Alcohol homologation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegman, R.W.; Moloy, K.G.

    1988-02-23

    A process is described for the homologation of an alkanol by reaction with synthesis gas in contact with a system containing rhodium atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a bis(diorganophosphino) alkane to selectivity produce the next higher homologue.

  13. Alcohol homologation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegman, Richard W.; Moloy, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    A process for the homologation of an alkanol by reaction with synthesis gas in contact with a system containing rhodium atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a bis(diorganophosphino) alkane to selectivity produce the next higher homologue.

  14. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol and Methanol Tax Ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol motor fuels are taxed at a rate of $0.14 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. Ethyl alcohol is defined as a motor fuel that is typically derived from agricultural products that have been denatured. Methyl alcohol is a motor fuel that is most commonly derived from wood products. (Reference Senate Bill 1, 2015, and South Dakota Statutes 10-47B-3 and 10-47B-4

  16. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  17. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  18. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

  19. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 210 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 3050 has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  20. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  1. Adsorption of various alcohols on Illinois No. 6 coal in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.; Rigby, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromacity of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal in water are relatively determined by evaluating equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption of probe compounds on the coal. Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various additives on 60--200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed to investigate relatively surface properties of the coal at 25{degree}C. The additives include various alcohols, alkanes and aromatic compounds. The main objectives of this research are to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals with the inverse liquid chromatography technique, using various probe compounds, to analyze flotation recoveries of coals with a micro-flotation apparatus in order to relate coal floatability to evaluated coal surface properties, and to delineate roles of coal-cleaning/handling additives with the inverse liquid chromatography technique.

  2. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  3. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteriaare genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuelin this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLAs electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  4. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  5. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2010 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.; Stevens, Don J.

    2010-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research for the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas. In recent years this research has primarily involved the further development of a silica-supported catalyst containing rhodium and manganese that was selected from earlier catalyst screening tests. A major effort during 2010 was to examine alternative catalyst supports to determine whether other supports, besides the Davisil 645 silica, would improve performance. Optimization of the Davisil 645 silica-supported catalyst also was continued with respect to candidate promoters iridium, platinum, and gallium, and examination of selected catalyst preparation and activation alternatives for the baseline RhMn/SiO2 catalyst.

  6. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore » and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  7. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  8. Evaluation of Promoters for Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially-available catalysts or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially-available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. A total of 28 tests were conducted to evaluate 22 different promoters as well as an unpromoted catalyst. The following general trends were observed for the test results: The highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the lowest reaction temperatures and accompanying lowest space time yields (STYs). The lowest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the highest reaction temperatures because of high carbon conversion to hydrocarbons. The highest C2+-oxygenate STYs occurred between 300C and 325C, with the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) adjusted when necessary to maintain carbon conversion ranges between ~ 30 and 40 percent. Higher carbon selectivity to hydrocarbons at higher temperatures resulted in lower C2+-oxygenate STYs. When catalysts were heated to between 300C and 325C the catalysts showed evidence of some deactivation with respect to C2+ oxygenate productivity, accompanied by reduced chain growth for the hydrocarbon products. The degree of deactivation and the temperature at which it occurred varied between the different catalysts tested. Of all of the catalysts evaluated, the Li-promoted catalysts had the highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates (47 percent) under the conditions at which the maximum C2+-oxygenate STYs were obtained.

  9. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  10. Accident prevention and Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 with particular reference to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, G.D. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The sections of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 that refer to accident prevention are to be found in Title III. Two significant requirements of the CAAA in this respect relate to the responsibilities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which has promulgated a new Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which at the time of writing, is developing Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations. The focus of this paper is on how the requirements of the CAAA may affect the reasons for performing a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) or may affect the results of QRA. In order to limit the discussion, this paper focuses on HF. First, the CAAA requires that the EPA assess the hazards associated with HF; the EPA's current draft report is discussed. Second, a generic assessment of the risks associated with the use of HF is given, with emphasis on alkylation units in refineries. The principal contributors to risk are listed. Finally, an assessment of OSHA's PSM standard 29 CFR 1910.119, the related requirements of state laws such as California's Risk Management and Prevention Program and the potential requirement of EPA's Risk Management Program are given, including an assessment of how these requirements may influence quantitative estimates of risk. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  11. H.R. 5299: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies for alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agricultural subsidies. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 5299 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies of alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agriculture subsidies. The proposed legislative text is included.

  12. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to desired C5+ hydrocarbons as the formation of CO2, CH4, and other light hydrocarbons is challenging to suppress in the presence of mixed metal and acid sites. When the 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu and HZSM-5 are operated sequentially by way of a two-step process the C5+ hydrocarbons fraction is lower and represents 30.4% of the hydrocarbons under comparable conditions. The yield toward the C5+ hydrocarbons is twice higher for the one-step process due to an improved CO conversion and higher C5+ hydrocarbons fraction. The main advantage of the one-step process is that higher syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed since they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbons product.

  13. Gel electrophoretic analysis of Zymomonas mobilis glycolytic and fermentative enzymes: Identification of alcohol dehydrogenase II as a stress protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haejung An; Keshav, K.F.; Ingram, L.O. ); Scopes, R.K.; Rodriguez, M. )

    1991-10-01

    The 13 major enzymes which compose the glycolytic and fermentative pathways in Zymomonas mobilis are particularly abundant and represent one-half of the soluble protein in exponential-phase cells. One- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis maps were developed for 12 of these enzymes. Assignments were made by comigration with purified proteins, comparison with overexpressed genes in recombinant strains, and Western blots (immunoblots). Although most glycolytic enzymes appeared resistant to turnover and accumulated in stationary-phase cells, the protein levels of pyruvate kinase, alcohol dehydrogenase I, and glucokinase declined. Alcohol dehydrogenase II was identified as a major stress protein and was induced both by exposure to ethanol and by elevated temperature (45C). This enzyme, encoded by the adhB gene, is expressed from tandem promoters which share partial sequence identity with Escherichia coli consensus sequence for heat shock proteins.

  14. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-?FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (2013%) than controls (911%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (1012%) compared to NS in both groups (1513%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  15. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared tomore » placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.« less

  16. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  17. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 5070?nm and lengths of 200250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  18. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, Maarten L. J.; Vanlangenhove, Peter Sturm, Emiel J. C.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Hav, Monirath Praet, Marleen; Vente, Maarten A. D.; Snaps, Frederic R.; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  19. Molecular control of the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoun, A.M.; Geer, B.W.; Heinstra, P.W.H. ); Corbin, V. ); McKechnie, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the major pathway for ethanol degradation, is induced in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by low concentrations of dietary ethanol. Two lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic products of the ADH pathway for ethanol degradation are not directly involved in the induction of Adh. First, the accumulation of the proximal transcript in Adh{sup n2} larvae was increased when the intracellular level of ethanol was elevated. In addition, the ADH activity, the proximal Adh mRNA, and the intracellular concentration of ethanol were elevated coordinately in wild-type larvae fed hexadeuterated-ethanol, which is metabolized more slowly than normal ethanol.l An examination of P element transformant lines with specific deletions in the 5{prime} regulatory DNA of the Adh gene showed that the DNA sequence between +604 and +634 of the start site of transcription from the distal promoter was essential for this induction. The DNA sequence between {minus}660 and about {minus}5,000 of the distal transcript start site was important for the down-regulation of the induction response.

  20. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-08-07

    Photochemical and ultrasonic treatment of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), derived from PVA fabric material, with hydrogen peroxide was evaluated as a primary method for PVA mineralization into simpler organic molecules. PVA-based waste streams have been found to be compatible with nuclear process wastewater treatment facilities only when solubilized PVA is more than 90 percent mineralized with hydrogen peroxide. No undesirable solid particles are formed with other nuclear process liquid waste when they are mixed, pH adjusted, evaporated and blended with this type of oxidized PVA waste streams. The presence of oxidized PVA in a typical nuclear process wastewater has been found to have no detrimental effect on the efficiency of ion exchange resins, inorganic, and precipitation agents used for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. The disappearance of PVA solution in hydrogen peroxide with ultrasonic/ ultraviolet irradiation treatment was characterized by pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Radioactive waste contaminated PVA fabric can be solubilized and mineralized to produce processible liquid waste, hence, no bulky solid waste disposal cost can be incurred and the radionuclides can be effectively recovered. Therefore, PVA fabric materials can be considered as an effective substitute for cellulose fabrics that are currently used in radioactive waste decontamination processes.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEBONE MOETI; RAMANATHAN SAMPATH

    1998-11-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period April 01, 1998 to October 01, 1998 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress at the EOR Laboratory, Clark Atlanta University (CAU), to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for a novel, hybrid (ionic/non-ionic), alcohol ethoxycarboxylate surfactant (NEODOX 23-4 from Shell Chemical Company). During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 mM salt concentrations at 20, 25, and 30 C to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this surfactant. Temperature scans were also performed at 20 mM salt concentration for various surfactant concentrations ranging from 0 to 60 weight percent at temperatures ranging from 5 to 50 C to identify optimal surfactant concentration and temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist. This resulted in an "alpha" curve with an interval of temperature in which all three phases coexisted. Presently, temperature scans are being repeated at 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 5000 mM salt concentrations to see whether increase in salt concentration has any effect on the temperature interval. This will provide us better understanding and experimental control of the many variables involved in this research in the future. Following completion of the temperature scans, phase studies will be conducted at CAU, and coreflooding experiments at the facility of our industrial partner, Surtek, Golden, CO.

  2. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  3. Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Man Deuk Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Mee Hwa

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    2001-09-28

    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in this project. The M/B and B/M morphologies and their inversion hysteresis lines conformed to the previously postulated dispersion morphology diagram; that is, within experimental uncertainties, the two emulsion inversion lines in phase volume-temperature space met at a critical point that coincided with the upper critical end point for the phases. Coreflooding measurements were performed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, Golden, CO which showed poor hydrocarbon recovery (38.1%) for NEODOX 23-4. It was also found that NEODOX 23-4 surfactant adsorbed too much to the rock (97.1% surfactant loss to the core), a characteristic of the non-ionic part of the surfactant.

  5. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  6. Chlorine atom-initiated low-temperature oxidation of prenol and isoprenol: The effect of C=C double bonds on the peroxy radical chemistry in alcohol oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-07-04

    The chlorine atom-initiated oxidation of two unsaturated primary C5 alcohols, prenol (3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (CH3)2CCHCH2OH) and isoprenol (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2OH), is studied at 550 K and low pressure (8 Torr). The time- and isomer-resolved formation of products is probed with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionizing synchrotron radiation. The peroxy radical chemistry of the unsaturated alcohols appears much less rich than that of saturated C4 and C5 alcohols. The main products observed are the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes – prenal (3-methyl-2-butenal) from prenol oxidation and isoprenal (3-methyl-3-butenal) from isoprenol oxidation. No significant products arising from QOOH chemistry are observed. Thesemore » results can be qualitatively explained by the formation of resonance stabilized allylic radicals via H-abstraction in the Cl + prenol and Cl + isoprenol initiation reactions. The loss of resonance stabilization upon O2 addition causes the energies of the intermediate wells, saddle points, and products to increase relative to the energy of the initial radicals and O2. These energetic shifts make most product channels observed in the peroxy radical chemistry of saturated alcohols inaccessible for these unsaturated alcohols. The experimental findings are underpinned by quantum-chemical calculations for stationary points on the potential energy surfaces for the reactions of the initial radicals with O2. Under our conditions, the dominant channels in prenol and isoprenol oxidation are the chain-terminating HO2-forming channels arising from radicals, in which the unpaired electron and the –OH group are on the same carbon atom, with stable prenal and isoprenal co-products, respectively. These results suggest that the presence of C=C double bonds in alcohols will reduce low-temperature reactivity during autoignition.« less

  7. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oxygenate Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Captive Refinery Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities located within or adjacent to a refinery complex. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasohol A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration of 10 percent or less by volume.

  9. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  10. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  11. Expression of a heat-stable NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii results in furan aldehyde detoxification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chung, Daehwan; Verbeke, Tobin J.; Cross, Karissa L.; Westpheling, Janet; Elkins, James G.

    2015-07-22

    Compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are generated through the dehydration of xylose and glucose, respectively, during dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and are also potent microbial growth and fermentation inhibitors. The enzymatic reduction of these furan aldehydes to their corresponding, and less toxic, alcohols is an engineering approach that has been successfully implemented in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanologenicEscherichia coli, but has not yet been investigated in thermophiles relevant to biofuel production through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Developing CBP-relevant biocatalysts that are either naturally resistant to such inhibitors, or are amenable to engineered resistance, is therefore, an important componentmore » in making biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feasible.« less

  12. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  13. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this stage is so vulnerable to the development of neural tube defect, and growth restriction, the findings previously observed in fetal alcohol syndrome.

  14. Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels [2.3.1.100] Chaitanya Narula, 1 Zhenglong Li, 1 E. Casbeer, 1 Robert A. Geiger, 1 James P. Szybist, 2 Martin Keller, 2 Brian H. Davison, 2 and Tim Theiss 2 (PI) Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1 Materials Science and Technology Division 2 Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer

  15. Catalysis for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis from Biomass Derived Syngas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-292

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensley, J.

    2013-04-01

    The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) developed and tested catalysts for production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas (syngas), under research and development (R&D) projects that were discontinued a number of years ago. Dow possesses detailed laboratory notebooks, catalyst samples, and technical expertise related to this past work. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting R&D in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to develop methods for economically producing ethanol from gasified biomass. NREL is currently conducting biomass gasification research at an existing 1/2 ton/day thermochemical test platform. Both Dow and NREL believe that the ability to economically produce ethanol from biomass-derived syngas can be enhanced through collaborative testing, refinement, and development of Dow's mixed-alcohol catalysts at NREL's and/or Dow's bench- and pilot-scale facilities. Dow and NREL further agree that collaboration on improvements in catalysts as well as gasifier operating conditions (e.g., time, temperature, upstream gas treatment) will be necessary to achieve technical and economic goals for production of ethanol and other alcohols.

  16. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    An analysis of the current base cases has been undertaken to determine if the economic status of the proposed alcohol fuels may benefit from economies of scale. This analysis was based on a literature review which suggested that plants of capacities substantially below 5000 metric tons/day are unlikely to be competitive for the bulk production of alcohols for fuel consumption or chemicals manufacture. The preliminary results of this scale up procedure would indicate that the capacity of the current base cases be increased by a factor of eight. This would yield annual production of 4.1 million metric tons and essentially reduce the plant gate cost by approximately 41 percent in both cases. A facility of this size would be the equivalent of a medium sized oil refinery and would be capable of sustaining local market demands for fuel oxygenates. The actual competitiveness of this product with current oxygenates such as MTBE remains to be determined. The alcohol synthesis loop is being used to evaluate optimization procedures which will eventually be used to optimize the entire process. A more detailed design of the synthesis reactor is required, and a preliminary design of this reactor has been completed.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and thermal properties of [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl)-A new compound with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peric, Berislav; Jozic, Drazan; Planinic, Pavica; Brnicevic, Nevenka; Giester, Gerald

    2009-09-15

    A new hexanuclear cluster compound, [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl) (1), with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster entity, was synthesized and characterized by elemental and TG/DTA analyses, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The presence of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} unit was confirmed also by the room-temperature magnetic and EPR measurements. The compound crystallizes in the tetragonal I4{sub 1}/a space group, with a=14.299(5), c=21.241(5) A, Z=4, R{sub 1}(F)/wR{sub 2}(F{sup 2})=0.0296/0.0811. The structure contains discrete [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+} cations with an octahedron of metal atoms edge-bridged by bromine atoms and with water molecules occupying all six terminal positions. The cluster units are positioned in the vertices of the three-dimensional (pseudo)diamond lattice. The structure shows similarities with literature reported structures of cluster compounds crystallizing in the diamond (Fd3-barm) space group. - Graphical abstract: Two interpenetrating (pseudo)diamond nets formed by packing of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 3+} (octahedral) and diamagnetic [Et{sub 4}N]{sup +} (spheres) cations.

  18. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Xue, Ruyi; Ji, Lingling; Shen, Xizhong; Chen, She; Gu, Jianxin; Zhang, Si

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR{sup ?/?}) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (?-SMA) was increased in FXR{sup ?/?} mice fed MCD diet (FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a two-programming hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is the first programming, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as the second programming. - Highlights: Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal livers glucose and lipid metabolism . Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure studies of ethyl 5-methyl-1,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. It crystallizes in monoclinic class under the space group P2sub 1c with cell parameters a 8.4593(4) , b15.6284(6)...

  1. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  2. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  3. SU-E-T-58: Calculation of Dose Distribution of Accuboost Brachytherapy in Deformable Polyvinil Alcohol Breast Phantom Using Biomechanical Modeling and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammadyari, P; Faghihi, R; Shirazi, M Mosleh; Lotfi, M; Meigooni, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: the accuboost is the most modern method of breast brachytherapy that is a boost method in compressed tissue by a mammography unit. the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue, as compressed tissue is important that should be characterized. Methods: In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast in mammography loading, the displacement of breast tissue and the dose distribution in compressed and uncompressed tissue, are investigated. Dosimetry was performed by two dosimeter methods of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 code and thermoluminescence dosimeters. For Monte Carlo simulations, the dose values in cubical lattice were calculated using tally F6. The displacement of the breast elements was simulated by Finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software, from which the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model is constructed from MR images of 6 volunteers. Experimental dosimetery was performed by placing the thermoluminescence dosimeters into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom and on the proximal edge of compression plates to the chest. Results: The results indicate that using the cone applicators would deliver more than 95% of dose to the depth of 5 to 17mm, while round applicator will increase the skin dose. Nodal displacement, in presence of gravity and 60N forces, i.e. in mammography compression, was determined with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in orthogonal orientation. Finally, in comparison of the acquired from thermoluminescence dosimeters with MCNP5, they are consistent with each other in breast phantom and in chest's skin with average different percentage of 13.7±5.7 and 7.7±2.3, respectively. Conclusion: The major advantage of this kind of dosimetry is the ability of 3D dose calculation by FE Modeling. Finally, polyvinyl alcohol is a reliable material as a breast tissue equivalent dosimetric phantom that provides the ability of TLD dosimetry for validation.

  4. Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-17

    The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}] [Ox{sup R} = Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4R-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4S-tBu]}. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}}M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C?N/C?H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}){sub 2}}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} ({S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} also desymmetrizes olefin moieties of achiral non-conjugated aminodienes and aminodiynes during cyclization. The cyclization of aminodienes catalyzed by {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} affords diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans cylic amines with high diasteromeric ratios and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Similarly, the desymmetrization of alkyne moieties in {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-catalyzed cyclization of aminodiynes provides corresponding cyclic imines bearing quaternary stereocenters with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. These stereoselective desymmetrization reactions are significantly affected by concentration of the substrate, temperature, and the presence of a noncyclizable primary amine. In addition, both the diastereomeric ratios and enantiomeric excesses of the products are markedly enhanced by N-deuteration of the substrates. Notably, the cationic zirconium-monoamide complex [{S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2})][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] obtained from neutral {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} cyclizes primary aminopentenes providing pyrrolidines with S-configuration; whereas {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} provides R-configured pyrrolidines. The yttrium complex {S-2}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} also affords S-configured pyrrolidines by cyclization of aminopentenes, however the enantiomeric excesses of products are low. An alternative optically active yttrium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-tBu}){sub 2}}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} ({S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}) is synthesized, which displays highly enantioselective in the cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature affording S-configured cyclic amines with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. A noninsertive mechanism involving a six-membered transition state by a concerted C?N bond formation and N?H bond cleavage is proposed for {S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} system based on the kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical features. In the end, a series of bis- and tris(oxazolinyl)borato iridium and rhodium complexes are synthesized with bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborane [PhB(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 2}]{sub n}, tris(oxazolinyl)borane [B(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 3}]n, and tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate [To{sup M}]{sup ?}. All these new an

  5. Characterizing HfXZr1-XO2 by EXAFS: Relationship Between Bulk and Surface Composition, and Impact on Catalytic Selectivity for Alcohol Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, G.; Milling, M; Ji, Y; Patterson, P; Sparks, D; Davis, B

    2009-01-01

    A series of mixed Hf{sub X}Zr{sub 1-X}O{sub 2} oxide catalysts was prepared according to a recipe that yields the monoclinic structure. The samples were examined by EXAFS spectroscopy at the Zr K and Hf L{sub III} edges. A fitting model was used that simultaneously fits data from both edges, and makes use of an interdependent mixing parameter X mix to take into account substitution of the complementary atom in the nearest metal-metal shell. For XPS analysis, Scofield factors were applied to estimate the relative atomic surface concentrations of Zr and Hf. EXAFS results suggested that a solid bulk solution was formed over a wide range of X for Hf{sub X}Zr{sub 1-X}O{sub 2} binary oxides, and that the relative ratio was retained in the surface shell (i.e., including some subsurface layers by XPS) and the surface (e.g., by ISS). The increase in selectivity for the 1-alkene from dehydration of alcohols at high Zr content does not correlate smoothly with the tuned relative atomic concentration of Hf to Zr. The step change at high Zr content appears to be due to other indirect factors (e.g., surface defects, oxygen vacancies).

  6. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF{sub 3} and AlI{sub 3}: Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M. Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Roberts, Sarah K.; Plaue, Jonathan W.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2015-06-07

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (?-AlF{sub 3}) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI{sub 3}) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF{sub 3} and AlI{sub 3} were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: applied stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. Results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products.

  7. Portal Vein Embolization with Radiolabeled Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles in a Swine Model: Hepatic Distribution and Implications for Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, Richard J.; Mercer, John R.; Al-Saif, Faisal; Molinari, Michele; Ashforth, Robert A.; Rajotte, Ray V.; Conner-Spady, Barbara; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2009-05-15

    The distribution of radiolabeled polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (PVAMs) when infused into the portal vein of domestic swine was investigated, with the purpose of assessing implications for pancreatic islet cell transplantation. PVAMs measuring 100-300 {mu}m (Contour SE) and labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were infused into the main portal vein of 12 swine, with intermittent portal venous pressure measurements. The infusion catheter was introduced antegradely via direct or indirect cannulation of the portal vein. The liver was subsequently divided into anatomical segments. Radioactivity (decay corrected) was measured for {sup 99m}Tc microsphere synthesis, dose preparation, gross organ activities, tissue samples, and blood. Particulate labeling, catheter positioning, and infusion were successful in all cases. The number of particles used was (185,000 {+-} 24,000) with a volume of 1 ml. Mean portal pressure at 5 min was significantly higher than baseline, but without a significant difference at 15 min. Extrahepatic tissue and serum radioactivity was negligible. A significant difference in number of radioactive particles per gram was detected between segments 6/7 and segments 5/8. Intrasegmental activity was analyzed, and for segments 2/3 a significant difference in the percentage dose per gram across samples was demonstrated (P = 0.001). Effective and stable radiolabeling of PVAMs with {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid was demonstrated. Portal venous infusion of 100- to 300-{mu}m particles showed entrapment in the sinusoidal hepatic system with transient portal pressure elevation. Preferential embolization into the right lateral and posterior segments occurs, suggesting that flow dynamics/catheter tip position plays a role in particle distribution.

  8. Metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ligang; Liu, Di; Guan, Jing; Chen, Xiufang; Guo, Xingcui; Zhao, Fuhua; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. Acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. Acid sites on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation.

  9. Homologation process making higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Tak W. (Charleston, WV); Dombek, Bernard D. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for the manufacture of C.sub.2+ alkanols by the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst containing ruthenium, cobalt, a halide-containing compound, and an aromatic compound substituted in adjacent ring positions by nitrogen atoms. The process embraces the use of rhodium as an additive to the catalyst system.

  10. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore » BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less

  11. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  12. Sprayable titanium composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, Chester E. (South River, NJ); Kern, Werner (Belle Mead, NJ); Vibronek, Robert D. (Sayreville, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    The addition of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to an organometallic titanium compound dissolved in a diluent and optionally containing a lower aliphatic alcohol spreading modifier, produces a solution that can be sprayed onto a substrate and cured to form an antireflection titanium oxide coating having a refractive index of from about 2.0 to 2.2.

  13. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supeno; Daik, Rusli; El-Sheikh, Said M.

    2014-09-03

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  14. A theoretical analysis of the reaction between ethyl and molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Miller; Stephen J. Klippenstein; Stuart H. Robertson

    2000-12-13

    Using a combination of electronic-structure theory, variational transition-state theory, and solutions to the time-dependent master equation, the authors have studied the kinetics of the title reaction theoretically over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The agreement between theory and experiment is quite good. By comparing the theoretical and experimental results describing the kinetic behavior, they have been able to deduce a value for the C{sub 2}H{sub 5}-O{sub 2} bond energy of {approximately}34 kcal/mole and a value for the exit-channel transition-state energy of {minus}4.3 kcal/mole (measured from reactants). These numbers compare favorably with the electronic-structure theory predictions of 33.9 kcal/mole and {minus}3.0 kcal/mole, respectively. The master-equation solutions show three distinct temperature regimes for the reaction, discussed extensively in the paper. Above T {approx} 700 K, the reaction can be written as an elementary step, C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2}, with the rate coefficient, k(T) = 3.19 x 10{sup {minus}17} T{sup 1.02} exp(2035/RT) cm{sup 3}/molec.-sec., independent of pressure even though the intermediate collision complex may suffer a large number of collisions.

  15. No Fossils in This Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plan for Environmental Teaching GM Environmental Science Club No Fossils in This Fuel Your PlanET Sixth through Eighth Grades (Can be easily adapted to any elementary/middle school level) Ingredients: Yeast, sugar ... what are you making? Sweet rolls? Not in Science Class! You're blending these ingredients to make an innovative form of fuel! That's right ... when these two simple ingredients are mixed, the yeast  a simple, living organism  breaks the sugar down into ethyl alcohol, or

  16. Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  17. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  18. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  19. Synthesis and crystal structure studies of ethyl 5-methyl-1, 3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra,; Babu, E. A. Jithesh; Mahendra, M.; Srikantamurthy, N.; Umesha, K. B.

    2014-04-24

    The title compound, C{sub 19}H{sub 18}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}, was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. It crystallizes in monoclinic class under the space group P2{sub 1}/c with cell parameters a= 8.4593(4) Å, b=15.6284(6) Å, c=12.4579(5) Å, α=90°, β=98.241(3)°, γ=90° and Z=2. The ethoxycarbonyl group is slightly twisted from the pyrazole ring, and adopts syn-periplanar conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C-H….O hydrogen bonds, which help in stabilizing the crystal structure.

  20. Methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether: A comparison of properties, synthesis techniques, and operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sneesby, M.G.; Tade, M.O.; Datta, R.

    1996-12-31

    MTBE is currently the most industrially significant oxygenate but some of the properties of ETBE and the EPA ethanol mandate suggest that ETBE could become a viable competitor. Similar synthesis techniques are used for both ethers but the phase behaviour of the ETBE system requires slightly different operating conditions and creates some alternatives for product recovery. The process control strategy for both systems must address some unusual challenges. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E

    2014-04-01

    A polyamide membrane including reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant having one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane including the polyamide membrane on a porous support.

  2. Growing attraction of refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R.

    1981-09-08

    A review of Dr. Andrew Porteous' book, Refuse Derived Fuels is presented. The escalating price of fossil fuel, particularily oil, together with the high cost of handling and transporting refuse makes the idea of refuse-derived fuel production an attractive and economic proposition. Refuse-derived fuel production is discussed and the various manufacturing processes in the UK and the USA are described. The pyrolysis of refuse for the production of gas, oil or heat and the production of methane and ethyl alcohol or other possibilities for refuse conversion.

  3. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  4. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  6. Running Line-Haul Trucks on Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    I magine driving a 55,000-pound tractor- trailer that runs on corn! If you find it difficult to imagine, you can ask the truck drivers for Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) what it's like. For the past 4 years, they have been piloting four trucks powered by ethyl alcohol, or "ethanol," derived from corn. Several advantages to operating trucks on ethanol rather than on conventional petro- leum diesel fuel present themselves. Because ethanol can be produced domestically, unlike most of our

  7. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  8. Alcohol as a fuel for farm and construction equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borman, G L; Foster, D E; Meyers, P S; Uyehara, O A

    1982-06-01

    Work in three areas dealing with the utilization of ethanol as fuel for farm and construction diesels is summarized. The first part is a review of what is known about the retrofitting of diesels for use of ethanol and the combustion problems involved. The second part is a discussion of the work that has been done under the contract on the performance of a single-cylinder, open-chamber diesel using solutions and emulsions of diesel fuel with ethanol. Data taken include performance, emissions and cylinder pressure-time for diesel fuel with zero to forty percent ethanol by volume. Analysis of the data includes calculation of heat release rates using a single zone model. The third part is a discussion of work done retrofitting a multicylinder turbocharged farm tractor diesel to use ethanol by fumigation. Three methods of ethanol introduction are discussed; spraying ethanol upstream and downstream of the compressor and prevaporization of the ethanol. Data on performance and emissions are given for the last two methods. A three zone heat release model is described and results from the model are given. A correlation of the ignition delay using prevaporized ethanol fumigation data is also given. Comparisons are made between fumigation in DI and IDI engines.

  9. Interactions between silver nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H. L.; Wu, C. M.; Lin, F. D.; Rick, J.

    2014-08-15

    The interaction of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofibers with silver (Ag) nanoparticles (mean diameter 8nm) has been modeled using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The physical adsorption of PVA through the hydroxyl group, to the Ag, and its corresponding molecular orientation was compared with experimental results obtained from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of the same material. A good agreement was found between the computational model of the vibrational spectrum of the adsorbate and the experimentally observed SERS. In general, aliphatic capping molecules are used to passivate the surface of Ag{sub 55} nanocrystals (55 = atomic number of Ag). In this study, a DFT simulation was employed to show binding energies and electron contour map analyses of Ag{sub 55} with PVA. Here we show that the PVA interacts with the Ag nanoparticle's surface, through the OH group, thereby contributing significantly to the increase in SERS activity.

  10. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  11. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  12. Search | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Propane Propane Market Propane Market Forecast Propane Market Growth Propane Market Size Propane Market Trends Propionic Acid Ethyl Ester Market Propionic Acid Ethyl Ester Market...

  13. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  14. Lignin's potential contribution to the feasibility of biomass conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, P.C.; Glasser, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    The potential contribution of lignin toward the economic improvement of processes involving the bioconversion of lignocellulosics to liquid fuels such as ethyl alcohol was examined. This improvement in process economics is achieved by the employment of a two-product process scheme whereby lignin-rich residues separated from cellulosics during bioconversion are marketed as polymeric materials. Lignin's utility as a marketable macromolecule was assessed by (a) characterization of structural features in bioconversion lignins with reference to commercial lignin products, (b) by examining lignin in terms of its value as a component in polymer systems such as urethane and phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting adhesives, and (c) by identifying potential high-volume, high-value lignin market categories which could absorb lignin fractions produced in future bioconversion scenarios. 38 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  16. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  17. Method for thermochemical decomposition of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Schreiner, Felix

    1977-01-11

    Water is thermochemically decomposed to produce hydrogen by the following sequence of reactions: KI, NH.sub.3, CO.sub. 2 and water in an organic solvent such as ethyl or propyl alcohol are reacted to produce KHCO 3 and NH.sub.4 I. The KHCO.sub.3 is thermally decomposed to K.sub.2 CO.sub.3, H.sub.2 O and CO.sub.2, while the NH.sub.4 I is reacted with Hg to produce HgI.sub.2, NH.sub.3 and H.sub.2. The K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 obtained by calcining KHCO.sub.3 is then reacted with HgI.sub.2 to produce Hg, KI, CO and O.sub.2. All products of the reaction are recycled except hydrogen and oxygen.

  18. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  19. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  20. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J.R.; Bishop, A.J.; Namavari, M.

    1995-02-28

    A protected 6-trimethylstannyl dopa derivative has been synthesized for the as a precursor for the preparation of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa. The tin derivative readily reacts with electrophilic radiofluorinating agents such as [{sup 18}F]F{sub 2}, [{sup 18}F]OF{sub 2} and [{sup 18}F]AcOF. The [{sup 18}F]fluoro intermediate was easily hydrolyzed with HBr and the product 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa was isolated after HPLC purification in a maximum radiochemical yield of 23%, ready for human use. 1 fig.

  1. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6-(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[.sup.18 F]fluoro-L-dopa

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Bishop, Allyson J.; Namavari, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    A protected 6-trimethylstannyl dopa derivative has been synthesized for the as a precursor for the preparation of 6-[.sup.18 F]fluoro-L-dopa. The tin derivative readily reacts with electrophilic radiofluorinating agents such as [.sup.18 F]F.sub.2, [.sup.18 F]OF.sub.2 and [.sup.18 F]AcOF. The [.sup.18 F]fluoro intermediate was easily hydrolyzed with HBr and the product 6-[.sup.18 F]fluoro-L-dopa was isolated after HPLC purification in a maximum radiochemical yield of 23%, ready for human use.

  2. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-1-dopa

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J.R.; Bishop, A.J.; Namavari, M.; Bida, G.T.

    1996-04-23

    A process is revealed for forming a 6-fluoro derivative of compounds in the L-Dopa family comprising the steps of protecting the groups attached to the benzene ring in the compound followed by serially reacting the protected compound with (a) iodine and silver trifluoroacetic acid; (b) Bb{sub 3}; (c) dit-butyldicarbonate; (d) hexamethyltin; (e) a fluoro compound; (f) hydrobromic acid; and (g) raising the pH to {<=}7. 1 fig.

  3. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6-(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6- .sup.18 F!fluoro-1-dopa

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Bishop, Allyson J.; Namavari, Mohammad; Bida, Gerald T.

    1996-01-01

    A process for forming a 6-fluoro derivative of compounds in the L-Dopa family comprising the steps of protecting the groups attached to the benzene ring in the compound followed by serially reacting the protected compound with (a) iodine and silver trifluoroacetic acid; (b) Bb.sub.3 ; (c) dit-butyldicarbonate; (d) hexamethyltin; (e) a fluoro compound; (f) hydrobromic acid; and (g) raising the pH to .ltoreq.7.

  4. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    1998-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to April 01, 1998 which covers the first six months of the project. During this reporting period, laboratory space to set up the surfactant characterization measurement system in the Research Science Center was made available. A Ph.D. student in Chemistry was identified and is supported as a Graduate Research Assistant in this project. Her contribution towards this project will form her Ph.D. thesis. The test matrix to perform salinity and temperature scans was established. Supply requests to obtain refined hydrocarbon, surfactant, and crude were processed and supplies obtained. A temperature bath with a control unit to perform temperature scans was obtained on loan from Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV. The setting up of the temperature control unit, and associated chiller with water circulation lines is in progress. Tests were conducted on several hybrid surfactants to identify the best surfactants for future experimental work that yield almost equal volumes of top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. The student reviewed the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena. These activities resulted in one published conference paper, and one student poster paper during this reporting period.

  5. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeti, Lebone T.; Sampath, Ramanathan

    2002-03-13

    Electrical conductivity measurements for middle, bottom, and top phases, as well as bottom/middle, and middle/bottom conjugate pair phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system were continued from the previous reporting period. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Following this, more emulsion studies at various temperatures were progresses. A theoretical model to predict the conductivity measurements using Maxwell equations was developed and sensitivity analyses to test the performance of the model was completed. Surtek, Golden, CO, our industrial partner in this project, investigated the suitability of the surfactant for enhanced oil recovery employing coreflooding techniques and observed lower surfactant and hydrocarbon recovery for NEODOX 23-4.

  6. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  7. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, N.E.

    1992-04-07

    A catalyst is described which is useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols. The catalyst consists essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  8. Method for the synthesis of chiral allylic alcohols utilizing selone based chiral derivatizing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silks, III, Louis A. (White Rock, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Molecules containing a chiral 1,2-diol unit are synthesized from reactions between aldehydes and N-acyl selones. A chilled N-acyl selone is reacted with a Lewis acid such as TiCl.sub.4 and mixed with a tertiary amine such as diisopropylethylamine to generate an enolate solution. Upon further chilling of the enolate solution a desired aldehyde is added and after an acceptable reaction period a quencher is introduced and the product isolated.

  9. Synthesis of PD particles by alcohols-assisted photoreduction for use in supported catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burton, Patrick David; Boyle, Timothy J; Datye, Abhaya

    2015-02-24

    The present disclosure provides a novel synthesis method for palladium nanoparticles and palladium nanoparticles made using the method. The nanoparticles resulting from the method are highly reactive and, when deposited on a support, are highly suitable for use as catalytic material.

  10. Thermochemical Design Report: Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot-unit level by 2012.

  11. Thermochemical ethanol via indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  12. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  13. Hydrogen transfer from alcohols to carbonyl compounds catalyzed by aluminum porphyrins. Stereochemical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konishi, Katsuaki; Aida, Takuzo; Inoue, Shohei (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-02-02

    There is interest in synthesizing molecules containing di- or tri-sulfide linkages together with sulfinate functions because of their potential as antiradiation agents. In the process of synthesizing such compounds, formation of monothioquinone S,S-dioxides presented a mechanistic problem which had to be overcome. This paper focuses on the formation of these dioxides and routes around them.

  14. Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. D.

    2009-07-01

    This report evaluates process design and technoeconomic criteria for a direct gasification process for conversion of biomass to ethanol. Follow-up to NREL/TP-510-41168.

  15. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  16. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, Nancy E. (Charleston, WV)

    1992-01-01

    A catalyst useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols consisting essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  17. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, Nancy E. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    A catalyst useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols consisting essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  18. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Massachusetts Institute of Technology at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

  20. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  1. The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C.

    1997-12-31

    Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

  2. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compared to anhydrous K2CO3, K2CO3*1.5H2O requires less energy for regeneration. Authors: Duan, Yuhua ; Luebkes,David R. ; Pennline, Henry W ; Li, Bingyun Li ; Janik, Michael J. ; ...

  3. CX-012111: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 05/06/2014 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  4. Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

    2012-08-19

    The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

  5. Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia - Energy Innovation Portal Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia Inventors: Shishir Chundawat, Leonardo Sousa, Albert Cheh, Venkatesh Balan, Bruce Dale Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn the continuing push to develop alternative fuels, bioethanol is clearly a viable option. However, if it is to become a truly economical

  6. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-04-03

    A polyamide membrane comprising reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst; and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant comprising one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane comprising the polyamide membrane on a porous support. A method of making a composite semipermeable membrane by coating a porous support with an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, a polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, to form an activated pre-polymer layer on the porous support and contacting the activated pre-polymer layer with an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional amine-reactive reactant to interfacially condense the amine-reactive reactant with the polyfunctional secondary amine, thereby forming a cross-linked, interfacial polyamide layer on the porous support. A method of impregnating a composite semipermeable membrane with nanoparticles selected from heavy metals and/or oxides of heavy metals.

  7. Analysis of Natural Graphite, Synthetic Graphite, and Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compact Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trammell, Michael P; Pappano, Peter J

    2011-09-01

    The AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacting process involved overcoating TRISO particles and compacting them in a steel die. The overcoating step is the process of applying matrix to the OPyC layer of TRISO particles in a rotating drum in order to build up an overcoat layer of desired thickness. The matrix used in overcoating is a mixture of natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and thermosetting resin in the ratio, by weight, of 64:16:20. A wet mixing process was used for AGR-1 and AGR-2, in that the graphites and resin were mixed in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The goal of the wet mixing process was to 'resinate' the graphite particles, or coat each individual graphite particle with a thin layer of resin. This matrix production process was similar to the German, Chinese, Japanese, and South African methods, which also use various amount of solvent during mixing. See Appendix 1 for information on these countries matrix production techniques. The resin used for AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by Hexion, specifically Hexion grade Durite SC1008. Durite SC1008 is a solvated (liquid) resole phenolic resin. A resole resin does not typically have a hardening agent added. The major constituent of SC1008 is phenol, with minor amounts of formaldehyde. Durite SC1008 is high viscosity, so additional ethyl alcohol was added during matrix production in order to reduce its viscosity and enhance graphite particle resination. The current compacting scale up plan departs from a wet mixing process. The matrix production method specified in the scale up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered phenolic resin and graphite are all fed into a jet mill at the same time. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. The jet milling/mixing process requires that a suite of solid or powdered resins be investigated. The synthetic graphite used in AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by SGL Carbon, grade KRB2000. KRB2000 is a graphitized petroleum coke. The availability of KRB2000 is perhaps in question, so a replacement synthetic graphite may need to be identified. This report presents data on potential replacements for KRB2000.

  8. Summary of Decisions - April 15, 2013 - April 19, 2013 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... diagnosis of Alcohol Abuse and Major Depression, a history of binge alcohol drinking, ... related to his alcohol abuse and depression: though the individual is now taking ...

  9. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  10. Displacement of Hexanol by the Hexanoic Acid Overoxidation Product in Alcohol Oxidation on a Model Supported Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchbinder, Avram M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Ray, Natalie A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Lu, Junling [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy System Division; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Weitz, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Geiger, Franz M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes

    2011-11-09

    This work characterizes the adsorption, structure, and binding mechanism of oxygenated organic species from cyclohexane solution at the liquid/solid interface of optically flat alumina-supported palladium nanoparticle surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The surface-specific nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy, sum-frequency generation (SFG), was used as a probe for adsorption and interfacial molecular structure. 1-Hexanoic acid is an overoxidation product and possible catalyst poison for the aerobic heterogeneous oxidation of 1-hexanol at the liquid/solid interface of Pd/Al?O? catalysts. Single component and competitive adsorption experiments show that 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs to both ALD-prepared alumina surfaces and alumina surfaces with palladium nanoparticles, that were also prepared by ALD, more strongly than does 1-hexanol. Furthermore, 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs with conformational order on ALD-prepared alumina surfaces, but on surfaces with palladium particles the adsorbates exhibit relative disorder at low surface coverage and become more ordered, on average, at higher surface coverage. Although significant differences in binding constant were not observed between surfaces with and without palladium nanoparticles, the palladium particles play an apparent role in controlling adsorbate structures. The disordered adsorption of 1-hexanoic acid most likely occurs on the alumina support, and probably results from modification of binding sites on the alumina, adjacent to the particles. In addition to providing insight on the possibility of catalyst poisoning by the overoxidation product and characterizing changes in its structure that result in only small adsorption energy changes, this work represents a step toward using surface science techniques that bridge the complexity gap between fundamental studies and realistic catalyst models.

  11. Impact of zeolite aging in hot liquid water on activity for acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-08-19

    The catalytic performance of zeolite in aqueous medium depends on a multitude of factors, such as the concentration and distribution of active sites and framework integrity. Al Kedge extended Xray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and 48 h 160 C water treated HBEA catalysts. There is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The distribution and concentration of Al Tsites, active centers for the dehydration of cyclohexanol, do not markedly impact the catalytic performance in water, because the Brnsted acidic protons are present in the form of hydrated hydronium ions and thus have very similar acid properties. The results suggest that all Brnsted acid sites are equally active in aqueous medium. The decrease of zeolite catalytic performance after water treatment is attributed to the reduced concentration of Brnsted acid sites. Increasing the stability of pore walls and decreasing the rate of SiOSi group hydrolysis may result in improved apparent zeolite catalytic performance in aqueous medium. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland), J. Z. Hu and S. D. Burton (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MD acknowledges support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. HIM imaging and NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract # DE-AC05-76RL0-1830

  12. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Surgar Alcohols via the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy Cortright

    2006-06-30

    This project involved the investigation and development of catalysts and reactor systems that will be cost-effective to generate hydrogen from potential sorbitol streams. The intention was to identify the required catalysts and reactors systems as well as the design, construction, and operation of a 300 grams per hour hydrogen system. Virent was able to accomplish this objective with a system that generates 2.2 kgs an hour of gas containing both hydrogen and alkanes that relied directly on the work performed under this grant. This system, funded in part by the local Madison utility, Madison, Gas & Electric (MGE), is described further in the report. The design and development of this system should provide the necessary scale-up information for the generation of hydrogen from corn-derived sorbitol.

  13. Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  14. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Roberts

    1997-02-13

    Effort during this quarter was devoted to three areas: 1) analyzing the data from earlier runs with ?zinc chromite? catalyst and three different slurry liquids: decahydronaphthalene (Decalin, DHN), tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, THN) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); 2) analyzing newly-obtained data from earlier thermal stability tests on DHN and THN, and 3) carrying out a thermal stability test on THQ. Both the activity and selectivity of ?zinc chromite? catalyst depended on the slurry liquid that was used. The catalyst activity for methanol synthesis was in the order: THQ > DHN > THN. Despite the basic nature of THQ, it exhibited the highest dimethyl ether (DME) production rates of the three liquids. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analyses of samples of THN and DHN were taken at the end of standard thermal stability tests at 375C. With both liquids, the only measurable compositional change was a minor amount of isomerization. Analysis of a sample of THN after a thermal stability test at 425C showed a small reduction in molecular weight, and a significant amount of opening of the naphthenic ring. Preliminary data from the tehrmal stability test of THQ showed that this molecule is more stable than DHN, but less stable than THN.

  15. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Roberts

    1998-12-11

    A modified analytical system was assembled and calibrated, in preparation for a second run with cesium (Cs)-promoted ?zinc chromite? catalyst. A new column for the on-line gas chromatography (GC) was purchased for the analysis of various light olefin and paraffin isomers. A run was carried out in the continuous stirred autoclave using the Cs-promoted catalyst. Decahydronaphfialene was used as the slurry liquid. Reaction conditions were 375C, 2000 psig total pressure, 0.5 H&sub2;/CO ratio, and 5000 sL/Kg (cat.)-hr. Analysis of the data from this run is in progress. A manuscript on the thermal stability of potential slurry liquids was submitted to 'Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,' and a paper was presented at the 1997 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Houston, Texas.

  16. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radha, A. V.; Forbes, Tori Z.; Killian, Christopher E.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC ? less metastable hydrated ACC?anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC?vaterite ? aragonite ? calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO? sequestration.

  17. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Alexander R. (Livermore, CA); Pagoria, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Schmidt, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene (TATB) by: (a) reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0.degree. and 50.degree. C. for between about 0.1 and 24 hr, a trinitroaromatic compound of structure V: ##STR1## wherein X, Y, and Z are each independently selected from --H, or --NH.sub.2, with the proviso that at least 1 or 2 of X, Y, and Z are hydrogen, with an amount effective to produce DATB or TATB of 1,1,1-trialkylhydrazinium halide wherein alkyl is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl and halide is selected from chloride, bromide or iodide. in the presence of a strong base selected from sodium butoxide, potassium butoxide, potassium propoxide, sodium propoxide, sodium ethoxide, potassium ethoxide, sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, and combinations thereof; in a solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoramide, dimethylformide, dimethylacetamide and mixtures thereof, provided that when alcohols are present primarily DATB and picramide is formed; and (b) isolating the DATB or TATB produced. DATB and TATB are useful specialty explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  18. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1996-10-29

    The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6,trinitrobenzene (TATB) by: (a) reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0 and 50 C for between about 0.1 and 24 hr, a trinitroaromatic compound of the structure shown within where X, Y, and Z are each independently selected from --H, or --NH{sub 2}, with the proviso that at least 1 or 2 of X, Y, and Z are hydrogen, with an amount effective to produce DATB or TATB, or 1,1,1-trialkylhydrazinium halide wherein alkyl is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl and halide is selected from chloride, bromide or iodide, in the presence of a strong base selected from sodium butoxide, potassium butoxide, potassium propoxide, sodium propoxide, sodium ethoxide, potassium ethoxide, sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, and combinations thereof; in a solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethylsulfoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoramide, dimethylformide, dimethylacetamide and mixtures thereof, provided that when alcohols are present primarily DATB and picramide is formed; and (b) isolating the DATB or TATB produced. DATB and TATB are useful specialty explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  19. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

  20. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S.C.

    1982-08-01

    Improvements in the performance of zinc-bromine batteries have been observed with electrolytes containing a quaternary ammonium salt that complexes the bromine to reduce the concentration of free bromine in solution. A variety of quaternary ammonium salts that complex bromine to form a so-called polybromide oil have been considered. Various papers have discussed measurements of the physicochemical properties of the two-component system of bromine-quaternary ammonium bromide in an aqueous medium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interfacial tension of polybromide oils on the electrolytes for zinc-bromine batteries by reporting a study of the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops in which the sessile drop method is used. The interfacial tensions for the polybromide phases are found to be considerably lower than the values commonly reported for two-phase systems containing organic and aqueous phases. However, several two-phase systems, such as benzyl alcohol/water, furfural/water, and ethyl acetate/water have low interfacial tension comparable to that of the polybromide/electrolyte system. The low interfacial tension of the polybromide oil phase has important practical implications for the zinc-bromine battery. A stable emulsion can be produced very readily; small drops of the polybromide-oil phase can thus be stabilized with the electrolyte phase and can be expected to enhance the mass transfer of bromine from the polybromide to the electrode.

  1. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  2. Development of candidate chemical simulant list: the evaluation of candidate chemical simulants which may be used in chemically hazardous operations. Final report 15 Jun-15 Dec 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The objectives of this task were threefold: (1) to provide additional data for the proposed candidate simulates dipentene, methyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol by means of in-depth literature searches encompassing both computerized data bases and a manual search of the older literature; (2) to fully evaluate twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible simulant criteria; and (3) to develop a list of candidate simulants in the low and non-volatile categories. Computerized literature searches were conducted for the twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible intake simulant criteria as well as for dimethyl methylphosphonate, a compound selected for evaluation by the USAF. The twelve possible candidates included: cyclohexanone, n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, dihexyl ether, dypnone, n-aminopropyl morpholine, n-(2-hydroxyethyl) morpholine, butyl salicylate, di(2-ethyl hexyl) ether, 2-undecanol, 2-hydroxyethyl-n-octyl sulfide and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide. Full assessments of the potential health hazards associated with exposure to n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, butyl salicylate and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide were completed. All of these compounds meet the majority of USAF criteria for candidate simulants. Cyclohexanone was disqualified for reasons of toxicity, while the available toxicological data for the seven remaining candidates were considered inadequate for full assessment of hazard.

  3. USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2007-01-12

    Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

  4. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  5. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 C as compared to 500 C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  6. Water-enhanced solvation of organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.H.

    1993-07-01

    Water-enhanced solvation (WES) was explored for Lewis acid solutes in Lewis base organic solvents, to develop cheap extract regeneration processes. WES for solid solutes was determined from ratios of solubilities of solutes in water-sat. and low-water solvent; both were determined from solid-liquid equilibrium. Vapor-headspace analysis was used to determine solute activity coefficients as function of organic phase water concentration. WES magnitudes of volatile solutes were normalized, set equal to slope of log {gamma}{sub s} vs x{sub w}/x{sub s} curve. From graph shape {Delta}(log {gamma}{sub s}) represents relative change in solute activity coefficient. Solutes investigated by vapor-headspace analysis were acetic acid, propionic acid, ethanol, 1,2-propylene glycol, 2,3-butylene glycol. Monocarboxylic acids had largest decrease in activity coefficient with water addition followed by glycols and alcohols. Propionic acid in cyclohexanone showed greatest water-enhancement {Delta} (log {gamma}{sub acid})/{Delta}(x{sub w}/x{sub acid}) = {minus}0.25. In methylcyclohexanone, the decrease of the activity coefficient of propionic acid was {minus}0.19. Activity coefficient of propionic acid in methylcyclohexanone stopped decreasing once the water reached a 2:1 water to acid mole ratio, implying a stoichiometric relation between water, ketone, and acid. Except for 2,3-butanediol, activity coefficients of the solutes studied decreased monotonically with water content. Activity coefficient curves of ethanol, 1,2-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol did not level off at large water/solute mole ratio. Solutes investigated by solid-liquid equilibrium were citric acid, gallic acid, phenol, xylenols, 2-naphthol. Saturation concentration of citric acid in anhydrous butyl acetate increased from 0.0009 to 0.087 mol/L after 1.3 % (g/g) water co-dissolved into organic phase. Effect of water-enhanced solvation for citric acid is very large but very small for phenol and its derivatives.

  7. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry (Los Alamos, NM); Avens, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Trujillo, Eddie A. (Espanola, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  8. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  9. Fight over fuel additive rekindled

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, J.

    1996-03-20

    Ethyl and EPA are trading punches over EPA`s doubts about the safety of Ethyl`s gasoline additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT). Late last week, EPA released a statement reaffirming its position that there has not been enough research on health effects of MMT and asking gas stations to label pumps that contain the additive so consumers will be aware they are using it. Responding to that statement, Ethyl has written Administrator Carol Browner asking why she appears to be supporting the Environmental Defense Fund`s (EDF; Washington) campaign against MMT and advocating the delay of the additive use in light of its known emission-reducing characteristics. The tension began in the early `90s, when the EPA refused to allow Ethyl to market MMT and required it to perform more long-term health studies. Last October a court ordered the agency to grant Ethyl approval to use MMT in nonreformulated gasoline.

  10. Environment/Health/Safety (EHS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ethyl ketone, lacquer thinner. Ignitable compressed gases: hydrogen, methane, acetylene, propane, butane, spray-paint cans. Oxidizers: ammonium persulfate, sodium nitrate,...

  11. 11123-24 - Annual Report - 01-15-14

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the selected partition tracer (ethyl formate), conservative tracers (methanol and n-propanol) were kept constant and the flow rates of primary tracer and pusher...

  12. CX-100438 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam Award Number: DE-EE0006536 CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Solar Energy Technology Office Date: 12/22/15 Location(s): CA Office(s): Golden Field Office

  13. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact with metallographic polishing lubricants, solvents, or chemicals. And water being one of the most reactive solutions, is not used in the preparation. Figure 2 shows an example of a plutonium sample in which an oxide film has formed on the surface due to overexposure to solutions. it has been noted that nucleation of the hydride/oxide begins around inclusions and samples with a higher concentration of impurities seem to be more susceptible to this reaction. Figure 3 shows examples of small oxide rings, forming around inclusions. Lastly, during the cutting, grinding, or polishing process there is enough stress induced in the sample that the surface can transform from the soft face-centered-cubic delta phase (30 HV) to the strain-induced monoclinic alpha{prime} phase (300 HV). Figure 4 and 5 shows cross-sectional views of samples in which one was cut using a diamond saw and the other was processed through 600 grit. The white layers on the edges is the strain induced alpha{prime} phase. The 'V' shape indentation in Figure 5 was caused by a coarser abrasive which resulted in transformations to a depth of approximately 20 {micro}m. Another example of the transformation sensitivity of plutonium can be seen in Figure 6, in which the delta phase has partly transformed to alpha{prime} during micro hardness indentation.

  14. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols FY 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  15. Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    finished motor gasoline (leaded or unleaded) and alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) limited to 10 percent by volume of alcohol. Gasohol is included in finished...

  16. DOE F 470.7 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program) and the breath alcohol technician. Screening results are to be afixed to the form. PDF icon Human Reliability Program (HRP) Alcohol Testing Form More Documents & ...

  17. PSH-12-0043 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with her excessive consumption of alcohol in college and a determination from a ... the Individual suffered from Alcohol-Related Disorder, Not Otherwise ...

  18. PSH-12-0090 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    had successfully addressed the DOE's security concerns regarding his alcohol consumption. ... and other factors, were sufficient to demonstrate rehabilitation from Alcohol Abuse. ...

  19. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol ...

  20. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis ...

  1. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    random breath alcohol test to the Individual. That test indicated that the Individual's blood alcohol level was .034 percent. This incident led the Local Security Office (LSO) to...

  2. Summary of Decisions - June 22, 2015 - June 26, 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    had not successfully addressed the DOE's security concerns regarding his use of alcohol, which included frequent intoxication and had resulted in three alcohol-related...

  3. Summary of Decisions - May 26, 2014 - May 30, 2014 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The individual has a history of four arrests for Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol (DUI). A DOE psychologist also found that the individual habitually used alcohol to...

  4. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to administrative review citing as security concerns the individual's diagnosis of alcohol abuse and his alcohol-related arrests. After conducting a hearing, convened at the...

  5. Summary of Decisions - December 1, 2014 - December 5, 2014 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    found that the individual had not resolved the security concerns arising from his alcohol use and diagnosis by a DOE psychologist that he suffered from alcohol use disorder,...

  6. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  7. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.

    2014-07-08

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  8. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  9. Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, D.R.; Pollagi, T.P.

    1999-08-17

    A novel method is described for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl{sub 2} in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic

  11. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the

  12. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the

  13. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at

  14. BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Robert S. (Youngstown, NY)

    1981-08-18

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  15. Quasielastic neutron scattering with in situ humidity control: Water dynamics in uranyl fluoride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miskowiec, A.; Kirkegaard, M. C.; Herwig, K. W.; Trowbridge, L.; Mamontov, E.; Anderson, B.

    2016-03-04

    The authors confirm that water vapor pressure is the driving thermodynamic force for the conversion of the anhydrous structure to [(UO2F2)(H2O)]7 ? (H2O)4, and they demonstrate the feasibility of extending this approach to aqueous forms of UO2F2+ xH2O. This method has general applicability to systems in which water content itself is a driving variable for structural or dynamical phase transitions.

  16. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil (Orinda, CA); Whalen, J. Marc (Corning, NY); Chacon, Lisa (Corning, NY)

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  17. George Andrew Olah - Patents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patents - George Andrew Olah Olah Page * Resources with Additional Information US 4,394,247 LIQUEFACTION OF COALS USING RECYCLABLE SUPERACID CATALYST - Olah, George A.; July 19, 1983 This invention discloses a process for the liquefaction of coals and other predominantly hydrocarbonaceous materials by treating the same with a superacidic catalyst system consisting of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and boron trifluoride in the presence of super-atmospheric hydrogen. US 4,433,192 CONDENSATION OF

  18. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1983-12-20

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  19. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Galvin, Thomas M. (Darien, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  20. Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Pollagi, Timothy P. (Dayton, OH)

    1999-01-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl.sub.2 in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

  1. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis productsmore » increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.« less

  2. Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

    1997-11-14

    The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of three copper coordination polymers with pyridine derivatives from hydro(solvo)thermal in situ decarboxylation reactions of 2,5-dicarboxylpyridine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Qin; Xu Jianing; Yu Jiehui; Wang Tiegang; Yang Qingfeng; Xu Jiqing

    2010-07-15

    The hydro(solvo)thermal self-assembles of CuI, KI and 2,5-dicarboxylpyridine [2,5-(COOH){sub 2}py] in different molar ratios in H{sub 2}O/alcohol solutions produced three Cu coordination polymers as 2-D [N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py][Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D [N-CH{sub 3}py][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 3}] 2 as well as 1-D [Cu(2-COOpy){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O 3 (N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py=N-ethylpyridine, N-CH{sub 3}py=N-methylpyridine, 2-COOpy=2-carboxylpyridine). N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py in 1 and N-CH{sub 3}py in 2 derived from the solvothermal in situ simultaneous decarboxylation and N-alkylation reactions of 2,5-(COOH){sub 2}py. The semi-decarboxylation reaction of 2,5-(COOH){sub 2}py into 2-COOpy occurred in the preparation of 3. X-ray single-crystal analysis revealed that CuI is transformed into a 2-D [Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}]{sup -} layer in compound 1 and a 1-D chain in compound 2, templated by [N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py]{sup +} and [N-CH{sub 3}py]{sup +}, respectively. Compound 3 is a divalent Cu compound. The Cu(II) centers with a 4+2 geometry are coordinated by {mu}{sub 3}-mode 2-COOpy ligands. All of the title compounds were characterized by CHN analysis, IR spectrum analysis and TG analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit fluorescence properties with the maximum emissions at 581 nm for 1 and 537 nm for 2. - Graphical abstract: Three compounds were obtained via in situ metal-ligand hydro(solvo)thermal reactions of 2,5-(cooh){sub 2}py with cui. Three types of in situ reactions occurred for 2,5-(cooh){sub 2}py: decarboxylation n-ethylated in 1, n-methylated in 2 and semi-decarboxylation in 3.

  4. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher

    2001-04-30

    This project has shown that the recovery of several valuable lactic acid products is both technically feasible and economically viable. One of the original objectives of this project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification have resulted in the production of lactic acid esters. These esters could by hydrolyzed to lactic acid, but only with unacceptable product losses that would be economically prohibitive. The developed process is projected to produce approximately 200,000 lb per day of lactate esters from wastewater at a single factory at costs that compete with conventional solvents. The lactate esters are good solvents for polymers and resins and could replace acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, MIBK, and other polar solvents used in the polymer industry. Because of their low volatility and viscosity-lowering properties, they will be especially useful for inks for jet printers, alkyl resins, and high-solid paints. Owing to their efficiency in dissolving salts and flux as well as oils and sealants, lactate esters can be used in cleaning circuit boards and machine and engine parts. Unlike conventional solvents, lactate esters exhibit low toxicity, are biodegradable, and are not hazardous air pollutants. Another application for lactate esters is in the production of plasticizers. Severe health problems have been attributed to widely used phthalate ester plasticizers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that replacement of these with inexpensive lactate esters is feasible, owing to their superior polymer compatibility properties. A very large market is projected for polymers prepared from lactic acid. These are called polylactides and are a type of polyester. Thermoplastics of this type have a variety of uses, including moldings, fibers, films, and packaging of both manufactured goods and food products. Polylactides form tough, orientable, self-supporting thin films and have, therefore, been used for adhesives, safety glass, and finishes. If the bacterial culture produces the L-lactic acid enanatiomer form exclusively, the L-lactide prepared from this form can be used for making polymers with good fiber-forming properties. We have not currently achieved the exclusive production of L-lactate in our efforts. However, markets in films and structural shapes are available for polymers and copolymers prepared from the mixed D,L-lactide forms that result from processing the D,L-lactic acid obtained from fermentation such as that occurring naturally in sugar beet wastewater. These materials are slowly biodegraded to harmless compounds in the environment, and they burn with a clean blue flame when incinerated. These materials represent excellent opportunities for utilization of the D,L-lactic mixture produced from natural fermentation of the ACS flume water. Esters can be converted into a lactide, and the alcohol released from the ester can be recycled with no net consumption of the alcohol. Lactide intermediates could be produced locally and shipped to polymer producers elsewhere. The polymer and copolymer markets are extremely large, and the role of lactides in these markets is continuously expanding. The overall process can be readily integrated into existing factory wastewater operations. There are several environmental benefits that would be realized at the factories with incorporation of the lactate recovery process. The process reduces the organic loading to the existing wastewater treatment system that should result in enhanced operability with respect to both solids handling and treated-water quality. A higher-quality treated water will also help reduce odor levels from holding ponds. Several water reuse opportunities are probable, depending on the quality of treated water from the FT process.

  5. Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial ...

  6. Summary of Decisions - October 13, 2014 - October 17, 2014 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that the individual had not mitigated the DOE's concerns regarding his use of alcohol, which had not led to any alcohol-related arrests or accidents but nevertheless was...

  7. Current State of the U S Ethanol Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... for each gallon sold to an alcohol blender that is in excess of the producer's base ... to an alcohol blender may receive 0.075 for each gallon sold, up to 15,000,000 gallons. ...

  8. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... habitually to excess, or has been diagnosed by a psychiatrist or licensed clinical psychologist as alcohol dependent or as suffering from alcohol abuse." 10 C.F.R. 710.8(j). ...

  9. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ALCOHOLS; ALKENES; LUBRICATION; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; MOLECULAR WEIGHT; OXYGEN; PENTANOLS; POLYMERIZATION; POLYMERS; ...

  10. Peer Review 2013 Dutta Syngas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

  11. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Gasification ...

  12. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alcohol-blended Fuels | Department of Energy Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures PDF icon p-19_seong.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel and Lubricant

  13. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  14. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  15. EERE Success Story-Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs | Department of Energy Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs EERE Success Story-Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs April 15, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis With support from EERE, researchers at Virent, Inc. in Madison developed new cost-effective methods to produce hydrogen from renewable resources like biomass-derived sugar and sugar alcohols.

  16. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  17. System and process for capture of H.sub.2S from gaseous process streams and process for regeneration of the capture agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heldenbrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Bearden, Mark D; Zheng, Feng

    2014-02-18

    A system and process are disclosed for selective removal and recovery of H.sub.2S from a gaseous volume, e.g., from natural gas. Anhydrous organic, sorbents chemically capture H.sub.2S gas to form hydrosulfide salts. Regeneration of the capture solvent involves addition of an anti-solvent that releases the captured H.sub.2S gas from the capture sorbent. The capture sorbent and anti-solvent are reactivated for reuse, e.g., by simple distillation.

  18. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  19. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1981-09-24

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  20. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  1. Platinum-group element abundance patterns in different mantle environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehkaemper, M.; Halliday, A.N.; Barfod, D.; Fitton, J.G.; Dawson, J.B.

    1997-11-28

    Mantle-derived xenoliths from the Cameroon Line and northern Tanzania display differences in their platinum-group element (PGE) abundance patterns. The Cameroon Line lherzolites have uniform PGE patterns indicating a homogeneous upper mantle over several hundreds of kilometers, with approximately chondritic PGE ratios. The PGE patterns of the Tanzanian peridotites are similar to the PGE systematics of ultramafic rocks from ophiolites. The differences can be explained if the northern Tanzanian lithosphere developed in a fluid-rich suprasubduction zone environment, whereas the Cameroon Line lithosphere only experienced melt extraction from anhydrous periodotites. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  3. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  6. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  7. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1997-07-15

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  8. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  9. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Kien Y. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Donald G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  10. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (21 Barnes Road, Wading River, NY 11792); Colombo, Peter (44 N. Pinelake Dr., Patchogue, NY 11772)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  11. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  12. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  13. Hygroscopicity Evaluation of Halide Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuravleva, M; Stand, L; Wei, H; Hobbs, C. L.; Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E; Melcher, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    A collaborative study of relative hygroscopicity of anhydrous halide scintillators grown at various laboratories is presented. We have developed a technique to evaluate moisture sensitivity of both raw materials and grown crystals, in which the moisture absorption rate is measured using a gravimetric analysis. Degradation of the scintillation performance was investigated by recording gamma-ray spectra and monitoring the photopeak position, count rate and energy resolution. The accompanying physical degradation of the samples exposed to ambient atmosphere was photographically recorded as well. The results were compared with ben

  14. STATES GOVERNMENT S. R. Sapirle~, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    oh&- 1) +9-y l "UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT S. R. Sapirle~, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations NOVEMBER 2.3 1954 S : J. C. Clarke, Acting Manager, New York . . SUBJXT: REQUEST FOR URMWJM TEm-CHLORIDE SYMBOL: AM:% "& ATTENTION: Mr.N. Woodruff The Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania has under date .of October 26, 1954; requested that we arrange for the shipment of approximately one kilogram of normal uranium tetra-chloride, preferably anhydrous to Mr. C. C> Fawcett, S. F.

  15. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  16. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  17. Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

  18. .sup.18 F-4-Fluoroantipyrine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1984-03-13

    The novel radioactive compound .sup.18 F-4-fluoroantipyrine having high specific activity which can be used in nuclear medicine in diagnostic applications, prepared by the direct fluorination of antipyrine in acetic acid with radioactive fluorine at room temperature and purifying said radioactive compound by means of gel chromatography with ethyl acetate as eluent is disclosed. The non-radioactive 4-fluoroantipyrine can also be prepared by the direct fluorination of antipyrine in acetic acid with molecular fluorine at room temperature and purified by means of gel chromotography with ethyl acetate eluent.

  19. Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.

  20. Molecular simulation of structure and diffusion at smectite-water interfaces: Using expanded clay interlayers as model nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Hart, David; Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, R. James; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-07-20

    In geologic settings relevant to a number of extraction and potential sequestration processes, nanopores bounded by clay mineral surfaces play a critical role in the transport of aqueous species. Solution structure and dynamics at claywater interfaces are quite different from their bulk values, and the spatial extent of this disruption remains a topic of current interest. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and diffusion of aqueous solutions in clay nanopores approximately 6 nm thick, comparing the effect of clay composition with model Na-hectorite and Na-montmorillonite surfaces. In addition to structural properties at the interface, water and ion diffusion coefficients were calculated within each aqueous layer at the interface, as well as in the central bulk-like region of the nanopore. The results show similar solution structure and diffusion properties at each surface, with subtle differences in sodium adsorption complexes and water structure in the first adsorbed layer due to different arrangements of layer hydroxyl groups in the two clay models. Interestingly, the extent of surface disruption on bulk-like solution structure and diffusion extends to only a few water layers. Additionally, a comparison of sodium ion residence times confirms similar behavior of inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexes at each clay surface, but ~1% of sodium ions adsorb in ditrigonal cavities on the hectorite surface. Thus, the presence of these anhydrous ions is consistent with highly immobile anhydrous ions seen in previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements of hectorite pastes.

  1. Molecular Simulation of Structure and Diffusion at Smectite-Water Interfaces: Using Expanded Clay Interlayers as Model Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Hart, David; Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, R. James; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-07-20

    In geologic settings relevant to a number of extraction and potential sequestration processes, nanopores bounded by clay mineral surfaces play a critical role in the transport of aqueous species. Solution structure and dynamics at claywater interfaces are quite different from their bulk values, and the spatial extent of this disruption remains a topic of current interest. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and diffusion of aqueous solutions in clay nanopores approximately 6 nm thick, comparing the effect of clay composition with model Na-hectorite and Na-montmorillonite surfaces. In addition to structural properties at the interface, water and ion diffusion coefficients were calculated within each aqueous layer at the interface, as well as in the central bulk-like region of the nanopore. The results show similar solution structure and diffusion properties at each surface, with subtle differences in sodium adsorption complexes and water structure in the first adsorbed layer due to different arrangements of layer hydroxyl groups in the two clay models. Interestingly, the extent of surface disruption on bulk-like solution structure and diffusion extends to only a few water layers. Additionally, a comparison of sodium ion residence times confirms similar behavior of inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexes at each clay surface, but ~1% of sodium ions adsorb in ditrigonal cavities on the hectorite surface. Thus, the presence of these anhydrous ions is consistent with highly immobile anhydrous ions seen in previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements of hectorite pastes.

  2. Transetherification method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1985-01-01

    Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead.

  3. Transetherification method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, D.

    1985-04-09

    Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead. 1 fig.

  4. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  5. Nonaqueous polypyrrole colloids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armes, Steven P. (Los Alamos, NM); Aldissi, Mahmoud (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01

    Processable conductive polymers including an oxidized, polymerized aromatic heterocyclic monomer, e.g., pyrrole, an stabilizing effective amount of a poly(vinyl acetate) and dopant anions, and a process of preparing said processable conductive polymers directly in a nonaqueous medium such as methyl acetate, methyl formate, ethyl formate, and propyl formate are disclosed.

  6. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich (Moscow, RU); Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich (Moscow, RU); Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich (Moscow, RU); Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich (Moscow, RU); Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna (Moscow, RU); Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna (Moscow, RU)

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  7. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Small Oxygenates over HZSM-5 and its Deactivation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Flake, Matthew D.; Zhang, He; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-28

    HZSM-5 catalyst deactivation was studied using aqueous feed mixtures containing ethanol, ethanol+ acetic acid, ethanol+ethyl acetate, or ethanol+acetaldehyde in a fixed bed reactor at 360C and 300psig. Compared to ethanol alone experiment, addition of other oxygenates reduced catalyst life in the order of: ethyl acetateethyl acetate feed, the presence of acetaldehyde appears to produce high molecular weight aromatic compounds which deactivate the catalyst through a pore-blocking mechanism. Acetic acid deactivates the catalyst through an active site poisoning mechanism or strong adsorption of acetate intermediates on the active sites (hydroxyl groups). Ethanol deactivates the catalyst primarily through its pore-blocking mechanism, but the rate of ethanol deactivation is orders of magnitude slower than that of acetaldehyde. Ethyl acetate hydrolyzes to form acetic acid and ethanol which deactivate the catalyst through its respective mechanisms. In addition, each functional group of oxygenates requires different active sites/catalysts and different operating conditions due to competitive adsorptions on active sites for their conversion to the desired products. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-treat the mixture of oxygenates to produce a feed stream containing the same or similar functional group compounds before converting the feed stream to hydrocarbon compounds over HZSM-5 catalyst.

  8. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1987-07-21

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7--25 C and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10--30 C. 2 figs.

  9. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. (Newton, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

  10. Solvent and Process for Recovery of Hydroxide from Aqueous Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    1999-09-13

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  11. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chambliss, C. Kevin (Macon, GA); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Keever, Tamara J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  12. PSH-15-0016 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy June 25, 2015, an Administrative Judge determined that an individual's access authorization should not be restored. In reaching this determination, the Administrative Judge found that the individual had not successfully addressed the DOE's security concerns regarding his use of alcohol, which included frequent intoxication and had resulted in three alcohol-related arrests. These facts led a DOE-consultant psychologist to conclude that the individual consumed alcohol habitually to

  13. Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels Authors: SpeetjensII, Frank W. ; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UW) Publication

  14. PSH-15-0072 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 2 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing PSH-15-0072 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing On November 25, 2015, an Administrative Judge issued a decision in which he determined that an individual's request for access authorization should not be granted. In the Notification Letter, the DOE alleged that the individual suffered from alcohol abuse and consumed alcohol habitually to excess. In support of these allegations, the DOE cited the individual's five alcohol-related

  15. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols | Department of Energy 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S.

  16. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) | Department of Energy MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition The following fuels are defined as alternative fuels by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992: pure methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols; blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline; natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; hydrogen; electricity; pure biodiesel (B100); fuels, other than alcohol, derived from biological materials; and P-Series fuels. In addition, the U.S.

  18. Selective Oxidation of Organic Substrates to Partially Oxidized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Brief (243 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Rapid and controlled rate of catalysis, utilizing ozone for oxidation of alcohols to ketones or aldehydes, is made possible...

  19. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, J.; O`Malley, D.; Whetten, R.; Sederoff, R.

    1998-10-20

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented. 16 figs.

  20. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (US)","02 PETROLEUM; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; ALCOHOLS; BRASSICA; DIESEL...

  1. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bus Final report Sheehan J Camobreco V Duffield J Graboski M Shapouri H PETROLEUM BIOMASS FUELS SYNTHETIC FUELS ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS ALCOHOLS BRASSICA DIESEL FUELS...

  2. bus. Final report Sheehan, J.; Camobreco, V.; Duffield, J.; Graboski...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sheehan, J.; Camobreco, V.; Duffield, J.; Graboski, M.; Shapouri, H. 02 PETROLEUM; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; ALCOHOLS; BRASSICA; DIESEL...

  3. Property:Incentive/ExpireDtString | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appliance Rebate Program (Alabama) + 2010-05-09 + Alameda Municipal Power - Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program (California) + 2017-12-31 + Alcohol Fuels Exemption (Hawaii)...

  4. Adjudicative Guidelines for Determining Eligibility for Access...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... permanent behavioral changes; (7) the motivation for the conduct; (8) the potential for ... any court order regarding alcohol education, evaluation, treatment, or abstinence. ...

  5. Optically transparent and environmentally durable superhydrophobic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The functionalized silica nanoparticles were dissolved in a solution of the solvents isopropyl alcohol and 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF) and a proprietary ceramic binder ...

  6. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    security concerns related to excessive alcohol consumption, which often leads to the exercise of questionable judgment or the failure to control impulses, and calls into...

  7. Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Ltd TDCL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 600 020 Sector: Biomass Product: Chennai-based, alcohol manufactureres and biomass project developers. Coordinates: 13.06397, 80.24311...

  8. Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the...

  9. Pioneer Distilleries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Place: Hyderabad, Arunachal Pradesh, India Zip: 500 016 Product: Focused on alcohol, spirits and ethanol production. Coordinates: 17.6726, 77.5971 Show Map Loading...

  10. Power Ecalene Fuels Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arvada, Colorado Zip: 80007 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Mixed alcohol transportation fuel Website: www.powerecalene.com Coordinates: 39.862942,...

  11. Corporate Tax Credit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alcohol Fuel Credit (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Commercial Industrial Ethanol Methanol No Alternative Energy Development Incentive (Corporate) (Utah) Corporate Tax...

  12. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  13. Bioroot Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to higher mixed alcohol transportation fuels, we are dedicated to helping transform modern municipal waste management practices from a polluting, non-producer of tangible goods...

  14. Improving microbial biogasoline production in Escherichia coli...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here we show the importance of host engineering for the production of short-chain alcohols ... and provides a valuable new avenue for host engineering in biogasoline production. ...

  15. Sales Tax Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Coal with CCS Natural Gas BiomassBiogas Yes Alcohol Fuels Exemption (Hawaii) Sales Tax Incentive Hawaii...

  16. Sales Tax Incentive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Coal with CCS Natural Gas BiomassBiogas Yes Alcohol Fuels Exemption (Hawaii) Sales Tax Incentive Hawaii...

  17. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... alcohol synthesis BFW boiler feed water MASP minimum ... vessel or heat transfer duty for a heat exchanger. Equation 1 assumes that all other process parameters (pressure, ...

  18. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E85 Optimized Engine Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels ...

  19. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) Human Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor (HRMS) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)

  20. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) Energy Employees...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) Procurement ...

  1. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) Procurement Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System (HRMS) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)

  2. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, John (Raleigh, NC); O'Malley, David (Cary, NC); Whetten, Ross (Raleigh, NC); Sederoff, Ronald (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented.

  3. Attachments Energy Ratings Council | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Window and Shading Technologies Image of porous silica material in alcohol.
    Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation ...

  4. Kansas's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district Conestoga Energy Partners LLC ESE Alcohol Gateway Ethanol LLC formerly Wildcat Bio Energy LLC Kansas Ethanol LLC Nesika Energy LLC Orion Ethanol Reeve Agri Energy Inc...

  5. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    raised concerns under Criterion L regarding his questionable judgment in driving with a Blood Alcohol Content in excess of the legal limit and his criminal activity (cocaine use...

  6. Summary of Decisions - September 10 - September 14, 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    arrest and a determination from a DOE psychologist that the Individual suffered from Alcohol-Related Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified. Additionally, while finding that the...

  7. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in December 2014 for Driving While Intoxicated. He immediately stopped drinking alcohol and sought help voluntarily from his site's employee assistance program (EAP). After...

  8. Summary of Decisions - October 1, 2012 - October 5, 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    individual's security clearance because of concerns regarding the individual's use of alcohol and prior criminal activity. After conducting a hearing and evaluating the...

  9. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the individual to address concerns about his falsification of information and alcohol use. The individual's behavior raised security concerns under Criteria F, H and L....

  10. Summary of Decisions - December 3, 2012 - December 7, 2012 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the individual had successfully addressed the DOE's security concerns regarding his alcohol consumption. Specifically, the Hearing Officer concluded that the individual's eight...

  11. Washington/Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Washington) Utility Rebate Program Yes Biodiesel and Alcohol Fuel Blend Sales Tax Exemption (Washington) Sales Tax Incentive No...

  12. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with ... of Feedstock and Technology Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from ...

  13. Bio-Oxo Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is it difficult? Aldehydes are more toxic to bacterial cells than alcohols. Toxins and inhibitors such as acetate, formate and 5- (hydroxymethyl)furfural are created ...

  14. PRAJ Industries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    molasses based distillery technology, plant and equipment for alcohol, fuel ethanol and beer production. References: PRAJ Industries Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  15. Guangdong ZhongKe Tianyuan Regeneration Engineering Co Ltd ZKTY...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    equipment in China to assist firms with the production of ethanol, edible alcohol and acetic acid. References: Guangdong ZhongKe Tianyuan Regeneration Engineering Co. Ltd...

  16. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bioelectrochemical System and Microbial Fuel Cells Current wastewater treatment processes ... Find More Like This Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes ...

  17. Cutting Biofuel Production Costs | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cutting Biofuel Production Costs Working to use sunlight to convert biomass to biofuels, ... bioderived alcohols to benzaldehyde, toluene, and the zero-emission biofuel hydrogen. ...

  18. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol...

  19. Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis ...

  20. DOE/CE/41035-1-FINAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... polycarbonate latex polymers polyesters polyvinyl alcohol polystyrene acrylics polysulfone ... 4. TASK I Results Numerous process developments were made during this project. ...

  1. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of carbonates and carbamates from carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Cynthia M; Madix, Robert J; Xu, Bingjun

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for producing organic carbonates via the reaction of alcohols and carbon monoxide with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic gold or gold alloy catalyst.

  2. Scientific Achievement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    convert furans to alcohols via hydrogenation through the MPV mechanism and then to ethers. Combined with metal catalysts (RuC), synergetic hydrogenolysis occurs. Catalytic...

  3. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and very selectively be delivered from alcohols to HMF over Lewis acid catalysts. - Upon reduction, etherification happens twice on the same active site to increase the...

  4. InMon,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gas (common- tenance infrastructure. (Denver, also a Clean City, has also ly known as propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels other than alcohol that are derived from...

  5. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah...

  6. L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C.; Silva, A. M.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N.

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences ?a, ?b, ?c between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z???? and Z???? transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to ?3 ???, ?1 ???, and ?2 ??? transitions, respectively. ?-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2pcarboxyl, C 2pside chain, and C 2pcarboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical anisotropy for the absorption and complex dielectric function, with more structured curves for incident light polarized along the 100 and 101 directions.

  7. Aspects of uranium chemistry pertaining to UF{sub 6} cylinder handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, R.L.; Barber, E.J.

    1991-12-31

    Under normal conditions, the bulk of UF{sub 6} in storage cylinders will be in the solid state with an overpressure of gaseous UF{sub 6} well below one atmosphere. Corrosion of the interior of the cylinder will be very slow, with formation of a small amount of reduced fluoride, probably U{sub 2}F{sub 9}. The UO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 2}O phase diagram indicates that reaction of any inleaking water vapor with the solid UF{sub 6} will generate the solid material [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}(U(OH){sub 4}F{sub 4}) in equilibrium with an aqueous HF solution containing only small amounts of uranium. The corrosion of the steel cylinder by these materials may be enhanced over that observed with gaseous anhydrous UF{sub 6}.

  8. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  9. Structural and thermal studies of H{sub 2}La{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7}, a protonated layered perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Berre, F.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.P.; Fourquet, J.L.

    2006-04-13

    We have synthesised the new protonated layered perovskite H{sub 2}La{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is related to the Ruddlesden-Popper family. This compound is obtained by ionic exchange starting from Li{sub 2}La{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} maintained in dilute HNO{sub 3} at 60 deg. C. Thermal X-ray diffraction and DTA/TGA revealed interesting dehydration properties with formation of a layered anhydrous phase leading at higher temperature (1550 deg. C) to La{sub 1/3}TaO{sub 3}. This latter compound exhibits the original lanthanum ordering expected similarly to that of the Li form, while at 900 deg. C a metastable form, presenting a disordered La distribution, is observed.

  10. Actinide Dioxides in Water: Interactions at the Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandrov, Vitaly; Shvareva, Tatiana Y.; Hayun, Shmuel; Asta, Mark; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2011-12-15

    A comprehensive understanding of chemical interactions between water and actinide dioxide surfaces is critical for safe operation and storage of nuclear fuels. Despite substantial previous research, understanding the nature of these interactions remains incomplete. In this work, we combine accurate calorimetric measurements with first-principles computational studies to characterize surface energies and adsorption enthalpies of water on two fluorite-structured compounds, ThO? and CeO?, that are relevant for understanding the behavior of water on actinide oxide surfaces more generally. We determine coverage-dependent adsorption enthalpies and demonstrate a mixed molecular and dissociative structure for the first hydration layer. The results show a correlation between the magnitude of the anhydrous surface energy and the water adsorption enthalpy. Further, they suggest a structural model featuring one adsorbed water molecule per one surface cation on the most stable facet that is expected to be a common structural signature of water adsorbed on actinide dioxide compounds.

  11. Nucleophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R

    2014-03-18

    Iodylbenzene derivatives substituted with electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring are used as precursors in aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The iodyl group (IO.sub.2) is regiospecifically substituted by nucleophilic fluoride to provide the corresponding fluoroaryl derivatives. No-carrier-added [F-18]fluoride ion derived from anhydrous [F-18](F/Kryptofix, [F-18]CsF or a quaternary ammonium fluoride (e.g., Me.sub.4NF, Et.sub.4NF, n-Bu.sub.4NF, (PhCH.sub.2).sub.4NF) exclusively substitutes the iodyl moiety in these derivatives and provides high specific activity F-18 labeled fluoroaryl analogs. Iodyl derivatives of a benzothiazole analog and 6-iodyl-L-dopa derivatives have been synthesized as precursors and have been used in the preparation of no-carrier-added [F-18]fluorobenzothiazole as well as 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa.

  12. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M.

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  13. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2012-08-15

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm{sup -1} and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm{sup -1} with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline-citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TP-CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-induced TP-CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  14. Molecular simulation of structure and diffusion at smectite-water interfaces: Using expanded clay interlayers as model nanopores

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Hart, David; Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, R. James; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-07-20

    In geologic settings relevant to a number of extraction and potential sequestration processes, nanopores bounded by clay mineral surfaces play a critical role in the transport of aqueous species. Solution structure and dynamics at clay–water interfaces are quite different from their bulk values, and the spatial extent of this disruption remains a topic of current interest. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and diffusion of aqueous solutions in clay nanopores approximately 6 nm thick, comparing the effect of clay composition with model Na-hectorite and Na-montmorillonite surfaces. In addition to structural properties at the interface, water andmore » ion diffusion coefficients were calculated within each aqueous layer at the interface, as well as in the central bulk-like region of the nanopore. The results show similar solution structure and diffusion properties at each surface, with subtle differences in sodium adsorption complexes and water structure in the first adsorbed layer due to different arrangements of layer hydroxyl groups in the two clay models. Interestingly, the extent of surface disruption on bulk-like solution structure and diffusion extends to only a few water layers. Additionally, a comparison of sodium ion residence times confirms similar behavior of inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexes at each clay surface, but ~1% of sodium ions adsorb in ditrigonal cavities on the hectorite surface. Thus, the presence of these anhydrous ions is consistent with highly immobile anhydrous ions seen in previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements of hectorite pastes.« less

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    GTAB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Ether 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,497 Conventional 0 0 266 0 0 0 1,099 CBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0...

  16. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    GTAB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Ether 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0 0 0 0 222 1,728 Conventional 25 0 0 0 0 0 817 CBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0...

  17. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future blending. Future contract provisions that restrict distributors or retailers from blending gasoline with fuel alcohol are void. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 75-90, 105-449.60

  19. Microbial engineering of nano-heterostructures; biological synthesis of a magnetically-recoverable palladium nanocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, V. S.; Bennett, J. A.; Telling, N.; Charnock, J. M.; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Pearce, C. I; Cutting, R. S.; Shannon, I. J.; Wood, J.; Arenholz, E.; Vaughan, D. J.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Precious metals supported on ferrimagnetic particles form a diverse range of catalysts. Here we show a novel biotechnological route for the synthesis of a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of reactive palladium nanoparticles arrayed on a biomagnetite support. The magnetic support was synthesized at ambient temperature by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens, and facilitated ease of recovery of the catalyst with superior performance due to reduced agglomeration. Arrays of palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the nanomagnetite using a simple one-step method without the need to modify the biomineral surface most likely due to an organic coating priming the surface for Pd adsorption. A combination of EXAFS and XPS showed the particles to be predominantly metallic in nature. The Pd{sup 0}-biomagnetite was tested for catalytic activity in the Heck Reaction coupling iodobenzene to ethyl acrylate or styrene and near complete conversion to ethyl cinnamate or stilbene was achieved within 90 and 180 min, respectively.

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  1. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  2. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  5. Reactivity of Metal Ions Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkins, J.G.; Lin, M.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Robison, T.W.; Smith, B.F.; Gohdes, J.W.; McDonald, J.G.

    1999-06-29

    The intent of this work is to determine the effectiveness of catalysts covalently bound to polymers and to understand the consequences of supporting the catalysts on catalyst efficiency and selectivity. Rhodium phosphine complexes with functional groups for coupling to polymers were prepared. These catalyst precursors were characterized using standard techniques including IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Studies on the modified catalysts showed that they were still active hydrogenation catalysts. However, tethering of the catalysts to polyamines gave systems with low hydrogenation activity. Analogous biphasic systems were also explored. Phosphine ligands with a surfactant-like structure have been synthesized and used to prepare catalytically active complexes of palladium. The palladium complexes were utilized in Heck-type coupling reactions (e.g. coupling of iodobenzene and ethyl acrylate to produce ethyl cinnamate) under vigorously stirred biphasic reaction conditions, and were found to offer superior performance over a standard water-soluble palladium catalyst under analogous conditions.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  7. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of the compatibility of the explosive PETN with candidate plastic bonding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vannet, M.D.; Wang, P.S.; Moddeman, W.E.; Bowling, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The compatibility of the explosive PETN with two plastic bonding materials, ethyl cellulose and a halogenated vinyl polymer (FPC 461), was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both were found to coat the PETN crystals, and no change in chemical composition was found in the PETN or the plastic due to either the process or their mutual presence. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Packer, Lester; Bymun, Edwin N.

    1977-01-01

    A low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes which comprises intermixing the erythrocytes with an effective anti-sickling amount of a water-soluble imidoester of the formula RC(=NH)OR' wherein R is an alkyl group of 1 - 8 carbon atoms, particularly 1 - 4 carbon atoms, and R' is an alkyl group of 1 - 4 carbon atoms, specifically methyl or ethyl acetimidate.

  9. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  10. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  11. Advanced Enzymes and Mixtures-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enzyme mixtures to meet biorefinery conditions lowers conversion costs of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel Genes are synthesized and expressed in an appropriate expression host, typically in E. Coli. Each enzyme is screened for activity across a range of temperatures, pH and biorefinery relevant conditions. An enzyme mixture developed by Sandia researchers that functions optimally at 70 °C and 20% of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Biofuels: Advanced Enzymes and Mixtures

  12. Impact of Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Aftertreatment | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Aftertreatment Impact of Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Aftertreatment 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ethyl Petroleum Additives PDF icon 2003_deer_human.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and simplification of the Diesel Particulate Filter System in serial applications Fuel-Borne Catalyst Assisted DPF regeneration on a Renault truck MD9 Engine

  13. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  14. Fuel Additivies for Improved Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Additivies for Improved Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment Systems Fuel Additivies for Improved Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment Systems 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Ethyl PDF icon 2002_deer_human.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and

  15. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  16. Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

  17. Transition metal ion-assisted photochemical generation of alkyl halides and hydrocarbons from carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraher, Jack; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2012-03-14

    Near-UV photolysis of aqueous solutions of propionic acid and aqueous Fe3+ in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. The reaction becomes mildly catalytic (about five turnovers) in the presence of oxygen which converts a portion of alkyl radicals to oxidizing intermediates that reoxidize Fe2+. The photochemistry in the presence of halide ions (X? = Cl?, Br?) generates ethyl halides via halogen atom abstraction from FeXn3?n by ethyl radicals. Near-quantitative yields of C2H5X are obtained at ?0.05 M X?. Competition experiments with Co(NH3)5Br2+ provided kinetic data for the reaction of ethyl radicals with FeCl2+ (k = (4.0 0.5) 106 M?1 s?1) and with FeBr2+ (k = (3.0 0.5) 107 M?1 s?1). Photochemical decarboxylation of propionic acid in the presence of Cu2+ generates ethylene and Cu+. Longer-chain acids also yield alpha olefins as exclusive products. These reactions become catalytic under constant purge with oxygen which plays a dual role. It reoxidizes Cu+ to Cu2+, and removes gaseous olefins to prevent accumulation of Cu+(olefin) complexes and depletion of Cu2+. The results underscore the profound effect that the choice of metal ions, the medium, and reaction conditions exert on the photochemistry of carboxylic acids.

  18. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dirk, Shawn M.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of wear surfaces revealed a reaction product having thickness on the order of a monolayer, and with an ion spectrum that included fragments having molecular weights of 200 or more that occurred only inside the wear tracks. The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that reactions of adsorbed alcohols on the wearing surfaces allowed polymerization of the alcohols to form higher molecular weight species. In addition to pin-on-disk studies, lubrication of silicon surfaces with pentanol vapors has also been demonstrated using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices. Recent investigations of the reaction mechanisms of the alcohol molecules with the oxidized silicon surfaces have shown that wearless sliding requires a concentration of the alcohol vapor that is dependent upon the contact stress during sliding, with higher stress requiring a greater concentration of alcohol. Different vapor precursors including those with acid functionality, olefins, and methyl termination also produce polymeric reaction products, and can lubricate the silica surfaces. Doping the operating environment with oxygen was found to quench the formation of the polymeric reaction product, and demonstrates that polymer formation is not necessary for wearless sliding.

  19. Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Santa Fe, NM)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

  20. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  1. PSH-15-0041 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 1 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing PSH-15-0041 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing On September 2, 2015, an OHA Administrative Judge issued a decision in which he determined that an individual's DOE access authorization should be restored. A local security office had alleged that individual's history of an alcohol-related arrest and excessive alcohol consumption, as well as an opinion by a DOE psychologist that he was a user of alcohol habitually to excess,

  2. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes a drying process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing alkoxides to form alcogels, and subsequently removing the alcohol therefrom to form aerogels, the improvement comprising the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol for the alcohol in the alcogels, and drying the resulting gels at a supercritical temperature for the solvent, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced drying time period.

  3. Effect of co-exposure and cadmium in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, S.K.; Tewari, P.C.

    1987-10-01

    Metabolism and toxicity of heavy metals may be influenced by certain factors such as protein malnutrition, essential element deficiency or alcoholism. Ethanol has been found to enhance the absorption of lead in body and alcoholics have been reported to be more susceptible to lead intoxication. As alcoholism may be common among industry workers and a significant section of population, who may be exposed to cadmium, it was considered of interest to investigate the influence of ethanol-cadmium co-exposure on cadmium sensitive hepatic, renal and serum enzymes, tissue accumulation of cadmium, essential trace element status and cadmium induced hepatic metallothione in synthesis in rats.

  4. DOE/EIA-0340(98)/2 Distribution Category UC-950 Petroleum Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... and butanol or alcohols of a higher molecular weight up to 2.75 percent by weight. ... Shell Storage Capacity. The design capacity of a petro- leum storage tank which is always ...

  5. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  6. Summary of Decisions - November 12, 2012 - November 16, 2012...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    met the diagnostic criteria of Alcohol-Related Disorder, NOS. OHA Case No. PSH-12-0093 (Wade M. Boswell, H.O.) On November 13, 2012, an OHA Hearing Officer issued a decision in...

  7. Microsoft Word - PSH-12-0068.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) for "Alcohol-Related Disorder NOS." ... program after his DWI. Exhibit 10 at 50. 5 On February 5, 2012, the Individual was ...

  8. The Science is in the Synergy | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Copper and Iron for Production of Fatty Alcohols from Fatty Acids Author(s): K. Kandel, U. Chaudhary, N. C. Nelson, and I. I. Slowing Article Link: http:dx.doi.org...

  9. 05-2574

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IV 36.48 12317 - Scheduler (Drug and Alcohol Testing) 17.93 13000 - Information And Arts Occupations 13011 - Exhibits Specialist I 14.85 13012 - Exhibits Specialist II 18.41...

  10. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alcohols as gasoline blending agent at up to 85 vol-% levels were evaluated in a 2.2L direct injection SI engine for combustion, engine efficiency, and engine-out emissions effects ...

  11. CX-003115: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Regents of the University of California - Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher AlcoholsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 06/02/2010Location(s): CaliforniaOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  12. PSH-12-0025- In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The individual is an employee of a DOE contractor and an applicant for an access authorization. To address concerns related to the individual’s past use of alcohol and marijuana, other prior...

  13. Statement by the President on the First Anniversary of the Tribal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stronger. Services for victims are better. We're working together to combat alcohol and drug abuse, and to help at-risk youth in more effective ways. We've established new...

  14. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences - Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alcohol-free facility. The Guest House is a 3 floor, 47 room, 71 bed inn (23 rooms with King beds and 24 rooms with 2 ex-long double beds). All rooms have a mini fridge and...

  15. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris R. (Portola Valley, CA); Reiser, Steven E. (University City, MO)

    2000-01-01

    A bacterial gene which encodes an enzyme that is an acyl-CoA reductase. The acyl-CoA reductase is able to chemically reduce acyl-CoAs to their corresponding alcohols, via aldehyde intermediates.

  16. Summary of Decisions - September 23, 2013 - September 27, 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    prior problematic use of alcohol or his PTSD, and that the two conditions interact in ways that put the individual at danger of doing things that will put himself and...

  17. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpern, Yuval (Skokie, IL)

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  18. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine ...

  19. CX-010530: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/27/2012 Location(s): California, North Carolina, North Carolina Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

  20. PSH-14-0007- In the Matter of: Personnel Security Hearing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 10, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judge issued a decision in which he determined that an individuals DOE access authorization should not be granted. The individual, who had one alcohol...