Sample records for anhydrous denatured aliphatic

  1. Preventing Theft of Anhydrous Ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David

    2004-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Anhydrous ammonia is widely used as a fertilizer. The theft of anhydrous ammonia for use in producing illegal drugs is a growing problem. This publication describes how thieves operate and how farmers and agricultural dealers can protect themselves...

  2. Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous...

  3. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  4. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The...

  5. Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable resources are of increasing interest, there are also opportunities to derive lactones from biomass, which can then be converted to a wide range

  6. Probing the denatured state ensemble with fluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alston, Roy Willis

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    around the original tryptophan substitutions in RNase Sa. Regardless of the denaturant, ?max for the proteins and model compounds differed very little, 349.3 ± 1.2 nm. However, significant differences were observed in the fluorescence intensity at ?max...

  7. Probing the denatured state ensemble with fluorescence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alston, Roy Willis

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand protein stability and the mechanism of protein folding, it is essential that we gain a better understanding of the ensemble of conformations that make up the denatured state of a protein. The primary goal of the research described...

  8. ELECTRONIC SOLUTION SPECTRA FOR URANIUM AND NEPTUNIUM IN OXIDATION STATES (III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baluka, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE M. Baluka, N.III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE M. Baluka(t), N.solutions in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) of uranium

  9. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a [sup 196]Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  10. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (S. Hamilton, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a .sup.196 Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  11. anhydrous rare earth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anhydrous rare earth First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Copper Sheath Rare Earth Material...

  12. Development of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    , 2009 (received for review January 8, 2009) None of the current biodegradable polymers can function monomers including citric acid, aliphatic diols, and various amino acids via a convenient and cost/nano- fabrication. We demonstrate the feasibility of using BPLP-Ser nanoparticles (``biodegradable quantum dots

  13. A denaturation study of human serum transferrin and apotransferrin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennah, Harold Edwin

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 19 GuCH1 Denaturation ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Urea Denaturation. . . ~ ~ ~ . . . ? . ~ 19 Thermal Denaturation 38 PH Denaturation. . . . ? . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ DISCUSSION ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ REFERENCES ~ ~ ~ ~ e e o ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ . ~ I... of apotransferrin ( ~ ) and transferrin (o) by GPC1 at 25 C, pH 7. 45, 6. 24 x 10 M NTA, I = 0 ' 15 N KC1-HC1, e ~ ~ ~ ~ Page 21 The dependence of the apparent changes in free energy on the concentration of GuHC1. ~ ~ , . . . 25 The difference spectra...

  14. Method of synthesis of anhydrous thorium(IV) complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Cantat, Thibault

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of producing anhydrous thorium(IV) tetrahalide complexes, utilizing Th(NO.sub.3).sub.4(H.sub.2O).sub.x, where x is at least 4, as a reagent; method of producing thorium-containing complexes utilizing ThCl.sub.4(DME).sub.2 as a precursor; method of producing purified ThCl.sub.4(ligand).sub.x compounds, where x is from 2 to 9; and novel compounds having the structures: ##STR00001##

  15. DNA Bubble Life Time in Denaturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zh. S. Gevorkian; Chin-Kun Hu

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the denaturation bubble life time for a homogeneous as well as for a heterogeneous DNA within a Poland-Scheraga model. It is shown that at criticality the bubble life time for a homogeneous DNA is finite provided that the loop entropic exponent c>2 and has a scaling dependence on DNA length for c<2. Heterogeneity in the thermodynamical limit makes the bubble life time infinite for any entropic exponent.

  16. approach aliphatic monoesters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in treating a variety of electrostatic Jayaram, Bhyravabotla 6 Far infrared spectra of solid state aliphatic amino acids in different protonation states Physics Websites Summary:...

  17. aliphatic secondary alcohols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for conversion of biomass derived feedstocks to fuels and fuel additives. Synthesis of ethanol and higher aliphatic alcohols from syngas (CO + H2... Baksh, Faisal 2010-04-19 3 The...

  18. aliphatic alkyl quaternaries: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for conversion of biomass derived feedstocks to fuels and fuel additives. Synthesis of ethanol and higher aliphatic alcohols from syngas (CO + H2... Baksh, Faisal 2010-04-19 45...

  19. aliphatic copolyester films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Release: Refer to the SAMPLE INDEX for a list of validated samples. Refer to the DATA 20 Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers Based on Aliphatic Polyether-Type...

  20. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  1. An investigation of the effectiveness of anhydrous mud acid to remove damage in sandstone formations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Dalan David

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this experimental research was to determine the reactivity of anhydrous mud acid with clay minerals present in sandstone formations and its ability to remove damage in sandstone acidizing. Berea core flood experiments were conducted...

  2. automated constant denaturant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: Experiments show that for many two state folders the free energy of the native state DGND(C) changes linearly as the denaturant...

  3. Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    -aromatic polyesters. #12;Full Paper: Reverse-selective polymer membranes exhibiting high CO2 affinity can be used for purification of H2 in industrial gasification processes. In this work, the phy- sical properties of CO2Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature Bulk Reaction Between Poly

  4. Degradation of untreated and anhydrous ammonia-treated wheat straw by two strains of rumen anaerobic fungi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Degradation of untreated and anhydrous ammonia-treated wheat straw by two strains of rumen in the degradation of plant tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the degradation of untreated and anhydrous, the phloem and the parenchyma were slightly degraded and rhizoids were visible on the surface of the plant

  5. An investigation of the effectiveness of anhydrous mud acid to remove damage in sandstone formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Dalan David

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a mixture of carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. These tests were carried out with oven dried cores and cores at irreducible water saturation. Anhydrous mud acid appears to be reactive with all the cores tested. However, it does...

  6. How water contributes to pressure and cold denaturation of proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentino Bianco; Giancarlo Franzese

    2015-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms of cold- and pressure-denaturation of proteins are matter of debate and are commonly understood as due to water-mediated interactions. Here we study several cases of proteins, with or without a unique native state, with or without hydrophilic residues, by means of a coarse-grain protein model in explicit solvent. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that taking into account how water at the protein interface changes its hydrogen bond properties and its density fluctuations is enough to predict protein stability regions with elliptic shapes in the temperature-pressure plane, consistent with previous theories. Our results clearly identify the different mechanisms with which water participates to denaturation and open the perspective to develop advanced computational design tools for protein engineering.

  7. How water contributes to pressure and cold denaturation of proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianco, Valentino

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms of cold- and pressure-denaturation of proteins are matter of debate and are commonly understood as due to water-mediated interactions. Here we study several cases of proteins, with or without a unique native state, with or without hydrophilic residues, by means of a coarse-grain protein model in explicit solvent. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that taking into account how water at the protein interface changes its hydrogen bond properties and its density fluctuations is enough to predict protein stability regions with elliptic shapes in the temperature-pressure plane, consistent with previous theories. Our results clearly identify the different mechanisms with which water participates to denaturation and open the perspective to develop advanced computational design tools for protein engineering.

  8. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  9. Barnase as a model for the denatured state of proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffart, Lee Michael

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS Approved as to style and content by: C. Nick Pace (Fellows Advisor) Edward A. Funkhouser (Executive Director) April 2002 Group...: Life Sciences II ABSTRACT Barnase As A Model For The Denatured State Of Proteins (April 2002) Lee Michael Hoffart Department of Biochemistry Texas A8cM University Fellows Advisor: Dr. C. Nick Pace Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics...

  10. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Palasz, P.D.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a wood pulp processing system of the type producing both pulp and a stream of lactic acid-containing black liquor solution, the processor for production of peracid bleaching agents from hydroxy acid contained in the black liquor solution, comprising: adjusting the pH of the black liquor solution to the range of about 8-9 by exposing the solution to CO/sub 2/ carbon dioxide to form an alkaline precipitate; separating solids from the black liquor solution to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, xyloisosaccharinic acid, and glucoisosaccharinic acid; decarboxylating the lower aliphatic hydroxy acids to corresponding gaseous aliphatic aldehydes by admixing a powdered semiconductor with the residual solution to form a slurry; removing the gaseous aldehydes from the residual solution by sweeping gas flow as soon as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids; reacting the gaseous aldehydes with oxygen to form corresponding peracids; and applying the peracids as bleaching agents to the pulp produced in the pulp processing system.

  11. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  12. ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly to the hydrocarbons of higher molecular weightDISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA,T E DISTRIBUTION O ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS H F A PRELIMINARY

  13. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  14. Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roder, Heinrich

    Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c Eydiejo to measure the rates of histidine­heme loop formation and breakage in the denatured state of iso-1-cytochrome single surface histidine variants of iso-1-cytochrome c. A scaling factor (the dependence of kf on log

  15. Metal Catalyzed Formation of Aliphatic Polycarbonates Involving Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide as Monomers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncada, Adriana I.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    including phosgene and its derivatives. Therefore, it has been of great interest to investigate greener routes for the production of this important class of polymers. Toward this goal, the synthesis of aliphatic polycarbonates via the metal catalyzed...

  16. Plectoneme tip bubbles: Coupled denaturation and writhing in supercoiled DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Matek; Thomas E. Ouldridge; Jonathan P. K. Doye; Ard A. Louis

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological information is not only stored in the digital chemical sequence of double helical DNA, but is also encoded in the mechanical properties of the DNA strands, which can influence biochemical processes involving its readout. For example, loop formation in the Lac operon can regulate the expression of key genes, and DNA supercoiling is closely correlated to rhythmic circardian gene expression in cyanobacteria. Supercoiling is also important for large scale organisation of the genome in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. DNA can respond to torsional stress by writhing to form looped structures called plectonemes, thus transferring energy stored as twist into energy stored in bending. Denaturation bubbles can also relax torsional stress, with the enthalpic cost of breaking bonds being compensated by their ability to absorb undertwist. Here we predict a novel regime where bubbles form at the tips of plectonemes, and study its properties using coarse-grained simulations. These tip bubbles can occur for both positive and negative supercoiling and greatly reduce plectoneme diffusion by a pinning mechanism. They can cause plectonemes to preferentially localise to AT rich regions, because bubbles more easily form there. The tip-bubble regime occurs for supercoiling densities and forces that are typically encountered for DNA in vivo, and may be exploited for biological control of genomic processes.

  17. Impact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up scaling from experimental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    flow rate and capillary properties on the desiccation mechanisms. Keywords: supercritical CO2, dryingImpact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up - France Abstract Injection of CO2 in geological reservoirs or deep aquifers is nowadays studied

  18. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  19. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  20. Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zand, Robert

    Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation heart valve (BPHV) degeneration, characterized by extracellular matrix deterioration, remod- eling) with glutaraldehyde fixed porcine aortic valve bioprostheses, that the mechanical function of cardiac valve cusps

  1. Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au Soonwoo Chah, Challa 06269-4060 We have made surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mea- surements of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (Cyt

  2. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  3. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Travaglini, Michael A. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  4. Co NMR Study of the Co States in Superconducting and Anhydrous Cobaltates I. R. Mukhamedshin,1,* H. Alloul,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    59 Co NMR Study of the Co States in Superconducting and Anhydrous Cobaltates I. R. Mukhamedshin,1-sur-Yvette, France (Received 11 February 2005; published 20 June 2005) 59Co NMR spectra in oriented powders of Na0:35CoO2 and in its hydrated superconducting (HSC) phase Na0:35CoO2; 1:3H2O reveal a single electronic Co

  5. aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover a highly hydrocarbons in the cuticular waxes of bees are widely assumed to func- tion as recognition cues (for nestmate hydrocarbons may label individuals in colonies according to the tasks they under- take and that the compounds

  6. Metal Catalyzed Formation of Aliphatic Polycarbonates Involving Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide as Monomers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncada, Adriana I.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts for Ring-Opening Polymerization of Six-Membered Cyclic Carbonates .......................................................................... 8 Aliphatic Polycarbonates from Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide...... 15 Metal Salen Complexes... in TCE. Slope = -8910.7 with R2 = 0.9997 ......................................................................................... 56 II-15 1H NMR spectrum in CDCl3 of poly(TMC) obtained by way of oxetane/CO2 in the presence of (salen...

  7. Matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    photoluminescent polymers using new ionic liquid matrices Carlos A. Serrano1 , Yi Zhang2 , Jian Yang2 and Kevin A elucidation of recently developed aliphatic biodegradable polymers by matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDIMS). The polymers, formed by a condensation reaction of three components

  8. The extremely slow-exchanging core and acid-denatured state of green fluorescent protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    with a complex eleven- stranded -barrel structure. Previous studies have shown that it has a complex energy resonance ,,NMR... techniques to probe the energy landscape for folding of GFP in further detail. H a folding nucleus. Using a pulsed-labeling strategy, the acid-denatured state has been investigated

  9. PREPARATION OF ANHYDROUS F-18 FLUORIDE, T. Tewson. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals S165; 52, Supplement 1 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewson, T.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The original specific aims of the grant where cut back considerably as the study section reduced both the time and the budget for the project. The objective of the grant was to show that fluorine-18 fluoride could be prepared completely anhydrous and thus substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride using the method of Sun and DiMagno. This method involved using conventionally dried fluoride to prepare an aromatic fluoride in which the aromatic ring is substituted with electron withdrawing groups. The aryl fluoride is then dried and purified and the fluoride is displaced with an anhydrous nucleophile. Using fluorine-19 and macroscopic scale reactions the reactions work well and give anhydrous fluoride salts that are both more reactive and more selective in their reactions than conventionally dried fluoride. The original substrate chosen for the reaction was bromopentacyanobenzene (1). This compound proved to be easy to make but very hard to purify. As an alternative hexabromobenzene, which is commercially available in high purity, was tried. This reacted cleanly with conventionally dried F-18 fluoride in acetonitrile to give [{sup 18}F]-fluoropentabromobenzene (2), which could be dried by passage of the solution over alumina, which also removed any unreacted fluoride. The fluorine-18 fluoride could be liberated from (2) by displacement with an anhydrous nucleophilic tetra-alkylammonium salt but the anion had to be chosen with considerable care. The reaction is potentially reversible especially as, on the no carrier added scale, there is inevitably an excess of hexabromobenzene and so the displacing nucleophile is chosen to deactivate the aromatic compound to further nucleophilic displacement reactions. To this end tetrabutylammonium azide and tetrabutylammonium phenolate have been tried. Both work but the phenolate is probably the better choice. The F-18 fluoride produced by this process is substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride. A solution of the 3'-anhydrothymidine-5-benzoate (3) was added to the fluoride solution and 30% of the fluoride was incorporated in less than 3 minutes at room temperature were as conventionally dried fluoride requires 10 minutes at 160 C and gives {approx}10% incorporation. These results are encouraging in that they show that the objective of truly anhydrous fluoride is worth pursuing but the problem is that you end up with too much 'stuff' in the solution. Four to five milligrams of hexabromobenzene are used for the initial fluorination reaction and enough of the tetra-alkylammonium salt has to be added to react with a substantial number of those bromides. No attempt has been made to optimize these amounts but there is clearly a lot of material in the solution before the final substrate is added. To avoid these difficulties experiments involving a different, low boiling carrier of the fluoride which can be distilled from the initial fluorination mixture have been tried. Phenyltrifluoromethane sulfonate reacts with fluoride to give trifluoromethane sulfonyl fluoride which boils at -20 C as shown. This reaction works with conventionally dried fluorine-18 fluoride and the no carrier added trifluoromethane sulphonyl fluoride distills out of the reaction as it forms. The choice of nucleophile to react it with to liberate the fluoride is limited and the obvious choice is tetrabutylammonium azide as the resulting trifluoromethane sulfonyl azide is unreactive. We have shown that this works in principle but the experimental details have not been explored.

  10. Periodic force induced stabilization or destabilization of the denatured state of a protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; 10.1063/1.3635774

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effects of an external sinusoidal force in protein folding kinetics. The externally applied force field acts on the each amino acid residues of polypeptide chains. Our simulation results show that mean protein folding time first increases with driving frequency and then decreases passing through a maximum. With further increase of the driving frequency the mean folding time starts increasing as the noise-induced hoping event (from the denatured state to the native state) begins to experience many oscillations over the mean barrier crossing time period. Thus unlike one-dimensional barrier crossing problems, the external oscillating force field induces both \\emph{stabilization or destabilization of the denatured state} of a protein. We have also studied the parametric dependence of the folding dynamics on temperature, viscosity, non-Markovian character of bath in presence of the external field.

  11. Thermal and mechanical denaturation properties of a DNA model with three sites per nucleotide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florescu, Ana-Maria; 10.1063/1.3626870

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we show that the coarse grain model for DNA, which has been proposed recently by Knotts, Rathore, Schwartz and de Pablo (J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084901 (2007)), can be adapted to describe the thermal and mechanical denaturation of long DNA sequences by adjusting slightly the base pairing contribution. The adjusted model leads to (i) critical temperatures for long homogeneous sequences that are in good agreement with both experimental ones and those obtained from statistical models, (ii) a realistic step-like denaturation behaviour for long inhomogeneous sequences, and (iii) critical forces at ambient temperature of the order of 10 pN, close to measured values. The adjusted model furthermore supports the conclusion that the thermal denaturation of long homogeneous sequences corresponds to a first-order phase transition and yields a critical exponent for the critical force equal to sigma=0.70. This model is both geometrically and energetically realistic, in the sense that the helical structure and th...

  12. ELECTRONIC SOLUTION SPECTRA FOR URANIUM AND NEPTUNIUM IN OXIDATION STATES (III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baluka, M.; Edelstein, N.; O'Donnell, T. A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectra have been recorded for solutions in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) of uranium and neptunium in oxidation states (III) to (VI). The spectra for U(III), Np(III) and Np(IV) in AHF are very similar to those in acidified aqueous solution, but that for U(IV) suggests that the cationic species is UF{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The AHF spectra for the elements in oxidation states (V) and (VI) are not comparable with those of the formally analogous aqueous solutions, where the elements exist as well-defined dioxo-cations. However, the AHF spectra can be related to spectra in the gas phase, in the solid state or in non-aqueous solvents for each element in its appropriate oxidation state.

  13. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  14. A quantitative study of the effect of structure on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Federico P

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of aliphatic ~sters&" (H? ST 'I'basis& The agricul- tural and Hechanicul dolls~", e of Texas, iugust, 1960) ~ J 6 6 11, '. 9. , t 9 ' ~tt ', 10, 41 (199&). APPENDIX 41 TABLE Ssponificstion of Ethyl Acetate st 35 Ca Run 1 Run 2 Time, Resistance Nin... Bennyl Propiona te 14. 55 5. 477 4+041 Oi9992 )o219 Z ~ 420 0. 4604 Oe04956 9i553 TABLE Seoond Order Rate Constants for n-Butyrates Ester h35 2 ~ 1 -1 li aole sino Nethyl n Sutyrate Ethyl a-Butyrate a Propyl n Sutyrate Isopropyl n...

  15. Conceptual design characteristics of a denatured molten-salt reactor with once-through fueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was made to examine the conceptual feasibility of a molten-salt power reactor fueled with denatured /sup 235/U and operated with a minimum of chemical processing. Because such a reactor would not have a positive breeding gain, reductions in the fuel conversion ratio were allowed in the design to achieve other potentially favorable characteristics for the reactor. A conceptual core design was developed in which the power density was low enough to allow a 30-year life expectancy of the moderator graphite with a fluence limit of 3 x 10/sup 26/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 50 keV). This reactor could be made critical with about 3450 kg of 20% enriched /sup 235/U and operated for 30 years with routine additions of denatured /sup 235/U and no chemical processing for removal of fission products. A review of the chemical considerations assoicated with the conceptual fuel cycle indicates that no substantial difficulties would be expected if the soluble fission products and higher actinides were allowed to remain in the fuel salt for the life of the plant.

  16. Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

  17. Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggins, Lacey E

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

  18. Branched aliphatic alkanes with quaternary substituted carbon atoms in modern and ancient geologic samples.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenig, F.; Simons, D.-J. H.; Crich, D.; Cowen, J. P.; Ventura, G. T.; Rehbein-Khalily, T.; Brown, T. C.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Hawaii

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pseudohomologous series of branched aliphatic alkanes with a quaternary substituted carbon atom (BAQCs, specifically 2,2-di-methylalkanes and 3,3- and 5,5-diethylalkanes) were identified in warm (65{sup o}C) deep-sea hydrothermal waters and Late Cretaceous black shales. 5,5-Diethylalkanes were also observed in modern and Holocene marine shelf sediments and in shales spanning the last 800 million years of the geological record. The carbon number distribution of BAQCs indicates a biological origin. These compounds were observed but not identified in previous studies of 2.0 billion- to 2.2 billion-year-old metasediments and were commonly misidentified in other sediment samples, indicating that BAQCs are widespread in the geological record. The source organisms of BAQCs are unknown, but their paleobiogeographic distribution suggests that they have an affinity for sulfides and might be nonphotosynthetic sulfide oxidizers.

  19. Spatial variations and chronologies of aliphatic hydrocarbons in Lake Michigan sediments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research

    2001-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four sediment cores were collected in fine-grained depositional areas of the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Spatial variations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments were consistent with a lakeward movement of riverine sediments in a series of resuspension-settling cycles in which an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons associated with dense sediments is deposited in nearshore areas, fine-grained sediments of terrestrial origin accumulate in the deep basin, and planktonic hydrocarbons are depleted by microbial degradation during transport to the deep basin. The rate of accumulation of the UCM (a marker of petroleum residues) in deep basin sediments has increased by more than an order of magnitude since 1880, from 60 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} to approximately 960 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} in 1980. Crude estimates of the atmospheric loading of the UCM (1100 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) indicate that accumulations in deep-basin sediments might be supported by atmospheric deposition. Agreement was poor between the atmospheric flux of the terrestrial n-alkanes ({Sigma}C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}) to the deep basin (3200 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) and the sediment accumulation rate (660 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}). Understanding of atmospheric fluxes, estimated from the very few available data, would be improved by more frequent measurement of the levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons in air and precipitation and a better knowledge of the particle deposition velocities and precipitation scavenging coefficients.

  20. ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENTH F A PRELIMINARY REPORT IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AKD IN A RECENTrests on the finding that algae have less cellulose and a

  1. Interactions of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes with aliphatic esters: Sorption and diffusion phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminabhavi, T.M.; Munnolli, R.S. [Karnatak Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry] [Karnatak Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Ortego, J.D. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The resistance of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes to nine aliphatic esters viz., methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetoacetate, n-butyl acetate, diethyl oxalate, iso-amyl acetate, diethyl malonate, and diethyl succinate was investigated in the temperature interval 25--60 C by measuring the liquid sorption using a gravimetric method. A Fickian diffusion equation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficients, and these data were dependent on the type of ester molecules and their interactions with the geomembrane in additions to temperature and solvent concentration. The activation energy values for the diffusion process were in the range 18--41 kJ/mole and the heat of sorption varied from 0.61 to 18.50 kJ/mole. the sorption/swelling results were found to follow the first order kinetics. Solvent front velocities were calculated from the sorption data. The statistical error analysis has been presented in order to judge the reliability of the technique used. The experimental data and calculated parameters were used to discuss transport results in terms of membrane-solvent interactions. None of the esters showed any degradative effects on the geomembrane used.

  2. Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

  3. Mapping between the order of thermal denaturation and the shape of the critical line of mechanical unzipping in 1-dimensional DNA models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.11.061

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we investigate the link between thermal denaturation and mechanical unzipping for two models of DNA, namely the Dauxois-Peyrard-Bishop model and a variant thereof we proposed recently. We show that the critical line that separates zipped from unzipped DNA sequences in mechanical unzipping experiments is a power-law in the temperature-force plane. We also prove that for the investigated models the corresponding critical exponent is proportional to the critical exponent alpha, which characterizes the behaviour of the specific heat in the neighbourhood of the critical temperature for thermal denaturation.

  4. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

  5. Inhibition effects of N,N-dimethylalkylamines and octanethiol on iron corrosion in anhydrous acetonitrile solution containing FeCl{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aramaki, Kunitsugu; Kikuchi, Takeshi

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polarization and impedance measurements were carried out on an iron electrode in an anhydrous acetonitrile solution of 0.1 M LiClO{sub 4} and 0.01 M FeCl{sub 3} containing organic corrosion inhibitors. The inhibitors investigated were N,N-dimethylalkylamines C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} (C{sub n}DMA, n = 8, 12, 16, and 18) and octanethiol C{sub 8}H{sub 17}SH (C{sub 8}T). These compounds suppressed both cathodic and anodic processes of iron corrosion in the acetonitrile solution. The double-layer capacitances obtained from impedance data for the electrode inhibited with C{sub n}DMA were markedly lower in the potential region of the cathodic polarization curve than those for the uninhibited electrode. Ultraviolet and visible spectra of the FeCl{sub 3} acetonitrile solution containing C{sub n}DMA revealed the formation of a Fe{sup 3+} complex cation with C{sub n}DMA, and joint adsorption of the complex cation with Cl{sup {minus}} on the iron surface was substantiated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the surface treated with the solution. A surface thiolate of C{sub 8}T was formed by its chemisorption on the iron surface, resulting in a decrease in the double-layer capacitance and the cathodic and anodic current densities, respectively.

  6. Recovery of anhydrous hydrogen iodide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Keefe, Dennis R. (San Diego, CA); McCorkle, Jr., Kenneth H. (Del Mar, CA); de Graaf, Johannes D. (The Hague, NL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dry hydrogen iodide can be recovered from a mixture of HI, I.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. After the composition of the mixture is adjusted so that the amounts of H.sub.2 O and I.sub.2 do not exceed certain maximum limits, subjection of the mixture to superatmospheric pressure in an amount equal to about the vapor pressure of HI at the temperature in question causes distinct liquid phases to appear. One of the liquid phases contains HI and not more than about 1 weight percent water. Often the adjustment in the composition will include the step of vaporization, and the distinct layers appear following the increase in pressure of the vapor mixture. Adjustment in the composition may also include the addition of an extraction agent, such as H.sub.3 PO.sub.4, and even though the adjusted composition mixture contains a significant amount of such an agent, the creation of the distinct liquid phases is not adversely affected.

  7. Biophysical studies of anhydrous peptide structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, Janel Renee

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -section. Collision cross-sections measured using IM-MS are correlated with theoretical models generated using simulated annealing and allow for assignment of the overall ion structural motif (e.g. helix vs. chargesolvated globule). Here, two series of model peptides...

  8. Topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers in hydrous ?-, ?-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O and anhydrous Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Villa, Eric M. [Department of Chemistry, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha NE 68178 (United States); Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Suleimanov, Evgeny V. [Department of Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Depmeier, Wulf [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E., E-mail: albrecht-schmitt@chem.fsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, 102 Varsity Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4390 (United States); Alekseev, Evgeny V., E-mail: e.alekseev@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Institut für Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate with rubidium nitrate and arsenic (III) oxide results in the formation of polymorphic ?- and ?-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O (?-, ?-RbUAs) and the anhydrous phase Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] (RbUAs). These phases were structurally, chemically and spectroscopically characterized. The structures of all three compounds are based upon topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers. The layers are linked with each other by means of the Rb cations and hydrogen bonding. Dehydration experiments demonstrate that water deintercalation from hydrous ?- and ?-RbUAs yields anhydrous RbUAs via topotactic reactions. - Graphical abstract: Three different layer geometries observed in the structures of Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] and ?- and ?- Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O. Two different coordination environments of uranium polyhedra (types I and II) are shown schematically on the top of the figure. - Highlights: • Three new uranyl arsenates were synthesized from the hydrothermal reactions. • The phases consist of the topologically identical but geometrically different layers. • Topotactic transitions were observed in the processes of mono-hyrates dehydration.

  9. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  10. Denatured Alcohol MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    lights, and turn off stoves, heaters, electric motors and all other sources of ignition during use damage, and death. No data available. Signs and Symptoms Of Exposure Diseases of the liver. Medical

  11. Denaturing of Molecules | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITIONPortalTo help ensure that sulfatesDo Molecules Get Old?

  12. anhydrous interplanetary dust: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. A. M. McDonnell; Kalle Bunte; Hakan Svedhem; Gerhard Drolshagen 2006-09-13 3 Fractal Signatures in Analogs of Interplanetary Dust Particles CERN Preprints Summary:...

  13. anhydrous hydrogen fluoride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  14. anhydrous hydrogen peroxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with diesel. Main focus of this research is to investigate the performance of diesel engine by injecting hydrogen peroxide as blends with diesel at 2%, 5% and 10 %...

  15. anhydrous li uranyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crystal structure and thermal behavior are reported herein. Experimental Synthesis Uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO31 Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and thermal stability of...

  16. anhydrous magnesium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 16...

  17. anhydrous uranyl chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 60...

  18. anhydrous transcurium halides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of metal halide lamps are investigated, including acoustic resonance, spectral energy, and luminous efficacy. To operate metal halide lamps at intended conditions, (more)...

  19. anhydrous portland cements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    present in hardened cement blends in the long term Sheffield, University of 318 NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration Engineering Websites Summary: NISTIR...

  20. Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ ReportEnergy National Solar ThermalEnergyDepartment

  1. A comparison of the catalytic effect of anhydrous ferric chloride and anhydrous aluminum chloride in Friedel and Crafts reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weddell, William MacNelley

    1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tAy8 N, aX 84?8 XX+V Sle5 48+8 84ol Se8 88e5 Qy8 88~8 M+0 XSq5 XV j8 'NA' 88i5 N~Q 80+8 P@g Ce~ NeX4 88+% 44s5 85p8 85g8 ~seep 4eggeey Agc'io eMoxtds grows 'ho 5s a @ovy effkoie54 ea4e~ ~st Ce %be coso yf %he Xo&se csA gatko 4... keoioyheeoee 8golheXe eel, eg kye4le ye~ +~%NO I 4 9 'Q + 1 0 4 '4 4. I If + 4 $, t, III 5 0 4f 0 4 4 l8 ZXX+ Rll94'LS 4f 84950$405080 @$5'Ch0848 g s +, s a 1 Xa k0455J4j5051 &4@5 k04tgI @kX@FXC@ y s e y e' e y: * e e e 1I XXw k95%1gltI5050 AOA AHIRO @kg...

  2. Substrate denaturation and translocation by a proteolytic machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenniston, Jon Anders

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many AAA+ molecular machines generate power and drive cellular processes by harnessing energy from cycles of ATP hydrolysis. ClpX is a relatively simple AAA+ ATPase that powers regulated protein degradation by binding ...

  3. Denaturing Urea PAGE -Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    tube. Mix. Pour ~2.5 mls on inside surface of long glass plate. Spread and polish with Kimwipes. Repeat gel solution down middle of glass plates with 25 ml pipette. Do not trap bubbles in gel. Adjust flow rate with tilt of gel. Place gel close to horizontal (top end slightly elevated). Insert comb. Do

  4. affect surfactant denaturation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For vanishing hydrophobic forces this complex has the architecture of a molecular bottle-brush cylindrically centered around the stretched PE molecule. Upon increasing the...

  5. A microfluidic device for DNA sequencing by denaturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Matthew Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T: Thymine TE: Thermoelectric TEG: Triethylene glycol Tm:via a triethylene glycol (TEG) linker on the 5’ end.template is: 5'-(Biotin-TEG)-(Biotin-TEG)-TAC AGA CTT AGT

  6. Self-protection analysis of denatured thorium-plutonium fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Luis Alberto (Torres Mendoza)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With growing demands for commercial nuclear power, there is also a growing need for better energy efficiency from nuclear power reactors. In order to reach a high burnup up to 100 MWd/kg, previous research has examined the ...

  7. Local and long-range electrostatic interactions in denatured Ribonuclease Sa: comparing the denatured protein with model peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daily, Michael Douglas

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior of a total of fourteen aspartates, glutamates, and histidines in a hypothetical random-coil conformation of the simple protein RNase Sa. The pK[a]s of the residues of interest in the model peptides have already been compared the intrinsic p...

  8. Quantitative temperature effects on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreck, James Otto

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Heat of Activation Entro of Activati an Free Ener o t vat on Using Eyring's basic equation40 40. S. Glasstone K. J. Laidler, H. Eyring, "The Theory of, Rate Processes, " NcGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. , New York, N. Y. , 1941: p. 195. k = K -2 (18...

  9. aliphatic unsaturated unconjugated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic...

  10. aliphatic saturated primary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic...

  11. Quantitative relationships between structure and reactivity of aliphatic esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yager, Billy Joe

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~rity of' cstor and bsso s~lution (100 nl. ), 0. 02/76 ii &ol~rfty of nixture of' base and ester solution, 0. 01186 '! t, R& "inutco Qhm 1176 1/d x 10 (1/R 1/R ) x 10 1/t (1/2 - 1 ~Rt} x 1(P o 0 0, (~90' 7 9, 0 11. 0 1': 6 Q, ypCQ 1 940 Jg.... 210 1. 1$ 0, y~? -l. r4 0, 215 -O. g Wtc on i'. ethyl a b 0 1' 0. 00 -0. 'V -0, 67 1, 06 -0, 70 -1. 24 -1. 74 -2. 46 -0 69 (n-y) loC ~k 1 ~ 2iFgG 1, 169' d. 87l7 &47100 O. -fPjO 0. 1752 -0. 1700 a b a, :al'erenoe 5', roI'orenoo 9...

  12. aliphatic alcohols studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    second, the efficacy of three psychotherapies for alcoholism in treating extreme West, Mike 393 Characterization of Catalysts for the Synthesis of Higher Alcohols using...

  13. aliphatic tertiary amines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the system. If so, all close binaries should be members of triple (or higher-order) systems. As a test of this prediction, we present a search for the signature of third...

  14. aliphatic ch bonds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015-01-01 39 H-atom high-n Rydberg time-of-flight spectroscopy of CH bond fission in acrolein dissociated at 193 nm Chemistry Websites Summary: H-atom high-n Rydberg...

  15. aromatic aliphatic copolyester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted towards sm... Sandstrom, Karin M; Bot, Caroline; Draine, B T; Ingalls, James G; Israel, Frank P;...

  16. Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Aliphatic Dicarboxylate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anions are cyclic due to strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the terminal –CO2H and –CO2 - groups. The measured electron binding energies are...

  17. Competitive Oxidation and Reduction of Aliphatic Alcohols over...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bond to give alkoxy (RO ) bound to W(VI) centers and a proton (H+) attached to the terminal oxygen atom of a tungstyl group (WO). Two protons adsorbed onto the cluster readily...

  18. aliphatic hydrocarbons separacion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: by the Spanish Ministry: TITLE: Gestion de la movilidad basada en la separacion de identificadores. (NAME: Naming:...

  19. aliphatic carboxylic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

  20. aliphatic carboxylic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

  1. aliphatic primary diamines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STUDY OF DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS IN BYSTANDER PRIMARY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS L. B. Smilenov-or-nothing manner(7) . Bystander cells exhibit a variety of characteristics of...

  2. aliphatic chains affects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115; b Department, maximum entropy reconstruction, non-uniform sampling, reduced-dimensionality, side-chain...

  3. aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide phosphors. Furthermore, strong photoluminescence (PL) in Zn SiO doped with rare earths such as Eu Steckl, Andrew J. 295 Circularly Polarized Photoluminescence as a...

  4. Characterization of a Saturated and Flexible Aliphatic Polyol Anion Receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, Alireza; Schmidt, Jacob C.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nature employs flexible molecules to bind anions in a variety of physiologically important processes whereas supramolecular chemists have been designing rigid substrates that minimize or eliminate intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions to carry out anion recogni-tion. Herein, the association of a flexible polyhydroxy alkane with chloride ion is described and the bound re-ceptor is characterized by infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase, computations, and its bind-ing constant as a function of temperature in acetonitrile.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous alcohol evaporated Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peroxide Copper, chromium, iron, most metals or their salts, alcohols, acetone... , carbon tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia...

  6. UNCORRECTED 2 A thermochemical analysis of the production of anhydrous MgCl2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    With a density of 1:74 g=cm3 magnesium is 4.5 times 15 lighter than steel and 1.6 times lighter than aluminum 16 [1]. The mechanical properties of magnesium castings 17 make them competitive with aluminum castings The expectation of increased utilization of magne- 23 sium in automotive applications has stimulated renewed 24

  7. Low-pressure phase equilibria of anhydrous anorthite-bearing mafic magmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    -spinel; geochemistry; oceanic crust. Index Terms: 3630 Mineralogy and Petrology: Experimental mineralogy and petrology; 3640 Mineralogy and Petrology: Igneous petrology; 3620 Mineralogy and Petrology: Crystal chemistry; 3035 Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes; 3655 Mineralogy and Petrology: Major

  8. Partition coefficients of substrates and products and solvent selection for biocatalysis under nearly anhydrous conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhen; Robb, D.A. (Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology)

    1994-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of solvent on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase toward three substrates was studied at a constant water activity of either 0.74 or 0.86. No simple correlation was observed between enzyme activity and log P, but partition coefficients of substrate (P[sub s]) and product (P[sub p]) gave systematic relations with enzyme activity. When initial reaction rates were considered, there was a bell-shaped relationship between enzyme and P[sub s] with an optimal P[sub s] for each substrate. This can be explained by assuming that the solvent affected the enzyme activity primarily by affecting the substrate concentration in the aqueous layer around the catalyst where the enzymic reaction occurs. When long-term reaction rates were considered, a high P[sub p]/P[sub s] ratio was consistent with preservation of enzyme activity.

  9. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergy InformationOf TheLtdJalisco,FinancialMantles

  10. Hydrogen bonding and solvation dynamics of n-methylacetamide in denatured water (D?O) or denatured chloroform (CDCl?) from nonlinear spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCracken, Justine M. (Justine Meghan), 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen bonding between N-methylacetamide (NMA) and different solvents (D?O or CDCl?) was studied by using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to probe the frequency fluctuations of the amide I mode of the solvated NMA. ...

  11. Anhydrous ferric chloride as an alkylation catalyst: The condensation of 2-methylpropene and benzene, preparation and identification of several fractions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mommessin, Pierre Robert

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lg T: I snoop /~qua ep ? polio mn'[IunIp snoop. &qua 'op:zonI. xzg uo'oq 'oppxc+uad snzoqdsoqd 'pgoa o-?zngIos 'ap-=onIg ue3ozpZq sa qons 'sos. . Ie'=- plo'-' 1 c acTTa e Jd aqua uQ suoqgT oogppq ot )gmo Te qf~ $ese J IIT+ sane&Ia g&qq. emI~ amos... -uesezo. Qq~ , T eosazuao, qq. . ~ aueguq Pua . ue~::nod ~o uotgus -ueP too ev", PetPuq s Pixatsvnoty, Puu 'B?og 'Butuatip Q' "g J. elQ J euagnq-u erg qgtsp. Qe. ~-. aqqa eZV. SgtuSa Zattmtg Ouasueo. -tfiouo--. , see-tap pu- euez, :aqtfi. ?nq...

  12. Figure 1: Functionalization of TiO2 by anhydrous chemical vapor deposition of trifunctional siloxane adsorbates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    siloxanes form only 2 covalent bonds, in a `bridge' mode with adjacent Ti4+ ions on the TiO2 surface of binding enthalpies at the DFT B3LYP/(LACVP/6-31G**) level of theory indicating that the `bridge' binding optical, electrical, magnetic and mechanical properties of semiconductor materials. For example, dye

  13. A novel, easily synthesized, anhydrous derivative of phosphoric acid for use with electrolyte in phosphoric acid-based fuel cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    ] such as polybenzimidazole, into a very promising and cost-competitive alternative[4] to the Nafion fuel cell[5, 6 in phosphoric acid-based fuel cells. Younes Ansari, Telpriore Tucker, and C. Austen Angell* Dept. of Chemistry as a fuel cell electrolyte, by designing a variant of the molecular acid that has increased temperature

  14. A study of the condensation of propene and isobutene with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Louis Linden

    1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Distillsdioa of Csadeasaiioa Products osiag Porrio Chlosido aa4 JGaajaaa Chlox'ido ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IC II. Kssillatioa of Polyaorkxaaioa Pzodue1s asiad Povris Chio&do sad Aloaiaaa Chlos ido ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e l... (lygs) ~ due te the higher parity ef the slhoao whish was eeadeaood with tho areastio hfdrsearboa. lsobatsae pr?yare4 bf the dehydratiea ef tertiarf batrl sloohel is reported te have a parity greater thea 99 yer coat Qsiag oqaiaelsr ssswats...

  15. An investigation of some of the effects of anhydrous ammonia on the clay minerals montmorillonite and illite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiteley, Eli Lamar

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    * For most plants, it is as good a source of nitrogen as any other ammoniacal form of nitrogen. The effects of ammonia on the soil have not been worked out as clearly as the effects of ammonia on plants. In recent years deterioration of the physical... potassium but less than illite. Stanford (25) found that K+ was fixed only if the material was dried. Sohn and Peech (24.), in a study of New York soils, found the highest amounts of ammonia were fixed by acid soils containing large amounts of organic...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-denatured acbp controlled Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ; Biology and Medicine 5 Rapid mixing methods for exploring the kinetics of protein folding Heinrich Roder,a,b,* Kosuke Maki,a,1 Summary: events, such as cis-trans...

  17. proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Compact dimension of denatured states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology Division, National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan 6 Institute of Physics, Academy folding/unfolding proc- esses would not be solved completely even the protein native state might have been the methods of fluorescence stopped-flow kinetics and efficiency of energy transfer (EET)12­14 to monitor

  18. Analysis of yeast and archaeal population dynamics in kimchi using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    -806, South Korea b Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Gyeongsang National University Korea A B S T R A C TA R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 10 April 2008 Received in revised kimchi fermentation presents a range of environmental conditions that could support many different

  19. A comparison of the urea and guanidinium chloride denaturation of four proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greene, Raymond Franklin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 3. ~sos(ace Lysosyme (Lot No. LYSF OCC) was obtained from Worthington Biochemical Corporation as a two time recrystallised powder. The protein was used without further purification. 0. c-+C~a~ot ~sip. e-Chymotrypsln (Lot No. CDI 2LX), a three... time recrystallised produot of chymo- trypsinogen was obtained from Worthington Biochemical Corporation as a lyophilised powder and used without further purifioation. 5. Urea. Ultra pure urea (Lot No. U1039) was purchased from Mann Research...

  20. Temperature and Chemical Denaturant Dependence of Forced Unfolding of Titin I27 Eric Botello,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    environment to alter the protein folding energy landscape and compared the change in the unfolding free-14 and the reaction rates of receptor-ligand binding15,16 and protein folding17 are increased to allow one to observe effects on protein folding offers great opportunity to explore the complex protein folding landscape21

  1. Toward a Taxonomy of the Denatured State: Small Angle Scattering Studies of Unfolded Proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millett, I.S.; Doniach, S.; Plaxco, K.W. (Stanford); (UCSB)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the critical role the unfolded state plays in defining protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics (Berg et al., 2002; Dunker, 2002; Shortle, 2002; Wright and Dyson, 2002), our understanding of its detailed structure remains rather rudimentary; the heterogeneity of the unfolded ensemble renders difficult or impossible its study by traditional, atomic-level structural methods. Consequently, recent years have seen a significant expansion of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) techniques that provide direct, albeit rotationally and time-averaged, measures of the geometric properties of the unfolded ensemble. These studies have reached a critical mass, allowing us for the first time to define general observations regarding the nature of the geometry - and possibly the chemistry and physics - of unfolded proteins.

  2. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2014, 90: 338343 Aliphatic b-Nitroalcohols for Therapeutic Corneoscleral Cross-Linking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    are relevant to the translation of this technol- ogy into clinical use. INTRODUCTION Riboflavin layer followed by the application of a 0.1% riboflavin-containing solution to the exposed underlying corneal stromal bed. After confirming ade- quate infiltration of the riboflavin photosensitizer, a 360 nm

  3. aliphatic solvent n-hexane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n-hexane crystallized in silicon nanochannels: A combined x-ray diffraction and sorption isotherm study CERN Preprints Summary: We present an x-ray diffraction study on n-hexane...

  4. Alteration and release of aliphatic compounds by the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars) experimentally fed with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    with time and no microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation were evidenced. Our results suggest that marine worm an important role with regard to the fate of hydrocarbon pollutants (Lee and Swartz, 1980). Previous works their bioavailability (Mihelcic and Luthy, 1991; Madsen et al., 1997) and resulting bacterial biodegradation (Gordon et

  5. Alteration and release of aliphatic compounds by the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars) experimentally fed with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    with time and no microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation were evidenced. Our results suggest that marine worm `bioturbation' play an important role with regard to the fate of hydrocarbon pollutants (Lee and Swartz, 1980 biodegradation (Gordon et al., 1978; Bauer et al., 1988; McElroy et al., 1990). In areas of intensive reworking

  6. Synthesis Gas Conversion to Aliphatic Alcohols: Study of MoS2 catalytic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baksh, Faisal

    2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1-butanol is considered by many to be the most suitable alcohol replacement for gasoline. Plans for conversion of existing bioethanol facilities to biobutanol are already being drawn up. Early on, methanol-gasoline blends were extensively tested...

  7. Binary Phases of Aliphatic N-Oxides and Water: Force Field Development and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    the reactivity of the swollen cellulose material for further derivatization in pollution-free industrial fiber future parametrization of other species. By construction, the force field is compatible with widely used play an increasingly important role for industrial applications, e.g., for tuning solubility

  8. Divergent Mechanistic Avenues to an Aliphatic Polyesteracetal or Polyester from a Single Cyclic Esteracetal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokkoli, Efie

    , a statistical copolymer of 1,3-dioxolan-4-one (DOX) and lactide was reported. While the patent provided little the synthesis of a variety of copolymers of DOX and lactide and reports up to 36% DOX incorporation. A computational study of the ring strain in DOX suggests that DOX is slightly less strained than -butyrolactone

  9. aliphatic carbon-centered radicals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organizational transformation, new organizational forms and the new public management (NPM) in a novel way. Data reveal important limits to intended organizational transformation...

  10. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(ii) in degradative solidification/stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Bahng Mi

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................7 2.1 Degradative Solidification/Stabilization...................................................7 2.2 Cement Chemistry.....................................................................................8 2.2.1 Portland Cement... of typical cements . .........................9 Table 2.2 Portland cement compound transformation................................................15 Table 2.3 The oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides of Fe.....................................16 Table 2...

  11. A kinetic study of the reactions of diphenyldiazomethane with some aliphatic carboxylic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoefelmeyer, Albert Bernard

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (a) C. K. Ingold, J. Chem. Soc., 1032 (1930). (b) S. W. Timm and C. N. Iiinshelwood, J. Chem. Soc., 862 (1933). (c) C. K. Ingold et al., J. Chem. Soc., 3^27?(l 9^3). 13 ?. A. Waters, "Physical Aspects of Organic Chemistry," D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc...., New York, N. Y., 1950# Chapter XI. nil (a) I. Dostrovsky, E. D. Hughes, and K. Ingold, J.Chem. Soc., 173 (19U6). (b) K. A. Cooper, S. D. Hughes, C. K. Ingold, and B. J. Mac Nulty, J. Chem. Soc., 2038 (l 9 l|8). (c) P. M. Dunbar and L. P. Hammett, J...

  12. aliphatic c-h bond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activation of functionalized hydrocarbons. II. CH and CCN bond activation of acetonitrile and benzonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Several...

  13. Potential of mean force between hydrophobic solutes in the Jagla model of water and implications for cold denaturation of proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    of nanoparticles J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024702 (2012) Hybrid modeling and simulation of stochastic effects on progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle J. Chem. Phys. 136, 034105 (2012) Amino acid analogues bind on the hard spheres as a function of their separation, and (c) determining the position dependent chemical po

  14. ANOMALOUS NITROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS IN THE STARDUST-RICH ANTARCTIC MICROMETEORITE T98G8: AFFINITIES TO PRIMITIVE CR CHONDRITES AND ANHYDROUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANOMALOUS NITROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS IN THE STARDUST-RICH ANTARCTIC MICROMETEORITE T98G8, T98G8, exhibits high abundances of silicate stardust grains and also contains several C report on C and N isotopic distributions in T98G8 and explore the relationship of this micrometeorite

  15. A study of the condensation of primary, secondary, and tertiary butyl alcohols with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Ralph Jordan

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PKDT Qt THE COND%SATION QE PRECUT, SSQGNDART~ AND T~ NOTCL ALCOHOLS NITH SEEZEEE IN THE ~E GF ANBIINKU8 mRIQ CHLORIDE Asm 1959 4 et Chea1stxy and 0 A STOSX Gf THE OQtGRWSATIOR Of PRXRARX, SWOORBARX ARRI TCBTXARX WTXL ALQOBOLB WITH 8%%ESSE IR... THS F58XWOR Of AWHXQREUS FERRIC CBLORISR A STUART OF TBR CNRRGATTGR OF PIIRSGKo SROOP~e ARD TRRTZART RDTTL ALCOHOLS RITE ~R ZN TKR FRRSRBCR OP ARBTDROUS PRIBKC OHLORTDR A Theete Parttal Palfileaat cf the ReRNLreewate Ter the aeggso cf Rse4e et...

  16. Application of organolithium compounds for the preparation of some aliphatic and alicyclic phosphines, phosphine oxides and phosphine sulfides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Screttas, Constantinos G

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    @? ~?? Qg) 23h2? 19? Oelkie? N?? pygmy? Qgg? ~i? @ 636)71h(1486)? 2o. te?L~. 4. w. , Net, a. m Isg?14. a. I. , g. ~. ~. , gg. g9. RL ~ heal& 0? Lh?? @g? Q~Q Qgg? ~ g? 326(1932) TL?Q? $? g? 966(1933) ~ 22? 9?fs??a? ??, y? ~. ~? @g, ?, g, 1684(1921) ~ 23...? Oaf fs?ay D? D? ??4 Watt?1 ~ C? 4 ~ ~ QQ?? Q? 3696(1999) ~ 2$? LLL?h?elis, ??, ~?? ~? 63(1901) ~ l5eh?elis, k? a?4 Oleishs?sa? L? ~ ~?? g? 801?1961(lw)2) ~ 26? ICeh?olio/ I? ??4 Ileeee? ?? ~ Q@?? gy 1610(1842)? 27 ~ Herr?LL ~ D? I?? g? AS...

  17. THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Newell D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

  18. INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

  19. THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Newell D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and at the Nature of Asphaltenes" , Preprints L Div. of Fuelcoal that the formation of asphaltenes might be ascribed to

  20. Bioorthogonal Chemistries for Labeling Living Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sletten, Ellen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equiv. ) was dissolved in acetonitrile (70 mL, anhydrous).equiv. ) in cold (0 o C) acetonitrile (60 mL, anhydrous) wasequiv. ) was dissolved in acetonitrile (44 mL, anhydrous).

  1. Calcium dynamics in astrocytes : from oscillations to Alzheimer's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Christopher Lloyd

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposed silicon inactivated with silanated PEG groups by the following steps: • Sonicate samples in anhydrous toluene,

  2. NMR Characterization of the Aliphatic / Pairing for Recognition of A,T/T,A Base Pairs in the Minor Groove of DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Recei been inserted to reset the register. Complexes of three pyrrole-imidazole polyamides of sequence

  3. A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , ethanol and benzyl alcohol. The electro-reduction of carbon dioxide was also examined. Keywords: Copper] and carbon dioxide [9]. So, in continuation of our recent papers [10], we have undertaken a covalent grafting. Thus, conducting polymeric films of polypyrrole were obtained on the surfaces of glassy carbon and ITO

  4. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  5. Design, synthesis and incorporation of fluorescent thiophene-modified nucleoside analogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Mary Streid

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dissolved in anhydrous acetonitrile to prepare solutions atdiluted with anhydrous acetonitrile and placed directly onto2 CH 2 CN, 1H-tetrazole, acetonitrile, 63%. 2.6 – Initial

  6. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyamide membrane including reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant having one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane including the polyamide membrane on a porous support.

  7. Attachment F Marketplace Prohibited Items November 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . · Alcohol (ethyl alcohol [ethanol] & denatured) · Alcoholic Beverages · Artwork (paintings, pictures, office

  8. Chain Conformation of Poly(dimethyl siloxane) at the Air/Water Interface by Sum Frequency Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    those based on aliphatic fluorocarbon moieties. Its glass transition temperature of -123 °C is among

  9. atr-ftir spectroscopy study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The procedure involves the determination of the anhydrate-form solubility from in situ infrared. The monohydrate form is then recrystallized, and its solubility determined from...

  10. atr-ftir spectroscopy detects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The procedure involves the determination of the anhydrate-form solubility from in situ infrared. The monohydrate form is then recrystallized, and its solubility determined from...

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blended Fuel Definition Ethanol blended fuel, such as gasohol, is defined as any gasoline blended with 10% or more of anhydrous ethanol. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-2401...

  12. acid electrolyte fuel cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this material cells, in which a composite mixture of the electrolyte, Pt supported on carbon, Pt black and carbon 2 A novel, easily synthesized, anhydrous derivative of phosphoric...

  13. Design, synthesis and application of novel fluorescent nucleosides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, Nicholas Joseph

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anhydrous pyridine and acetonitrile were obtained fromcm -1 Water Methanol Acetonitrile Dichloromethane Ethyl1-Propanol Butanol Acetonitrile DMSO DMF Ethyl Acetate 1,4-

  14. New framework hydrous silicate K{sub 3}Sc[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] {center_dot} H{sub 2}O related to the high-temperature anhydrous silicate K{sub 3}Ho[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] and symmetry analysis of a phase transition with prediction of structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belokoneva, E. L., E-mail: elbel@geol.msu.ru; Zorina, A. P.; Dimitrova, O. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystals of a new framework silicate K{sub 3}Sc[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, space group Pm2{sub 1}n (nonstandard setting of space group Pmn2{sub 1} = C{sub 2v}{sup 7}), are obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The structure is determined without preliminary knowledge of the chemical formula. The absolute configuration is determined. The structure is close to that of the high-temperature K{sub 3}Ho[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] phase, which was obtained upon the heating of K{sub 3}HoSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}. This structural similarity is due to the specific conditions of synthesis and an analogous formula, where holmium is replaced by scandium. A symmetry analysis shows that the high local symmetry of a block (rod) is responsible for the first-order phase transition of both the order-disorder (OD) and displacement type. The number of structures in which the simplest and high-symmetry layers are multiplied by different symmetry elements are predicted.

  15. Supplementary Material Novel selective inhibitors of aminopeptidases that generate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    Ar atmosphere with anhydrous, freshly distilled solvents under anhydrous conditions unless otherwise for flash column chromatography. NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker Avance DRX-500 instrument at 298 K. Multiplicities are designated as singlet (s), doublet (d), triplet (t), or multiplet (m). 2D NMR 1 H­1 H COSY

  16. Broadband Carbon-13 Correlation Spectra of Microcrystalline Proteins in Very High Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    avoiding excessive sample heating. This opens up new possibilities for efficient dipolar recoupling. Both aliphatic nuclei with closely spaced chemical shifts and spectrally remote nuclei give rise

  17. Molybdenum alkylidene complexes : syntheses and applications to olefin metathesis reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugina, Tatiana

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Alkylimido Molybdenum Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Activity as Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. Molybdenum olefin metathesis catalysts that contain previously unexplored aliphatic 1- ...

  18. A Case for Safer Building Materials: Lifecycle Concerns, Data Gaps, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    ;Conventional Building Materials · Wood · Stone · Cement · Metal · Glass · Straw · Ceramics #12;Synthetic;Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) · Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons

  19. volume 17 Number 12 1989 Nucleic Acids Research The 5S RNA gene minichromosome of Euplotes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    extract and 1.33 g/L anhydrous sodium acetate. Algae were harvested and resuspended in Pringsheim solution boiled wheat seeds in Carolina Spring-water. Large-scale cultures of Euplotes were grown in trays

  20. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.Z. 2007. Effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline vehiclese.g. , E85 indicates 85% anhydrous ethanol by volume. Ine.g. , E85 actually contains roughly 81% ethanol), and in

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.Z. 2007. Effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline vehiclese.g. , E85 indicates 85% anhydrous ethanol by volume. Ine.g. , E85 actually contains roughly 81% ethanol), and in

  2. Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(2), INVESTIGATION OF THE OXIDATIVE COUPLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euler, William B.

    ring imparts good solubility in common organic solvents such as THF, toluene, CHCl3, or NMP-alkylthiophenes include anhydrous degassed conditions. However, conducting the reactions on the bench-top exposed

  3. INCOMPATIBLE CHEMICAL LIST PRUDENT PRACTICES FOR HANDLING CHEMICALS IN LABORATORIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Junghyun

    tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia (anhydrous) Mercury (in oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals, sulfur tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate Sulfuric and other acids Potassium perchlorate (see also

  4. Structural carbohydrate availability with electrochemical ozonation and ammonia pressurization / depressurization pre-treatment technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, James Jason

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to determine the quantity and conditions of electrochemical ozonation (O?) that maximize the dissolution of the lignin-cellulose complex. Combination treatments of anhydrous ammonia (NH?) and O? were also assessed...

  5. Roger L. Nielsen B.S., Geology, University of Arizona, 1976

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    . Petrol., 152, #2, 201-221 59 Rowe, M. C., Nielsen, R.L., and Kent., A. J.,2006, Anomalous Fe contents in high-An feldspar and high-Fo olivine in anhydrous mafic silicate liquids. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol

  6. In situ XRD Study of Ca2+ Saturated Montmorillonite (STX-1) Exposed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These experiments indicate that scCO2 can intercalate hydrated clays, where the 1W hydrate state is stable when exposed to anhydrous scCO2 under conditions proposed for...

  7. Synthesis and applications of quinazoline-based fluorescent nucleoside analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pyridine, dichloroethane and acetonitrile were obtained fromg, 0.52 mmol) in anhydrous acetonitrile (5 mL), N,O-Bis(gradient of 10 – 30% acetonitrile (0.1% TFA) in water (0.1%

  8. ***This MSDS covers part#s 30004P, 30016P, 30128P, 30640P, 33840P & 37040P Page 1 of 2 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    on quantity HMIS/NFPA CODE Health 0; Fire 1; Reactivity 0 MANUFACTURING CODE NO.: 8358 COMMODITY CODE NO.: 332. II. INGREDIENTS Aliphatic Organic Acid : CAS# 112-80-1 >75% mixture Aliphatic Organic Ester : CAS/gal VAPOR PRESSURE (mm of Mercury) @ 75° F : Less Than 1 VAPOR DENSITY (Air = 1) : Greater Than 5 SOLUBILITY

  9. Supporting Information Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    CHCl3 or anhydrous MeOH. #12;2 11: Allyl palladium chloride dimer (1.69 g, 4.6 mmol) and 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (9.20 g, 23 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous THF (1000 ml), then allyl acetate (50.0 ml, 0.46 mol), 1,3-cyclopentadione (10, 45.0 g, 0.46 mol), N

  10. The folding kinetics of ribonuclease Sa and a charge-reversal variant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefethen, Jared M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Coulomb?s Law suggested that favorable electrostatic interactions in the denatured state were the cause for the decreased stability for the charge-reversed variant. Folding and unfolding kinetic studies were designed and conducted to study the iv charge... of the denatured state as suspected. Additionally, the results showed that the transition state was stabilized as well. These results show that a specific Coulombic interaction lowered the free energy in the denatured and transition state of the charge...

  11. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyamide membrane comprising reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst; and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant comprising one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane comprising the polyamide membrane on a porous support. A method of making a composite semipermeable membrane by coating a porous support with an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, a polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, to form an activated pre-polymer layer on the porous support and contacting the activated pre-polymer layer with an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional amine-reactive reactant to interfacially condense the amine-reactive reactant with the polyfunctional secondary amine, thereby forming a cross-linked, interfacial polyamide layer on the porous support. A method of impregnating a composite semipermeable membrane with nanoparticles selected from heavy metals and/or oxides of heavy metals.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated search kinetics Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dependence of the elongation kinetics. Marked acceleration... to the slowing of protein folding kinetics by other denaturants (28) and the acceleration of folding by TFE (26......

  13. Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard Jay

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results for E85 rather than for pure denatured ethanol. Theof ethanol would need to be sold in the form of E85. If so-

  14. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 293 (2006) 6168 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luhua, Lai

    14 July 2005 Abstract The interaction between the fluorocarbon surfactant, sodium perfluorooctanoate that the anionic fluorocarbon surfactant, SPFO, was a strong denaturant of BLG. The ability of SPFO to denature BLG between the anionic fluorocarbon surfactant, sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO), and protein -lacto

  15. Depth related diversity of methanogen Archaea in Finnish oligotrophic fen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase gene. PCR products were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Methanogen; Fen; Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis production in soil samples. Unlike other enzymes in the methanogenic metabolism, the MCR appears to be unique

  16. UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

  17. Improving fatty acids production by engineering dynamic pathway regulation and metabolic control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    Global energy demand and environmental concerns have stimulated increasing efforts to produce carbon-neutral fuels directly from renewable resources. Microbially derived aliphatic hydrocarbons, the petroleum-replica fuels, ...

  18. Nickel-catalyzed preparation of acrylamides from alpha olefins and isocyanates ; Synthetic studies toward ripostatin A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schleicher, Kristin D. (Kristin Diann)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter I. In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of a-olefins and branched aliphatic isocyanates provides c,-unsaturated amides arising from preferential C-C ...

  19. Microbial dynamics during intrinsic remediation of oil contaminated coastal wetland sediments (a microcosm study) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornburg, Nathaniel David

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and aromatic-degrading bacteria. Petroleum chemistry demonstrated a concomitant decrease of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. Therefore, an inverse relationship between hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial populations and hydrocarbon concentrations...

  20. Observation of Entropic Effect on Conformation Changes of Complex...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    entropic effect in determining the folding of a linear dicarboxylate dianion with a flexible aliphatic chain –O2C-(CH2)6-CO2– by photoelectron spectroscopy as a...

  1. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  2. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  3. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis productsmore »increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.« less

  4. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF INVASION PLASMID ANTIGEN B AND C (IpaB AND IpaC) TRANSLOCATOR COMPLEXES AND TRANSLOCATOR/CHAPERONE COMPLEXES OF Shigella flexneri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terry, Christina Marie

    2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    M Citrate Phosphate Buffer, pH 7 Solution 1(0.4 M Sodium phosphate dibasic) 56.78 g Na2HPO2, anhydrous 1.00 L diH2O Solution 2 (0.4 M Citric Acid) 76.85 g C6H8O7, anhydrous 1.00 L diH2O (90 ml Solution 1) + (10 ml of Solution 2) + (1900 ml diH2O... for disease in humans and primates. Like other organisms belonging to this family, Shigella is facultatively anaerobic, oxidase negative and possesses the abilities to reduce nitrate and ferment glucose. Differentiation among the species can...

  6. Damage due to salt crystallization in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh Bonn; Francois Bertrand; Daniel Bonn

    2009-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate salt crystallization in porous media that can lead to their disintegration. For sodium sulfate we show for the first time experimentally that when anhydrous crystals are wetted with water, there is very rapid growth of the hydrated form of sulfate in clusters that nucleate on anhydrous salt micro crystals. The molar volume of the hydrated crystals being four times bigger, the growth of these clusters can generate stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone and lead therefore to damage.

  7. Synthesis of ethyl N-carbobenzoxy-L-valyl-L-valyl-4-amino-3-hydroxyoctanoate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesky, Elizabeth Gourley

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with 5X citric acid to pH 5. The aqueous layer was then extracted several times with ethyl acetate. The com- bined organic layer was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate and the solvent was removed by evaporation in vacuo. The product was a clear.../ sodium bicarbonate, dried with 29 anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and concentrated by evaporation in vacuo. The product was a pale yellow oil weighing 0. 6 gm (81K yield). The material was passed through a short column of silica gel, eluting with 2...

  8. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  9. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry (Los Alamos, NM); Avens, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Trujillo, Eddie A. (Espanola, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  10. Electrochemical control of reversible DNA hybridisation : for future use in nucleic acid amplification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Syed, Shahida Nina

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Denaturation and renaturation is indispensable for the biological function of nucleic acids in many cellular processes, such as for example transcription for the synthesis of RNA and DNA replication during cell division. ...

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuel Production Tax Credit Biofuel producers in New York State may qualify for a state tax credit of 0.15 per gallon of biodiesel (B100) or denatured ethanol produced after the...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - analyzing forced unfolding Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in solution. In recent years, we have also seen explosive progress in the study of protein folding... the unfolding of proteins after the addition of denaturant since unfolding is...

  13. Suitability of Red Hake, Urophycis chuss, and Silver Hake, Merluccius bilinearis, for Processing Into Surimi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    which is widely used to make analog seafood products resembling crab meat, scallops, shrimp, etc substrate TMAO, and the addition of sucrose and sorbitol, which retards freeze denaturation of proteins

  14. On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Daniel James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

  15. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  16. Methanogen Communities in a Drained Bog: Effect of Ash Fertilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    amplification of the methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcr) gene, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE-M reductase (mcrA) gene [10]. Mcr, a key enzyme in methanogen metabolism, catalyzes the reduction of methyl

  17. Evaluation of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Response to Dietary and Therapeutic Factors in Cats and Dogs Using Molecular Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    , and up to three weeks after discontinuation of the administration of the synbiotic. The fecal microbiota was analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries...

  18. Effects of prebiotics on growth performance, nutrient utilization and the gastrointestinal tract microbial community of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burr, Gary Stephen

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ), and inulin/ fructooligosaccharide (FOS)--on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract’s microbial community in hybrid striped bass and red drum. The first in vitro experiment applied denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to examine responses of red drum GI...

  19. Effects of Microbial Ecology and Intestinal Morphology on Energy Utilization in Adult Cockerels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Omar

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    % dietary GM using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified bacterial DNA sequences. Cecal microbiota of birds consuming 12% GM was considerably different from the control group (similarity coefficient = 84%) with an apparent decrease...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    0.24 per gallon. E85 is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of denatured ethanol and hydrocarbon and typically contains 85% ethanol by volume, but must contain at...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    E85 Definition E85 motor fuel is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of ethanol and hydrocarbon, of which the ethanol portion is 75-85% denatured fuel ethanol by volume...

  2. A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Oliveira, Satiro N; Wang, Jiexin; Ryan, Christine; Morrison, Sherie L; Kohn, Donald B; Hollis, Roger P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oliveira et al. : A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection ofof the CD19-IgG 1 Fc fusion was performed under denatur- ingOpen Access A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-

  3. A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Oliveira, Satiro N; Wang, Jiexin; Ryan, Christine; Morrison, Sherie L; Kohn, Donald B; Hollis, Roger P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oliveira et al. : A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection ofof the CD19-IgG 1 Fc fusion was performed under denatur- ingOpen Access A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-

  4. Comparison of soy protein concentrates produced by membrane filtration and acid precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recovery of proteins using ultrafiltration (UF) process is an attractive alternative compared to conventional acid precipitation method. The mild processing condition, which leads to less protein denaturation, may be one of major virtues...

  5. Dynamics of locking of peptides onto growing amyloid fibrils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    polymerization mechanism (NPM) have been used to account for amyloid fibril formation (10­12). According to the NPM, fluctuations (induced by denaturation stress, for example) lead to monomer conformations that can

  6. Role of aggregation conditions and presence of small heat shock proteins on abeta structure, stability and toxicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sung Mun

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to the most toxic ?? species change their structure the most rapidly in denaturant, and that in general, increased toxicity correlated with decreased aggregate stability. In AlzheimerÂ?s disease, even delaying A? aggregation onset or slowing its...

  7. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    salt-guanidinium chloride-is widely used by scientists to denature proteins for protein-folding studies. This practice dates back to the late 19th century when the Czech...

  8. Mechanisms of m-cresol-induced Protein Aggregation Studied Using a Model Protein Cytochrome c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallela, Krishna M. G.

    and Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, 12700 E 19th of the decrease of G with denaturant concentration; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; Tm Agg, midpoint aggregation

  9. Complicating Consent: A Study of the Rhetorical Strategies Employed to Interrupt Rape Myths in the Prosecutor v. Kunarac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, Lindsey

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The justices in the trial of the Prosecutor v. Kunarac were able to interrupt the rape myths that generally exist in rape trials by complicating the notion of consent. In this paper I argue that the justices de-naturalize ...

  10. An In Vitro Assay for Cdc20-Dependent Mitotic Anaphase-Promoting Complex Activity from Budding Yeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Andrew W.

    TM Peptone (VWR International, PA), and 25 g BactoTM Yeast Extract (VWR International, PA) in 2.5 L water in this proto- col are to induce a cell cycle arrest, to harvest the cells, to purify the APC, to synthesize, and Harvesting Cells 1. Yeast Medium (YPD): 50 g dextrose, anhydrous, powder (VWR International, PA), 50 g Bacto

  11. Clearwater-Palouse energy cooperative alcohol production feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, J.S.; Cole, K.M.; Schermerhorn, R.; Smith, S.; Greenwell, G.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of producing anhydrous ethanol from locally grown wheat and barley is explored. The following topics are discussed: feedstock economic analysis, by-product analysis, alcohol market analysis, alcohol market analysis, alternative fuels analysis, existing technology analysis, siting analysis, preliminary facility design, financial implementation plan, ecological assessment, and business management plan. (MHR)

  12. United States Patent: 7309798 http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOF... 1 of 9 12/31/2007 8:42 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Process for carbonylation of alkyl ethers Abstract A product comprising a lower alkyl ester of a lower an additional framework metal such as gallium, boron and/or iron, under substantially anhydrous conditions. More 11123581 May., 2005 Current U.S. Class: 560/232 Current International Class: C07C 67/36 (20060101

  13. Vapor Phase Synthesis and Characterization of -FeSi Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    HF and placed in a horizontal tube furnace, between the center and the downstream end of the alumina tube. Anhydrous FeCl3 powder (Aldrich, 99.99%) was placed in an alumina boat upstream of the substrates. An inert atmosphere was maintained with a flow rate of 100 sccm N2, and the temperature at the center

  14. Synthesis of a New Side-Chain Type Liquid Crystal Polymer Poly[dicyclohexyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    been proven by many experiments and becomes a useful guide for molecular design of side-chain liquid layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and chloroform was removed by vacuum distillation. The residue was purified using column chromatography on silica gel with chloroform as eluant to obtain

  15. SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    1.6 Section 1 - Product and Company Information Product Name BENZYL ALCOHOL, ANHYDROUS, 99.8% Product Number 305197 Brand ALDRICH Company Sigma-Aldrich Street Address 3050 Spruce Street City, State Tension 39 mN/m 20 °C Partition Coefficient Log Kow: 1.1 Decomposition Temp. N/A Flash Point 204.8 °F 96

  16. En vue de l'obtention du DOCTORAT DE L'UNIVERSIT DE TOULOUSEDOCTORAT DE L'UNIVERSIT DE TOULOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    phase for the permanent sequestration of CO2 as carbonate minerals. Experimental determination for CO2 sequestration as dissolved alkalinity in deep aquifers where carbonate minerals are major Magnesite (MgCO3) is the stable anhydrous member of a series of Mg-carbonates with different degrees

  17. Goldberg, O'Connor, Craig, and Stoltz Supporting Information Lewis Acid Mediated (3 + 2) Cycloadditions of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    MHz and 100 MHz, respectively) or on a Varian Mercury 500 (at 500 MHz and 126 MHz, respectively completion (as determined by TLC analysis), evaporation of the solvent gave the crude product, which.56 mmol, 60% dispersion in mineral oil) was suspended in anhydrous DMF (4 mL) in a flame-dried round

  18. Damage in porous media due to salt crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn; Julie Desarnaud; François Bertrand; Xavier Chateau; Daniel Bonn

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the origins of salt damage in sandstones for the two most common salts: sodium chloride and sulfate. The results show that the observed difference in damage between the two salts is directly related to the kinetics of crystallization and the interfacial properties of the salt solutions and crystals with respect to the stone. We show that, for sodium sulfate, the existence of hydrated and anhydrous crystals and specifically their dissolution and crystallization kinetics are responsible for the damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging and optical microscopy we show that when water imbibes sodium sulfate contaminated sandstones, followed by drying at room temperature, large damage occurs in regions where pores are fully filled with salts. After partial dissolution, anhydrous sodium sulfate salt present in these regions gives rise to a very rapid growth of the hydrated phase of sulfate in the form of clusters that form on or close to the remaining anhydrous microcrystals. The rapid growth of these clusters generates stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone leading to the damage. Sodium chloride only forms anhydrous crystals that consequently do not cause damage in the experiments.

  19. Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polking, Mark J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    99.997 %), 1-dodecanethiol (1-DDT, > 98 %), anhydrous 1,2Then, 0.03 g of dried 1-DDT was mixed with 1.5 mL of a 10stirring, and the 1-DDT/TOP-Te solution was immediately

  20. An integrated approach to predict ettringite formation in sulfate soils and identifying sulfate damage along SH 130

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachin, Kunagalli Natarajan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Expansive soils are treated with anhydrous or hydrated lime. The use of calcium-based stabilizers such as calcium oxide (lime) in sulfate-bearing clay soils has historically led to distress due to the formation of an expansive mineral called...

  1. An integrated approach to predict ettringite formation in sulfate soils and identifying sulfate damage along SH 130 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachin, Kunagalli Natarajan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Expansive soils are treated with anhydrous or hydrated lime. The use of calcium-based stabilizers such as calcium oxide (lime) in sulfate-bearing clay soils has historically led to distress due to the formation of an expansive mineral called...

  2. Simplified programming and control of automated radiosynthesizers through unit operations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claggett, SB; Quinn, KM; Lazari, M; Moore, MD; van Dam, RM

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and pressures (e.g. , acetonitrile at 180°C) without loss ofPA, USA); and anhydrous acetonitrile (MeCN) and all other10 mg K222 in 0.5 mL acetonitrile MeCN-1 1.0 mL acetonitrile

  3. Chemical and Biological Studies of DNA Carboxymethylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianshuang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jose, CA). A mixture of acetonitrile and water (50:50, v/v)suspended in anhydrous acetonitrile (9.0 mL) in an ice bath,3a (261 mg) in ~ 2.0 mL acetonitrile was subsequently added,

  4. Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

  5. Synthesis of pore-variable mesoporous CdS and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity in degrading methylene blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Min, E-mail: chm_zhangwm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Jiang, Yao-Quan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Cao, Xiao-Yan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education (China); Chen, Meng; Ge, Dong-Lai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Sun, Zhong-Xi, E-mail: sunzx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-templated synthesis of tubular CdS. • Cadmium complexes of aliphatic acids sustain the network of mesoporous structures. • Aliphatic acids affect the phase composition and particle size. • Pore size and volume vary with aliphatic acids having different hydrocarbonyl. - Abstract: In this study, mesoporous CdS polycrystallites have been synthesized using aliphatic acids of hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and oleic acid as coordinating and capping agents, respectively. The fibrous Cd–fatty acid salts act as a template to form the tubular CdS. The organic species are found to be necessary for maintaining the network of mesoporous CdS. The characterization results indicate that the shorter carbon chain length in aliphatic acids favors the wurtzite phase and particle size growth the specific surface area, pore diameter and pore volume show a monotonic raise with increasing carbon chain. The photocatalytic activities of mesoporous CdS tubes exhibit much higher efficiency than those of nanosized CdS powders in decolorizing methylene blue under simulated visible light.

  6. Novel, resistant microalgal polyethers: An important sink of organic carbon in the marine environment?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelin, F.; Boogers, I.; Noordeloos, A.A.M. [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg (Netherlands)] [and others] [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg (Netherlands); and others

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Five out of seven marine microalgal species investigated were found to biosynthesize nonhydrolysable, mainly aliphatic, biomacromolecules (algaenans). The molecular structure of the algaenan isolated from the microalga Nannochloropsis salina of the class Eustigmatophyceae was determined by solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chemical degradations with HI and RuO{sub 4}. The structure is predominantly composed of C{sub 28}-C{sub 34} linear chins linked by ether bridges. The algaenan isolated from a second eustigmatophyte (Nannochloropsis sp.) was structurally similar. Algaenans isolated from two chlorophytes also possess a strongly aliphatic nature, as revealed by the dominance of alkenes/alkanes in their pyrolysates. Accordingly, we proposed that the aliphatic character of numerous Recent and ancient marine kerogens reflects selectively preserved algaenans and that these algaenans may act as a source of n-alkanes in marine crude oils.

  7. Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

  8. The influence of nitrogen rate and source on plant and soil properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Flake Leroy

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Anhydrous ammonia caused the lea s t a lteration of pH in the su r face , but it caused the greatest acid ity in the subso i l . The lev e ls of nitrates in the so il w ere exp re s sed by quadratic equa? tions with co rre la t ion coe ff ic... , and and are the annual rate of nitrogen in pounds p er a c r e app lied as ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia, r e sp e c t iv e ly . P red ic ted maximum y ields com pared favorab ly with the actual m aximum y ie lds o f 1 9 , 9 9 0 and 15, 850 pounds...

  9. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12C8H18 Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12­C8H18 Hydrocarbons with Water Volume Editors David G. Shawa... University of Alaska on the evaluation of the all experimental data for a given homologous series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons

  10. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, R.

    1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

  11. PHONON DISPERSION CURVES OF ORDERED PHASES OF T.B.B.A. Abstract. --The lattice dynamics of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured by mean of inelastic neutron scattering of the molecules. Previous neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been done on non-deuterated single of a melting of the terminal aliphatic chains. So neutron coherent inelastic scattering measure- ments have

  12. X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, C. Kevin

    composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation C. Kevin Boyce a, , Mike Abrecht b , Dong Zhou b , P that were canopy dominants of many Pennsylvanian coal swamp forests. Its periderm or bark--the single greatest biomass contributor to many Late Paleozoic coals--is found to have a greater aliphatic content

  13. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  14. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  15. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 17591769, 2004 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/4/1759/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols C. E. Lund Myhre and C. J. Nielsen Department of Chemistry organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic

  16. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

  17. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  18. Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other Halogenated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other, California 94305-4020 Enhanced in-situ transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was observed under anoxic Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)with one or two carbon atoms are widely used as solvents, degreasing

  19. ELSEVIER Journal of Hazardous Materials 41 (1995)205-216 HIIZIIRDOUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with elemental iron Bradley R. Helland, Pedro J.J. Alvarez*, Jerald L-1527, USA Received 3 August 1994;accepted in revised form 15 November 1994 Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (CC aliphatics such as carbon tetrachloride (CC14) are common environ- mental contaminants due

  20. Nanoparticles designed from low pressure plasmas as identification tool for astrophysical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    interstellar media. The particles were polymerised in a low pressure capacitively coupled radio-frequency molecule production and reprocesses UV and optical radiation. The C-H stretch vibration of aliphatic coupled the radiofrequency discharge in argon/acetylene mixtures [Kovacevic submitted]. The particles

  1. The effect of bioremediation on microbial populations in an oil-contaminated coastal wetland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Richard Todd

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microorganisms. These increases were observed at 0-5 cm and 5- 10 cm depths. For the first application, the average numbers of aliphatic-degrading and PAH-degrading microorganisms on nutrient...

  2. On the formation of ethynylbiphenyl (C14D5H5; C6D5C6H4CCH) isomers in the reaction of D5-phenyl radicals (C6D5; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    of aliphatic hydrocar- bons to (polycyclic) aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from their acy- clic precursors,2] and envi- ronmental effects of PAHs [3]. Ideally, a stoichiometric combustion of fossil and bio fuel results in the release of solely water and car- bon dioxide, however, the high temperatures and pressures

  3. A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM, CIS the behavior of different consortiums of aerobic propane-utilizing microorganisms, with respect to both the lag time for growth after exposure to propane, and their ability to transform three chlorinated aliphatic

  4. Process and catalyst for carbonylating olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved catalyst system and process for preparing aliphatic carbonyl compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, alkyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides of aliphatic carboxylic acids by carbonylating olefins in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (1) a first component selected from at least one Group 6 metal, i.e., chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten and (2) a second component selected from at least one of certain halides and tertiary and quaternary compounds of a Group 15 element, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and/or arsenic, and (3) as a third component, a polar, aprotic solvent. The process employing the improved catalyst system is carried out under carbonylating conditions of pressure and temperature discussed herein. The process constitutes and improvement over known processes since it can be carried out at moderate carbonylation conditions without the necessity of using an expensive noble metal catalyst, volatile, toxic materials such as nickel tetracarbonyl, formic acid or a formate ester. Further, the addition of a polar, aprotic solvent to the catalyst system significantly increases, or accelerates, the rate at which the carbonylation takes place.

  5. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1,2[W][OA] Fengling Li, Xuemin Wu, Patricia Lam Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1 (R.J.) Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids

  6. Midterm Exam: Chemistry 223 McGill University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronis, David M.

    Midterm Exam: Chemistry 223 McGill University INSTRUCTIONS 1. No books or notes are permitted. 2;Midterm Exam -2- Chemistry 223 1. (20%) Derive the the expression for ZA,B the number of collisions and to define any sym- bols. 5. (20%) Gasoline is a mixture of various aliphatic hydrocarbons, however, here we

  7. Organic electroanalysis with chemically modified electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guadalupe, A.R.; Abruna, H.D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytical utility of electrodes modified with functionalized polymer films for the determination of aromatic amines is demonstrated. The analysis is based on the preconcentration of the protonated amines into a functionalized polymer film that contains styrene sulfonate groups. Good sensitivity and high reproducibility were obtained for concentrations down to 10/sup -5/ M. Aliphatic amines do not interfere in the determination.

  8. CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, FALL, 2012 (Last Updated 4/13/2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    , spectroscopy, and reactivity studies. Applications of inorganic compounds in synthesis, catalysis, materials of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16 may be counted compounds. Mono- and polyfunctional compounds, aliphatic and aromatic structures. Synthesis, reaction

  9. 1224 Mol. BioSyst., 2011, 7, 12241231 This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011 Cite this: Mol. BioSyst., 2011, 7, 12241231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Ming-Daw

    vancomycin against MRSA as they carry an extra aliphatic acyl side chain on glucosamine (Glm) at residue 4 (r the drugs of the last resort to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Lipoglycopeptides, Tei and A40926 (3, Fig. 1) were reported to be more effective than vancomycin against MRSA

  10. PREPARATION AND IMPLANTATION ALZET OSMOTIC PUMPS (SOP-9) Osmotic pumps manufactured by ALZA Corporation (Palo Alto, CA) are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    is compatible with most drugs and drug diluents, except aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and natural oils oils on the pump #12;surface may interfere with proper pump performance. If a pump becomes contaminated depress the plunger of the syringe. When solution appears at the pump outlet, stop injecting and slowly

  11. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

  12. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  13. New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jrmy Jacob1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jérémy Jacob1, , Florentin Paris2 dominated by aromatic groups with a low contribution of aliphatics and oxygen- or nitrogen-bearing compounds-GC/MS, chitin, Lower Palaeozoic Corresponding author: jeremy.jacob@univ-orleans.fr #12;2 1. Introduction

  14. Theoretical kinetic study of thermal unimolecular decomposition of cyclic alkyl radicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : While many studies have been reported on the reactions of aliphatic hydrocarbons, the chemistry of cyclic hydrocarbons has not been explored extensively. In the present work, a theoretical study However, cycloalkanes and alkylcycloalkanes (in particular C5 and C6) are usually present in conventional

  15. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Rheological characterization of asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    compared favorably with those obtained using conventional parallel-plate torsional flow in a commercial and are aggregates of polar aromatic compounds (Maruska and Rao 1987). Maltenes are nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbons time (Anderson and Marasteanu 1999). Because of their codification, the conventional tests

  16. Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the Centerline of a Coflow Diffusion Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, Jeremy P.; Laskin, Alexander; Kholghy, Mohammad Reza; Thomson, Murray; Wang, Hai

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot particles sampled along the centerline of a coflow diffusion flame of a three-component Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n= 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found to be the major components of the particle material. These particles become enriched with aliphatic components as they grow in mass and size. Before carbonization occurs, the constituent species in young soot particles are aliphatic and aromatic compounds 200-600 amu in mass, some of which are oxygenated. Particles dominated by PAHs or mixtures of PAHs and aliphatics can both exhibit liquid-like appearance observed by electron microscopy and be transparent to visible light. The variations in chemical composition observed here indicate that the molecular processes of soot formation in coflow diffusion flames may be more complex than previously thought. For example, the mass growth and enrichment of aliphatic components in an initially, mostly aromatic structure region of the flame that is absent of H atoms or other free radicals indicates that there must exist at least another mechanism of soot mass growth in addition to the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon addition mechanism currently considered in fundamental models of soot formation.

  17. Sensitivity analysis and study of the mixing uniformity of a microfluidic mixer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Ángel M; Santiago, Juan G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a microfluidic mixer based on hydrodynamic focusing, which is used to initiate the folding process of individual proteins. The folding process is initiated by quickly diluting a local denaturant concentration, and we define mixing time as the time advecting proteins experience a specified to achieve a local drop in denaturant concentration. In previous work, we presented a minimization of mixing time which considered optimal geometry and flow conditions, and achieved a design with a predicted mixing time of 0.10 $\\mu$s. The aim of the current paper is twofold. First, we explore the sensitivity of mixing time to key geometric and flow parameters. In particular, we study the angle between inlets, the shape of the channel intersections, channel widths, mixer depth, mixer symmetry, inlet velocities, working fluid physical properties, and denaturant concentration thresholds. Second, we analyze the uniformity of mixing times as a function of inlet flow streamlines. We find the shape of the intersection,...

  18. Safety analysis of B and W Standard PWR using thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uotinen, V.O.; Carroll, W.P.; Jones, H.M.; Toops, E.C.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to assess the safety and licenseability of the Babcock and Wilcox standard 205-fuel assembly PWR when it is fueled with three types of thoria-based fuels denatured (/sup 233/U//sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, denatured (/sup 235//U/sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, and (Th-Pu)O/sub 2/. Selected transients were analyzed using typical PWR safety analysis calculational methods. The results support the conclusion that it is feasible from a safety standpoint to utilize either of the denatured urania-thoria fuels in the standard B and W plant. In addition, it appears that the use of thoria-plutonia fuels would probably also be feasible. These tentative conclusions depend on a data that is more limited than that available for UO/sub 2/ fuels.

  19. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ColIoque C6, supplkment au no 12, Tome 37, Dkcembre 1976, page C6-931 MOSSBAUER STUDY OF THE TIMIE DEPENDENCE OF THE FOR~WATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ColIoque C6, supplkment au no 12, Tome 37, Dkcembre 1976, page C6-931 MOSSBAUER Mossbauer avec les rayons gamma de 97 keV et 103 keV de 15 3Eu. Pour les deux resonances on observe un pic consequences of the electron capture decay of 153Gd in anhydrous SmC13have been studied by Mossbauer

  20. Consequence analysis of aqueous ammonia spills using an improved liquid pool evaporation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghunathan, Vijay

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of effective NOx emissions from utility boilers and combustion turbines nowadays (Pritchard et al. 1995). Its applications also include reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines, process gas streams like nitric acid plants. The flue gas emitted from... serves the purpose of a reducing medium and is replacing anhydrous ammonia in most of the Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units. This newly developed model can estimate the vaporization rate and net mass evaporating into the air from a...

  1. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  2. Worried About High N Prices? Keith A Kelling and Larry G Bundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    .S. natural gas prices · Record increase in world nitrogen capacity · China's ban on urea imports · Collapse Nitrate Nitric AcidAmmonia Natural Gas Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Liquid Urea (UR) Prill gas prices NYMEX Natural Gas Prices 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jan-99 Apr-99 Jul-99 O ct-99 Jan-00 Apr

  3. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  4. Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    dissolved in anhydrous THF (1000 ml), then allyl acetate (50.0 ml, 0.46 mol), 1,3-cyclopentadione (12, 45OH. #12; 2 Compound 13 was synthesized based on reported procedure with modification[1-3] : Allyl.0 g, 0.46 mol), N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl)acetamide (114 ml, 0.46 mol) and sodium acetate (1.10 g, 13

  5. An Experimental Study of the Performance of PCM-Enhanced Cellulose Insulation Used in Residential Building Walls Exposed to Full Weather Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Y.; Medina, M.; Evers, A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and could potentially cause installation problems. Hydrated Salt Hydrated salts are formed by anhydrous salts and a few fixed number of water molecules, which are usually called ?water of crystallization? (Telkes, 1980). Hydrated salts have...-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Current ORNL Research Projects. Oak Ridge National Laboratory website. Telkes M. 1980. Thermal Storage in Salt-hydrates. Solar Materials Science, Academic Press: 337-404 Zhu D., 2005, A comparative heat transfer examination...

  6. An Experimental Study of the Performance of PCM-Enhanced Cellulose Insulation Used in Residential Building Walls Exposed to Full Weather Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Y.; Medina, M.; Evers, A.

    and could potentially cause installation problems. Hydrated Salt Hydrated salts are formed by anhydrous salts and a few fixed number of water molecules, which are usually called ?water of crystallization? (Telkes, 1980). Hydrated salts have...-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Current ORNL Research Projects. Oak Ridge National Laboratory website. Telkes M. 1980. Thermal Storage in Salt-hydrates. Solar Materials Science, Academic Press: 337-404 Zhu D., 2005, A comparative heat transfer examination...

  7. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Galvin, Thomas M. (Darien, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  8. 1704 J. Org. Chem. 1986,51,1704-1712 was then added phytol (loa) or isophytol (lob) (620 mg, 2.09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RajanBabu, T. V. "Babu"

    "C, isophytol (lob)(100 mg, 0.33 mmol) was added together with a drop of concentrated H2S04.The. The reaction flask was stoppcred well, and the solution was allowed to stand at 25 "C for 4 days, 1drop of H2S0 anhydrous MgSO,. The ether was removed under reduced pressure and the oily residue chromatographed with 5

  9. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil (Orinda, CA); Whalen, J. Marc (Corning, NY); Chacon, Lisa (Corning, NY)

    2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  10. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  11. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  12. The alkaloid of Acacia berlandieri, N-methyl-B-phenylethylamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camp, Bennie Joe

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the oily base proved fruitless from such solvents as acetone, absolute alcohol, hexane, petroleum ether, ether, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Crystallization was finally induced by dissolving the liquid base in chloroform, and then adding a relatively... large volume of anhydrous ether. Qualitative Analysis: Qualitative analysis for the elements was carried out according to the procedure out? lined by McElvain (6). This procedure employs fusion with metallic sodium which converts the organically...

  13. Pi-sigma rearrangements of organotransition metals: Reaction of titanocene dichloride and dimethylsulfoxide.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudman, Curtis Edward

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolation of DMSO Adduct of Titanocene Dichloride . Reaction of Lavender Compound and DMSO Preparation of White Ti-DMSO Complex . Reaction of Ti tanocene Di chlor1de and Dimethyl- sulfoxide in Tetrahydrofuran Preparation of Endo-3, 6-Methylene-l, 2, 3... to the proton contamination of the solvent. Efforts to isolate the sigma -bonded species from the reaction of titanocene dichloride and dimethylsulfoxide by precipitation with anhydrous diethyl ether resulted in the formation of a pale lavender compound...

  14. Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, D.R.; Pollagi, T.P.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method is described for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl{sub 2} in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

  15. Enhancement of phosphogypsum with high lime fly ash 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory, Chuck Alan

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation. Detailed Investigation. 51 58 IV CONCLUSIONS V RECOMMENDATIONS 114 REFERENCES 115 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C Historical Summary of the Wet Process Phosphoric Acid Industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hemihydrate and Hemihydrate-Dihydrate... generally exist in three different forms. 1. dihydrous (CaSO& 2H20) 2 . hemihydrous (CaSOd 1/2 H20) 3. anhydrous (CaSO ) It is these crystals, called phosphogypsum, that are filtered from the acid solution and piped to stockpiles in slurry form...

  16. Protein extraction in the refinement of Coastal Bermudagrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De La Rosa Perez, Luis Bernardo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , phosphoric acid, gaseous hydrochloric acid, anhydrous ammonia and ethylendiamine (Chang et aL, 1981; Wylie and Steen, 1988). Also the use of organic solvents such as hexane or cadoxen ([Cd(ethylendiamine)3](OH)2, cadmium ethylendiamine) (Ladisch et al... and lignin. Integrated conversion of the entire "barrel of biomass" (also referred to as biomass refining), is essential to obtain good system economics. This study evaluated the use of the Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX) process in an integrated conversion...

  17. 500°F Absorption Heat Pump Under Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, W. F.; Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stainless steels having corrosion rates of less than 1 mil per year at temperatures up to approximately the chemical stability limit, and mild steel at temperatures about lOOoe lower. Also, the alkali metal nitrates are routinely added to aqueous... vacuums measurements were also taken. Three materials were tested: mild steel (A36), stainless steel (304), and pack aluminized stainless steel. The latter has been found to be effective in resisting anhydrous nitrate corrosion at temperatures above...

  18. Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

    1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

  19. The conformational stability and spectral properties of RNASE T1, and mutants: ASP49-> ALA, TYR, and TRP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Li Yu

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obtained by monitoring the fluorescence emission at 320 nm after excitation at 278 nm for D49A, D49Y and D49W, respectively. The urea denaturation curves for wild type RNase Tl (K25 and Q25) has been previously reported (Shirley et al. , 1989 and Thomson... on the surface of folded RNase Tl. The conformational stability of these proteins was determined by analyzing data from urea denaturation curves. Substituting nonpolar residues for Asp49 in RNase Tl increased the stability by 0. 2 to 0. 6 kcal/mole due...

  20. QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI IN TEXAS OYSTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heare, Jake Emerson

    2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    with a MasterCycler thermocycler (Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany) with cycling conditions having an initial denaturation step of 5 minutes at 95?C, and 30 cycles of 94?C for 1 m, 57?C for 1 m, and 72?C for 1 m, and final extension step at 72?C for 5 m...?- GGTGGTTCGTTATGTGCGCTT-3?) according to Gauthier et al. 2006. PCR was performed with a MasterCycler thermocycler (Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany) with cycling conditions having an initial denaturation step of 5 minutes at 95?C, and 40 cycles of 95?C for 15 s, followed...

  1. Incidence and specificity of antibodies to types I, II, III, IV, and V collagen in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases as measured by 125I-radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.; Huffstutter, E.H.; Townes, A.S.; Kang, A.H.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Antibodies to human native and denatured types I, II, III, IV, and V collagens were measured using 125I-radioimmunoassay. Mean levels of binding by sera from 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients were significantly higher than those from 20 normal subjects against all of the collagens tested. The relative antibody concentration was higher in synovial fluid than in simultaneously obtained serum. Many patients with gout or various other rheumatic diseases also had detectable anticollagen antibodies. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the reactivity detected in all patient groups was directed against covalent structural determinants present on all of the denatured collagens, suggesting a secondary reaction to tissue injury.

  2. Method and apparatus for cartilage reshaping by radiofrequency heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Brian J.; Milner, Thomas E.; Sobol, Emil N.; Keefe, Michael W.

    2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reshaping cartilage using radiofrequency heating. The cartilage temperature is raised sufficiently for stress relaxation to occur in the cartilage, but low enough so that significant denaturation of the cartilage does not occur. The RF electrodes may be designed to also function as molds, preses, clamps, or mandrills to deform the cartilage tissue. Changes in various properties of the cartilage associated with stress relaxation in the cartilage may be measured in order to provide the control signal to provide effective reshaping without denaturation.

  3. From Cot Curves to Genomics. How Gene Cloning Established New Concepts in Plant Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    was in an inflationary spiral due to the emergence of the oil cartel that sent the prices of gasoline skyrocketing in the 1960s when the principles of DNA denaturation and renaturation were pioneered at the Carnegie in the mid-1960s and were, therefore, considered to be "eukaryotic- like" and similar to animal genomes

  4. Supplemental Information Supplementary methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, William D.

    defined medium ("Sato's medium"; Bottenstein and Sato., 1979) in each well of poly-D-lysine coated 24-well was added. All reaction mixtures were run simultaneously on a 6% (w/v) polyacrylamide non- denaturing Tris-borate EDTA Novex minigel (Invitrogen) until the dye had migrated off the end of the gel. The gel was dried

  5. Prospects & Overviews Chaperone discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardwell, James

    assist de novo protein folding and facilitate the refolding of stress-denatured proteins. The molecular in understanding how these factors support protein folding. Here, we focus on how various chaper- one proteins were first identified to play roles in protein folding. Examples are used to illustrate traditional routes

  6. Temperature modeling in a total knee joint replacement using patient-specific kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, Wallace

    . For the standard condition, which assumes an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial component coefficient was explored. The model is extremely sensitive to the thermal properties of the femoral component in diluted bovine serum, which acts as a lubricant and mimics joint synovial fluid. Denaturing of proteins

  7. Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies protein damage as a regulator of osmoprotective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamitina, Todd

    expression of stress-protective genes. For example, heat shock causes protein denaturation and induces (received for review April 12, 2006) The detection, stabilization, and repair of stress-induced damage are essential requirements for cellular life. All cells respond to osmotic stress-induced water loss

  8. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 87, pp. 6388-6392, August 1990

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    /conformational entropy) HUE SUN CHAN AND KEN A. DILL Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, the stabilities (observed in the distribution; see below) decrease with length (18-20). (ii) The most stable residues (18-20), and these are 100% helical up to nearly the denaturation temperature of the protein. (iii

  9. ASP 79 makes a large, unfavorable contribution to the conformational stability of Ribonuclease SA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevino, Saul Rene

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    the stability of the protein. Also, the stability was measured as a function of pH for RNase Sa and the D79F mutant. The pK of Asp 79 was found to be 7.2 in the native state and 4.7 in the denatured state....

  10. Single-molecule derivation of salt dependent base-pair free energies in DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritort, Felix

    Single-molecule derivation of salt dependent base-pair free energies in DNA Josep M. Hugueta measurements of base-pair free energies in DNA are obtained in thermal denaturation experiments, which depend on several as- sumptions. Here we report measurements of the DNA base-pair free energies based

  11. The effect of an employee educational program on the bacteriological quality of blue crab meat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biediger, Catherine M

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with hor'izontal rectangular steamers, or metal vats used with boiling (13). The crabs go into the cooker as rapidly as possible. Crabs are cooked to denature the protein so that it can be easily picked from the shell and to reduce the bacterial load...

  12. Dynamics of the Core Tryptophan during the Formation of a Productive Molten Globule Intermediate of Barstar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    in the intermediates that are populated during the salt-induced transition of the D form to the molten globule B formDynamics of the Core Tryptophan during the Formation of a Productive Molten Globule Intermediate formation in the denatured D form at pH 12, by addition of increasing concentrations of the stabilizing salt

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Convergent development of anodic bacterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    treatment plant sample known to produce consistent power densities, a second wastewater treatment plant Joint Authority Wastewater Treatment Plant)) produced substantially less power. Denaturing gradient gel). The aerobic effluent (1.16 mW mÀ 2 ) and river water (1.14 mW mÀ 2 ) inocula produced a higher maximum power

  14. Protein Refolding Assisted by Periodic Mesoporous Organosilicas Xiqing Wang, Diannan Lu,, Rebecca Austin, Arun Agarwal, Leonard J. Mueller,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    's Republic of China ReceiVed December 4, 2006. In Final Form: February 12, 2007 Herein we report a new and assist refolding by controlled release into the refolding buffer. Hen egg white lysozyme was used as a model protein to demonstrate the new method of protein refolding. Through loading of denatured proteins

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The structure of the bacterial and archaeal community in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE The structure of the bacterial and archaeal community in a biogas digester biogas digesters at different scales and for different applications for treating rural wastes is well 16S rDNA, anaerobic digestion, biogas digester, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE

  16. http://biotech.nature.com SEPTEMBER 2001 VOLUME 19 nature biotechnology Interpreting function in terms of specific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    surfaced over the years--proteins for which lack of three-dimensional structure is required for function Interpreting function in terms of specific three-dimensional structure has dominat- ed thinking about proteins- guage: unfolded protein and denatured protein are used interchangeably. Furthermore, the avalanche

  17. Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wider, Gerhard

    1 Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution V. Dötsch,1 G. Wider, G Hochschule- Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland Keywords Protein folding; Urea denaturation; Salt changing the solution conditions. In this paper we describe the influence of various salts or non

  18. From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R. Nussinov Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    225 From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R in the transition state. Key Words: Protein folding; energy landscape; transition state ensemble; denatured state- sively applied to the analysis of protein folding (1­5). Although proteins are essential macromolecules

  19. Optimizing cRNA fragmentation for microarray experiments using the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steve Kemp

    attached to the array. Labeled cRNA makes a better tar- get for oligo arrays once it has been fragmented to an optimal size of 50­200 bases long. The structures of the fragmented tar- gets are less complex, which-denaturing conditions on Reliant 1 % agarose precast gels from Amresco (Solon, OH) stained with SYBR Gold nucleic acid

  20. Water-Soluble Poly(Lserine)s with Elongated and Charged Side-Chains: Synthesis, Conformations, and Cell-Penetrating Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    The secondary structures of proteins facilitate the folding of proteins into unique three-dimensional structures and regulate their biological activities.1 To better understand protein folding/unfolding and eventually mimic -helical or -sheet conformations against various denaturing conditions. However, these polypeptides lack

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the SH3 Domain Aggregation Suggests a Generic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    the elongation of amyloid fibrils.12 ­ 15 However, the domain swapping hypothesis is based on the aggregation and the open aggregation state. The closed dimer is formed by "domain swapping"-- the two proteins exchange human disease were found to be able to form amyloid fibril struc- tures in vitro under denaturing

  2. Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan* , G. Albert Wu* , John D. Chodera, CA, May 2, 2007 (received for review April 13, 2006) How do proteins fold so quickly? Some denatured proteins fold to their native structures in only microseconds, on average, implying that there is a folding

  3. How Hydrogen Bond Redundancy Affects Protein Flexibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naomi Fox; Filip Jagodzinski; Jeanne Hardy; Ileana Streinu

    Modeling a Protein as a BodyBarHinge and Associated Graph Main Question: Stability in proteins is the resistance to denaturation, or unfolding. A protein that is highly stable has a high tolerance to bonds breaking before unfolding; an unstable protein has less tolerance. In this study, we focus on the question, how many hydrogen bonds

  4. Polymerization and Structure of Nucleotide-free Actin Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymerization and Structure of Nucleotide-free Actin Filaments Enrique M. De La Cruz1,2 , Anna of nucleotide-free actin (NFA). First, actin lacking bound nucleotide denatures rapidly without stabilizing of the bound nucleotide. We used apyrase, EDTA and Dowex-1 to prepare actin that is stable in sucrose and $99

  5. Functional Characterization of Rhodopsin Monomers and Dimers in Detergents*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Warsaw PL-02109, Poland Rhodopsin (Rho) is a G protein-coupled from atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and chemical cross-linking experiments resistant to heat denaturation. Both Rho* mono- mers and dimers are capable of activating Gt, and both

  6. Cleaning method for removing sulfur containing deposits from coke oven gas lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumansky, L.W.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for removing hard to remove deposits containing elemental sulfur and multivalent compounds from a surface comprising contacting the deposits with a cleaning composition comprising (a) a major portion of aliphatic amine, (b) water, and (c) an oxidizing or reducing agent, allowing the cleaning composition to remain in contact with the deposits for sufficient time to allow sufficient dissolution of said solid to take place to allow removal of the deposits to take place, and applying such force as is necessary to remove these partially dissolved deposits from the surface. A preferred cleaning composition comprises from about 60 to about 90 volume percent aliphatic amine, from about 10 to about 40 volume percent water, and from about 1 to about 3 weight percent of a moderate oxidizing or reducing agent, such percentages based on the total composition.

  7. sup 13 C, sup 17 O, and sup 14 N NMR spectroscopic studies of a series of mixed isocyanide/carbonyl complexes of tungsten: W(CO) sub 6-n (CNR) sub n (R = tert-butyl, p tolyl; n = 1-3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, M.P.; Coffer, J.L.; Rommel, J.S.; Bennett, D.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1988-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, and {sup 14}N NMR spectra for the tungsten isocyanide complexes W(CO){sub 6-n}(CNR){sub n} (R = tert-butyl, p-tolyl; n = 1-3) have been obtained and the magnitudes of the corresponding chemical shifts utilized as a probe of differences in electronic structure. Comparisons of {delta}({sup 17}O) with {delta}({sup 13}CO) and of {delta}(C{sup 14}N) with {nu}(CN), or {delta}({sup 13}CO) are shown to confirm the better net donor ability of the aliphatic isocyanide over the aromatic isocyanide and illustrate an increased amount of charge density available at the metal center when CO is successively replaced with CNR. Marked differences in {sup 14}N quadrupolar relaxation times are observed between aromatic and aliphatic isocyanides, suggesting that the aromatic ring is involved in the M-L {pi} system. 19 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Chemical differences are observed in children's versus adults' laten fingerprints as a function of time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoine, K.M.; Miller, L.; Mortazavi, S.; Miller, A.D.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The identification of aged latent fingerprints is often difficult, especially for those of children. To understand this phenomenon, the chemical composition of children's versus adults latent fingerprints was examined over time using Fourier transform infrared microscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that children's and adults prints were distinguishable for up to 4 weeks after deposition, based on differences in sebum composition. Specifically, adults had a higher lipid content than children, but both decreased over time, attributable to the volatility of free fatty acids. The aliphatic CH{sub 3}, aliphatic CH{sub 2}, and carbonyl ester compositions changed differently in adults versus children over time, consistent with higher cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in children's prints and wax esters and glycerides in adults prints. Thus, fingerprint composition changes with time differently in children versus adults, making it a sensitive metric to estimate the age of an individual, especially when the age of the print is known.

  9. Influence of Methionine on Growth and Nitrogen Balance in Weanling Quarter Horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winsco, Kelly Nicole

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of chains of individual amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. It is these individual amino acids that are used to form body tissues, enzymes, antibodies, and hormones, and must be present in order for growth or production to occur. There are 30... breaking down into the classifications of aliphatic, aromatic, and sulfur based amino acids (Ellis and Hill, 2005). These individual amino acids link 4 together by means of peptide bonds to form proteins, which also have varying structure...

  10. Catalytic hydrogenation of an aromatic sulfonyl chloride into thiophenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouckout, Nicolas Julien

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to the facile oxidation by air into disulfides [3]. Many aliphatic thiols are important starting materials for the synthesis of crop- protection agents, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and polysulfides. They are also widely used as polymerization regulators... for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, pigments, rubber, plastics and metal finishing [3]. The current market volume for aromatic thiols was determined to be more than 10 million pounds per year [4]. Aromatic thiols are commonly synthesized...

  11. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  12. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  13. Effects of shipment on diffusive dosimetry recovery efficiency for pentane, hexane and heptane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Ronald Bruce

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sciences College of Pharmacy Chairman of' Advisory Committee: Mr. Charles L. Gilmore The effects of' shipment on recovery was investigated for three aliphatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on the 3M Company's $3500 Organic Vapor Monitor and the Scientific Kit... Combination Vs. Contaminant INTRODUCTION The Occupational Safety and Health Adminsitration (OSHA) has promulgated standards including permissible exposure limits (PEL) for humans based on eight hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures for approximately...

  14. Polyestercarbonates which exhibit improved processibility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krabbenhoft, Herman Otto (Scotia, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a polyestercarbonate polymer which comprises repeating units of a mono-unsaturated aliphatic dicarboxylic acid having about 12 to about 20 carbon atoms. Preferred dicarboxylic acids for incorporation into the polymer are cis-octadec-9-enedioic acid or trans-octadec-9-enedioic acid. The use of these mono-unsaturated acids results in polymers with lower glass transition temperatures, and enhances processibility.

  15. Composition of the ozonolytic degradation products of the organic matter of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. Semenova; Y.F.Patrakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ozonization of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal in chloroform and the composition of ozonolytic degradation products were studied. Water-insoluble high-molecular-weight products were predominant among the ozonization products. A half of water-soluble substances consisted of aliphatic C{sub 5}-C{sub 12} dicarboxylic acids and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Sapromyxite has been suggested as a substitute for crude petroleum in the manufacture of motor fuels.

  16. Stable carbon isotope ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment: validation of isolation and stable carbon isotope analysis methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Moon Koo

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , fluorene and chrysene, can be used to determine if the PAHs are pyrogenic or petrogenic in origin (Wang et al., 1999). Some PAHs are relatively resistant to degradation compared with aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the relative amounts can also reflect... INTRODUCTION Organic pollutants are an ever increasing concern as a stressor of ecosystems and an agent of degradation of the condition and health of natural resources. Many classes of industrial and combustion-derived chemicals are released...

  17. Synthesis of some 2-(3-butenyl) cyclohexanones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Tsi Chien

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as alkylating agent. The ketones were first treated with cyclohexylamine to form an imine. Subsequent reaction with ethylmagnesium bromide formed the corresponding magnesium salt, Treat- ment of the salt with 3-butenyl tosylate gave the 2-(3- butenyl... In a recent modification of the enamine alkylation procedure, an aldehyde or ketone was allowed to react 6 with an aliphatic amine (t-butylamine and cyclohexylamine were used) to form an imine. Subsequent reaction with ethyl-magnesium bromide formed...

  18. Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strausz, O.P. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural studies on asphaltenes and heavy ends have, until recently, only yielded information on some of the gross compositional features of these materials. Spectroscopic methods, for sample, are limited in the sense that even if several functional groups (e.g., aromatic or aliphatic carbon, carbonyl groups, etc.) can be identified, no information on the molecular environment can be deduced. Selective chemical degradative methods, on the other hand, offer more potential and this paper describes some of their recent results on the chemical degradation of asphaltene and heavy ends. Quantitative recoveries of alkyl side chains and bridging units attached to aromatic rings have been achieved, and some insights into the aliphatic framework have been gained. The results could be particularly helpful with regard to monitoring the dealkylation processes during thermal treatment of bitumens. The aliphatic framework of the asphaltene contains units of five- and six-membered ring sulfides and thermal breakdown of these units also contributes to depolymerization and the production of alkanes. Some of the heteroatom-containing classes of compounds identified in the asphaltene and resin fractions of Athabasca bitumen will be briefly discussed.

  19. Accurate measurements of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr., E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Center for Insoluble Protein Structures (inSPIN), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Khaneja, Navin [Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of sets of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl ({sup 13}C?) and aliphatic ({sup 13}C{sub aliphatic}) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of {sup 13}C?-{sup 13}C{sub aliphatic} distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  20. Molecular and crystal structure of n-hexyloxybenzoic anhydride at low and room temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantinov, I. I., E-mail: konst@ips.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis (Russian Federation); Churakov, A. V.; Kuz'mina, L. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystal and molecular structures of n-hexyloxybenzoic anhydride, C{sub 6}H{sub 13}-O-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-C(O)-O-C(O)-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-C{sub 6}H{sub 13}, at low (120 K) and room (296 K) temperatures have been investigated. The molecule has an asymmetric bent structure. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring planes is 48.5 deg. The aliphatic chain on one side of the molecule has a transoid orientation with respect to the 'internal' C4 atom of the closest benzene ring, whereas the aliphatic chain on the other side has a cissoid orientation with respect to the analogous C(4A) atom. The crystal packing does not exhibit any pronounced separation of the crystal space into closely packed aromatic or loosely packed aliphatic regions. No weak directional interactions are observed in the packing; this fact explains the absence of liquid-crystal properties for this compound.

  1. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  2. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  3. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  4. Study to establish cost projections for production of redox chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walther, J.F.; Greco, C.C.; Rusinko, R.N.; Wadsworth, A.L. III

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost study of four proposed manufacturing processes for redox chemicals for the NASA REDOX Energy Storage System yielded favorable selling prices in the range $0.99 to $1.91/kg of chromic chloride, anhydrous basis, including ferrous chloride. The prices corresponded to specific energy storage costs from under $9 to $17/kWh. A refined and expanded cost analysis of the most favored process yielded a price estimate corresponding to a storage cost of $11/kWh. The findings supported the potential economic viability of the NASA REDOX system.

  5. Development of a composite repair system for reinforcing offshore risers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Christopher Richard

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of the riser pipe and under extreme conditions failure can result in the form of either leaks or ruptures. Most pipeline design and operating codes, such as ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia..., and Alcohols [1] and ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System [2] have procedures for assessing the severity of corrosion. The procedures in these codes are based primarily on ASME B31G, Method for Determining the Remaining Strength...

  6. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  7. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  8. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (21 Barnes Road, Wading River, NY 11792); Colombo, Peter (44 N. Pinelake Dr., Patchogue, NY 11772)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  9. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  10. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M.

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    then smoothly delivered allylic acetate 11 in readiness for an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to install the key C13 quater- nary stereocenter.[11] In the event, heating the corresponding TBS ketene acetal (LDA, TBSCl) in anhydrous benzene led Scheme 1... reduction of cyclopentenone 6 (Scheme 2).[8] The ensuing allylic alcohol then underwent hydroxy-directed epoxidation with m-CPBA and TBS protection to deliver epoxide 7 in 65% yield over the three steps. The C2 methyl-bearing stereocenter...

  11. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  12. An investigation of a direct current method for measuring resistances of electrolytic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Jacob Russell

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    they vere in contact Cor4on and his co workers (6, 7, 8, 9, 10) published a series of papers on the oonduotivities of NaC1 ~ KGB KB' NaBrg KX ~ LiC1 and CaC1 in aqueous solutions, anhydrous methanol, an4 methanol-vater mixtures, These solutions vere... studied at various temperatures and conoentrations, employing the metho4 devised by Cunning and Cordon, Ei Elias an4 I, X+ Sohiff (ll) reported a modification of the method developed by Cunning and Cordon vhich exten4ed its application to eleotroiytes...

  13. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Kien Y. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Donald G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  16. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  17. Far-infrared spectra of complexes which exhibit magnetic cross-over: iron (III) complexes of tris (N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkelstein, Alan Paul

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was dissolved in acetone and. reprecipitated with anhydrous ether. W'hite needles were obtained upon drying in vacua over P 0 Tris(N N-dimeth ldithiocarbamato Iron III The dimethyl salt was prepared in the same manner as the pyrrolidyl salt. To $. 0 mg of..., low-spin and mixed-spin states. The alkyl group typical of the respective spin states are the pyrrolidyl (high-spin), diisopropyl (low-spin) and dimethyl (mixed-spin). By observing the far-infrared spectra of' various dialkyldithiocarbamato iron...

  18. The system ammonium fluoride - cupric fluoride - water at zero degrees centigrade: A program for calculating the rotational spectrum of an asymmetric-top molecule in the microwave region on the IBM 650 digital computer. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beal, James Burton

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incomplete and left much to be desired. In addition to this, it was desirable to have a means of comparing the solvents anhydrous hydroflu- oric acid and water. Therefore, the system NH P-Cuy2-H20 at 0 C was ohosen so that it might be compared... to analyze for copper and a modified KJeldahl method for ammonia. The Sohreinemaker wet residue method was also employed~ this method is discussed by Purdon and Hister {2). ZXPBRII 1i' (T ~J PROC RDURE Baker Analyzed Reagent amLonium fluoride (BH4F...

  19. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  20. System and process for capture of H.sub.2S from gaseous process streams and process for regeneration of the capture agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heldenbrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Bearden, Mark D; Zheng, Feng

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and process are disclosed for selective removal and recovery of H.sub.2S from a gaseous volume, e.g., from natural gas. Anhydrous organic, sorbents chemically capture H.sub.2S gas to form hydrosulfide salts. Regeneration of the capture solvent involves addition of an anti-solvent that releases the captured H.sub.2S gas from the capture sorbent. The capture sorbent and anti-solvent are reactivated for reuse, e.g., by simple distillation.

  1. High-Performance Solution-Processed Amorphous-Oxide-Semiconductor TFTs with Organic Polymeric Gate Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecunia, Vincenzo; Banger, Kulbinder; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    energy offsets (? 1 eV) between the conduction/valence bands of the semiconductor and the gate dielectric are needed to confine the charge carriers at the active interface and minimize undesirable charge injection from the semiconductor into the gate... in solution, all the other polymers came in the form of pellets or powder and were dissolved in suitable anhydrous organic solvents: P?MS was dissolved in xylene at a concentration of 60 mg mL-1; SAN in butyronitrile at 40 mg mL-1; PC in 1,2-dichlorobenzene...

  2. When does TMAO fold a polymer chain and urea unfold it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondal, Jagannath; Berne, B J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Longstanding mechanistic questions about the role of protecting osmolyte trimethylamine N- oxide (TMAO) which favors protein folding and the denaturing osmolyte urea are addressed by studying their effects on the folding of uncharged polymer chains. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we show that 1-M TMAO and 7-M urea solutions act dramatically differently on these model polymer chains. Their behaviors are sensitive to the strength of the attractive dispersion interactions of the chain with its environment: when these dispersion interactions are high enough, TMAO suppresses the formation of extended conformations of the hydrophobic polymer as compared to water, while urea promotes formation of extended conformations. Similar trends are observed experimentally on real protein systems. Quite surprisingly, we find that both protecting and denaturing osmolytes strongly interact with the polymer, seemingly in contrast with existing explanations of the osmolyte effect on proteins. We show that what rea...

  3. The Care and Cleaning of Furniture and Furnishings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Dorothy C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . SILVER Plated or Sterling Commercially-prepared polishes in liquid, powder or paste form are readily available. Through recent research, a tarnish preventative silver polish has been developed. Many silversmith companies recommend and some produce... removes tarnish, it also kills the depth of pattern and luster of silver. The method is omitted from this booklet. Cleaner for Sterling or Plated Silver How to make: 3 parts fine whiting 1 part either household ammonia (clear) or denatured alcohol...

  4. Liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors: Preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning LMFBR design characteristics; uranium-plutonium/uranium recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; thorium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; denatured uranium-233/thorium cycle homogeneous core; safety consideration for the LMFBR; and environmental considerations.

  5. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A. (Lexington, MA); Li, Jiali (Fayetteville, AR); Stein, Derek (Delft, NL); Gershow, Marc H. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  6. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  7. Probing the folding pathway of bacterial luciferase via mutagenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corley, Lori Denee

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    containing the desired mutation are annealed. Using the nonstrand-displacing action of pfu DNA polymerase, the primers are extended and incorporated into nicked circular strands. The methylated parental DNA is digested with dpn I . The circular nicked ds...DNA is transformed into E. coli cells which repair the nicks in the mutated DNA. Denaturation of plasmid and annealing of primers Extension and incorporation of mutagenic primers resulting in nicked circular strands Digestion of methylated DNA, transformation...

  8. There are two ways of fixing parasites for IF or FISH. Either the cells are settled onto non-silanized coverslips (Fisher 12mm, #15) and then fixed (faster but harsher), or the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, George

    . Washings (24-well plate) 1. Defrost PBG and store it on ice. Pre-heat formamide / 2xSSC to 37°C (formamide. Rinse briefly in pre-heated 2x SSC (50°C) 9. The probe/hyb mix should be denatured by now. Spot (50 µ as for hybridization) 4. Repeat wash, using vacuum pump to aspirate washing solution 5. Wash at RT as follows: 6. 2 x 5

  9. MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, A; Hertzog, D; Baumgartel, P; Lengefeld, J; Horsley, D; Schuler, B; Bakajin, O

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and optimize microfluidic mixers to investigate the kinetics of protein secondary structure formation with Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The mixers are designed to rapidly initiate protein folding reaction through the dilution of denaturant. The devices are fabricated out of fused silica, so that they are transparent in the UV. We present characterization of mixing in the fabricated devices, as well as the initial SRCD data on proteins inside the mixers.

  10. Light-water reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning the reference PWR reactor system; once-through, low-enrichment uranium-235 fuel, 30 MWD per kilogram (PWR LEU(5)-OT); once-through, low-enrichment, high-burnup uranium fuel (PWR LEU(5)-Mod OT); self-generated plutonium spiked recycle (PWR LEU(5)-Pu-Spiked Recycle); denatured uranium-233/thorium cycle (PWR DU(3)-Th Recycle DU(3)); and plutonium/thorium cycle (Pu/ThO/sub 2/ Burner).

  11. Mid-American Review of Sociology, Volume 6, Number 1 (SPRING, 1981): Book Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Robert

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mitchell Arnold Gehlen, Man in the ~ge ofTechnology. New York: Colum­ bia University Press, 1980, 185 pp. This translation of the 1957 revised edition of Die Seele im technischen Zeitalter is the first work of Arnold Gehlen's to be translated into English... the denatured title chosen for the English translation. Correctly translated, The Soul in the Age of Technology preserves Gehlen's intention to explain the pre­ dicament of modern man without ignoring the metaphysical element generally considered beyond...

  12. A Quasi-continuous Interpolation Scheme for Pathways between Distant Configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, Joanne M; Wales, David J

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    , where the chain-crossing is avoided. Nevertheless, they can lie below stationary points of the potential energy surface associated with the higher energy denatured or liquid-like phase of a finite system. This energy overlap makes the unphysical paths... procedure. The local maxima were then converged tightly to tran- sition states using hybrid eigenvector-following,20, 76, 77 and the connectivity verified by calculating approximate steepest-descent paths using energy minimisation following small...

  13. Chemical emergency preparedness and prevention advisory: Hydrogen fluoride, series 8, No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advisory recommends ways Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and chemical facilities can reduce risks posed by the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in their communities. Hydrogen fluoride, a strong inorganic acid, is produced and used as a gas or liquid without water (i.e., in anhydrous form), or in a water (aqueous) solution. Inhalation of hydrogen fluoride vapor, either in anhydrous form or from water solutions, can cause irritation if the exposure is mild (i.e., low concentration in air for a short time), or severe damage to the respiratory system or death in the case of exposure to high concentrations. Contact with the liquid or vapor can severely burn the skin, eyes, and other tissue. The largest use of hydrogen fluoride is in the manufacture of fluorine-containing chemicals, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Hydrogen fluoride may be used in some petroleum refinery operations, aluminum production, nuclear applications, glass etching and polishing, and metal treating and cleaning. Hydrogen fluoride's acute toxicity prompted EPA to list it as an extremely hazardous substance (EHS), with a threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 pounds, under Section 302 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (commonly known as SARA Title III).

  14. Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Winschel, R.A. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research & Development

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.

  15. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of Potassium Carbonate Sesquihydrate, K2CO3·1.5H2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua; Luebkes,David R.; Pennline, Henry W; Li, Bingyun Li; Janik, Michael J.; Halley, Woods

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions with dehydrated potassium carbonates through K2CO3·1.5H2O + CO2 = 2KHCO3 + 0.5H2O(g) are analyzed. The energy change and the chemical potential of this reaction have been calculated and used to evaluate its thermodynamic properties and phase transitions. The results indicate that the K2CO3·1.5H2O can only be applied for postcombustion CO2 capture technology at temperatures lower than its phase transition temperature, which depends on the CO2 pressure and the steam pressure with the best range being PH2O ? 1.0 bar. Above the phase transition temperature, the sorbent will be regenerated into anhydrous K2CO3. If the steam pressure PH2O is much greater than 1.0 bar, it is possible to use the K2CO3·1.5H2O sorbent for precombustion CO2 capture technology. Compared to anhydrous K2CO3, K2CO3·1.5H2O requires less energy for regeneration.

  16. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  17. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  18. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE.

  19. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  20. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  1. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocartons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hermandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  2. Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  3. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  4. Atomic Structures of Graphene, Benzene and Methane with Bond Lengths as Sums of the Single, Double and Resonance Bond Radii of Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raji Heyrovska

    2008-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Two dimensional layers of graphene are currently drawing a great attention in fundamental and applied nanoscience. Graphene consists of interconnected hexagons of carbon atoms as in graphite. This article presents for the first time the structures of graphene at the atomic level and shows how it differs from that of benzene, due to the difference in the double bond and resonance bond based radii of carbon. The carbon atom of an aliphatic compound such as methane has a longer covalent single bond radius as in diamond. All the atomic structures presented here have been drawn to scale.

  5. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Routh, J.; Grossman, E. L.; Ulrich, G. A.; Suflita, J. M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?171. Carothers, W.W., Kharaka, Y.K., 1978. Aliphatic acid anions in oil-field waters?implications for origin of natural gas. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 62, 2441?2453. Cedarstrom, D.J., 1946. Genesis of groundwaters in the coastal plain of Virginia. Econ. Geol.... Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 127?149. Takijima, Y., 1964. Studies on organic acids in paddy field soils with reference to their inhibitory eC128ects on the growth of rice plants Part 1. Growth inhibitory action of organic acids and adsorption and decomposition...

  6. Kinetic data base for combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

  7. In Situ Molecular Spectroscopic Evidence for CO2 Intercalation into Montmorillonite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loring, John S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Thompson, Christopher J.; Miller, Quin RS; Martin, Paul F.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e. close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO2 molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO2 conditions is due to CO2 migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO2 molecules are rotationally constrained and do not appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO2 does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state.

  8. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  9. Aspects of uranium chemistry pertaining to UF{sub 6} cylinder handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, R.L.; Barber, E.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under normal conditions, the bulk of UF{sub 6} in storage cylinders will be in the solid state with an overpressure of gaseous UF{sub 6} well below one atmosphere. Corrosion of the interior of the cylinder will be very slow, with formation of a small amount of reduced fluoride, probably U{sub 2}F{sub 9}. The UO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 2}O phase diagram indicates that reaction of any inleaking water vapor with the solid UF{sub 6} will generate the solid material [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}(U(OH){sub 4}F{sub 4}) in equilibrium with an aqueous HF solution containing only small amounts of uranium. The corrosion of the steel cylinder by these materials may be enhanced over that observed with gaseous anhydrous UF{sub 6}.

  10. Phase states of water near the surface of a polymer membrane. Phase microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N. F., E-mail: nbunkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gorelik, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: v.kozlov@hotmail.com; Shkirin, A. V., E-mail: avshkirin@mephi.ru; Suyazov, N. V., E-mail: nvs@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase microscopy is used to show that the refractive index in the near-surface layer of water at the surface of a polymer Nafion membrane increases by a factor of 1.1 as compared to bulk water. Moreover, this layer exhibits birefringence. Experiments on UV irradiation of dry (anhydrous) and water-soaked Nafion are performed in grazing-incidence geometry to study their stimulated luminescence spectra. These spectra are found to be identical in both cases. For dry Nafion, luminescence can only be excited if probing radiation illuminates the polymer surface. The luminescence of water-soaked Nafion can also be excited if the distance between the optical axis and the surface is several hundred micrometers.

  11. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  12. Rational enhancement of enzyme performance in organic solvents. Final technical report, 1992--1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klibanov, A.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focused on the following: the dependence of enzymatic activity of several model hydrolases in nonaqueous solvents; control of substrate selectivity of the protease subtilisin Carlsberg by the solvent; control of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of this enzyme in organic solvents by immobilization support; lipase-catalyzed acylation of sugars in anhydrous hydrophobic media; the possibility of accelerating enzymatic processes in organic solvents by certain cosolvents; whether lipase catalysis in organic solvents can be enhanced by introducing interfaces in the in the reaction medium; the structure of proteins suspended in organic solvents; improving enzymatic enantioselectivity in organic solvents; analyzing the plunge in enzymatic activity upon replacing water with organic solvents; and the structural basis for the phenomenon of molecular memory of imprinted proteins in organic solvents.

  13. Studies of selected transuranium and lanthanide triiodides under pressure using absorption spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haire, R.G.; Young, J.P.; Peterson, J.R.; Benedict, U.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anhydrous triiodides of plutonium, americium, and curium under pressure have been investigated using absorption spectrophotometry. These initial studies on plutonium and curium triiodides together with the published data for americium triiodide show that the rhombohedral (BiI/sub 3/-type structure) form of these compounds can be converted to the same orthorhombic (PuBr/sub 3/-type structure) form by applying pressure at room temperature. Absorption spectrophotometry can often differentiate between two crystallographic forms of materials and has been used in the present high pressure studies to monitor the effects of pressure on the triiodides. A complication in these studies of the triiodides is a significant shift of their absorption edges from the near uv to the visible spectral region with pressure. With curium triiodide this shift causes interference with the major f-f absorption peaks and precludes identification by absorption spectrophotometry of the high pressure phase of CmI/sub 3/. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  14. The application of soft X-ray microscopy to the in-situ analysis of sporopollenin/sporinite in a rank variable suite of organic rich sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cody, G.D.; Botto, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Ade, H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wirick, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soft X-ray imaging and carbon near edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (C-NEXAFS) has been used for the in-situ analysis of sporinite in a rank variable suite of organic rich sediments extending from recent up to high volatile A bituminous coal. The acquisition of chemically based images (contrast based on the 1s - 1{pi}* transition of unsaturated carbon), revealed a homogeneous chemical structure in the spore exine. C-NEXAFS microanalysis indicates chemical structural evolution in sporopollenin/sporinite with increases in maturation. The most significant change in the C-NEXAFS spectrum is an increase in unsaturated carbon, presumably aromatic, with rank. The rate of aromatization in sporinite exceeds that of the surrounding vitrinite. Increases in the concentration of unsaturated carbon are compensated by losses of aliphatic and hydroxylated aliphatic carbon components. Carboxyl groups are present in low and variable concentrations. Absorption due to carboxyl persists in the most mature specimen in this series, a high volatile A rank coal. The reactions which drive sporopollenin chemical structural evolution during diagenesis presumably involve dehydration, Diels-Alder cyclo-addition, and dehydrogenation reactions which ultimately lead to a progressively aromatized bio/geopolymer.

  15. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  16. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  17. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

  18. Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ? Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ? Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ? Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ? NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

  19. First-Principles Studies of Photoinduced Charge Transfer in Noncovalently Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Iek-Heng; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the energetics, electronic structure, optical excitation, and electron relaxation of dinitromethane molecules (CH$_{2}$N$_{2}$O$_{4}$) adsorbed on semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of chiral index (n,0) (n=7, 10, 13, 16, 19). Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximations and van der Waals corrections, we have calculated adsorption energies of dinitropentylpyrene, in which the dinitromethane is linked to the pyrene via an aliphatic chain, on a CNT. A 75.26 kJ/mol binding energy has been found, which explains why such aliphatic chain-pyrene units can be and have been used in experiments to bind functional molecules to CNTs. The calculated electronic structures show that the dinitromethane introduces a localized state inside the band gap of CNT systems of n=10, 13, 16 and 19; such a state can trap an electron when the CNT is photoexcited. We have therefore investigated the dynamics of intra-band relaxations using the reduced density matrix fo...

  20. Liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letcher, T.M.; Naicker, P.K.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of pure aromatic and aliphatic compounds from their mixtures is an important goal in chemical operations (e.g., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) that produce both types of compounds. In this work the authors have used 1,4-dicyanobutane (DCB) as a potential solvent for this separation. Liquid-liquid equilibrium results for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K are reported, where the alkane is hexane or nonane or dodecane or hexadecane and the aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene or methylbenzene or 1,2-dimethylbenzene, or 1,3-dimethylbenzene, or 1,4-dimethylbenzene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene or ethylbenzene. The results show that there is a small increase in the two-phase region as the chain length of the alkane is increased. The type of aromatic hydrocarbon present in the mixture has a noticeable effect on the slopes of the tie lines. There is also an increase in the area of the two phase-region with increasing substitution of methyl groups on the benzene ring. NRTL and UNIQUAC models were correlated to the data. The results show that 1,4-dicyanobutane may be used as a solvent for the separation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 10, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Levy, P.F.; Wise, D.L.; Nabor, M.R.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Hughes, C.A.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe Electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. Preliminary experiments have also been completed utilizing corn meal in which 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and carbon monoxide were both found to be effective methane suppressors. An analysis of the energy outputs and requirements for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from corn has been performed. As a means of expanding the number of potential substrates, pretreatment schemes are being investigated. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extractor system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. Although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process, the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential.

  2. Crosslinked Polyamide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhi H. (East Lansing, MI); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A crosslinked polyamide material and a process for preparing the crosslinked polyamide material are disclosed. The crosslinked polyamide material comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (1) a polyamide of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n is between about 50 and 10,000, wherein each R is between 1 and 50 carbon atoms alone and is optionally substituted with heteroatoms, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone forming the polyamide, and wherein two or more of the R contain an amino group; and (2) a crosslinking agent containing at least two functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide. In one embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic or aromatic isocyanate compound having 2 or more --N.dbd.C.dbd.O groups. In another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic aldehyde or aromatic aldehyde compound having 2 or more --CHO groups. In still another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.2 P(B) and mixtures thereof, wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, and B is hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, or aryl. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins having more than one epoxide group per molecule.

  3. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

  4. Soil organic matter factions of no-tilled and tilled soils and their reactivity with herbicides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stearman, G.K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of soil humic fractions were determined on surface and 7.5-15.0 cm soil samples of continuously (7-year) no-tilled and tilled cotton, corn, and soybean plots in West Tennessee. Soil humic and fulvic acid were extracted by standard methods and the humic acid was characterized by /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy, titration of total acidity and carboxyl groups, and infrared and elemental analysis. Humic acid composition differed by depth and crop. Small differences were observed between tillage systems. Humic acid aliphatic and aromatic carbons ranged from 48 to 65% and 25 to 40% of total peak area, respectively. The humic acids extracted from soils with larger amounts of carbon had larger aliphatic to aromatic ratios, indicating less decomposed organic matter. Carboxyl groups of the humic acids ranged from 9 to 13% and samples from tilled soil had slightly greater amounts of carboxyl and aromatic groups. Carboxyl group determinations by /sup 13/C-NMR, compared more closely with total acidity determinations by titration than with carboxyl determinations by titration. All infrared spectra were similar. Elemental composition of humic acid averaged C, 52.7%, 5.6%; N, 4.8%, and 36.9%.

  5. Characterization of the surface properties of Illinois basin coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demir, I.; Harvey, R.D.; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface area and pore volume distributions, surface charge, and surface chemical structure of the eight coals in the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP) were determined. The IBC-101 coal has the lowest total and micropore (3.5-20.0 {Angstrom}) surface areas. The IBC-103 coal has the lowest mesopore (20-500 {Angstrom}) surface area. The mesopore surface areas of IBC-101, IBC-102, and IBC-107 coals are higher than the other four coals. Pore volume in pores <1800 {Angstrom} in diameter varies almost five-fold with IBC-103 coal having the lowest value. These differences may affect the reactivity of these coals during cleaning, conversion, and combustion processes. Surface charge and isoelectric points vary among the samples. The isoelectric point, where processes such as agglomeration and dewatering is most efficient, shifted to higher pH values for some of the samples upon exposure to air oxidation at room temperature. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIS) data indicate that the surfaces of the IBCSP coals contain aromatic hydrocarbon components, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and an aldehyde group. Ball-mill grinding reduced the organic hydroxyls and thus enriched relative concentrations of nonpolar aliphatic functional groups in the samples. The room temperature air oxidation did not cause any significant change on the surface chemical structure of the coals.

  6. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF THE 10 Myr OLD EF Cha DEBRIS DISK: EVIDENCE FOR PHYLLOSILICATE-RICH DUST IN THE TERRESTRIAL ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currie, Thayne [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States); Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Rm. N204, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States)

    2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopic observations of the {approx}10 Myr old star, EF Cha. Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 {mu}m to 35 {mu}m confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with L{sub D} /L{sub *} {approx} 10{sup -3}, containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K, characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g., HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to the pyroxene ratio of {approx}2 also provides evidence of aqueous alteration. The large mass volume of grains with sizes comparable to or below the radiation blow-out limit implies that planetesimals may be colliding at a rate high enough to yield the emitting dust but not so high as to devolatize the planetesimals via impact processing. Because phyllosilicates are produced by the interactions between anhydrous rock and warm, reactive water, EF Cha's disk is a likely signpost for water delivery to the terrestrial zone of a young planetary system.

  7. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shun-Li, E-mail: wangshunli@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chia Yi University, Chia Yi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shan-Yang, E-mail: sylin@mail.ypu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm{sup -1} and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm{sup -1} with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline-citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TP-CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-induced TP-CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  8. Effect of H[subscript 2]O on the density of silicate melts at high pressures: Static experiments and the application of a modified hard-sphere model of equation of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, Zhicheng; Karato, Shun-ichiro (Yale); (UC)

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Density of ultramafic silicate melts was determined using the sink/float technique at high pressures. Seven melt compositions were studied, among which three were dry compositions with different Mg's (molar MgO/(MgO + FeO) x 100) and the other four were hydrous compositions synthesized by adding 2-7 wt.% H{sub 2}O to the anhydrous ones. Experimental conditions range from 9 to 15 GPa and from 2173 to 2473 K. The sinking and floatation of density markers were observed for all melt compositions. Melt density data were analyzed by applying the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a newly developed equation of state for silicate melts based on the model of hard sphere mixtures. The presence of water can significantly reduce the density of melts due to its small molecular mass. On the other hand, water makes hydrous silicate melts more compressible than anhydrous melts and therefore the effect of H{sub 2}O on melt density is less significant at high pressures. The density of hydrous melts was then calculated as a function of H{sub 2}O content at the conditions of the bottom of the upper mantle, and was compared with the density of the dominant upper mantle minerals. Results show that the conditions for a negatively buoyant melt that coexists with a pyrolite mantle atop the 410 km discontinuity are marginally satisfied if H{sub 2}O is the only volatile component to facilitate melting, but such conditions will be satisfied by a broader range of conditions when other heavier volatile elements (C, K, etc.) are also present.

  9. Functional Stability of a Mixed Microbial Consortium Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) represent an environmentally-effective alternative to synthetic thermoplastics; however, current production practices are not sustainable. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing real wastewaters and mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum. Polymer production reached 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. Employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts, distinctly different communities were observed between and within wastewaters following enrichment. Most importantly, functional stability was maintained despite differing and contrasting microbial populations.

  10. Studies on an extracellular proteolytic enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunklin, Bivin Hugh

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -bound and that the size o= che protein-pigment complex decreased in che presence. a! 2 tn 5 molar concentrations of urea. The enzyme readily cleaved urea-denatured hemoglobin substrate and N-benzoyl-D L-alanine ethyl ester(BAlaEE)but did oot cleave H...-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (ATEE), a substrate wfzich was hydrnlyzed by other proteolytic enzyr. es produced in the same enzyz"e system. Tne proteinase was anionic at pH values of 6. 2 anci shovels Optizcal hydrnzysis of hemnclobin substrate occured near pH 7. 5...

  11. Characterization of four single-site tryptophan variants of r

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alston, Roy Willis

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposed. For the denatured state (10 M urea), the A. ?, ?values are (nm): 343 (Y52W), 342 (Y55W), 339 (T76W), 341 (Y81W); and the fluorescence intensities at A. , ?are: 23100 (Y52W), 26300 (Y55W), 25800 (T76W), 21500 (Y81W). N.... The change in conformational stability for each protein is (keel mol '): -2. 90 (Y52W), -2. 21 (Y55W), +0. 71 (T76W), -0. 40 (Y81W). T76W shows an increase in stability, indicating that the Trp can form a hydrogen bond and/or bury some hydrophobic surface...

  12. Synthesis and properties of ethylphosphotriesters of oligothymidylates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haley, Carolyn Jane

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reaction UV spectra of TosC1 and the products of the phosphate activation Electrophoretic pattern of the hexathymidylic acid triester products Elution pattern from Sephadex G-25-40 of hexathymidylic acid reaction mixture ORD spectra of Et T p.... 1 M Tris HC1, pH 7. 0 ( ? ? ? ) 17 19 20 22 23 25 27 29 31 PIGURE PAGE 12 Recooling curve for poly A hexa T triester complex. 13 UV spectrum of the heat denatured poly A hexa T triester complex. 37 INTRODUCTION Since nucleic acids...

  13. Comparison of hydrolytic, transamidative, and esterase activities of cathepsin C from fetal and adult bovine spleen and muscle tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migura, Wallace William

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1963; Iodice et al. , 1966; Parrish and Bailey, 1966, 1967; and Randall and NacRae, 1967). Investigation of the properties of the cathepsins in muscle tissue is of particular importance to the meat scientist, since a break- down of the myofibrils...) isolated and purified an intracellular enzyme from rat lung which exhibited a pH optimum at 8. 4 for the hydro- lysis of urea-denatured hemoglobin. Rat skeletal muscle homogenates prepared in 2/ KC1 and incubated at 37 exhibited minimal autolysis at p...

  14. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  15. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  16. Long Primer Extension by a Novel Inverse PCR Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Stephanie Cara

    2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    , introduced by ?long primers?. Materials and Methods Sub-Cloning The DNA encoding the spinach chloroplast ATP synthase gamma subunit (atpC) was previously sub-cloned into the pET8cgam bb1 vector [23]. The pACYCatpC vector was prepared by inserting... with chloramphenicol in a rotating incubator at 250 rpm at 37?C until the medium became cloudy (approximately 4.5 hours). After growth, 5 ?L of cell suspension and 45 ?L water were heat-denatured at 95?C for 30 minutes. Cell stocks in DMSO were prepared by adding...

  17. Nuclear Power - Deployment, Operation and Sustainability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Plutonium Denaturing as an Effective Method for Nuclear Fuel Proliferation Protection in Open and Closed Fuel Cycles 331 Kryuchkov E.F., Tsvetkov P.V., Shmelev A.N., Apse V.A., Kulikov G.G., Masterov S.V., Kulikov E.G. and Glebov V.B Part 5 Thorium 363... Talbot Laboratory, Urbana, Illinois USA 1. Introduction T h e largest experien c e in operatin g nuclear power plants has been in nuclear naval propulsi o n , particul a r l y aircraft carriers and subma r i n e s . This accumul a t e d exper i e n c...

  18. Sensing DNA - DNA as nanosensor: a perspective towards nanobiotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralf Metzler; Tobias Ambjoernsson

    2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on modern single molecule techniques, we devise a number of possible experimental setups to probe local properties of DNA such as the presence of DNA-knots, loops or folds, or to obtain information on the DNA-sequence. Similarly, DNA may be used as a local sensor. Employing single molecule fluorescence methods, we propose to make use of the physics of DNA denaturation nanoregions to find out about the solvent conditions such as ionic strength, presence of binding proteins, etc. By measuring dynamical quantities in particular, rather sensitive nanoprobes may be constructed with contemporary instruments.

  19. Supported Lipid Bilayer Electrophoresis: A New Paradigm in Membrane Biophysics and Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Hudson 1982-

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    of the cell surface.6-10 While most of these studies investigate lipid systems, reports of membrane proteins in SLBs do appear in the literature.11-16 While issues with denaturation of membrane proteins on the solid support have been reported, many... innovative ideas, such as polymer cushions, have emerged to resolve this issue.13,15,17 Solving the mobility issues associated with protein incorporation has enhanced the legitimacy of using SLBs as a model for the native membrane. Sackmann pioneered...

  20. Methods and kits for nucleic acid analysis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwok, Pui-Yan (Clayton, MO); Chen, Xiangning (St. Louis, MO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting the presence of a target nucleotide or sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid is disclosed. The method is comprised of forming an oligonucleotide labeled with two fluorophores on the nucleic acid target site. The doubly labeled oligonucleotide is formed by addition of a singly labeled dideoxynucleoside triphosphate to a singly labeled polynucleotide or by ligation of two singly labeled polynucleotides. Detection of fluorescence resonance energy transfer upon denaturation indicates the presence of the target. Kits are also provided. The method is particularly applicable to genotyping.

  1. Hypoxia/reoxygenation-mediated induction of astrocyte interleukin 6: a paracrine mechanism potentially enhancing neuron survival.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maeda, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Hori, O.; Kuwabara, K.; Ogawa, S.; Yan, Shirley ShiDu; Ohtsuki, T.; Kinoshita, T.; Kamada, T.; Stern, David M.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and GTP (0.5 ram each) in the pres- ence c~-[32p]UTP (250/~Ci, 3,000 Ci/mmol; New England Nu- clear). The positive controls for induction of Ib6 transcription were nuclei isolated from astrocytes treated with LPS (10 ng/ml; Sigma Chemical Co.) for 4 h.... Samples were subjected to phenol/chloro- form extraction, and RNA was precipitated and resuspended in hybridization buffer. Hybridization to denatured murine Ib6 (20 /~g) and human ~-actin (5/~g; control) dot blotted onto nylon mem- branes was performed...

  2. Separation of 23 Cynodon turf-type cultivars using electrophoretic banding patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, Paul Henri

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on molecular weight. Molecular weight, separation is achieved by adding a mild detergent (SDS) to the extracti on buffer and gel medium that denatures the proteins and gives them a negat1ve charge proportional to thei r molecular weight. Culti var i denti fi... 600 ml beaker w1th the use of a magneti c sti r pad. While the starch suspens1on remained on the stir pad, the remaining 375 ml of gel buffer was brought to a boil in approximately 4 minutes using a Table 2. Recipes for starch gels used...

  3. Theoretical Perspectives on Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thirumalai; Edward P. O'Brien; Greg Morrison; Changbong Hyeon

    2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how monomeric proteins fold under in vitro conditions is crucial to describing their functions in the cellular context. Significant advances both in theory and experiments have resulted in a conceptual framework for describing the folding mechanisms of globular proteins. The experimental data and theoretical methods have revealed the multifaceted character of proteins. Proteins exhibit universal features that can be determined using only the number of amino acid residues (N) and polymer concepts. The sizes of proteins in the denatured and folded states, cooperativity of the folding transition, dispersions in the melting temperatures at the residue level, and time scales of folding are to a large extent determined by N. The consequences of finite N especially on how individual residues order upon folding depends on the topology of the folded states. Such intricate details can be predicted using the Molecular Transfer Model that combines simulations with measured transfer free energies of protein building blocks from water to the desired concentration of the denaturant. By watching one molecule fold at a time, using single molecule methods, the validity of the theoretically anticipated heterogeneity in the folding routes, and the N-dependent time scales for the three stages in the approach to the native state have been established. Despite the successes of theory, of which only a few examples are documented here, we conclude that much remains to be done to solve the "protein folding problem" in the broadest sense.

  4. Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodwin, Edwin H. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

  5. Exploring the Genome and Proteome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB2 for its Protein Complexes Involved in Metal Reduction and Dechlorination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, Christina Harzman, John K. Davis, Rachel Hutcheson, Joan B. Broderick, Terence L. Marsh, James M. Tiedje.

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Desulfitobacteria are of interest to DOE mission because of their ability to reduce many electron acceptors including Fe(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), As(V), Mn(IV), Se(VI), NO3- and well as CO2, sulfite, fumarate and humates, their ability to colonize more stressful environments because they form spores, fix nitrogen and they have the more protective Gram positive cell walls. Furthermore at least some of them reductively dechlorinate aromatic and aliphatic pollutants. Importantly, most of the metals and the organochlorine reductions are coupled to ATP production and support growth providing for the organism's natural selection at DOE's contaminant sites. This work was undertaken to gain insight into the genetic and metabolic pathways involved in dissimilatory metal reduction and reductive dechlorination, (ii) to discern the commonalities among these electron-accepting processes, (iii) to identify multi-protein complexes catalyzing these functions and (iv) to elucidate the coordination in expression of these pathways and processes.

  6. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  7. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  8. On the origin of the 11.3 micron unidentified infrared emission feature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza; Kwok, Sun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 11.3 $\\mu$m emission feature is a prominent member of the family of unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands and is frequently attributed to out-of-plane bending modes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We have performed quantum mechanical calculations of 60 neutral PAH molecules and found that it is difficult to reconcile the observed astronomical feature with any or a mix of these PAH molecules. We have further analyzed the fitting of spectra of several astronomical objects by the NASA PAH database program and found that reasonable fittings to the observed spectra are only possible by including significant contributions from oxygen and/or magnesium containing molecules in the mix. A mixed of pure PAH molecules, even including units of different sizes, geometry and charged states, is unable to fit the astronomical spectra. Preliminary theoretical results on the vibrational spectra of simple molecules with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures show that these structures have consistent bu...

  9. Reactor and method for hydrocracking carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL); Beeson, Justin L. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Oberle, R. Donald (Hammond, IN); Dirksen, Henry A. (Harvey, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid, carbonaceous material is cracked in the presence of hydrogen or other reducing gas to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight for gaseous and liquid fuels. The carbonaceous material, such as coal, is entrained as finely divided particles in a flow of reducing gas and preheated to near the decomposition temperature of the high molecular weight polymers. Within the reactor, small quantities of oxygen containing gas are injected at a plurality of discrete points to burn corresponding amounts of the hydrogen or other fuel and elevate the mixture to high temperatures sufficient to decompose the high molecular weight, carbonaceous solids. Turbulent mixing at each injection point rapidly quenches the material to a more moderate bulk temperature. Additional quenching after the final injection point can be performed by direct contact with quench gas or oil. The reactions are carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing reducing gas at moderate to high pressure which stabilizes the products.

  10. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  11. Biotreatment techniques get chemical help

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizardo, K. (Solvay Interox, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological treatment methods for contaminated soils and groundwater, including landfarming, pump-and-treat bioreactors and in situ bioremediation, are using hydrogen peroxide (H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) as an oxidant to reduce cleanup time and save money. Some examples of how the chemical is being used include the following: recent studies indicate peroxygen compounds, such as calcium peroxide, can be used to chemically aerate soils in landfarming applications. Pump-and-treat bioreactor systems for treating halogenated aliphatics can use an H[sub 2]O[sub 2] solution to deliver oxygen to oxygen-deficient systems. The solution has proven effective for improving bioreactor efficiency during limited oxygen solubility; in situ peroxidation can be used to partially oxidize soil contaminants to reduce their toxicity and enhance their biodegradability in the unsaturated zone prior to in situ bioremediation.

  12. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  13. Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

  14. Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Zero-Valent Iron and Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Shin, Won Sik; Ko, Seok-Oh; Kim, Myung-Chul

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an alternative technology for soil and groundwater remediation. Zero valent iron, which is the most popular PRB material, is only applicable to halogenated aliphatic organics and some heavy metals. The objective of this study was to investigate reductive dechlorination of halogenated compounds and reduction of non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons using zero valent metals (ZVMs) and catalysts as reactive materials for PRBs. A group of small aromatic hydrocarbons such as monochlorophenols, phenol and benzene were readily reduced with palladium catalyst and zero valent iron. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also tested with the catalysts and zero valent metal combinations. The aromatic rings were reduced and partly reduced PAHs were found as the daughter compounds. The current study demonstrates reduction of aromatic compounds by ZVMs and modified catalysts and implicates that PRB is applicable not only for halogenated organic compounds but nonhalogenated aromatic compounds such as PAHs.

  15. An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

  16. Evaluation of the atmospheric deposition of toxic contaminants to Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A growing recognition of the potential for transfer of pollutants from air to water prompted the study of the contribution of airborne toxic contaminants to water quality problems in Puget Sound. The study objectives were: (1) to develop a better understanding of the relative contribution of atmospheric deposition to toxic contaminants in Commencement Bay and (2) to develop efficient and cost-effective tools which could be used for assessing the question in other Puget Sound reaches and embayments. Commencement Bay was selected to represent a 'worst case' test area in Puget Sound because it is heavily industrialized, having a complex mix of air pollution sources and high concentrations of chemicals in the bay sediments. The study design included sampling and analysis for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and nutrients. Several mathematical models were created or modified for the study.

  17. Separation of sulfur and trace elements from high-viscosity petroleums and tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Bychkova, L.V.; Rudenko, N.V.; Dzhakupova, A.N.; Sarsembaeva, B.K.

    1992-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristic features of high-viscosity petroleums and tar sands of western Kazakhstan are a great chemical nonuniformity, a diverse combination of proportions of aromatic and heteroatomic structures, and a wide variation in trace-element composition. They contain, moreover, large quantities of aliphatic ethers and esters, sulfo acids, cyclic hydrocarbons, and other valuable components that may be used in the chemical, petrochemical, and other industries. The authors study employed acetylacetone or propanol for organic solvent extraction of a sulfurous concentrate, magnifying the selective separation of organosulfur compounds with the use of ultrasonic phase stratification. Oxidation of organosulfur compounds to sulfoxides, sulfones, and sulfo acids was accomplished with ionizing radiation from Co{sup 60}. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. N,N'-DICYCLOHEXYL-N"-ISOTRIDECYLGUANIDINE AS SUPPRESSOR FOR THE NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (NG-CSSX) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Rajbanshi, Arbin [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The purity, concentration, and source of the N,N'-dicyclohexyl-N"-isotridecylguanidine (DCiTG) suppressor (guanidine) used in the NG-CSSX process were found to influence solvent performance. As the starting isotridecanol used in the preparation of DCiTG is comprised of a mixture of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols, varying in composition with manufacturer, the resulting DCiTG itself is a mixture. Thus, it is necessary to address how the solvent performance will be affected by the different preparations of the DCiTG solvent component. In this study, four preparations of DCiTG from three sources were analyzed and evaluated for purity and performance, both in the absence and presence of an anionic surfactant impurity.

  19. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  20. {gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S. [Institut Armand-Frappier, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strausz, O.P.; Lown, E.M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (CA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a combination of instrumental and chemical methods, many new classes of compounds appearing as homologous series have been detected in Athabasca oil sand bitumen and in the chemical and thermal degradative products of asphaltene and the heavy ends of maltene. In general, the volatile portion of the maltene is rich in cyclic terpenoid structures and devoid in aliphatic compounds or normal alkane-derived cyclic molecules while the asphaltene fraction and heavy ends of maltene are abundant in normal alkyl-substituted aromatics, thianes, thiolanes, thiophenes, benzo- and dibenzothiophenes. This paper reports that Ru(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation permitted the quantitative estimation of the n-alkyl groups attached to aromatic carbons and of n-alkyl bridges between two aromatic units and their concentration distribution according to chain length. It also showed the presence of a large naphthenic core containing cyclic sulfides, which, during oxidation, were converted to their sulfones.

  2. Identification of organic compounds contained in the bitumen of Chattanooga oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Gowan, C.W.; Greenwell, B.E.; Markuszewski, R.; Richard, J.J.; Sepaniak, M.J.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bitumen of Chattanooga Oil Shale has been extracted with benzene. The benzene-soluble material was separated into acid base and neutral fractions with ion exchange chromatography. This separation scheme has been used extensively to separate the organic material in Green River Oil Shale. The acid fraction was esterified with BF/sub 3//MeOH. A large portion of the acid fraction was not esterified and this material was considered to be phenolic. The bases were separated into two fractions using alumina. The esters, the two base fractions and the total neutral fraction were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Two series constituting the methyl esters of normal and isoprenoid acids were identified. Several homologous series were indicated in the base fraction. The major components in the neutral fractions were two series constituting normal and isoprenoid alkanes. The analysis scheme apparently does a good job of separating and identifying aliphatic materials.

  3. Solute retention in column liquid chromatography. X. Determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients in methanol, water, and their mixtures, by combined gas-liquid and liquid-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djerki, R.A.; Laub, R.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raoult's-law activity coefficients of 3- to 7-carbon aliphatic aldehyde, ketone, ester, and alcohol solutes at infinite dilution in methanol, water, and mixtures of the two and in polydimethysiloxane, all at 293-308 K, have been determined for the first time by appropriate combination of GLC and LLC retention data. The latter data are reported in terms of mole factions, while the former are given in concentration units of molality. However, interpretation of the data is difficult because of the multiplicity of the retention mechanisms. Nevertheless, the combined GLC/LLC technique, which had been applied previously only to pure solvents, is said to offer a number of advantages over static techniques for the determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients with volatile solvents, especially with mixtures of solvents.

  4. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  5. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Thompson, Lisa M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  6. Protein Vivisection Reveals Elusive Intermediates in Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here, we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu {yields} Glu{sup -}) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We applied this strategy to ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the {beta}5-strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high-energy states.

  7. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  8. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  9. Systematic modulation and enhancement of CO{sub 2} : N{sub 2} selectivity and water stability in an isoreticular series of bio-MOF-11 analogues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tao; Chen, De-Li; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Kozlowski, Mark T.; Johnson, J. Karl; Rosi, Nathaniel L.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isoreticular series of cobalt-adeninate bio-MOFs (bio-MOFs 11-14) is reported. The pores of bio-MOFs 11-14 are decorated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate, respectively. The nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption properties of these materials are studied and compared. The isosteric heats of adsorption for CO{sub 2} are calculated, and the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities for each material are 10 determined. As the lengths of the aliphatic chains decorating the pores in bio-MOFs 11-14 increase, the BET surface areas decrease from 1148 m{sup 2}/g to 17 m{sup 2}/g while the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities predicted from ideal adsorbed solution theory at 1 bar and 273 K for a 10:90 CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} mixture range from 73:1 for bio-MOF-11 to 123:1 for bio-MOF-12 and finally to 107:1 for bio-MOF-13. At 298 K, the selectivities are 43:1 for bio-MOF-11, 52:1 for bio-MOF-12, and 40:1 for bio-MOF-13. Additionally, it is shown that 15 bio-MOF-14 exhibits a unique molecular sieving property that allows it to adsorb CO{sub 2} but not N{sub 2} at 273 and 298 K. Finally, the water stability of bio-MOFs 11-14 increases with increasing aliphatic chain length. Bio-MOF-14 exhibits no loss of crystallinity or porosity after soaking in water for one month.

  10. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Eighteenth quarterly progress report, August 12-November 12, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Davis, M.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. A survey was made of elastomers for use as gaskets for the photovoltaic module. Of the wide variety of materials examined EPDM offered the optimum combination of low compression set and low cost. The preference for EPDM is borne out by its long history of use as an automobile gasket. The commercial availability of materials that would be useful for sealants between the edge of the module and the gasket was investigated. Butyl sealants have the best combination of physical properties, low cost and a well-documented history of performance. A preferred composition has not yet been identified. One laminating type pottant ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), and two casting polymers, polybutyl acrylate and polyurethane, have been under investigation this past quarter. An EMA formulation has been developed which is easily extrudable and cures to a high gel content. So far only one commercial US source (Quinn) of aliphatic polyurethane has been located. Work is continuing to improve reaction rate as well as to eliminate source(s) of bubble formation during module fabrication. Considerable effort was spent in developing an improved polybutyl acrylate casting formulation providing high gel. Many viable curing systems are now available: however, the best formulation considering physical properties, freedom from bubbles as well as cure time utilizes Lupersol II (aliphatic peroxide) initiator. This initiator gives the desired gel after 20 minute cure at 45/sup 0/C or 12 minute cure at 55/sup 0/C.

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of CO{sub 2} Capture Reaction by Solid Sorbents: Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Validations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua; Luebke, David; Pennline, Henry; Li, Liyu; King, David; Zhang; Keling; Zhao; Lifeng; Xiao, Yunhan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally accepted that current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} are still too energy intensive. Hence, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. These CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology with validating by solid dataset of alkali and alkaline metal oxides, hydroxides and bicarbonates which thermodynamic properties are available. Then, by studying a series of lithium silicates, we found that by increasing the Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio in the lithium silicates their corresponding turnover temperatures for CO{sub 2} capture reactions can be increased. Compared to anhydrous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, the dehydrated K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}?1.5H{sub 2}O can only be applied for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technology at temperatures lower than its phase transition (to anhydrous phase) temperature, which depends on the CO{sub 2} pressure and the steam pressure with the best range being PH{sub 2}O?1.0 bar. Above the phase-transition temperature, the sorbent will be regenerated into anhydrous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Our theoretical investigations on Na-promoted MgO sorbents revealed that the sorption process takes place through formation of the Na{sub 2}Mg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} double carbonate with better reaction kinetics over porous MgO, that of pure MgO sorbent. The experimental sorption tests also indicated that the Na-promoted MgO sorbent has high reactivity and capacity towards CO{sub 2} sorption and can be easily regenerated either through pressure or temperature swing processes.

  12. New high pressure rare earth tantalates RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} (RE=La, Eu, Yb)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zibrov, Igor P., E-mail: zibrov@mail.ru [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kaluzhskoe Highway 14, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Filonenko, Vladimir P., E-mail: filv@hppi.troitsk.ru [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kaluzhskoe Highway 14, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Nikolai D., E-mail: zakharov@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Werner, Peter, E-mail: werner@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Drobot, Dmitrii V., E-mail: dvdrobot@mail.ru [Lomonosov Moscow University of Fine Chemical Technology, Prospect Vernadskogo 86, Moscow 119571 (Russian Federation); Nikishina, Elena E.; Lebedeva, Elena N., E-mail: helena_nick@mail.ru [Lomonosov Moscow University of Fine Chemical Technology, Prospect Vernadskogo 86, Moscow 119571 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rare earth tantalates La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134} and Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077} have been prepared by solid state reaction at P=7.0 GPa and T=1050–1100 °C and studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. Low hydrated amorphous tantalum, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium hydroxides were used as starting materials. Aqueous as well as anhydrous compounds were obtained. Title tantalates are crystallized in the structure type of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} [Zibrov et al. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 48 (2003) 464–471] [5]. The structure was refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffractometer data: La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, a=10.5099(2), b=7.2679(1), c=6.9765(1) Å, V=532.90(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134}, a=10.4182(3), b=7.2685(1), c=6.9832(1) Å, V=528.80(2) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077}, a=10.4557(2), b=7.3853(1), c=6.8923(1) Å, V=532.21(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam. RE atoms do not replace the tantalum in its positions but the only water in the channels of the structure. Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell so that its volume becomes less than that of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant decrease of the unit cell volume after water removal from the structure is possible due to the puckering of pentagonal bipyramid layers and change of the corrugation angle in the layer. - Graphical abstract: The structure of RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} and its HRTEM image (“A” arrows show empty channel, “B” arrows show filled channel). - Highlights: • We synthesized new tantalates of RE under high pressure high temperature conditions. • RE atoms replace water molecules in the channels of the structure. • Aqueous as well as anhydrous tantalates were obtained. • Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell decreasing RE–O distances.

  13. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  14. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  15. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  16. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  17. Putting the Squeeze on Biology: Biomolecules Under Pressure

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sol Gruner

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Modest pressures encountered in the biosphere (i.e., below a few kbar) have extraordinary effects on biomembranes and proteins. These include pressure denaturation of proteins, dramatic changes in protein-protein association, substrate binding, membrane ion transport, DNA transcription, virus infectivity, and enzyme kinetics. Yet all of the biomaterials involved are highly incompressible. The challenge to the physicist is to understand the structural coupling between these effects and pressure to elucidate the relevant mechanisms. X-ray diffraction studies of membranes and proteins under pressure will be described. It is seen that it is not so much the magnitude of the changes, but rather the differential compressibilities of different parts of the structure that are responsible for effects.

  18. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report.

  19. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Shumei [School of life science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanga Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program has been to provide recommendations for the development and deployment of more proliferation-resistant civilian nuclear-power systems without jeopardizing the development of nuclear energy. In principle, new concepts for nuclear-power systems could be designed so that materials and facilities would be inherently more proliferation-resistant. Such advanced, i.e., less-developed systems, are the subject of this volume. Accordingly, from a number of advanced concepts that were proposed for evaluation, six representative concepts were selected: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor.

  1. Genetic studies for aquaculture and stock-enhancement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Liang

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................... 23 3 Mean (standard deviation) and range of weight and length of 124-125 larvae from each of 13 spawns sampled in 2002.................... 25 4 Results of analysis of variance for early larval growth (weight) .......... 26 5 Mean (standard...× reaction buffer [500 mM KCl, 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.4)], 1.5 mM MgCl2, 2.5 mM of each DNTP, 5 pM of each primer, 0.5 units of Taq DNA polymerase (Gibco BRL). Thermal cycling was carried out as follows: initial denaturation at 95oC for 5 min, followed...

  2. Engineering and Characterization of a Superfolder Green Fluorescent Protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedelacq,J.; Cabantous, S.; Tran, T.; Terwilliger, T.; Waldo, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) often misfold when expressed as fusions with other proteins. We have generated a robustly folded version of GFP, called 'superfolder' GFP, that folds well even when fused to poorly folded polypeptides. Compared to 'folding reporter' GFP, a folding-enhanced GFP containing the 'cycle-3' mutations and the 'enhanced GFP' mutations F64L and S65T, superfolder GFP shows improved tolerance of circular permutation, greater resistance to chemical denaturants and improved folding kinetics. The fluorescence of Escherichia coli cells expressing each of eighteen proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum as fusions with superfolder GFP was proportional to total protein expression. In contrast, fluorescence of folding reporter GFP fusion proteins was strongly correlated with the productive folding yield of the passenger protein. X-ray crystallographic structural analyses helped explain the enhanced folding of superfolder GFP relative to folding reporter GFP.

  3. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Shao, Zhixin (Pasadena, CA); Affholter, Joseph A. (Midland, MI); Zhao, Huimin (Pasadena, CA); Giver, Lorraine J. (Pasadena, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  4. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Shao, Zhixin (Pasadena, CA); Affholter, Joseph A. (Midland, MI); Zhao, Huimin H (San Diego, CA); Giver, Lorraine J. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  5. A model for melting of confined DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, E; Ambjörnsson, T; Mehlig, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  6. ECB deacylase mutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Shao, Zhixin (Penzberg, DE); Zhao, Huimin (San Diego, CA); Giver, Lorraine J. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  7. More is different: 50 years of nuclear BCS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broglia, R A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the concepts which are at the basis of the development associated with a quantitative treatment of the variety of phenomena associated with the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry in nuclei have been instrumental in connection with novel studies of soft matter, namely of protein evolution and protein folding. Although the route to these subjects and associated development does not necessarily imply the nuclear physics connection, such a connection has proven qualitatively and quantitatively inspiring. In particular to model protein evolution in terms of the alignment of quasispins displaying twenty different projections, one for each of the twenty amino acids occurring in nature, and the associated symmetry breaking in information (sequence) space. Emergent properties of the corresponding phase transition are domain walls which stabilize local elementary structures (LES), few groups of 10-20 aminoacids which become structured already in the denatured state provide the molecular recognition directin...

  8. Atmospheric cloud water contains a diverse bacterial community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourtev, P. S.; Hill, Kimberly A.; Shepson, Paul B.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric cloud water contains an active microbial community which can impact climate, human health and ecosystem processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Most studies on the composition of microbial communities in clouds have been performed with orographic clouds that are typically in direct contact with the ground. We collected water samples from cumulus clouds above the upper U.S. Midwest. The cloud water was analyzed for the diversity of bacterial phylotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. DGGE analyses of bacterial communities detected 17e21 bands per sample. Sequencing confirmed the presence of a diverse bacterial community; sequences from seven bacterial phyla were retrieved. Cloud water bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by members of the cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and firmicutes.

  9. Protein folding and cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz; C. L. Siguenza

    1997-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

  10. Molecular characterization of vanadyl and nickel non-porphyrin compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Gallegos, E.J.; Fish, R.H.; Komlenic, J.J.; Wines, B.K.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel compounds in heavy crude petroleums has been the subject of current research. Arabian Heavy, Maya, Boscan, Cerro Negro, Prudhoe Bay, Wilmington Beta, Kern River, and Morichal crude petroleums have been examined. Fractions from D 2007 separations, porphyrin extractions, and solvent selective extraction with reversed phase column separations of these petroleums have been studied thoroughly by EPR. Important structural aspects are emerging from the presented data: (1) There are non-porphyrin metal complexes in the crude petroleums. (2) They appear to be smaller molecules with MW < 400 which are liberated when the tertiary structure of the large asphaltics is denatured. (3) The first coordination spheres of this class of compounds are possibly 4N, N O 2S, and 4S. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  11. Lethal Mutagenesis of Picornaviruses with N-6-Modified Purine Nucleoside Analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graci, Jason D.; Too, Kathleen; Smidansky, Eric D.; Edathil, Jocelyn P.; Barr, Eric W.; Harki, Daniel a.; Gakarraga, Jessica E.; Bollinger, J. Martin Jr.; Peterson, Blake R.; Loakes, David; Brown, Daniel M.; Cameron, Craig E.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for 60 s or 330 s in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.5), 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 5 mM MgCl2, 60 #6;M ZnCl2, 2 #6;M 3Dpol, 0.5 #6;M s/s duplex, and 0.5 mM NTP. Reaction products were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and gels were... as described above, ex- cept the reaction time was 180 s and reactions were initiated with either 0.5 mM ATP or nucleotide analogue or with 0.5 mM ATP or analogue and 10 #6;M UTP. Reaction products were separated, visualized, and quantified as described above...

  12. Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA and incorporated halodeoxyuridine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the simultaneous flow cylometric measurement of total cellular DNA content and of the uptake of DNA precursors as a measure of DNA synthesis during various phases of the cell cycle in normal and malignant cells in vitro and in vivo is described. The method comprises reacting cells with labelled halodeoxyuridine (HdU), partially denaturing cellular DNA, adding to the reaction medium monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reactive with HdU, reacting the bound mabs with a second labelled antibody, incubating the mixture with a DNA stain, and measuring simultaneously the intensity of the DNA stain as a measure of the total cellular DNA and the HdU incorporated as a measure of DNA synthesis. (ACR)

  13. A Heterospecific Leucine Zipper Tetramer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; Liu, J; Zheng, Q; Li, Q; Kallenbach, N; Lu, M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein-protein interactions dictate the assembly of the macromolecular complexes essential for functional networks and cellular behavior. Elucidating principles of molecular recognition governing important interfaces such as coiled coils is a challenging goal for structural and systems biology. We report here that two valine-containing mutants of the GCN4 leucine zipper that fold individually as four-stranded coiled coils associate preferentially in mixtures to form an antiparallel, heterotetrameric structure. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that the coinciding hydrophobic interfaces of the hetero- and homotetramers differ in detail, explaining their partnering and structural specificity. Equilibrium disulfide exchange and thermal denaturation experiments show that the 50-fold preference for heterospecificity results from a combination of preferential packing and hydrophobicity. The extent of preference is sensitive to the side chains comprising the interface. Thus, heterotypic versus homotypic interaction specificity in coiled coils reflects a delicate balance in complementarity of shape and chemistry of the participating side chains.

  14. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  15. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  16. COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in-situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krüger, Harald; Engrand, Cécile; Briois, Christelle; Siljeström, Sandra; Merouane, Sihane; Baklouti, Donia; Fischer, Henning; Fray, Nicolas; Hornung, Klaus; Lehto, Harry; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Rynö, Jouni; Schulz, Rita; Silen, Johan; Thirkell, Laurent; Trieloff, Mario; Hilchenbach, Martin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust grains. It has a mass resolution m/{\\Delta}m of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these mi...

  17. Catalytic hydrolysis of urea with fly ash for generation of ammonia in a batch reactor for flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, J.N.; Gangadharan, P.; Patwardhan, A.V.; Meikap, B.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia is a highly volatile noxious material with adverse physiological effects, which become intolerable even at very low concentrations and present substantial environmental and operating hazards and risk. Yet ammonia has long been known to be used for feedstock of flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction. Urea as the source of ammonia for the production of ammonia has the obvious advantages that no ammonia shipping, handling, and storage is required. The process of this invention minimizes the risks and hazards associated with the transport, storage, and use of anhydrous and aqueous ammonia. Yet no such rapid urea conversion process is available as per requirement of high conversion in shorter time, so here we study the catalytic hydrolysis of urea for fast conversion in a batch reactor. The catalyst used in this study is fly ash, a waste material originating in great amounts in combustion processes. A number of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at different catalytic doses, temperatures, times, and at a constant concentration of urea solution 10% by weight, and equilibrium and kinetic studies have been made.

  18. Process for removing thorium and recovering vanadium from titanium chlorinator waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, Richard S. (Albany, OR); Banks, John T. (Corvallis, OR)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removal of thorium from titanium chlorinator waste comprising: (a) leaching an anhydrous titanium chlorinator waste in water or dilute hydrochloric acid solution and filtering to separate insoluble minerals and coke fractions from soluble metal chlorides; (b) beneficiating the insoluble fractions from step (a) on shaking tables to recover recyclable or otherwise useful TiO.sub.2 minerals and coke; and (c) treating filtrate from step (a) with reagents to precipitate and remove thorium by filtration along with acid metals of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta by the addition of the filtrate (a), a base and a precipitant to a boiling slurry of reaction products (d); treating filtrate from step (c) with reagents to precipitate and recover an iron vanadate product by the addition of the filtrate (c), a base and an oxidizing agent to a boiling slurry of reaction products; and (e) treating filtrate from step (d) to remove any remaining cations except Na by addition of Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and boiling.

  19. Method of and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gases formed by combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voeste, T.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gas formed by combustion particularly exhaust gas from an electricity generating power plant. The exhaust gas flows through a reaction zone which operates like a spray dryer. A purifying liquor consisting of an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is sprayed into the reaction zone, in which the heat content of the exhaust gases causes virtually all of the water content of the purifying liquor to be evaporated. The exhaust gas is subsequently passed through a filter. Anhydrous solids are withdrawn from the reaction zone and the filter and contain at least 75% of sodium sulfite, sodium sulfate and sodium chloride and are processed to form sodium carbonate. To that end the solids are dissolved and sulfite is oxidized to form sulfate so that a solution that contains sodium sulfate and sodium chloride is formed. The sulfate is separated from that solution and the remaining solution is used in the recovery of sodium carbonate by the solvay process.

  20. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  1. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  2. Summary of the cost analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the Cost Analysis Report which provides comparative cost data for the management strategy alternatives. The PEIS and the Cost Analysis Report will help DOE select a management strategy. The Record of Decision, expected in 1998, will complete the first part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The second part of the Program will look at specific sites and technologies for carrying out the selected strategy. The Cost Analysis Report estimates the primary capital and operating costs for the different alternatives. It reflects the costs of technology development construction of facilities, operation, and decontamination and decommissioning. It also includes potential revenues from the sale of by-products such as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (ABF). These estimates are based on early designs. They are intended to help in comparing alternatives, rather than to indicate absolute costs for project budgets or bidding purposes. More detailed estimates and specific funding sources will be considered in part two of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program.

  3. A comparison of lipase-catalyzed ester hydrolysis in reverse micelles, organic solvents, and biphase systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Russell, A.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of lipases from Candida rugosa and wheat germ have been investigated in three reaction media using three acetate hydrolyses as model reactions (ethyl acetate, allyl acetate, and prenyl acetate). The effect of substrate properties and water content were studied for each system (organic solvent, biphasic system, and reverse micelles). Not unexpectedly, the effect of water content is distinct for each system, and the optimal water content for enzyme activity is not always the same as that for productivity. A theoretical model has been used to simulate and predict enzyme performance in reverse micelles, and a proposed partitioning model for biphasic systems agrees well with experimental results. While the highest activities observed were in the micellar system, productivity in microemulsions is limited by low enzyme concentrations. Biphasic systems, however, support relatively good activity and productivity. The addition of water to dry organic solvents, combined with the dispersion of lyophilized enzyme powders in the solvent, resulted in significant enzyme aggregation, which not surprisingly limits the applicability of the ``anhydrous`` enzyme suspension approach.

  4. Micro-PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) study of the effects of fluoride on mineral distribution patterns in enamel and dentin in the developing hamster tooth germ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Tros, G.H.; Bronckers, A.L.; Woeltgens, J.H. (ACTA, Amsterdam (Netherland))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) analysis was performed on unfixed and anhydrously prepared sections from developing enamel and dentin from hamsters injected with a single dose of 20 mg NaF/kg body weight. Fluoride, apart from inducing the formation of the characteristic paired response in the enamel (i.e., a hyper- followed by a hypomineralized band in the secretory enamel), also induces the formation of sub-ameloblastic cystic lesions under the transitional and early secretory enamel accompanied by relatively intense hypermineralization of the underlying cystic enamel surface. These cystic lesions, however, were only found to be associated with certain isolated populations of these cells. In addition, these lesions were restricted to the smooth surfaces of the tooth germ only. Cystic lesions such as those seen under the transitional and early secretory ameloblasts were not observed under the fully secretory or maturation stage ameloblasts. Why fluoride induces the formation of cystic lesions in some ameloblast populations while other cells in the same stage of development apparently remain unaffected, is a matter which needs further investigation.

  5. Analysis of the surface of tricalcium silicate during the induction period by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellmann, F., E-mail: frank.bellmann@uni-weimar.de [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Sowoidnich, T.; Ludwig, H.-M. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany)] [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Damidot, D. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedex (France)] [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedex (France)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy allows the analysis of surface layers with a thickness of a few nanometers. The method is sensitive to the chemical environment of the atoms since the binding energy of the electrons depends on the chemical bonds to neighboring atoms. It has been applied to the hydration of tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}, C{sub 3}S) by analyzing a sample after 30 min of hydration. Also two references have been investigated namely anhydrous C{sub 3}S and intermediate phase in order to enable a quantitative evaluation of the experimental data. In the hydrated C{sub 3}S sample, the analyzed volume (0.2 mm{sup 2} surface by 13 nm depth) contained approximately 44 wt.% of C{sub 3}S and 56 wt.% of intermediate phase whereas C-S-H was not detected. Scanning Electron Microscopy data and geometric considerations indicate that the intermediate phase forms a thin layer having a thickness of approximately 2 nm and covers the complete surface instead of forming isolated clusters.

  6. Structure of an Aluminophosphate EMM-8: a Multi-Technique Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao,G.; Afeworki, M.; Kennedy, C.; Strohmaier, K.; Dorset, D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystal structure of an aluminophosphate, EMM-8 (ExxonMobil Material No. 8), was determined in its calcined, anhydrous form from synchrotron powder diffraction data using the computer program FOCUS. A linkage of double four-ring (D4R) building units forms a two-dimensional framework with 12-MR and 8-MR channels, and differs from a similar SAPO-40 (AFR) framework only by the relationship between paired D4R units. Rietveld refinement reveals a fit of the model to the observed synchrotron data by R{sub 2p} = 0.1118, R(F{sup 2}) = 0.1769. Local environments of the tetrahedral phosphorus and aluminium sites were established by solid-state NMR, which detects distinct differences between as-synthesized and calcined materials. Distinct, reversible changes in the local symmetry of the P and Al atoms were observed by NMR upon calcination and subsequent hydration. These NMR data provided important constraints on the number of tetrahedral (T) atoms per unit cell and the connectivities of the T atoms. Detailed local structural information obtained by solid-state NMR thereby guided the ultimate determination of the structure of AlPO EMM-8 from the powder data. Comparisons are made to the recently published crystal structure of the fluoride-containing, as-synthesized SSZ-51, indicating that the unit-cell symmetry, axial dimensions and framework structure are preserved after calcination.

  7. Sol-gel synthesis of high-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejneka, M.; Riman, R.E.; Snitzer, E. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Ceramics)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride glasses are excellent laser hosts and are very well suited for a broad spectrum of optical applications. However, current fluoride glass synthesis is expensive. The sol-gel method is an affordable alternative for producing high-performance, optical-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses. The method involves forming a hydrous oxide gel of the constituent metal alkoxides and salts, polymerizing the solution to form a gel, fluorinating the gel with anhydrous HF, melting the amorphous material in an oxidizing atmosphere of SF[sub 6], and casting the melt into desired shapes. ZBLA (57ZrF[sub 4] [times] 36BaF[sub 2] [times] 4LaF[sub 3] [times] 3AlF[sub 3], in mol%) and Nd-doped (0.3 mol%) ZBLA glass rods were prepared by this process and their properties were measured. The sol-gel-based glasses had thermal and optical properties similar to those found in the literature for conventionally prepared fluorides.

  8. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  9. Recent developments in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) that operate at temperatures above 120 °C are needed to avoid catalyst poisoning, speed up electrochemical reactions, simplify the design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. This review summarizes developments in PEMs over the last five years. In order to design new membranes for elevated temperature operation, one must understand the chemistry, morphology and dynamics of protons and small molecules in existing membranes. The integration of experiments with modeling and simulation can shed light on the hierarchical structure of the membrane and dynamical processes associated with molecular transport. Based on such a fundamental understanding, membranes can be modified by controlling the polymer chemistry and architecture or adding inorganic fillers that can retain water under low relative humidity conditions. In addition, the development of anhydrous membranes based on phosphoric acid doped polymers, ionic liquid-infused polymer gels and solid acids can enable fuel cell operation above 150 °C. Considerable work remains to be done to identify proton transport mechanisms in novel membranes and evaluate membrane durability under real world operating conditions.

  10. Perform Tests and Document Results and Analysis of Oxide Layer Effects and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E. D. [ORNL; DelCul, G. D. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL; Hunt, R. D. [ORNL; Ausmus, C. [ORNL

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During the initial feasibility test using actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding in FY 2012, an incubation period of 30–45 minutes was observed in the initial dry chlorination. The cladding hull used in the test had been previously oxidized in a dry air oxidation pretreatment prior to removal of the fuel. The cause of this incubation period was attributed to the resistance to chlorination of an oxide layer imparted by the dry oxidation pretreatment on the cladding. Subsequently in 2013, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) reported on their chlorination study [R1] on ~9-gram samples of unirradiated ZirloTM cladding tubes that had been previously oxidized in air at 500oC for various time periods to impart oxide layers of varying thickness. In early 2014, discussions with Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contracted technical consultants from Westinghouse described their previous development (and patents) [R2] on methods of chemical washing to remove some or all of the hydrous oxide layer imparted on UNF cladding during irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) . Thus, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) study, described herein, was planned to extend the KAERI study on the effects of anhydrous oxide layers, but on larger ~100-gram samples of unirradiated zirconium alloy cladding tubes, and to investigate the effects of various methods of chemical pretreatment prior to chlorination with 100% chlorine on the average reaction rates and Cl2 usage efficiencies.

  11. Facile preparation of titania hollow spheres by combination of the mixed solvent method and the sol-gel process and post-calcination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Xin [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864 (China); He Junhui, E-mail: jhhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Polystyrene (core)-titania (shell) composite spheres consisting were readily prepared by a sol-gel process of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile (3:1, v/v). Smooth and homogeneous titania coatings formed when the mixed solvent was dehydrated by anhydrous sodium sulfate. The thickness and surface roughness of titania coating increase with increase of the TBOT concentration. By adjusting the TBOT concentration in the range of 5.8-29.0 mM, the size of titania-coated PS spheres could be varied from 990 to 1125 nm. Calcination at elevated temperature gave dense, homogeneous, robust shells of anatase titania. The sizes of titania hollow spheres are 11.3-16.9% smaller than those of the titania-coated PS spheres as a result of calcination-induced shrinkage. The composite and hollow spheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements. These core-shell organic-inorganic spheres and hollow ceramic spheres may have wide applications in catalysts, adsorbents, lightweight fillers, capsules, etc.

  12. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report IV, Volume 5, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), and the Sulfur Plant (Plant 10). Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8) purifies the purge gas stream from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4) to a 93% purity hydrogen product. Sour Water Treating (Plant 9) removes free ammonia and acid gases from sour water and separates them to recover a high quality anhydrous ammonia product. The Sulfur Plant (Plant 10) recovers, as a saleable liquid product, approximately 95% of the sulfur in feed streams from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), Gasification and Purification (Plant 12, described in Report IV, Volume 6), and Stack Gas Scrubbing (Plant 35, described in Report V, Volume 3). The following information is included for each of the three plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  13. Literature information applicable to the reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine to prepare uranium tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of uranium oxides and chlorine to prepare anhydrous uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}) are important to more economical preparation of uranium metal. The most practical reactions require carbon or carbon monoxide (CO) to give CO or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as waste gases. The chemistry of U-O-Cl compounds is very complex with valances of 3, 4, 5, and 6 and with stable oxychlorides. Literature was reviewed to collect thermochemical data, phase equilibrium information, and results of experimental studies. Calculations using thermodynamic data can identify the probable reactions, but the results are uncertain. All the U-O-Cl compounds have large free energies of formation and the calculations give uncertain small differences of large numbers. The phase diagram for UCl{sub 4}-UO{sub 2} shows a reaction to form uranium oxychloride (UOCl{sub 2}) that has a good solubility in molten UCl{sub 4}. This appears more favorable to good rates of reaction than reaction of solids and gases. There is limited information on U-O-Cl salt properties. Information on the preparation of titanium, zirconium, silicon, and thorium tetrachlorides (TiCl{sub 4}, ZrCl{sub 4}, SiCl{sub 4}, ThCl{sub 4}) by reaction of oxides with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and carbon has application to the preparation of UCl{sub 4}.

  14. Fluoroalkyl and Alkyl Chains Have Similar Hydrophobicities in Binding to the “Hydrophobic Wall” of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Mecinovic; P Snyder; K Mirica; S Bai; E Mack; R Kwant; D Moustakas; A Heroux; G Whitesides

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-CONHCH{sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub n}CX{sub 3}, n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobic effect in this representative system of protein and ligand: hydrophobic interactions, here, seem to comprise approximately equal contributions from enthalpy (plausibly from strengthening networks of hydrogen bonds among molecules of water) and entropy (from release of water from configurationally restricted positions).

  15. Interfacial activity of phosphonated-polyethylene glycol functionalized cerium oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Qi; J. Fresnais; P. Muller; O. Theodoly; J. -F. Berret; J. -P. Chapel

    2013-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent publication, we have highlighted the potential of phosphonic acid terminated PEG oligomers to functionalize strong UV absorption cerium oxide nanoparticles[1], which yield suspensions that are stable in aqueous or organic solvents and are redispersible in different solvent after freeze-drying. In the present work, we highlight the interfacial activity of the functional ceria nanoparticles and their potential to modify hydrophobic surfaces. We first investigated Phosphonated-PEG amphiphilic oligomers behavior as strong surface active species forming irreversibly adsorbed layers. We then show that the oligomers interfacial properties translate to the functional nanoparticles. In particular, the addition of a small fraction of phosphonated-PEG oligomers with an extra C16 aliphatic chain (stickers) into the formulation enabled the tuning of i) the nanoparticles adsorption at the air/water, polystyrene/water, oil/water interfaces and ii) the particle/particle interaction in aqueous solutions. We also found that dense and closely packed two dimensional monolayers of nanoceria can be formed by spontaneous adsorption or surface compression using a Langmuir trough. A hexagonal organization controlled by reversible and repulsive repulsion has been characterized by GISAXS. Mono- or multilayers can also be stably formed or transferred on solid surfaces. Our results are key features in the field of polymer surface modification, solid stabilized emulsions (Pickering) or supracolloidal assemblies.

  16. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  17. Separation and structure elucidation of coal molecule fragments. Final report, February 1, 1976-August 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R V; Jorgenson, J W; Maskarinec, M P; Kump, R L; Marli, F; Novotny, M; Todd, L J

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separation and identification of the polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic fractions of solvent-refined coal and its recycle oil were performed using a combination of solvent partition and chromatographic fractionation procedures with glass-capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatographic profiles were generated for each fraction and some semiquantitative data were also obtained. In total, 146 polynuclear aromatic components of SRC were tentatively identified by their molecular weights, as indicated by the mass spectra of the gas chromatography peaks. In addition, wherever possible, specific isomers have been indicated, based on comparison of spectral characteristics and retention data. Separation and identification of nitrogen-containing aromatics of the recycle oil of SRC was accomplished with a combination solvent partition and capillary gas chromatography with deactivated glass columns. High-precision retention measurements of known pyridine and quinoline derivatives are reported, utilizing parent aza-arenes as retention standards. Both precisely measured retention data and mass spectral information combined lead to positive identification of some compounds in SRC samples. A total of 48 two-membered or three-membered aza-arenes have been tentatively identified in the recycle oil.

  18. Effect of Ligands on Characteristics of (CdSe)13 Quantum Dot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Seung-gu; Xin, Minsi; Yang, Ping; Dai, Xing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread applications of quantum dots (QDs) have spurred an increasing interest in the study of their coating ligands, which can not only protect the electronic structures of the central QDs, but also control their permeability through biological membranes with both size and shape. In this work, we have used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electronic structures of (CdSe)13 passivated by OPMe2(CH2)nMe ligands with different lengths and various numbers of branches (Me=methyl group, n = 0, 1-3). Our results show that the absorption peak in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra displays a clear blue-shift, on the scale of ~100 nm, upon the binding of ligands. Once the total number of ligands bound with (CdSe)13 reached a saturated number (9 or 10), no more blue-shift occurred in the absorption peak in the UV-vis spectra. On the other hand, the aliphatic chain length of ligands has a negligible effect on the optical properties of the QD core. Analyses of the bonding characteristics confirm that optical transitions are dominantly governed by the central QD core rather than the organic passivation. Interestingly, the density of states (DOS) share similar characteristics as vibrational spectra, even though there is no coordination vibration mode between the ligands and the central QD. These findings might provide insights on the material design for the passivation of quantum dots for biomedical applications.

  19. Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

  20. Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Bowling, C.C.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Whitt, J.M.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have completed the pyrolysis/gas chromatographic analysis of all 40 coals in the present study, at two temperatures, 450/sup 0/ and 650/sup 0/C. We have also completed triplicate quantitative extraction analyses of all 40 coals, using tetrahydrofuran as the extractant solvent, and have completed a parallel set of extractions using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant solvent. In addition, we have completed analysis of over 100 additional isothermal Gieseler plastometer runs, and have made the first series of quantitative estimates of H(aromatic)/H(aliphatic) ratios from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy data. Exploratory work has begun on the petrographic characterization of the semi-coke residues from Gieseler plastometer runs, and also in characterizing THF extracts by thin layer chromatography and by column chromatography (quantitative group separations). Proximate, ultimate and petrographic characterization of the 40 coals has been completed previously. We are now prepared to start a study, using freshly re-sampled coals, of the effects of varying pressure upon the several parameters of fluidity.

  1. Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

  2. Process for the extended use of strip acid employed in the reclamation of battery acid fluid from expanded lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitz, R.A.; Bricker, M.

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for recycling contaminated sulfuric acid from lead acid batteries to reclaimed sulfuric acid for reuse in the batteries by removing contaminating iron impurities. It includes diluting the contaminated sulfuric acid to a concentration between 150 and 230 grams per liter; filtering the sulfuric acid through a first filter means to remove solid impurities; oxidizing the sulfuric acid to assure that the iron contaminants are substantially in a ferric form; removing the iron contaminants from the sulfuric acid through liquid-liquid extracting using an extraction agent comprising mixture of a mono- or di-alkyl phosphoric acid and a metal chelation collector selected from the group consisting of a 8- hydroxyquinoline substituted in the No. 7 position with a long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon radical and an oil-soluble 2-hydroxy benzophenoneoxime, a modifier which maintains solubility of the phosphoric acid and the metal chelation collector and enhances phase disengagement, and a water immiscible carrier, the molar ratio of the 8-hydroxyquinoline and the phosphoric acid being between 1:1::1:4, respectively; wherein the ratio of extraction agent to water immiscible carrier is greater than 10:90; the extraction performed at a volumetric ratio between 4:1::1:4, and repeated until the contaminating iron impurities are substantially reduced.

  3. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  4. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  5. Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Holt, B.D.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clausen, J.L. [Lockheed-Martin Energy Services, Inc., Kevil, KY (United States)] [Lockheed-Martin Energy Services, Inc., Kevil, KY (United States)

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be an important mechanism for groundwater remediation. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of natural CAH attenuation from chemical analyses of groundwater samples because mixing, dispersion, and secondary reactions can mask the chemical evidence of attenuation. In this paper, the authors explore the application of stable chlorine isotope ratio measurements as a new tool for evaluating natural attenuation of CAHs. They report stable isotope ratios of chlorine in both trichloroethene (TCE) and inorganic chloride in groundwater from an aerobic aquifer beneath an extensively contaminated industrial site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. Variations in the concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of TCE and chloride in the groundwater are consistent with those expected from natural attenuation. These data support a model in which partial TCE degradation occurred in relatively impermeable, clay-rich sediments above the aquifer, and little or no further degradation of TCE occurred within the aquifer. A record of changing conditions within the TCE source area can be inferred from the spatial variation of chlorine isotope ratios for TCE and chloride within the plume.

  6. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

  8. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  10. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

  11. Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

  12. Low-temperature pyrolysis of coal to produce diesel-fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, T.B.; Jett, O.J.; Wu, J.S.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature (623 to 773/sup 0/K) coal pyrolysis was investigated in a bench-scale retort. Factorially designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, coal-particle size, and nitrogen flow rate on the yield of liquid products. Yield of condensable organic products relative to the proximate coal volatile matter increased by 3.1 and 6.4 wt % after increasing nitrogen purge flow rate from 0.465 to 1.68 L/min and retort temperature from 623 to 723/sup 0/K, respectively. The liquid product may be suitable for blending with diesel fuel. The viscosity and density of coal liquids produced at 723/sup 0/K were compared with those of diesel fuel. The coal liquids had a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a lower aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio than premium quality No. 2 diesel fuel. It was recommended that liquids from coal pyrolysis be blended with diesel fuel to determine stability of the mixture and performance of the blend in internal combustion engines.

  13. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F. [and others

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  14. Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

  15. Identification and origin of Delta sup 8(14) 5. alpha. - and. Delta. sup 14 5. alpha. -sterenes and related hydrocarbons in an immature bitumen from the Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peakman, T.M. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)); Leeuw, J.W. de; Rijpstra, W.I.C. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of an immature Monterey bitumen contains a high relative abundance of C{sub 27}-C{sub 29} {Delta}{sup 4}, {Delta}{sup 5}, {Delta}{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}- and {Delta}{sup 14} 5{alpha}-sterenes, each having a very similar carbon number distribution. This is the first report of abundant {Delta}{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}- and {Delta}{sup 14} 5{alpha}-sterenes in an immature sediment. The {Delta}{sup 4} and {Delta}{sup 5} sterenes appear to originate directly from {Delta}{sup 5} sterols. For the Delta{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}-sterenes the authors propose an origin from {Delta}{sup 7} 5{alpha}-sterols which may be derived from a microbial transformation of {Delta}{sup 5} sterols. The presence of 5{alpha}- and 5{beta}-steranes in an unusual ratio of ca. 55:45 suggests the formation of a high abundance of 5{beta}-stanols via the known microbial reduction pathway of {Delta}{sup 5} sterols.

  16. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  17. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizinga, B.J.; Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water, C/sub 12+/-range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only a minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry-pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes of acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes, and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite.

  18. The Molecular Structure of a Phosphatidylserine Bilayer Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Jianjun [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF)] [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF); Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL] [ORNL; Monticelli, Luca [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France] [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Tieleman, D. Peter [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada] [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids play essential roles in biological processes, including enzyme activation and apoptosis. We report on the molecular structure and atomic scale interactions of a fluid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS). A scattering density profile model, aided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was developed to jointly refine different contrast small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, which yielded a lipid area of 62.7 A2 at 25 C. MD simulations with POPS lipid area constrained at different values were also performed using all-atom and aliphatic united-atom models. The optimal simulated bilayer was obtained using a model-free comparison approach. Examination of the simulated bilayer, which agrees best with the experimental scattering data, reveals a preferential interaction between Na+ ions and the terminal serine and phosphate moieties. Long-range inter-lipid interactions were identified, primarily between the positively charged ammonium, and the negatively charged carboxylic and phosphate oxygens. The area compressibility modulus KA of the POPS bilayer was derived by quantifying lipid area as a function of surface tension from area-constrained MD simulations. It was found that POPS bilayers possess a much larger KA than that of neutral phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. We propose that the unique molecular features of POPS bilayers may play an important role in certain physiological functions.

  19. Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Kim, Jang Sub (State College, PA); Pawlow, James H. (Gainesville, FL); Murtuza, Shahid (State College, PA); Kacker, Smita (Annandale, NJ); Wojcinski, III, Louis M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

  20. Regioselective thermolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane enhanced by restricted radical mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal decomposition of coal has been postulated to involve the formation of free radicals by processes such as the homolysis of aliphatic or ether-containing bridges which connect polycyclic aromatic units into a macromolecular structure. Understanding the thermal reactivity of coal is important in the study of pyrolysis, liquefaction, and coking. Mechanistic insights into the chemical reactivity of coal at the molecular level can be gained from the study of model compounds which represent structural features in coal. However, radicals generated in a cross-linked macromolecular material such as coal may experience restricted mobility when the radical center remains bound to the residual molecular structure. To model the effects of restricted radical mobility on thermally induced decomposition reactions, thermolyses of model compounds covalently attached to an inert support have been studied. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,2-diphenylethane showed a substantially altered free radical reaction pathway compared with the corresponding liquid phase behavior, while thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approximately}DPP) showed unexpected regioselectivity resulting from conformational restrictions on hydrogen transfer reactions as the surface coverage of {approximately}DPP decreased. In order to further explore the regionselectivity of hydrogen transfer induced by restricted diffusion, the thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,4-diphenylbutane ({approximately}DPB) is being examined.