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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

2

aliphatic compounds: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exhibit higher melting temperatures and crystallinity than conventional PET-aliphatic polyester Khan, Saad A. 9 Vapor Phase Adsorption of Homologous Aliphatic Ketones on...

3

Probing the denatured state ensemble with fluorescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

around the original tryptophan substitutions in RNase Sa. Regardless of the denaturant, ?max for the proteins and model compounds differed very little, 349.3 ± 1.2 nm. However, significant differences were observed in the fluorescence intensity at ?max...

Alston, Roy Willis

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a .sup.196 Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (S. Hamilton, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Method of synthesis of anhydrous thorium(IV) complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Method of producing anhydrous thorium(IV) tetrahalide complexes, utilizing Th(NO.sub.3).sub.4(H.sub.2O).sub.x, where x is at least 4, as a reagent; method of producing thorium-containing complexes utilizing ThCl.sub.4(DME).sub.2 as a precursor; method of producing purified ThCl.sub.4(ligand).sub.x compounds, where x is from 2 to 9; and novel compounds having the structures: ##STR00001##

Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Cantat, Thibault

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous carbamazepine polymorphic Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

France Beurre (Quimper, France... (hydrogenated coconut oil, refined coconut oil, refined palm oil or anhydrous milk fat) and emulsifier (SMDG... was similar for hydrogenated...

7

approach aliphatic monoesters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in treating a variety of electrostatic Jayaram, Bhyravabotla 6 Far infrared spectra of solid state aliphatic amino acids in different protonation states Physics Websites Summary:...

8

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with increasing n. However, the frequencies of aliphatic dicarboxylate dianions in bulk... . Identification of C3-C10 Aliphatic Dicarboxylic-Acids in Airborne Particulate...

9

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary amines Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: aliphatic primary amines Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ELSEVIER Marine Chemistry 51 (1995) 45-54 Aliphatic amines in Chesapeake Bay sediments Summary: ELSEVIER...

10

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic dimethylarsinoyl compounds Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: host) and aliphatic compounds (the guest) (two of the aliphatic acids are liquids at room temperature... through self-assembly with a series of commercially available,...

11

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic c-h bond Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

during its thermal evolution Summary: ) aliphatic hydrogen concentration (integrated area in the 3000-2700 cm-1 , aliphatic C---H stretching modes... hydrogen concentration...

12

Retention of anhydrous ammonia as influenced by clay mineral types, cations, temperature and moisture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to various temperature levels . . . . . ~ 20 5a 6. 70 Ammoni. a retained sxuressed as psr cent of cation-exchange capacity for olays treated with anhydrous ammonia prior to heating to various temperature levels . ~. . . . . . ~ ~ . 21 Ammonia retained... encountered in the use of anhydrous ammoni. . . REVIEW OF LITER4TURE Some of the early work with anhydx ous ammonia was done by anderson, et al. (2), and Enderson and Eattson (3). St that t1ms anhydrous ammonia as sn inorganic source of nitrogen fertiliaer...

McBee, George G

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous rare earth Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rare earth Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anhydrous rare earth Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 An assessment of the amount and types...

14

aliphatic secondary alcohols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for conversion of biomass derived feedstocks to fuels and fuel additives. Synthesis of ethanol and higher aliphatic alcohols from syngas (CO + H2... Baksh, Faisal 2010-04-19 3 The...

15

aliphatic copolyester films: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Release: Refer to the SAMPLE INDEX for a list of validated samples. Refer to the DATA 20 Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers Based on Aliphatic Polyether-Type...

16

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

17

Local and long-range electrostatic interactions in denatured Ribonuclease Sa: comparing the denatured protein with model peptides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H dependence of protein stability have highlighted substantial electrostatic structure in the denatured states of many proteins. To increase understanding of such electrostatic structure, unstructured pentapeptides have been used as models of the ionization...

Daily, Michael Douglas

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

18

Denaturing Urea PAGE -Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for short glass plate. Wear gloves. 3. Place long glass plate on 2 foam rectangles. Set up spacers and short32 Denaturing Urea PAGE - Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates 1. Clean glass plates and comb pipette, add 5 drops of dichlorodimethylsilane (Aldrich D6,082-6) to 5 mls of acetone in diposable glass

Aris, John P.

19

Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

copolymers. The method provides a way of chemically recycling PET into degradable aliphatic 2398. Full Paper: Cyclodi(ethylene succinate) (C2) was reacted with poly(ethylene terephtha- late) (PET) in the molten state, yielding high molar mass random or block PET-co- poly(ethylene succinate

Khan, Saad A.

20

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a wood pulp processing system of the type producing both pulp and a stream of lactic acid-containing black liquor solution, the processor for production of peracid bleaching agents from hydroxy acid contained in the black liquor solution, comprising: adjusting the pH of the black liquor solution to the range of about 8-9 by exposing the solution to CO/sub 2/ carbon dioxide to form an alkaline precipitate; separating solids from the black liquor solution to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, xyloisosaccharinic acid, and glucoisosaccharinic acid; decarboxylating the lower aliphatic hydroxy acids to corresponding gaseous aliphatic aldehydes by admixing a powdered semiconductor with the residual solution to form a slurry; removing the gaseous aldehydes from the residual solution by sweeping gas flow as soon as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids; reacting the gaseous aldehydes with oxygen to form corresponding peracids; and applying the peracids as bleaching agents to the pulp produced in the pulp processing system.

Chum, H.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Palasz, P.D.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

22

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic hydrocarbons formed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4.3. Lack of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons... might be interpreted as the results of contamination that introduced ... Source: Brocks, Jochen J. - Research School of Earth Sciences,...

24

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic aliphatic copolyester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

changes... . An investigation of the aromatic and aliphatic structural changes in the coking coals during carbonisation using... of heat treated coal in relation to the...

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alcohols studies Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alcohols studies Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aliphatic alcohols studies Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Electron...

26

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic amines extraction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 37 Exploratory Studies on Fast Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading Summary: using Aliphatic Tertiary Amines... -1 Acetic Acid Recovery from Fast...

27

Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c Eydiejo to measure the rates of histidine­heme loop formation and breakage in the denatured state of iso-1-cytochrome single surface histidine variants of iso-1-cytochrome c. A scaling factor (the dependence of kf on log

Roder, Heinrich

28

Plectoneme tip bubbles: Coupled denaturation and writhing in supercoiled DNA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biological information is not only stored in the digital chemical sequence of double helical DNA, but is also encoded in the mechanical properties of the DNA strands, which can influence biochemical processes involving its readout. For example, loop formation in the Lac operon can regulate the expression of key genes, and DNA supercoiling is closely correlated to rhythmic circardian gene expression in cyanobacteria. Supercoiling is also important for large scale organisation of the genome in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. DNA can respond to torsional stress by writhing to form looped structures called plectonemes, thus transferring energy stored as twist into energy stored in bending. Denaturation bubbles can also relax torsional stress, with the enthalpic cost of breaking bonds being compensated by their ability to absorb undertwist. Here we predict a novel regime where bubbles form at the tips of plectonemes, and study its properties using coarse-grained simulations. These tip bubbles can occur for both positive and negative supercoiling and greatly reduce plectoneme diffusion by a pinning mechanism. They can cause plectonemes to preferentially localise to AT rich regions, because bubbles more easily form there. The tip-bubble regime occurs for supercoiling densities and forces that are typically encountered for DNA in vivo, and may be exploited for biological control of genomic processes.

Christian Matek; Thomas E. Ouldridge; Jonathan P. K. Doye; Ard A. Louis

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

29

Metal Catalyzed Formation of Aliphatic Polycarbonates Involving Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide as Monomers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including phosgene and its derivatives. Therefore, it has been of great interest to investigate greener routes for the production of this important class of polymers. Toward this goal, the synthesis of aliphatic polycarbonates via the metal catalyzed...

Moncada, Adriana I.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

30

Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au Soonwoo Chah, Challa 06269-4060 We have made surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mea- surements of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (Cyt

Zare, Richard N.

31

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

32

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Shape memory polymers based on uniform aliphatic urethane networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aliphatic urethane polymers have been synthesized and characterized, using monomers with high molecular symmetry, in order to form amorphous networks with very uniform supermolecular structures which can be used as photo-thermally actuable shape memory polymers (SMPs). The monomers used include hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMHDI), N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine (HPED), triethanolamine (TEA), and 1,3-butanediol (BD). The new polymers were characterized by solvent extraction, NMR, XPS, UV/VIS, DSC, DMTA, and tensile testing. The resulting polymers were found to be single phase amorphous networks with very high gel fraction, excellent optical clarity, and extremely sharp single glass transitions in the range of 34 to 153 C. Thermomechanical testing of these materials confirms their excellent shape memory behavior, high recovery force, and low mechanical hysteresis (especially on multiple cycles), effectively behaving as ideal elastomers above T{sub g}. We believe these materials represent a new and potentially important class of SMPs, and should be especially useful in applications such as biomedical microdevices.

Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Herberg, J L; Marion III, J E; Wright, W J; Evans, C L; Maitland, D J

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

34

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Travaglini, Michael A. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization* Abstract-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) of lactones, such as c-caprolactone and ii-vnlerolactone. ha\\ been polymerization of ethylene oxide on starch has also been reported [ l 11. Other starch graft copolymers have been

Narayan, Ramani

37

PREPARATION OF ANHYDROUS F-18 FLUORIDE, T. Tewson. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals S165; 52, Supplement 1 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The original specific aims of the grant where cut back considerably as the study section reduced both the time and the budget for the project. The objective of the grant was to show that fluorine-18 fluoride could be prepared completely anhydrous and thus substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride using the method of Sun and DiMagno. This method involved using conventionally dried fluoride to prepare an aromatic fluoride in which the aromatic ring is substituted with electron withdrawing groups. The aryl fluoride is then dried and purified and the fluoride is displaced with an anhydrous nucleophile. Using fluorine-19 and macroscopic scale reactions the reactions work well and give anhydrous fluoride salts that are both more reactive and more selective in their reactions than conventionally dried fluoride. The original substrate chosen for the reaction was bromopentacyanobenzene (1). This compound proved to be easy to make but very hard to purify. As an alternative hexabromobenzene, which is commercially available in high purity, was tried. This reacted cleanly with conventionally dried F-18 fluoride in acetonitrile to give [{sup 18}F]-fluoropentabromobenzene (2), which could be dried by passage of the solution over alumina, which also removed any unreacted fluoride. The fluorine-18 fluoride could be liberated from (2) by displacement with an anhydrous nucleophilic tetra-alkylammonium salt but the anion had to be chosen with considerable care. The reaction is potentially reversible especially as, on the no carrier added scale, there is inevitably an excess of hexabromobenzene and so the displacing nucleophile is chosen to deactivate the aromatic compound to further nucleophilic displacement reactions. To this end tetrabutylammonium azide and tetrabutylammonium phenolate have been tried. Both work but the phenolate is probably the better choice. The F-18 fluoride produced by this process is substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride. A solution of the 3'-anhydrothymidine-5-benzoate (3) was added to the fluoride solution and 30% of the fluoride was incorporated in less than 3 minutes at room temperature were as conventionally dried fluoride requires 10 minutes at 160 C and gives {approx}10% incorporation. These results are encouraging in that they show that the objective of truly anhydrous fluoride is worth pursuing but the problem is that you end up with too much 'stuff' in the solution. Four to five milligrams of hexabromobenzene are used for the initial fluorination reaction and enough of the tetra-alkylammonium salt has to be added to react with a substantial number of those bromides. No attempt has been made to optimize these amounts but there is clearly a lot of material in the solution before the final substrate is added. To avoid these difficulties experiments involving a different, low boiling carrier of the fluoride which can be distilled from the initial fluorination mixture have been tried. Phenyltrifluoromethane sulfonate reacts with fluoride to give trifluoromethane sulfonyl fluoride which boils at -20 C as shown. This reaction works with conventionally dried fluorine-18 fluoride and the no carrier added trifluoromethane sulphonyl fluoride distills out of the reaction as it forms. The choice of nucleophile to react it with to liberate the fluoride is limited and the obvious choice is tetrabutylammonium azide as the resulting trifluoromethane sulfonyl azide is unreactive. We have shown that this works in principle but the experimental details have not been explored.

Tewson, T.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Uranium-plutonium-neptunium fuel cycle to produce isotopically denatured plutonium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In view of the considerable amount of /sup 237/ Np produced as a by-product in nuclear power reactors, possible utilization of this nuclide in the nuclear fuel cycle has been studied. In particular, the performance of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor as a neptunium burner was assessed. A strategy was developed and mass flows were computed for a denatured plutonium LWR strategy using uranium, plutonium and neptunium recycling. 10 refs.

Wydler, P.; Heer, W.; Stiller, P.; Wenger, H.U.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Thermal and mechanical denaturation properties of a DNA model with three sites per nucleotide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we show that the coarse grain model for DNA, which has been proposed recently by Knotts, Rathore, Schwartz and de Pablo (J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084901 (2007)), can be adapted to describe the thermal and mechanical denaturation of long DNA sequences by adjusting slightly the base pairing contribution. The adjusted model leads to (i) critical temperatures for long homogeneous sequences that are in good agreement with both experimental ones and those obtained from statistical models, (ii) a realistic step-like denaturation behaviour for long inhomogeneous sequences, and (iii) critical forces at ambient temperature of the order of 10 pN, close to measured values. The adjusted model furthermore supports the conclusion that the thermal denaturation of long homogeneous sequences corresponds to a first-order phase transition and yields a critical exponent for the critical force equal to sigma=0.70. This model is both geometrically and energetically realistic, in the sense that the helical structure and th...

Florescu, Ana-Maria; 10.1063/1.3626870

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

ELECTRONIC SOLUTION SPECTRA FOR URANIUM AND NEPTUNIUM IN OXIDATION STATES (III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectra have been recorded for solutions in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) of uranium and neptunium in oxidation states (III) to (VI). The spectra for U(III), Np(III) and Np(IV) in AHF are very similar to those in acidified aqueous solution, but that for U(IV) suggests that the cationic species is UF{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The AHF spectra for the elements in oxidation states (V) and (VI) are not comparable with those of the formally analogous aqueous solutions, where the elements exist as well-defined dioxo-cations. However, the AHF spectra can be related to spectra in the gas phase, in the solid state or in non-aqueous solvents for each element in its appropriate oxidation state.

Baluka, M.; Edelstein, N.; O'Donnell, T. A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

A quantitative study of the effect of structure on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aliphatic ~sters&" (H? ST 'I'basis& The agricul- tural and Hechanicul dolls~", e of Texas, iugust, 1960) ~ J 6 6 11, '. 9. , t 9 ' ~tt ', 10, 41 (199&). APPENDIX 41 TABLE Ssponificstion of Ethyl Acetate st 35 Ca Run 1 Run 2 Time, Resistance Nin... Bennyl Propiona te 14. 55 5. 477 4+041 Oi9992 )o219 Z ~ 420 0. 4604 Oe04956 9i553 TABLE Seoond Order Rate Constants for n-Butyrates Ester h35 2 ~ 1 -1 li aole sino Nethyl n Sutyrate Ethyl a-Butyrate a Propyl n Sutyrate Isopropyl n...

Gonzalez, Federico P

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

Scoggins, Lacey E

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the southern basin of Lake Michigan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan have planktonic, terrigenous, and petroleum residue origins. Surficial sediments collected near the eastern shore in 60-80 m of water contained more petroleum residue and planktonic hydrocarbons and exhibited less terrigenous character than sediments collected from the deepest location in the basin. Petroleum residue inputs have increased since 1900 as evidenced by a change in the flux of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from 6 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr to a flux of approximately 100 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr in 1980. Sediment profiles of the UCM exhibited subsurface concentration maxima that may be due to reduced inputs of combustion products or feeding by oligochaetes. Profiles of n-C{sub l7} and pristane indicated that planktonic n-alkanes undergo degradation in the aerobic, mixed zone of the sediments.

Doskey, P.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Division; Andren, A.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Water Chemistry Program

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENTH F A PRELIMINARY REPORT IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AKD IN A RECENTrests on the finding that algae have less cellulose and a

Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The unusual hydrocarbon emission from the early carbon star HD 100764: The connection between aromatics and aliphatics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain spectra of HD 100764, an apparently single carbon star with a circumstellar disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are shifted to longer wavelengths than normally seen, as characteristic of ``class C'' systems in the classification scheme of Peeters et al. All seven of the known class C PAH sources are illuminated by radiation fields that are cooler than those which typically excite PAH emission features. The observed wavelength shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose that the class C PAH spectra are distinctive because the carbonaceous material has not been subjected to a strong ultraviolet radiation field, allowing relatively fragile aliphatic materials to survive.

G. C. Sloan; M. Jura; W. W. Duley; K. E. Kraemer; J. Bernard-Salas; W. J. Forrest; B. Sargent; A. Li; D. J. Barry; C. J. Bohac; D. M. Watson; J. R. Houck

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Plant observation report and evaluation, Pennwalt Corporation, secondary and tertiary aliphatic monoamines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A site visit was made to the amine manufacturing facility of the Pennwalt Corporation, Wyandotte, Michigan, to evaluate the facility in regard to the Secondary and Tertiary Aliphatic Monoamines Criteria Document. A total of 21 people were directly in contact with the amine production process. Two to four of the maintenance personnel may also come in contact with the process. Maintenance workers ran the risk of exposure not only to primary, secondary and tertiary amine compounds, but also to several other chemicals being used in the process. The processes used to unload raw materials are described, along with reactor operations, decanter and recycling operations, distillation operations, product storage and shipping. Medical monitoring at the facility included chest x-ray, respiratory function tests, sight screening, urinalysis, and back x-rays. Restricted and potentially hazardous area signs were clearly posted. Employees wore hard hats and safety glasses on the job as well as gloves, rubber boots, face shields, goggles, and respirators as necessary. Emergency procedures are described, including fire protection. Sanitation and personal hygiene are discussed, along with monitoring of the workplace conditions.

Not Available

1980-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

48

Interactions of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes with aliphatic esters: Sorption and diffusion phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The resistance of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes to nine aliphatic esters viz., methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetoacetate, n-butyl acetate, diethyl oxalate, iso-amyl acetate, diethyl malonate, and diethyl succinate was investigated in the temperature interval 25--60 C by measuring the liquid sorption using a gravimetric method. A Fickian diffusion equation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficients, and these data were dependent on the type of ester molecules and their interactions with the geomembrane in additions to temperature and solvent concentration. The activation energy values for the diffusion process were in the range 18--41 kJ/mole and the heat of sorption varied from 0.61 to 18.50 kJ/mole. the sorption/swelling results were found to follow the first order kinetics. Solvent front velocities were calculated from the sorption data. The statistical error analysis has been presented in order to judge the reliability of the technique used. The experimental data and calculated parameters were used to discuss transport results in terms of membrane-solvent interactions. None of the esters showed any degradative effects on the geomembrane used.

Aminabhavi, T.M.; Munnolli, R.S. [Karnatak Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry] [Karnatak Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Ortego, J.D. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Mapping between the order of thermal denaturation and the shape of the critical line of mechanical unzipping in 1-dimensional DNA models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Letter, we investigate the link between thermal denaturation and mechanical unzipping for two models of DNA, namely the Dauxois-Peyrard-Bishop model and a variant thereof we proposed recently. We show that the critical line that separates zipped from unzipped DNA sequences in mechanical unzipping experiments is a power-law in the temperature-force plane. We also prove that for the investigated models the corresponding critical exponent is proportional to the critical exponent alpha, which characterizes the behaviour of the specific heat in the neighbourhood of the critical temperature for thermal denaturation.

Buyukdagli, Sahin; 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.11.061

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Inhibition effects of N,N-dimethylalkylamines and octanethiol on iron corrosion in anhydrous acetonitrile solution containing FeCl{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polarization and impedance measurements were carried out on an iron electrode in an anhydrous acetonitrile solution of 0.1 M LiClO{sub 4} and 0.01 M FeCl{sub 3} containing organic corrosion inhibitors. The inhibitors investigated were N,N-dimethylalkylamines C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} (C{sub n}DMA, n = 8, 12, 16, and 18) and octanethiol C{sub 8}H{sub 17}SH (C{sub 8}T). These compounds suppressed both cathodic and anodic processes of iron corrosion in the acetonitrile solution. The double-layer capacitances obtained from impedance data for the electrode inhibited with C{sub n}DMA were markedly lower in the potential region of the cathodic polarization curve than those for the uninhibited electrode. Ultraviolet and visible spectra of the FeCl{sub 3} acetonitrile solution containing C{sub n}DMA revealed the formation of a Fe{sup 3+} complex cation with C{sub n}DMA, and joint adsorption of the complex cation with Cl{sup {minus}} on the iron surface was substantiated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the surface treated with the solution. A surface thiolate of C{sub 8}T was formed by its chemisorption on the iron surface, resulting in a decrease in the double-layer capacitance and the cathodic and anodic current densities, respectively.

Aramaki, Kunitsugu; Kikuchi, Takeshi

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed reactor system at Building 9212. Draft environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is Iocated within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The current AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems were designed and constructed more than 40 years ago. Because of their deteriorating condition, the corrosive nature of the materials processed, and the antiquated design philosophy upon which they are based, their long-term reliability cannot be assured. The current AHF supply system cannot mitigate an accidental release of AHF and vents fugitive AHF directly to the atmosphere during operations. the proposed action would reduce the risk of exposing the Y-12 Plant work force, the public, and the environment to an accidental release of AHF and would ensure the continuing ability of the Y-12 Plant to manufacture highly enriched uranium metal and process uranium from retired weapons for storage.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Preventing Theft of Anhydrous Ammonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to occur in waves, with thieves striking the same location several times. Thefts have occurred at such unlikely places as refrig- eration systems, underground pipelines and rail cars. However, most criminals steal from above-ground tanks on farms... such as bottles or tanks may be left behind; these pose a risk to anyone who comes across them and handles them. Signs of Theft Evidence of theft includes valves not tightly closed or that seem to have been tampered with, footprints in the soil, and tire...

Smith, David

2004-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

55

Size exclusion chromatography for the unambiguous detection of aliphatics in fractions from petroleum vacuum residues, coal liquids, and standard materials, in the presence of aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in heptane eluent that can detect aliphatics unambiguously without fractionation to remove aromatics. Spherical molecules such as colloidal silicas elute at the exclusion limit, while alkanes up to C{sub 50} elute through the porosity of the column. Detection of aliphatics was defined by use of an evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector with the simultaneous absence of UV absorbance at 300 nm. Alkanes smaller than C{sub 12} were not detected because the conditions of operation of the ELS caused their evaporation. All aromatics eluted after the permeation limit of about 25 min and were not detected until well after 45 min by their UV absorbance. The SEC method was applied to petroleum vacuum residues and coal liquids, and their fractions were soluble in pentane or heptane. High-temperature (HT) GC-MS confirmed the presence of alkanes in the pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum vacuum residues, but did not elute any of the aromatics known to be present from SEC. Alkanes were examined in pentane-soluble fractions of a coal digest and a low-temperature coal tar; alkanes up to C{sub 40} were detected in the low-temperature tar and, although present in the digest, were masked by aromatics. No alkanes were detected by either SEC or HT GC-MS in fractions from a coal tar pitch. Aromatics in coal liquids and one petroleum residue were also examined by SEC using NMP as eluent and by UV fluorescence spectroscopy. The SEC method will find application to pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum liquids and coal liquids where the alkanes are concentrated relative to the more abundant aromatics. 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Eiman M. Al-Muhareb; Fatma Karaca; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Ian D. Bull; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of catalysts used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are determined to a significant degree by the carriers used in their preparation. This paper deals with a study of the effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt-based catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/. Co catalysts that are active in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are those on which the adsorption of H/sub 2/ exceeds 3.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co and the adsorptin of carbon monoxide exceeds 7.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen are adsorbed on active catalysts in weakly bound forms. A mechanism is proposed for the formatin of an active center and the adsorption of carbon monoxide on Co-catalysts which includes the appearance of a partial positive charge on the cobalt atom.

Lapidus, A.L.; Jem, H.C.; Krylova, A.Y.

1983-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

57

Biophysical studies of anhydrous peptide structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

peptide folding motifs in the absence of solvent, suggesting that in vacuo studies may potentially discern the role of solvation in protein structure. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) combines a gas-phase ion separation based on collision cross...

McLean, Janel Renee

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

The system is charged when ammonia, NH3, is heated in the Endothermic reactor by the sun (Qsol) transforming it into N2 and H2. These gasses are then cooled and stored in the...

59

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Denaturing of Molecules | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these polyesters are already commercially produced in bacteria under nutrient-limited conditions; however a mixture of the polymer in methanol (approximately 100 ppm) to which was added 10 % of methanol saturated

62

anhydrous transcurium halides: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of metal halide lamps are investigated, including acoustic resonance, spectral energy, and luminous efficacy. To operate metal halide lamps at intended conditions, (more)...

63

anhydrous hydrogen fluoride: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

64

anhydrous hydrogen peroxide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with diesel. Main focus of this research is to investigate the performance of diesel engine by injecting hydrogen peroxide as blends with diesel at 2%, 5% and 10 %...

65

anhydrous interplanetary dust: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

J. A. M. McDonnell; Kalle Bunte; Hakan Svedhem; Gerhard Drolshagen 2006-09-13 3 Fractal Signatures in Analogs of Interplanetary Dust Particles CERN Preprints Summary:...

66

Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket |21,-CommitteeItemsHiTek logo HiTek

67

A comparison of the catalytic effect of anhydrous ferric chloride and anhydrous aluminum chloride in Friedel and Crafts reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ebo ao4ivtlg Xeoreaeoe ek4h. teoeaeeo te cot yoi oeeh of foeeio 44lo?Mo' ee4 Ileoh84 e csete5he A4 4 yot ooe4 e{coehijyo 45 oxooee of 49 cot yes ooet* at htihee ooaoonleettoee of son to ohtoHCo %be cot&41@ eeeeeeeo4+ oee W eo 4eb4 ~ M yeti@ of %he...

Weddell, William MacNelley

1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Substrate stabilization of lysozyme to thermal and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. , and Mayer, R ~ J ~ (1976) Biochemic J. 154, 359-370 Schimke, T T. ('1964) J Biol Chem 239, 3808-3817 Goldberg, A. L. and St. John, A. C. (1976) Annu. Rev. Biochem, 45, 748-803 Dice, J ~ F. , Dehlinger, P ~ J ~, and Schimke, R ~ T. (1973) JB Biol Chem... 248, 4220-4228 Dehlinger, P. J ~ and Schimke, R ~ T ~ (1972) J ~ Biol. Chem 246, 2574-2583 Dice, J F. and Goldberg, A L, (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad Scil U ~ ST A. 72, 3893-3897 Bohley, P ~, Kirschke, H, Langner, J ~, Niederanders, 8 ~, Ansorge...

McGrath, Timothy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

69

Self-protection analysis of denatured thorium-plutonium fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With growing demands for commercial nuclear power, there is also a growing need for better energy efficiency from nuclear power reactors. In order to reach a high burnup up to 100 MWd/kg, previous research has examined the ...

Torres, Luis Alberto (Torres Mendoza)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A microfluidic device for DNA sequencing by denaturation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stage insert Thermoelectric modules for heating/cooling PEEKThermoelectric (TE) modules are incorporated to provide heating and coolingCooling and heating capabilities are provided by thermoelectric modules,

Walsh, Matthew Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Substrate denaturation and translocation by a proteolytic machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many AAA+ molecular machines generate power and drive cellular processes by harnessing energy from cycles of ATP hydrolysis. ClpX is a relatively simple AAA+ ATPase that powers regulated protein degradation by binding ...

Kenniston, Jon Anders

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Barnase as a model for the denatured state of proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedure for Barnase purification. Without him we would still be stuck with the old method of purification. I need to thank David Schell and Saul Trevino for their support and advise on all practical matters of laboratory work as well the rest... of the Pace/Sholtz lab for their support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . nl ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . . TABLE OF CONTENTS. V1 LIST OF FIGURES. . V11 INTRODUCTION. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. . Expression and Purification Scheme I. Expression and Purification...

Hoffart, Lee Michael

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

73

aliphatic hydrocarbons separacion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: by the Spanish Ministry: TITLE: Gestion de la movilidad basada en la separacion de identificadores. (NAME: Naming:...

74

aliphatic tertiary amines: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the system. If so, all close binaries should be members of triple (or higher-order) systems. As a test of this prediction, we present a search for the signature of third...

75

aliphatic ch bonds: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2015-01-01 39 H-atom high-n Rydberg time-of-flight spectroscopy of CH bond fission in acrolein dissociated at 193 nm Chemistry Websites Summary: H-atom high-n Rydberg...

76

aliphatic carboxylic acids: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

77

aliphatic carboxylic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

78

Quantitative temperature effects on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Heat of Activation Entro of Activati an Free Ener o t vat on Using Eyring's basic equation40 40. S. Glasstone K. J. Laidler, H. Eyring, "The Theory of, Rate Processes, " NcGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. , New York, N. Y. , 1941: p. 195. k = K -2 (18...

Schreck, James Otto

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

aliphatic saturated primary: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic...

80

Characterization of a Saturated and Flexible Aliphatic Polyol Anion Receptor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nature employs flexible molecules to bind anions in a variety of physiologically important processes whereas supramolecular chemists have been designing rigid substrates that minimize or eliminate intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions to carry out anion recogni-tion. Herein, the association of a flexible polyhydroxy alkane with chloride ion is described and the bound re-ceptor is characterized by infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase, computations, and its bind-ing constant as a function of temperature in acetonitrile.

Shokri, Alireza; Schmidt, Jacob C.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Determination of Absolute Coverages for Small Aliphatic Alcohols on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape, Density,TiO2(110). | EMSL Absolute Coverages

82

Evidence of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed Ethylene  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 tonusing ARMEvenFlames. | EMSL of

83

Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Aliphatic Dicarboxylate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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84

Quantitative relationships between structure and reactivity of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~rity of' cstor and bsso s~lution (100 nl. ), 0. 02/76 ii &ol~rfty of nixture of' base and ester solution, 0. 01186 '! t, R& "inutco Qhm 1176 1/d x 10 (1/R 1/R ) x 10 1/t (1/2 - 1 ~Rt} x 1(P o 0 0, (~90' 7 9, 0 11. 0 1': 6 Q, ypCQ 1 940 Jg.... 210 1. 1$ 0, y~? -l. r4 0, 215 -O. g Wtc on i'. ethyl a b 0 1' 0. 00 -0. 'V -0, 67 1, 06 -0, 70 -1. 24 -1. 74 -2. 46 -0 69 (n-y) loC ~k 1 ~ 2iFgG 1, 169' d. 87l7 &47100 O. -fPjO 0. 1752 -0. 1700 a b a, :al'erenoe 5', roI'orenoo 9...

Yager, Billy Joe

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

aliphatic chains affects: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115; b Department, maximum entropy reconstruction, non-uniform sampling, reduced-dimensionality, side-chain...

86

aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxide phosphors. Furthermore, strong photoluminescence (PL) in Zn SiO doped with rare earths such as Eu Steckl, Andrew J. 295 Circularly Polarized Photoluminescence as a...

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous silicate melt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

glass... transition fragility The viscosity of silicate ... Source: Russell, Kelly - Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia Collection:...

88

UNCORRECTED 2 A thermochemical analysis of the production of anhydrous MgCl2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With a density of 1:74 g=cm3 magnesium is 4.5 times 15 lighter than steel and 1.6 times lighter than aluminum 16 [1]. The mechanical properties of magnesium castings 17 make them competitive with aluminum castings The expectation of increased utilization of magne- 23 sium in automotive applications has stimulated renewed 24

Sadoway, Donald Robert

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous li uranyl Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and the dissolution of nitric acid... started from "random" mixtures of water, TBP, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate, complexation of uranyl Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous portland cements Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 32 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: times smaller than those of...

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous uranyl chloride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were then warmed to -70C and rinsed three times with acetone... of fixatives: 10% acrolein, 0.2% osmium, and then 10% glutaraldehyde. Staining was with 0.5% uranyl acetate......

92

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous phospholipidic membranes Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

manipulation, liposomal membranes adhered to each other only in a certain range of CaCl2... to and add positive charges to the lipids, and that membranes are separated and...

93

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous magnesium chloride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

magnesium ion concentration dependence of strand exchange... M Tris-acetate or Tris-HCI (pH 7.5), IO mM magnesium acetate or magnesium chloride, 3.7% glycerol, 1 m... and...

94

Partition coefficients of substrates and products and solvent selection for biocatalysis under nearly anhydrous conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of solvent on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase toward three substrates was studied at a constant water activity of either 0.74 or 0.86. No simple correlation was observed between enzyme activity and log P, but partition coefficients of substrate (P[sub s]) and product (P[sub p]) gave systematic relations with enzyme activity. When initial reaction rates were considered, there was a bell-shaped relationship between enzyme and P[sub s] with an optimal P[sub s] for each substrate. This can be explained by assuming that the solvent affected the enzyme activity primarily by affecting the substrate concentration in the aqueous layer around the catalyst where the enzymic reaction occurs. When long-term reaction rates were considered, a high P[sub p]/P[sub s] ratio was consistent with preservation of enzyme activity.

Yang, Zhen; Robb, D.A. (Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology)

1994-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous scandium yttrium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1995, PAGE 525 Classification Summary: diagrams of yttrium with scandium and other rare earth metals are characterized by continuous rows of solid... .40 Young's Modulus and...

96

An investigation of the effectiveness of anhydrous mud acid to remove damage in sandstone formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENT NO. 3. DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENT NO. 4. . . DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENT NO. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. . . . . Conclusions. . Recommendations. REFERENCES. APPENDIX A. Page 1V Vl vln 1X 18 20 22 24 26 28 28 29... Class 8536 Size 00 thru 4 Type S NEMA Starters (Internal Connsdion) Fedory Vrdre p n 4 5I I STOP Il 6 L J N. C. Contests + COIL 4, 3 Wire Control Separate Source Overload Contact Thermal Unit 3 Required X2 4 r""l 4 (Ground If Used) F F (If...

Haase, Dalan David

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous molar ratios Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ratios of magnesium to tin... of compounds in MgOSnO2 system is given here. 2.1.1. Solid-state reaction (SSR) route Two molar ratios (1... product. The stoichiometric...

98

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous alcohol evaporated Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

peroxide Copper, chromium, iron, most metals or their salts, alcohols, acetone... , carbon tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia...

99

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous proton conduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nafion... .00 The Electrochemical Society, Inc. A Novel Fluorine Production Process in a Proton Exchange Membrane Reactor Robert... membrane-separated electrochemical...

100

A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights, Substantive(Sichuan,Financial Framework For

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Anhydrous and Water-Assisted Proton Mobility inPhosphotungstic Acid. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail ShareRedAndreas E VasdekisAngela NorbeckThin Foil .

102

A study of the condensation of propene and isobutene with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Distillsdioa of Csadeasaiioa Products osiag Porrio Chlosido aa4 JGaajaaa Chlox'ido ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IC II. Kssillatioa of Polyaorkxaaioa Pzodue1s asiad Povris Chio&do sad Aloaiaaa Chlos ido ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e l... (lygs) ~ due te the higher parity ef the slhoao whish was eeadeaood with tho areastio hfdrsearboa. lsobatsae pr?yare4 bf the dehydratiea ef tertiarf batrl sloohel is reported te have a parity greater thea 99 yer coat Qsiag oqaiaelsr ssswats...

Carpenter, Louis Linden

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Impact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up scaling from experimental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the atmosphere. CO2 is captured from exhaust gas in power plants or industrial units and then stored of the saturation profile evolution with two phase flow model integrating thermal effects. An up scaling on recent experiments and numerical simulations, the near-well injection zone is identified

Boyer, Edmond

104

Figure 1: Functionalization of TiO2 by anhydrous chemical vapor deposition of trifunctional siloxane adsorbates.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

siloxanes form only 2 covalent bonds, in a `bridge' mode with adjacent Ti4+ ions on the TiO2 surface of binding enthalpies at the DFT B3LYP/(LACVP/6-31G**) level of theory indicating that the `bridge' binding optical, electrical, magnetic and mechanical properties of semiconductor materials. For example, dye

105

A novel, easily synthesized, anhydrous derivative of phosphoric acid for use with electrolyte in phosphoric acid-based fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] such as polybenzimidazole, into a very promising and cost-competitive alternative[4] to the Nafion fuel cell[5, 6 in phosphoric acid-based fuel cells. Younes Ansari, Telpriore Tucker, and C. Austen Angell* Dept. of Chemistry as a fuel cell electrolyte, by designing a variant of the molecular acid that has increased temperature

Angell, C. Austen

106

An investigation of some of the effects of anhydrous ammonia on the clay minerals montmorillonite and illite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* For most plants, it is as good a source of nitrogen as any other ammoniacal form of nitrogen. The effects of ammonia on the soil have not been worked out as clearly as the effects of ammonia on plants. In recent years deterioration of the physical... potassium but less than illite. Stanford (25) found that K+ was fixed only if the material was dried. Sohn and Peech (24.), in a study of New York soils, found the highest amounts of ammonia were fixed by acid soils containing large amounts of organic...

Whiteley, Eli Lamar

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Effect of the Protein Denaturants Urea and Guanidinium on Water Structure: A Structural and Thermodynamic Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the hydrogen bond network of water in the first hydration shell of urea and guanidinium were analyzed in terms of the random network model using Monte Carlo simulations. Bulk water consists of two populations of hydrogen and more bent hydrogen bonds. In the first shell of urea, hydrogen bonds between waters solvating the amino

Sharp, Kim

108

J. Mol. Biol. (1995) 252, 672708 Acid and Thermal Denaturation of Barnase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g. on tyrosine and tryptophan sidechains. The hydrogen-bonding propensity of the water molecules tends structural elements, where water molecules compete with the interstrand and intrahelical hydrogen bonds state to a partially unfoldedDepartment of Chemistry conformation has been studied by molecular dynamics

Caflisch, Amedeo

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect surfactant denaturation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics, Harvard University Collection: Physics 18 Controlling Nonspecific Protein Adsorption in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System by Controlling Summary: concentrations of...

110

Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double-Gradient Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial Ecology Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double, including the presence or absence of vegetation, depth into sediment, and season. Double- gradient of these similarity coefficients were used to group banding patterns by depth into sediment, presence or absence

Sherman, Tim

111

Nanotube Confinement Denatures Protein Helices Eric J. Sorin and Vijay S. Pande*,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Simulations were performed on the Folding@Home distributed computing network as described previously11 using

Sorin, Eric J.

112

Probing structural heterogeneities and fluctuations of nucleic acids and denatured proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polyelec- trolytes and protein folding in particular, standsdynamics ? protein folding ? single-molecule ?uorescencestructure and dynamics. Protein folding is the most spec-

Laurence, T A; Kong, X X; Jager, M; Weiss, S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated constant denaturant Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 21 Single-molecule protein folding: Diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies Summary: are fairly...

114

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-denatured acbp controlled Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Biology and Medicine 5 Rapid mixing methods for exploring the kinetics of protein folding Heinrich Roder,a,b,* Kosuke Maki,a,1 Summary: events, such as cis-trans...

115

Toward a Taxonomy of the Denatured State: Small Angle Scattering Studies of Unfolded Proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the critical role the unfolded state plays in defining protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics (Berg et al., 2002; Dunker, 2002; Shortle, 2002; Wright and Dyson, 2002), our understanding of its detailed structure remains rather rudimentary; the heterogeneity of the unfolded ensemble renders difficult or impossible its study by traditional, atomic-level structural methods. Consequently, recent years have seen a significant expansion of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) techniques that provide direct, albeit rotationally and time-averaged, measures of the geometric properties of the unfolded ensemble. These studies have reached a critical mass, allowing us for the first time to define general observations regarding the nature of the geometry - and possibly the chemistry and physics - of unfolded proteins.

Millett, I.S.; Doniach, S.; Plaxco, K.W. (Stanford); (UCSB)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

caused progressive damage to the molecular structure of type I collagen as assessed by Fourier transform aortic valve cusps were 65.2 ± 8.66 g uronic acid/10 mg of dry weight for control and 7.91 ± 1.1 g uronic acid/10 mg of dry weight for 10­300 million cycled cusps. Together, these molecular changes contribute

Zand, Robert

117

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic halogenase syrb2 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Technologies and Information Sciences ; Engineering 63 Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended...

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary diamines Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Davis Collection: Biotechnology 56 Production of 11C-Labeled Summary: Carbon Monoxide - For preparation of 11C-labeled primary amides or hydrazides The method is...

119

Calorimetric study of adsorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons on reduced cobalt catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been made of the heats of adsorption and the adsorption isotherms of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons on Co at 298/sup 0/K; the content of organic matter in the catalyst has been determined after use in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It is concluded that the Fischer-Tropsch process includes stages of diffusion of the original reactants and the products through a liquid film of hydrocarbons coating the catalyst; the hydrocarbon molecules are adsorbed on the surface in the ''lying down'' position; the adsorption of paraffins is reversible and is described by the BET theory; olefins form an irreversibly chemisorbed monolayer, above which reversible adsorption takes place; the ease of desorption of the paraffins explains their preferential formation in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Ostrovskii, V.E.; Medvedkova, E.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Synthesis Gas Conversion to Aliphatic Alcohols: Study of MoS2 catalytic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by sulfidation of ammonium thiomolybate and acetate salts of co-promoters. Several catalyst formulations were prepared by calcination, followed by doping with alkali promoters. Solid state modifications were made in some cases to dilute the active MoS2 material...

Baksh, Faisal

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic unsaturated unconjugated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine 82 Kinetics and Mechanism of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inactivation by Acrolein Summary: , -unsaturated aldehyde acrolein from a variety of sources. The reaction of...

122

Binary Phases of Aliphatic N-Oxides and Water: Force Field Development and Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the reactivity of the swollen cellulose material for further derivatization in pollution-free industrial fiber future parametrization of other species. By construction, the force field is compatible with widely used play an increasingly important role for industrial applications, e.g., for tuning solubility

Berry, R. Stephen

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic compounds isolation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical structure of perhydrous coals; FTIR and Py-GCMS investigation Summary: through flash-pyrolysis. The perhydrous character of the coals is not reflected either in the...

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic acyclic diols Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ligands. The most efficient route is the phosphorylation of chiral diols with a phosphorous triamide.2... step procedure starting with the synthesis of a phosphorochloridite...

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alkyl quaternaries Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of this alkylation reaction can also be catalyzed by chiral titanate complexes2-4 (e.g., TAD- DOLs2 and chiral... with various substrates. This alkylation approach provides a...

126

aliphatic solvent n-hexane: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

n-hexane crystallized in silicon nanochannels: A combined x-ray diffraction and sorption isotherm study CERN Preprints Summary: We present an x-ray diffraction study on n-hexane...

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic carbon-centered radicals Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

preprintsreprints & other Collection: Physics 15 Acetone-Photosensitized Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Summary: ) Ross, A. B.; Neta, P. Rate constants for reactions of...

128

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(ii) in degradative solidification/stabilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................................7 2.1 Degradative Solidification/Stabilization...................................................7 2.2 Cement Chemistry.....................................................................................8 2.2.1 Portland Cement... of typical cements . .........................9 Table 2.2 Portland cement compound transformation................................................15 Table 2.3 The oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides of Fe.....................................16 Table 2...

Jung, Bahng Mi

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

129

A kinetic study of the reactions of diphenyldiazomethane with some aliphatic carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(a) C. K. Ingold, J. Chem. Soc., 1032 (1930). (b) S. W. Timm and C. N. Iiinshelwood, J. Chem. Soc., 862 (1933). (c) C. K. Ingold et al., J. Chem. Soc., 3^27?(l 9^3). 13 ?. A. Waters, "Physical Aspects of Organic Chemistry," D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc...., New York, N. Y., 1950# Chapter XI. nil (a) I. Dostrovsky, E. D. Hughes, and K. Ingold, J.Chem. Soc., 173 (19U6). (b) K. A. Cooper, S. D. Hughes, C. K. Ingold, and B. J. Mac Nulty, J. Chem. Soc., 2038 (l 9 l|8). (c) P. M. Dunbar and L. P. Hammett, J...

Hoefelmeyer, Albert Bernard

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University of Wyoming Collection: Biology and Medicine 71 ERICKA' and ATHENA' Winter Canola Summary: was not significantly different from the high quality cultivar Cascade. Total...

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic compounds estudo Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons Source: Shaw, John - Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering,...

132

Matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

established that the new ILMs provided good spottospot reproducibility and high ionization efficiency compared/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDIMS). The polymers, formed by a condensation reaction of three components

Yang, Jian

133

Micro-FTIR Study of Soot Chemical Composition &ndash; Evidence of Aliphatic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovationMichael M. May,

134

Competitive Oxidation and Reduction of Aliphatic Alcohols over (WO3)3  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity Involvement andMISR, and4 N ACompetitions: Student

135

Melt Inclusion Formation Mechanisms and Compositional Effects in High-An Feldspar and High-Fo Olivine in Anhydrous Mafic Silicate Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a single 1 cm phenocryst (Sinton et al., 1993; Nielsen et al., 1995; Johnson et al, 1996; Sours-Page et al or enriched in particular major, minor or trace elements (Sinton et al., 1993; Nielsen et al., 1995; Saal et

Kurapov, Alexander

136

/ www.sciencexpress.org / 24 September 2009 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1178658 The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an ongoing surficial process. OH/H2O production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration. The Moon has been believed to be quite dry

Perfect, Ed

137

Bioorthogonal Chemistries for Labeling Living Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equiv. ) was dissolved in acetonitrile (70 mL, anhydrous).equiv. ) in cold (0 o C) acetonitrile (60 mL, anhydrous) wasequiv. ) was dissolved in acetonitrile (44 mL, anhydrous).

Sletten, Ellen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Application of organolithium compounds for the preparation of some aliphatic and alicyclic phosphines, phosphine oxides and phosphine sulfides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aoo4 ofter ~ oeer ao4iaa ) Iles parehaso4 froa Ce So esfflNlt Coo (tahar o aaalpoe4 roe/oat) y eoatsiao4 tw(t)&4 IOII sa4 free ssl, fsr $ QL 1a all eaporisoats s throoeoeho4 ross4 hottoae4 flash oas aso4i k Class stia'rer, soalo4 froa tho...

Screttas, Constantinos G

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

139

INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

Harms, Kyle E.

140

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and at the Nature of Asphaltenes" , Preprints L Div. of Fuelcoal that the formation of asphaltenes might be ascribed to

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Protein folding by distributed computing and the denatured state ensemble Neelan J. Marianayagam, Nicolas L. Fawzi, and Teresa Head-Gordon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

July 26, 2005) The distributed computing (DC) paradigm in conjunction with the folding@home (FH) client from higher energy subpopulations in the DSE. folding mechanism folding@home two-state kinetics Poisson a particular strength of the distributed computing (DC) approach known as folding@home (FH), which compares

Head-Gordon, Teresa L.

143

NMR Characterization of the Aliphatic / Pairing for Recognition of A,T/T,A Base Pairs in the Minor Groove of DNA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Recei been inserted to reset the register. Complexes of three pyrrole-imidazole polyamides of sequence

Mrksich, Milan

144

A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization been prepared from 6-[3'-(N-pyrrol)propoxy]-2-hydroxyacetophenone and diaminoethane in the presence containing pyrrol groups has been investigated in DMF and acetonitrile solutions using cyclic voltammetry

Boyer, Edmond

145

The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Design, synthesis and incorporation of fluorescent thiophene-modified nucleoside analogs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dissolved in anhydrous acetonitrile to prepare solutions atdiluted with anhydrous acetonitrile and placed directly onto2 CH 2 CN, 1H-tetrazole, acetonitrile, 63%. 2.6 – Initial

Noé, Mary Streid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

University of California Radiation Laboratory Progress Report for November, 1947  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

preparE Since anhydrous uranyl nitrate for use in the studyevacuation of the hydrated uranyl nitrate salts resulted in

Perlman, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous silver nitrate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: , bromine, copper, fluorine, silver, mercury Acetone Concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixtures Alkali... (anhydrous) Ammonium...

149

Semipermeable polymers and method for producing the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polyamide membrane including reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant having one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane including the polyamide membrane on a porous support.

Buschmann, Wayne E

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Attachment F Marketplace Prohibited Items November 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Alcohol (ethyl alcohol [ethanol] & denatured) · Alcoholic Beverages · Artwork (paintings, pictures, office

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylated three-ring pahs Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rings has advanced significantly. Bacterial isolates, which... N CH3 NO2 NO2 O2N NO2 BTEX PAHs PCBs Chlorinated aliphatics Aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons... that many classes...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - aktiivsus suune proflaktilise Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

data suun'ilwhitSubunit liB ,i, rock XRF glass Subunit IIC (anhydrous clasts Source: Rugh, Wilson J. - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins...

153

Design, synthesis and application of novel fluorescent nucleosides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anhydrous pyridine and acetonitrile were obtained fromcm -1 Water Methanol Acetonitrile Dichloromethane Ethyl1-Propanol Butanol Acetonitrile DMSO DMF Ethyl Acetate 1,4-

Greco, Nicholas Joseph

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Control of the chemical structure of perhydrous coals; FTIR and Py-GC/MS investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through flash-pyrolysis. The perhydrous character of the coals is not reflected either in the aliphatic

Boyer, Edmond

155

Chain Conformation of Poly(dimethyl siloxane) at the Air/Water Interface by Sum Frequency Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those based on aliphatic fluorocarbon moieties. Its glass transition temperature of -123 °C is among

156

New framework hydrous silicate K{sub 3}Sc[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] {center_dot} H{sub 2}O related to the high-temperature anhydrous silicate K{sub 3}Ho[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] and symmetry analysis of a phase transition with prediction of structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystals of a new framework silicate K{sub 3}Sc[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, space group Pm2{sub 1}n (nonstandard setting of space group Pmn2{sub 1} = C{sub 2v}{sup 7}), are obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The structure is determined without preliminary knowledge of the chemical formula. The absolute configuration is determined. The structure is close to that of the high-temperature K{sub 3}Ho[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] phase, which was obtained upon the heating of K{sub 3}HoSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}. This structural similarity is due to the specific conditions of synthesis and an analogous formula, where holmium is replaced by scandium. A symmetry analysis shows that the high local symmetry of a block (rod) is responsible for the first-order phase transition of both the order-disorder (OD) and displacement type. The number of structures in which the simplest and high-symmetry layers are multiplied by different symmetry elements are predicted.

Belokoneva, E. L., E-mail: elbel@geol.msu.ru; Zorina, A. P.; Dimitrova, O. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Manufacturing improvement and thermal property characterization of the frame structure of an Ultra-high Throughput Mutational Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE) is a DNA separation technique that allows the detection of mutants at a fraction of 10Ě???. CDCE uses a region of constant temperature and constant denaturant concentration ...

Lin, Jiengju J. (Jiengju James)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloplastic graft material Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ovei the level of grafting, ease of control of the final material properties... Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization* Abstract......

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetic acid cyano- Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

using Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from Fast Pyrolysis oil. An Exploratory Study on Liquid... of large amounts of organic acids (acetic...

160

E-Print Network 3.0 - alicyclic compounds Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EAST Summary: . Only a few aliphatic and alicyclic molecules exhibit fluorescence in the UV and visible region. Among... variation of these compounds in samples from different...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid derivatives sorbtsionnye Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: , 6 due to increased demands for derivatives like vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Currently, acetic acid... CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - anacardic acid derivatives Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: , 6 due to increased demands for derivatives like vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Currently, acetic acid... CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from...

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid derivative hs-1200-induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: , 6 due to increased demands for derivatives like vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Currently, acetic acid... CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from...

164

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon clusters Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aliphatic chains as key intermediates for the nucleation Summary: to macromolecular building blocks (nanoparticles) that eventually turn into soot. Polycyclic aromatic...

165

Molybdenum alkylidene complexes : syntheses and applications to olefin metathesis reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Alkylimido Molybdenum Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Activity as Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. Molybdenum olefin metathesis catalysts that contain previously unexplored aliphatic 1- ...

Pilyugina, Tatiana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Broadband Carbon-13 Correlation Spectra of Microcrystalline Proteins in Very High Magnetic Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

avoiding excessive sample heating. This opens up new possibilities for efficient dipolar recoupling. Both aliphatic nuclei with closely spaced chemical shifts and spectrally remote nuclei give rise

167

PREPRINT  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

dried before using by dissolving in a minimum amount of ether, drying over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and removing the ether under vacuum. This material is >95% pure and may be...

168

INCOMPATIBLE CHEMICAL LIST PRUDENT PRACTICES FOR HANDLING CHEMICALS IN LABORATORIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia (anhydrous) Mercury (in oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals, sulfur tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate Sulfuric and other acids Potassium perchlorate (see also

Cho, Junghyun

169

Synthesis and applications of quinazoline-based fluorescent nucleoside analogues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pyridine, dichloroethane and acetonitrile were obtained fromg, 0.52 mmol) in anhydrous acetonitrile (5 mL), N,O-Bis(gradient of 10 – 30% acetonitrile (0.1% TFA) in water (0.1%

Xie, Yun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Supporting Information Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHCl3 or anhydrous MeOH. #12;2 11: Allyl palladium chloride dimer (1.69 g, 4.6 mmol) and 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (9.20 g, 23 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous THF (1000 ml), then allyl acetate (50.0 ml, 0.46 mol), 1,3-cyclopentadione (10, 45.0 g, 0.46 mol), N

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

171

Semipermeable polymers and method for producing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polyamide membrane comprising reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst; and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant comprising one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane comprising the polyamide membrane on a porous support. A method of making a composite semipermeable membrane by coating a porous support with an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, a polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, to form an activated pre-polymer layer on the porous support and contacting the activated pre-polymer layer with an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional amine-reactive reactant to interfacially condense the amine-reactive reactant with the polyfunctional secondary amine, thereby forming a cross-linked, interfacial polyamide layer on the porous support. A method of impregnating a composite semipermeable membrane with nanoparticles selected from heavy metals and/or oxides of heavy metals.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

172

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1091910932, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/10919/2013/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examined in detail. Although a few field stud- ies have suggested that primary particulate organic carbon both black carbon and or- ganic aerosol (OA), particularly in some developing coun- tries where aliphatic bridges or loops. The aromatic bonds are very stable compared to the aliphatic bridges and loops

Meskhidze, Nicholas

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - albumin bsa nanoparticles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the temperature of BSA denatur... albumin and -globulin, starting from their acid-expanded, most hydrated ... Source: Bloomfield, Victor A. - Department of Biochemistry,...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated search kinetics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dependence of the elongation kinetics. Marked acceleration... to the slowing of protein folding kinetics by other denaturants (28) and the acceleration of folding by TFE (26......

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - alter rna duplex Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

investigated using thermal denaturation (Tm) studies of a 12 base pair RNA ... Source: Beal, Peter A. - Department of Chemistry, University of Utah Collection: Chemistry 14 David...

176

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 293 (2006) 6168 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14 July 2005 Abstract The interaction between the fluorocarbon surfactant, sodium perfluorooctanoate that the anionic fluorocarbon surfactant, SPFO, was a strong denaturant of BLG. The ability of SPFO to denature BLG between the anionic fluorocarbon surfactant, sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO), and protein -lacto

Luhua, Lai

177

UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 şC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 şC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

Yang, Z; Sarkar, M; Kumar, A; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; R.L. Huhnke

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402244 Chemocatalytic Upgrading of Tailored Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for blending with gasoline,[7­9] production of longer chain alcohols for jet and diesel blendstocks suffers reported a chemical catalysis route to generate aliphatic ketones (C5­C19) that are components of gasoline

Toste, Dean

180

Nickel-catalyzed preparation of acrylamides from alpha olefins and isocyanates ; Synthetic studies toward ripostatin A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter I. In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of a-olefins and branched aliphatic isocyanates provides c,-unsaturated amides arising from preferential C-C ...

Schleicher, Kristin D. (Kristin Diann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Improving fatty acids production by engineering dynamic pathway regulation and metabolic control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global energy demand and environmental concerns have stimulated increasing efforts to produce carbon-neutral fuels directly from renewable resources. Microbially derived aliphatic hydrocarbons, the petroleum-replica fuels, ...

Stephanopoulos, Gregory

183

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol.Process. 15, 2877-2892 (2001)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soil surface, and it is caused by the leaching of hydrophobic compounds, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons). These compounds can escapeinto the atmosphere, or move into the soil atmosphere and condense *Correspondence to: L). The condensation of these compounds form

MacDonald, Lee

184

Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

185

CHARACTERIZATION OF INVASION PLASMID ANTIGEN B AND C (IpaB AND IpaC) TRANSLOCATOR COMPLEXES AND TRANSLOCATOR/CHAPERONE COMPLEXES OF Shigella flexneri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M Citrate Phosphate Buffer, pH 7 Solution 1(0.4 M Sodium phosphate dibasic) 56.78 g Na2HPO2, anhydrous 1.00 L diH2O Solution 2 (0.4 M Citric Acid) 76.85 g C6H8O7, anhydrous 1.00 L diH2O (90 ml Solution 1) + (10 ml of Solution 2) + (1900 ml diH2O... for disease in humans and primates. Like other organisms belonging to this family, Shigella is facultatively anaerobic, oxidase negative and possesses the abilities to reduce nitrate and ferment glucose. Differentiation among the species can...

Terry, Christina Marie

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

186

Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

Chesley, G.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

99.997 %), 1-dodecanethiol (1-DDT, > 98 %), anhydrous 1,2Then, 0.03 g of dried 1-DDT was mixed with 1.5 mL of a 10stirring, and the 1-DDT/TOP-Te solution was immediately

Polking, Mark J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.6 Section 1 - Product and Company Information Product Name BENZYL ALCOHOL, ANHYDROUS, 99.8% Product Number 305197 Brand ALDRICH Company Sigma-Aldrich Street Address 3050 Spruce Street City, State Tension 39 mN/m 20 °C Partition Coefficient Log Kow: 1.1 Decomposition Temp. N/A Flash Point 204.8 °F 96

Choi, Kyu Yong

189

protocols buffers et#31F4C7.doc 1/26/06 1 General-purpose solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ml 0.2M CaCl2 (22.2 g/l of anhydrous CaCl2) 35 ml 1.0M NaOH. (40 g/l) Check the pH and store at 4°C

Cross, George

190

Diclofenac Solubility: Independent Determination of the Intrinsic Solubility of Three Crystal Antonio Llina`s, Jonathan C. Burley, Karl J. Box, Robert C. Glen, and Jonathan M. Goodman*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were anhydrous and corresponded to an earlier crystal structure. Separate solubility measurements. The experimental conditions were precisely controlled. Introduction Measurements of solubility reported solubility, Saq,a refers to the solution of the solute in distilled water. Measurements may also be made in p

de Gispert, AdriĂ 

191

LITHIUM LITERATURE REVIEW: LITHIUM'S PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

analyses, t h e h i g h p u r i t y gases were passed through a column o f anhydrous magnesium p e r c h l o r a t e . wet gases o f 50% r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y a t room...

192

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

Minnesota, University of

193

Clearwater-Palouse energy cooperative alcohol production feasibility study. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of producing anhydrous ethanol from locally grown wheat and barley is explored. The following topics are discussed: feedstock economic analysis, by-product analysis, alcohol market analysis, alcohol market analysis, alternative fuels analysis, existing technology analysis, siting analysis, preliminary facility design, financial implementation plan, ecological assessment, and business management plan. (MHR)

Hammond, J.S.; Cole, K.M.; Schermerhorn, R.; Smith, S.; Greenwell, G.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Investigation of the near-infrared spectral character of putative Martian chloride deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of the near-infrared spectral character of putative Martian chloride deposits Heidi B in near-infrared ratio spectra. It is hypothesized that the admixture of anhydrous chlorides or unoxidized of these deposits. Citation: Jensen, H. B., and T. D. Glotch (2011), Investigation of the near-infrared spectral

Glotch, Timothy D.

195

Simplified programming and control of automated radiosynthesizers through unit operations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and pressures (e.g. , acetonitrile at 180°C) without loss ofPA, USA); and anhydrous acetonitrile (MeCN) and all other10 mg K222 in 0.5 mL acetonitrile MeCN-1 1.0 mL acetonitrile

Claggett, SB; Quinn, KM; Lazari, M; Moore, MD; van Dam, RM

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Chemical and Biological Studies of DNA Carboxymethylation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jose, CA). A mixture of acetonitrile and water (50:50, v/v)suspended in anhydrous acetonitrile (9.0 mL) in an ice bath,3a (261 mg) in ~ 2.0 mL acetonitrile was subsequently added,

Wang, Jianshuang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Reprinted from The Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 52, page 2273 Copyright O tgST by the American Chemical Society and reprinted by permission of the copyright owner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetonitrile, acetone,and chloroform in the presenceof chiral lanthanide NMR shift reagentstris)europium(III) (2). Enantiotopic OH, CH, and CH3NMR resonanceswerebestresolvedin acetonitrile,2,4-triolin the presence of 0.2 M shift reagent 1 in acetonitrile-d3: *anhydrous"(upper) and in the presenceof

Prentiss, Mara

198

On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

Burns, Daniel James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Bacteria in Ballast Water: The Shipping Industry's Contributions to the Transport and Distribution of Microbial Species in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phylogenetic analysis. Bacterial communities in Texas ports and bays were also examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), looking at both temporal and spatial variations...

Neyland, Elizabeth B.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

200

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Functional proteomics in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state of E. coli corresponding to hundreds of unique gene products. The copurification of proteins when fractionated at varying pHs could suggest the components of higher order complexes. This non-denaturing proteomic approach should provide physiological...

Champion, Matthew Maurice

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

202

Dynamics of locking of peptides onto growing amyloid fibrils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polymerization mechanism (NPM) have been used to account for amyloid fibril formation (10­12). According to the NPM, fluctuations (induced by denaturation stress, for example) lead to monomer conformations that can

Thirumalai, Devarajan

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - analyzing forced unfolding Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in solution. In recent years, we have also seen explosive progress in the study of protein folding... the unfolding of proteins after the addition of denaturant since unfolding is...

204

ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

salt-guanidinium chloride-is widely used by scientists to denature proteins for protein-folding studies. This practice dates back to the late 19th century when the Czech...

205

Role of aggregation conditions and presence of small heat shock proteins on abeta structure, stability and toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the most toxic ?? species change their structure the most rapidly in denaturant, and that in general, increased toxicity correlated with decreased aggregate stability. In AlzheimerÂ?s disease, even delaying A? aggregation onset or slowing its...

Lee, Sung Mun

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

206

The folding kinetics of ribonuclease Sa and a charge-reversal variant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coulomb?s Law suggested that favorable electrostatic interactions in the denatured state were the cause for the decreased stability for the charge-reversed variant. Folding and unfolding kinetic studies were designed and conducted to study the iv charge...-reversal mutant, more than in WT*. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a favorable electrostatic interaction in the denatured state ensemble has been shown to influence the unfolding kinetics of a protein. v DEDICATION To my beloved wife, Emily...

Trefethen, Jared M.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

207

Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Miknis, F.P.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Synthesis of pore-variable mesoporous CdS and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity in degrading methylene blue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-templated synthesis of tubular CdS. • Cadmium complexes of aliphatic acids sustain the network of mesoporous structures. • Aliphatic acids affect the phase composition and particle size. • Pore size and volume vary with aliphatic acids having different hydrocarbonyl. - Abstract: In this study, mesoporous CdS polycrystallites have been synthesized using aliphatic acids of hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and oleic acid as coordinating and capping agents, respectively. The fibrous Cd–fatty acid salts act as a template to form the tubular CdS. The organic species are found to be necessary for maintaining the network of mesoporous CdS. The characterization results indicate that the shorter carbon chain length in aliphatic acids favors the wurtzite phase and particle size growth the specific surface area, pore diameter and pore volume show a monotonic raise with increasing carbon chain. The photocatalytic activities of mesoporous CdS tubes exhibit much higher efficiency than those of nanosized CdS powders in decolorizing methylene blue under simulated visible light.

Zhang, Wei-Min, E-mail: chm_zhangwm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Jiang, Yao-Quan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Cao, Xiao-Yan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education (China); Chen, Meng; Ge, Dong-Lai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Sun, Zhong-Xi, E-mail: sunzx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Lithium/organosulfur redox cell having protective solid electrolyte barrier formed on anode and method of making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium/organosulfur redox cell is disclosed which comprises a solid lium anode, a liquid organosulfur cathode, and a barrier layer formed adjacent a surface of the solid lithium anode facing the liquid organosulfur cathode consisting of a reaction product of the lithium anode with the organosulfur cathode. The organosulfur cathode comprises a material having the formula (R(S).sub.y).sub.N where y=1 to 6, n=2 to 20 and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the linear chain may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Meilin (Albany, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Vevey, CH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Table (2.2) (OTM, 1999). Crude oils are composed of 80 to 90% hydrogen saturated aliphatic alkanes (paraffins) and cycloalkanes (naphthenes). Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes (olefins) comprise 10- 20% and 1%, respectively, of crude oil composition....2 Hydrocarbon Contents in Crude Oil (ATSDR, 1995; OTM, 1999) HYDROCARBONS GENERAL FORMULA CHAIN TYPE STATE (Room temp) EXAMPLES Paraffins (Aliphatic) CnH2n+2 (n:1 to20) Linear or Branched Gas or Liquid Methane, Propane Hexane Aromatic C6H5-Y...

Myint, Lay L.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

The influence of nitrogen rate and source on plant and soil properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Anhydrous ammonia caused the lea s t a lteration of pH in the su r face , but it caused the greatest acid ity in the subso i l . The lev e ls of nitrates in the so il w ere exp re s sed by quadratic equa? tions with co rre la t ion coe ff ic... , and and are the annual rate of nitrogen in pounds p er a c r e app lied as ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia, r e sp e c t iv e ly . P red ic ted maximum y ields com pared favorab ly with the actual m aximum y ie lds o f 1 9 , 9 9 0 and 15, 850 pounds...

Fisher, Flake Leroy

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

214

Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

215

Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

Dale, Bruce E.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

216

Worried About High N Prices? Keith A Kelling and Larry G Bundy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. natural gas prices · Record increase in world nitrogen capacity · China's ban on urea imports · Collapse Nitrate Nitric AcidAmmonia Natural Gas Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Liquid Urea (UR) Prill gas prices NYMEX Natural Gas Prices 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jan-99 Apr-99 Jul-99 O ct-99 Jan-00 Apr

Balser, Teri C.

217

Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dissolved in anhydrous THF (1000 ml), then allyl acetate (50.0 ml, 0.46 mol), 1,3-cyclopentadione (12, 45OH. #12; 2 Compound 13 was synthesized based on reported procedure with modification[1-3] : Allyl.0 g, 0.46 mol), N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl)acetamide (114 ml, 0.46 mol) and sodium acetate (1.10 g, 13

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

218

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts CARMELA FREDA,1, * DON R. BAKER,1,2 February 3, 2005) Abstract--We measured the diffusion coefficients of sulfur in two different basaltic for sulfur diffusion in anhydrous basalts: D 2.19 10 4 exp 226.3 58.3 RT where D is the diffusion coefficient

Long, Bernard

219

An Experimental Study of the Performance of PCM-Enhanced Cellulose Insulation Used in Residential Building Walls Exposed to Full Weather Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and could potentially cause installation problems. Hydrated Salt Hydrated salts are formed by anhydrous salts and a few fixed number of water molecules, which are usually called ?water of crystallization? (Telkes, 1980). Hydrated salts have...-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Current ORNL Research Projects. Oak Ridge National Laboratory website. Telkes M. 1980. Thermal Storage in Salt-hydrates. Solar Materials Science, Academic Press: 337-404 Zhu D., 2005, A comparative heat transfer examination...

Fang, Y.; Medina, M.; Evers, A.

220

.Research Module: Scheme 2. N-Benzylation of N-H Pyrazolidinones 3. 3 6. 60 Scheme 2 Procedure: N-Alkylation Using Aldehyde  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

folder. It will actually produce two NMR printouts for you. The first one will be dominated by methanol Scheme 1, add 10 mL of anhydrous methanol. · For 4-methoxy compoud 3c, add 20 mL of methanol, since the 4-Benzylation Synthesis of N-Benzyl Pyrazolidinones NH NH O R1 3a-e + H O 4 Methanol Solvent 0.05 CF3CO2H (catalyst) N N O

Jasperse, Craig P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

Hamilton, Robert S. (Youngstown, NY)

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

222

Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method is described for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl{sub 2} in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

Wheeler, D.R.; Pollagi, T.P.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

223

Intramolecular rearrangement of trimethylsilyl pyrazoles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be concentration dependent and the coalescence temperature of each compound will change with changing concentrations of the sample in inert solvents. On the other hand, if this thermal re- arrangement is concentration independent, it will be intramolecular... with hexamethyldi- si lazane under anhydrous conditions. Four compounds wi th different ring substi tuents were thus synthesi zed. Nu- clear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectra of these compounds indicated the non-equivalence of the 3, 5-substi tuents at room...

Hrung, Chang-Po

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Galvin, Thomas M. (Darien, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Protein extraction in the refinement of Coastal Bermudagrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, phosphoric acid, gaseous hydrochloric acid, anhydrous ammonia and ethylendiamine (Chang et aL, 1981; Wylie and Steen, 1988). Also the use of organic solvents such as hexane or cadoxen ([Cd(ethylendiamine)3](OH)2, cadmium ethylendiamine) (Ladisch et al... and lignin. Integrated conversion of the entire "barrel of biomass" (also referred to as biomass refining), is essential to obtain good system economics. This study evaluated the use of the Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX) process in an integrated conversion...

De La Rosa Perez, Luis Bernardo

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl.sub.2 in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Pollagi, Timothy P. (Dayton, OH)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

228

Study of the effects of interleakage of ammonia and seawater on corrosion and scaling of candidate materials for OTEC heat exchngers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessment has been made on the effect of small concentrations of ammonia in seawater and varying concentrations of seawater in anhydrous ammonia upon corrosion and scaling of candidate OTEC heat exchanger materials - A1-5052, Alclad 3003, copper alloys 706, 715 and 722, AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium. Results are presented. AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium showed exceptional corrosion resistance to all test environments. Alclad alloy 3003 showed satisfactory performance in seawater and seawater plus ammonia environments. Only minimal pitting was observed and this was limited to the sacrificial cladding in seawater plus ammonia only. Cladding alloy 7072 showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in anhydrous ammonia containing low seawater concentrations. Al-5052 tubes showed unsatisfactory corrosion behavior in the presence of seawater flow with ammonia interleakage. Copper alloys considered showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in all seawater environments containing ammonia. Low pressure differentials between seawater and anhydrous ammonia in the tube testing unit resulted in scaling and moderately efficient plug seal formation at the artificial leak sites of the tubes. It is recommended that Alclad 3003, CP titanium and AL-6X stainless steel tubes be assessed for suitability in the presence of probable OTEC cleaning systems.

Grimes, W D; Schrieber, C F; Manning, J A

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Sensitivity analysis and study of the mixing uniformity of a microfluidic mixer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a microfluidic mixer based on hydrodynamic focusing, which is used to initiate the folding process of individual proteins. The folding process is initiated by quickly diluting a local denaturant concentration, and we define mixing time as the time advecting proteins experience a specified to achieve a local drop in denaturant concentration. In previous work, we presented a minimization of mixing time which considered optimal geometry and flow conditions, and achieved a design with a predicted mixing time of 0.10 $\\mu$s. The aim of the current paper is twofold. First, we explore the sensitivity of mixing time to key geometric and flow parameters. In particular, we study the angle between inlets, the shape of the channel intersections, channel widths, mixer depth, mixer symmetry, inlet velocities, working fluid physical properties, and denaturant concentration thresholds. Second, we analyze the uniformity of mixing times as a function of inlet flow streamlines. We find the shape of the intersection,...

Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Ángel M; Santiago, Juan G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

1D-NMR and 2D-NMR analysis of the thermal degradation products from vitrinites in relation to their  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to their natural hydrogen enrichment M.J. Iglesiasa , M.J. Cuestab , F. Laggoun-Défargec and I. Suárez of the huminite/vitrinite structure resulting from different processes of natural hydrogen-enrichment. The high hydrogenated nature of their botanical precursors, the incorporation of aliphatic structures via covalent

Boyer, Edmond

231

Revised version Organic Geochemistry 28, 411-415, 1998.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Abstract A resistant soil organic residue, `humin', has been analysed by solid-state 13 C-NMR and pyrolysis, carbohydrates and phenols. Keywords : 13 C of soil alkanes, NMR, resistant aliphatic biopolymer, pyrolysis biomass decomposition products as well as from root exudates, the new proposed pathway is based upon

232

Organic electroanalysis with chemically modified electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analytical utility of electrodes modified with functionalized polymer films for the determination of aromatic amines is demonstrated. The analysis is based on the preconcentration of the protonated amines into a functionalized polymer film that contains styrene sulfonate groups. Good sensitivity and high reproducibility were obtained for concentrations down to 10/sup -5/ M. Aliphatic amines do not interfere in the determination.

Guadalupe, A.R.; Abruna, H.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Design and Synthesis of a Photoaromatization-Based Two-Stage Photobase Generator for Pitch Division Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Synthesis of a Photoaromatization-Based Two-Stage Photobase Generator for Pitch Division. This material was designed for use in resolution- enhanced photolithography. Computer modeling predicts that end, latent PBGs were designed that are oxime esters of aliphatic acids, which undergo Norrish type II

Turro, Nicholas J.

235

1224 Mol. BioSyst., 2011, 7, 12241231 This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011 Cite this: Mol. BioSyst., 2011, 7, 12241231  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vancomycin against MRSA as they carry an extra aliphatic acyl side chain on glucosamine (Glm) at residue 4 (r the drugs of the last resort to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Lipoglycopeptides, Tei and A40926 (3, Fig. 1) were reported to be more effective than vancomycin against MRSA

Tsai, Ming-Daw

236

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

238

Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other Halogenated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other, California 94305-4020 Enhanced in-situ transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was observed under anoxic Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)with one or two carbon atoms are widely used as solvents, degreasing

Semprini, Lewis

242

ELSEVIER Journal of Hazardous Materials 41 (1995)205-216 HIIZIIRDOUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with elemental iron Bradley R. Helland, Pedro J.J. Alvarez*, Jerald L-1527, USA Received 3 August 1994;accepted in revised form 15 November 1994 Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (CC aliphatics such as carbon tetrachloride (CC14) are common environ- mental contaminants due

Alvarez, Pedro J.

243

Correlated microanalysis of cometary organic grains returned by Stardust Bradley T. De GREGORIO1,2*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector

Nittler, Larry R.

244

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of HDPE using an activated carbon bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with the remainder primarily short-chain aliphatics. This oil was approximately three times lighter than that produced in the absence of catalyst, with a narrower range of molecular masses that matched those of the liquid transport fuels petrol and diesel (C5–C21...

Russell, Alan Donald

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

245

Paint Thinner MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solvent {Mineral spirits; Aliphatic Petroleum Distillates; White spirits} 8052-41-3 CAS # 95.0 -100 as hazardous under OSHA regulations. OSHA Regulatory Status: Inhalation Acute Exposure Effects: May cause: Reports have associated repeated and prolonged overexposure to solvents with neurological and other

Rollins, Andrew M.

246

Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the Centerline of a Coflow Diffusion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot particles sampled along the centerline of a coflow diffusion flame of a three-component Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n= 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found to be the major components of the particle material. These particles become enriched with aliphatic components as they grow in mass and size. Before carbonization occurs, the constituent species in young soot particles are aliphatic and aromatic compounds 200-600 amu in mass, some of which are oxygenated. Particles dominated by PAHs or mixtures of PAHs and aliphatics can both exhibit liquid-like appearance observed by electron microscopy and be transparent to visible light. The variations in chemical composition observed here indicate that the molecular processes of soot formation in coflow diffusion flames may be more complex than previously thought. For example, the mass growth and enrichment of aliphatic components in an initially, mostly aromatic structure region of the flame that is absent of H atoms or other free radicals indicates that there must exist at least another mechanism of soot mass growth in addition to the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon addition mechanism currently considered in fundamental models of soot formation.

Cain, Jeremy P.; Laskin, Alexander; Kholghy, Mohammad Reza; Thomson, Murray; Wang, Hai

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

247

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Synthetic aircraft turbine oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

Yaffe, R.

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jrmy Jacob1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jérémy Jacob1, , Florentin Paris2 dominated by aromatic groups with a low contribution of aliphatics and oxygen- or nitrogen-bearing compounds-GC/MS, chitin, Lower Palaeozoic Corresponding author: jeremy.jacob@univ-orleans.fr #12;2 1. Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

250

X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation C. Kevin Boyce a, , Mike Abrecht b , Dong Zhou b , P that were canopy dominants of many Pennsylvanian coal swamp forests. Its periderm or bark--the single greatest biomass contributor to many Late Paleozoic coals--is found to have a greater aliphatic content

Boyce, C. Kevin

251

Comparative studies of diverged members of the phosphotriesterase family  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

then placed in a thermal cycler for an initial 5 minute 95'C denaturation followed by 40-cycles of a I minute 95'C denaturation, I minute at 55'C, and a 2 minute 72'C elongation step. Each reaction was run on an agarose gel using electrophoresis. Pool ?2... had a band 1 kB in length, the size predicted for ponL CLONING AND SEQUENCING PON I To generate the PCR fragment for cloning, PCR was repeated with Pool ?2 and a small portion was run on a gel to verify the presence of the I kb band. The remaining...

Arriens, Cristina Gale

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

252

The conformational stability and spectral properties of RNASE T1, and mutants: ASP49-> ALA, TYR, and TRP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

obtained by monitoring the fluorescence emission at 320 nm after excitation at 278 nm for D49A, D49Y and D49W, respectively. The urea denaturation curves for wild type RNase Tl (K25 and Q25) has been previously reported (Shirley et al. , 1989 and Thomson... on the surface of folded RNase Tl. The conformational stability of these proteins was determined by analyzing data from urea denaturation curves. Substituting nonpolar residues for Asp49 in RNase Tl increased the stability by 0. 2 to 0. 6 kcal/mole due...

Lin, Li Yu

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Incidence and specificity of antibodies to types I, II, III, IV, and V collagen in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases as measured by 125I-radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Antibodies to human native and denatured types I, II, III, IV, and V collagens were measured using 125I-radioimmunoassay. Mean levels of binding by sera from 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients were significantly higher than those from 20 normal subjects against all of the collagens tested. The relative antibody concentration was higher in synovial fluid than in simultaneously obtained serum. Many patients with gout or various other rheumatic diseases also had detectable anticollagen antibodies. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the reactivity detected in all patient groups was directed against covalent structural determinants present on all of the denatured collagens, suggesting a secondary reaction to tissue injury.

Stuart, J.M.; Huffstutter, E.H.; Townes, A.S.; Kang, A.H.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Effects of Strenuous Exercise on Stallion Sperm Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

account for approximately 20% of the observed variation in fertility rate (Jasko et al., 1992). Love and Kenney (1998) determined the relationship between fertility and susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation in 84 actively breeding, clinically...………………………………………………………………. 46 APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………………... 51 APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………………... 52 APPENDIX C………………………………………………………………………… 53 APPENDIX D………………………………………………………………………... 54 APPENDIX E………………………………………………………………………… 57 APPENDIX F...

Rosenberg, Jennifer L.

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The structure of the bacterial and archaeal community in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The structure of the bacterial and archaeal community in a biogas digester biogas digesters at different scales and for different applications for treating rural wastes is well 16S rDNA, anaerobic digestion, biogas digester, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE

Lovley, Derek

256

http://biotech.nature.com SEPTEMBER 2001 VOLUME 19 nature biotechnology Interpreting function in terms of specific  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surfaced over the years--proteins for which lack of three-dimensional structure is required for function Interpreting function in terms of specific three-dimensional structure has dominat- ed thinking about proteins- guage: unfolded protein and denatured protein are used interchangeably. Furthermore, the avalanche

Obradovic, Zoran

257

Water-Soluble Poly(Lserine)s with Elongated and Charged Side-Chains: Synthesis, Conformations, and Cell-Penetrating Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The secondary structures of proteins facilitate the folding of proteins into unique three-dimensional structures and regulate their biological activities.1 To better understand protein folding/unfolding and eventually mimic -helical or -sheet conformations against various denaturing conditions. However, these polypeptides lack

Cheng, Jianjun

258

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the SH3 Domain Aggregation Suggests a Generic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the elongation of amyloid fibrils.12 ­ 15 However, the domain swapping hypothesis is based on the aggregation and the open aggregation state. The closed dimer is formed by "domain swapping"-- the two proteins exchange human disease were found to be able to form amyloid fibril struc- tures in vitro under denaturing

Stanley, H. Eugene

259

How Hydrogen Bond Redundancy Affects Protein Flexibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling a Protein as a BodyBarHinge and Associated Graph Main Question: Stability in proteins is the resistance to denaturation, or unfolding. A protein that is highly stable has a high tolerance to bonds breaking before unfolding; an unstable protein has less tolerance. In this study, we focus on the question, how many hydrogen bonds

Naomi Fox; Filip Jagodzinski; Jeanne Hardy; Ileana Streinu

260

Supplemental Data Directed Evolution of ATP Binding Proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplemental Data Directed Evolution of ATP Binding Proteins from a Zinc Finger Domain Using m TG 3'). Denaturing Ni-NTA was performed on the ATP-column elution for round 2, and then FLAG with the resin, but instead passed directly over the immobilized ATP. The selection was performed at room

Heller, Eric

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Comparison of the Benthic Bacterial Communities Within and Surrounding Dreissena Clusters in Lakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Lake Erie Center, The University of Toledo, Oregon, OH 43618, USA (2) Department of Environmental- lected from locations in Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and several inland lakes. Denaturing gradient gel from the two Lake Erie sites. Therefore, Dreissena appears to affect both structure and metabolic

Sigler, Von

262

Enzymatic Digestion in Aqueous-Organic Solvents: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Approach in Monitoring Protein Conformation Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has a lesser impact compared to methanol and ethanol. This may explain why relative to ethanol and methanol, there are fewer digest fragment ions. On the other hand, it is a denaturant thus promoting more digest fragment ions relative to water... of Proteins???????????????????? 9 Cytochrome C???????????????????. 9 Green Fluorescent Protein??????????????.. 11 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS????????????????. 16 Materials...

Tuvilla, Mavreen Rose

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

263

VOLUME 84, NUMBER 4 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 JANUARY 2000 Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Lattices: Experimental Detection in a Josephson Array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of discrete breathers in an underdamped Josephson-junction array. Breathers exist under a range of dc current denaturation [6], and the dynamics of Josephson-junction networks [7­9]. Also, they have been shown the experimental detection of discrete breathers in an underdamped Josephson-junction array. Anisotropic Josephson-junction

Orlando, Terry P.

264

Polymerization and Structure of Nucleotide-free Actin Filaments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymerization and Structure of Nucleotide-free Actin Filaments Enrique M. De La Cruz1,2 , Anna of nucleotide-free actin (NFA). First, actin lacking bound nucleotide denatures rapidly without stabilizing of the bound nucleotide. We used apyrase, EDTA and Dowex-1 to prepare actin that is stable in sucrose and $99

265

Supplemental Information Supplementary methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

defined medium ("Sato's medium"; Bottenstein and Sato., 1979) in each well of poly-D-lysine coated 24-well was added. All reaction mixtures were run simultaneously on a 6% (w/v) polyacrylamide non- denaturing Tris-borate EDTA Novex minigel (Invitrogen) until the dye had migrated off the end of the gel. The gel was dried

Richardson, William D.

266

Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan* , G. Albert Wu* , John D. Chodera, CA, May 2, 2007 (received for review April 13, 2006) How do proteins fold so quickly? Some denatured proteins fold to their native structures in only microseconds, on average, implying that there is a folding

Southern California, University of

267

From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R. Nussinov Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

225 From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R in the transition state. Key Words: Protein folding; energy landscape; transition state ensemble; denatured state- sively applied to the analysis of protein folding (1­5). Although proteins are essential macromolecules

Caflisch, Amedeo

268

To link to this article: DOI:10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303 URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed toward high-temperature range of the collagen denaturation and 2) the stiffening of the chainsTo link to this article: DOI:10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303 URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2012, Florian and Dandurand, Jany and Lacabanne, Colette Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma Jet on Thermal

Mailhes, Corinne

269

From Cot Curves to Genomics. How Gene Cloning Established New Concepts in Plant Biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was in an inflationary spiral due to the emergence of the oil cartel that sent the prices of gasoline skyrocketing in the 1960s when the principles of DNA denaturation and renaturation were pioneered at the Carnegie in the mid-1960s and were, therefore, considered to be "eukaryotic- like" and similar to animal genomes

Goldberg, Robert B.

270

J. Mol. Riol. (1991) 222, 1085-1108 Complementary Recognition in Condensed DNA: Accelerated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Mol. Riol. (1991) 222, 1085-1108 Complementary Recognition in Condensed DNA: Accelerated DNA) Condensation of denatured DNA greatly accelerates the kinetics of DNA renaturation. We propose a unifying explanation for the effects of several accelerating solvents studied here including polymers, di

Church, George M.

271

Functional Characterization of Rhodopsin Monomers and Dimers in Detergents*S  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Warsaw PL-02109, Poland Rhodopsin (Rho) is a G protein-coupled from atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and chemical cross-linking experiments resistant to heat denaturation. Both Rho* mono- mers and dimers are capable of activating Gt, and both

Palczewski, Krzysztof

272

Temperature modeling in a total knee joint replacement using patient-specific kinematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For the standard condition, which assumes an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial component coefficient was explored. The model is extremely sensitive to the thermal properties of the femoral component in diluted bovine serum, which acts as a lubricant and mimics joint synovial fluid. Denaturing of proteins

Sawyer, Wallace

273

High-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the experimental studies have found that the SH responded to the structural modifications of col- lagen, such as thermal denaturation, nonenzymatic glycation, and partial enzymatic cleavage.8 These modifications injury, diabetes, aging, abnormal wound healing, and malignant transformation of dys- plastic nevi. SHG

Chen, Zhongping

274

Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 87, pp. 6388-6392, August 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/conformational entropy) HUE SUN CHAN AND KEN A. DILL Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, the stabilities (observed in the distribution; see below) decrease with length (18-20). (ii) The most stable residues (18-20), and these are 100% helical up to nearly the denaturation temperature of the protein. (iii

Chan, Hue Sun

275

In vitro protein refolding by chromatographic procedures Zhi-Guo Su,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in small-scale refolding studies because of its simplicity. However, the protein concentration has and initial purification one does not have to take the risk of denaturation of the target proteins, thus, not optimal for large-scale production as ex- tensive concentration is required after

Lebendiker, Mario

276

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces of DNA (about 3-5 kilobases in length on average) that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces. Plasmid purification procedures selectively enrich plasmid DNA over genomic DNA, which is present the small plasmids remain intact. Thus, when denatured, the plasmids remain linked to their complementary

277

TroubleshootingGuide A. Protein Expression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

binding b) Dilute an aliquot of lysate (1:10), or sonicate, and check binding on a small scale. c) Try. Apparent low · Insoluble Use denaturing extraction expression over-expressed and purification conditions sample for purification after proper buffering B. Loading/Washing Problem Possible Cause Solution 1

Lebendiker, Mario

278

For polyhistidine-tagged protein purification BD Biosciences Clontech www.clontech.com 800-662-2566  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels, or trial-level purification protocols. For small-scale single-use applications such as verifying-662-2566 TALONTM Products TALONTM Metal Affinity Resin Resin ready for loading in columns for small or medium-scale His- tagged proteins by small-scale or batch/gravity flow, under native or denaturing conditions

Lebendiker, Mario

279

Mini review Practical considerations in refolding proteins from inclusion bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, removal of the denaturant, and assistance of refolding by small molecule additives. We will review key concentration, and (3) the effect of small molecule additives on refolding and aggregation of the proteins. Ă?- nomic sequence database, on a rapid, large-scale pro- duction of recombinant proteins. The proteins thus

Lebendiker, Mario

280

Prospects & Overviews Chaperone discovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assist de novo protein folding and facilitate the refolding of stress-denatured proteins. The molecular in understanding how these factors support protein folding. Here, we focus on how various chaper- one proteins were first identified to play roles in protein folding. Examples are used to illustrate traditional routes

Bardwell, James

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of organic combustion products in fly ash collected by a venturi wet scrubber and an electrostatic precipitator at a coal-fired power station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic compounds recovered from fly ash collected by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a venturi wet scrubber (WS) at a coal-fired power station were analysed. Organic constituents in extracts of solid waste included large numbers of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. A series of normal C/sub 15/-C/sub 30/ paraffins was found in the aliphatic fractions. The aromatic compounds were of 1,2,3 and 4 rings. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons containing more than 4 rings were shown to be poorly recovered. Comparison of organic constituents in extracts of fly ash from the WS and the ESP showed that ESP extracts contained more compounds in greater quantities. The types and quantities of organic compounds recovered are not expected to present any environmental hazard.

Harrison, F.L.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Chemical differences are observed in children's versus adults' laten fingerprints as a function of time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The identification of aged latent fingerprints is often difficult, especially for those of children. To understand this phenomenon, the chemical composition of children's versus adults latent fingerprints was examined over time using Fourier transform infrared microscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that children's and adults prints were distinguishable for up to 4 weeks after deposition, based on differences in sebum composition. Specifically, adults had a higher lipid content than children, but both decreased over time, attributable to the volatility of free fatty acids. The aliphatic CH{sub 3}, aliphatic CH{sub 2}, and carbonyl ester compositions changed differently in adults versus children over time, consistent with higher cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in children's prints and wax esters and glycerides in adults prints. Thus, fingerprint composition changes with time differently in children versus adults, making it a sensitive metric to estimate the age of an individual, especially when the age of the print is known.

Antoine, K.M.; Miller, L.; Mortazavi, S.; Miller, A.D.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Copolymers useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle hydrocarbon distillates, and compositions of middle hydrocarbon distillates comprising them  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Products useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle distillates have a molecular weight from 1,000 to 50,000, and are obtained by reacting a compound of the formula R-Z((CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ NH) /SUB m/ H or HO-CH/sub 2/-R'-NH/sub 2/ where R is a monovalent saturated aliphatic radical of 1-30 carbon atoms, Z is -NH- or oxygen, n is 2 to 4, m is zero or 1 to 4 and R' is a saturated divalent aliphatic radical of 1-18 carbon atoms, with a copolymer comprising recurrent units (A) from an alkyl ester of an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid and/or a vinyl ester of a saturated monocarboxylic acid, recurrent units (B) from diisobutylene and recurrent units (C) from an unsaturated a,b-dicarboxylic compound.

Durand, J. P.; Damin, B.; Dawans, F.; Leger, R.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

284

The viability of stallion spermatozoa as influenced by storage media and antibiotics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Monroe Armstrong, for the loan of a mare. Mr. Burl Hill, Horseman of the Animal Husbandry Department, and his student wc>rkers, for assistance in semen collections from the stallions used in this study. Owners of stallions in the Bryan-College Station... of anhydrous glucose per 100 cc. distilled water was optimum for diluting stallion semen. Rumjanceva (194-0) noted that semen-glucose in a 1:3 dilution was most suitable for jack sperm. In the United States, the discovery by Phillips and Lardy (194...

Gazder, Pesi Jamshed

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

Sugama, T.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

287

Controlling the properties of bulk metal oxides at a molecular level: Alkoxides vs carboxylates-alkoxides routes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactions between alkoxides and/or alkoxides and anhydrous acetates have been investigated for access to advanced multicomponent niobates or titanates and with the aim to get insight into relationships between the nature of the initial precursors single or mixed metal derivatives, ligands (OAc or OR, R = Et, iPr),...- and the properties of the final material. Data are based on a variety of techniques: FT-IR, multinuclear NMR ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 113}Cd), X-ray investigations on single crystals. Powders have been analyzed by TGA, SEM-EDX, light scattering and XRD.

Hubert-Pfalzgraf, L.G.; Daniele, S.; Boulmaaz, S.; Papiernik, R. [Univ. de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Study to establish cost projections for production of redox chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cost study of four proposed manufacturing processes for redox chemicals for the NASA REDOX Energy Storage System yielded favorable selling prices in the range $0.99 to $1.91/kg of chromic chloride, anhydrous basis, including ferrous chloride. The prices corresponded to specific energy storage costs from under $9 to $17/kWh. A refined and expanded cost analysis of the most favored process yielded a price estimate corresponding to a storage cost of $11/kWh. The findings supported the potential economic viability of the NASA REDOX system.

Walther, J.F.; Greco, C.C.; Rusinko, R.N.; Wadsworth, A.L. III

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that do occur is significant for58 two main reasons. First, the interiors of very slowly deforming continental59 plates are generally thought to be cool [e.g. Jaupart and Mareschal, 1999]60 and often anhydrous [e.g. Jackson et al., 2008], so earthquakes... -85 nents. Although the analysis of post-glacial relaxation provides information86 on Earth structure in some plate interiors [e.g. Kaufmann and Lambek, 2002],87 the large lateral extents of the ice loads means that these studies are more88 sensitive...

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

290

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

291

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (21 Barnes Road, Wading River, NY 11792); Colombo, Peter (44 N. Pinelake Dr., Patchogue, NY 11772)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

System and process for capture of H.sub.2S from gaseous process streams and process for regeneration of the capture agent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and process are disclosed for selective removal and recovery of H.sub.2S from a gaseous volume, e.g., from natural gas. Anhydrous organic, sorbents chemically capture H.sub.2S gas to form hydrosulfide salts. Regeneration of the capture solvent involves addition of an anti-solvent that releases the captured H.sub.2S gas from the capture sorbent. The capture sorbent and anti-solvent are reactivated for reuse, e.g., by simple distillation.

Heldenbrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Bearden, Mark D; Zheng, Feng

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

298

The design of new ligands and transition metal compounds for the oxidation of organic compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dehydrated by heating under dynamic vacuum at 150?C for 3 hours. The anhydrous materials were stored in a dry box under nitrogen. (R)-binaphthol was obtained from ABCR Chemical and 3,5-di-tert-butyl salicylaldehyde was obtained from Advanced Asymmetrics.... All other reagents were used as received. All NMR chemical shifts are given in ppm and were recorded on a Mercury-300BB spectrometer ( 1 H, 299.91 MHz; 13 C { 1 H} 75.41 MHz) using the solvent as an internal standard (CDCl 3 (or residual CHCl 3...

Grill, Joseph Michael

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

299

A study of methods for the determination of sugars in cotton plant tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Master of goienee h's$er Sub)sot i OhssistrJ 3y Jerry Nao ~ June 1957 The nrieer niche ~ te shank Dr. Q. A. Greathouee enact nhnse 4ireefinn ahie worn nas 4nn? an4 alee Dr. c. 0. Hedges an4 Dr. f. %. lessen for %hair snsgestions ?n4 erf... in an srlensspor flesh. Th? solution was boile4 gentlp to expel 004. The bisarbonats was then added on4 dissolv?4 and the solution souled snd diluted to volume. C. Xodato solut5, oa. Bo4iua oarbonate (anhydrous) (40 ga. yer liter ). Tartario Aoid p. b Sn. yer...

Marek, Jerry William

1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

1981-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

302

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

304

Process for the production of aqueous hydrochloric acid having a concentration of at least 35. 5% by weight  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for continuously producing aqueous hydrochloric acid having a concentration of at least 3.5% by weight comprising: continuously introducing water to the top of an absorption unit, continuously introducing a gas stream containing anhydrous hydrogen chloride to the bottom of said absorption unit, removing an overhead gaseous stream from said unit, said gaseous stream containing no more than 3% by weight, and preferably no more than 1% by weight hydrogen chloride, and removing a bottom liquid stream from said unit, said bottom stream containing at least 35.5% by weight hydrogen chloride, and returning a portion of said bottom stream to said unit.

Parigi, J.V.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

An investigation of a direct current method for measuring resistances of electrolytic solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

they vere in contact Cor4on and his co workers (6, 7, 8, 9, 10) published a series of papers on the oonduotivities of NaC1 ~ KGB KB' NaBrg KX ~ LiC1 and CaC1 in aqueous solutions, anhydrous methanol, an4 methanol-vater mixtures, These solutions vere... studied at various temperatures and conoentrations, employing the metho4 devised by Cunning and Cordon, Ei Elias an4 I, X+ Sohiff (ll) reported a modification of the method developed by Cunning and Cordon vhich exten4ed its application to eleotroiytes...

Hildebrand, Jacob Russell

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

In situ XRD Study of Ca2+ Saturated Montmorillonite (STX-1) Exposed to  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300Aptamers andIn other newsNointoAnhydrous

307

Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovation Portal BiomassUsing Anhydrous Liquid

308

Method to Reduce Camber in Anode-Supported SOFCs - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovation Portal BiomassUsing Anhydrous

309

Method to Reduce Neutron Production in Small Clean Fusion Reactors Inventor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovation Portal BiomassUsing Anhydrous--- Samuel

310

Method to enhance the concentration of valuable minerals in froth flotation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovation Portal BiomassUsing Anhydrous---

311

Polyestercarbonates which exhibit improved processibility  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a polyestercarbonate polymer which comprises repeating units of a mono-unsaturated aliphatic dicarboxylic acid having about 12 to about 20 carbon atoms. Preferred dicarboxylic acids for incorporation into the polymer are cis-octadec-9-enedioic acid or trans-octadec-9-enedioic acid. The use of these mono-unsaturated acids results in polymers with lower glass transition temperatures, and enhances processibility.

Krabbenhoft, Herman Otto (Scotia, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A study of the reaction between lead (II) iodide and organic amine hydriodides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1962 Major Sub)cot& CHENISTRY A STUDY OF THE REACTION BETWEEN LEAD(II) IODIDE AND ORGANIC AMINE HYDRIODIDES A Thesis By FRANK MARTIN SIMPSON Approved as to style and content by: Chai of Committee Head... compounds have been prepared by the reaction of lead(II) iodide with various primary, secondary, and tertiary aliphatic and substituted aromati. c amines The melting points, chemical compositions, densities, quali- tative solubilities, and absorption...

Simpson, Frank Martin

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effects of shipment on diffusive dosimetry recovery efficiency for pentane, hexane and heptane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sciences College of Pharmacy Chairman of' Advisory Committee: Mr. Charles L. Gilmore The effects of' shipment on recovery was investigated for three aliphatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on the 3M Company's $3500 Organic Vapor Monitor and the Scientific Kit... Combination Vs. Contaminant INTRODUCTION The Occupational Safety and Health Adminsitration (OSHA) has promulgated standards including permissible exposure limits (PEL) for humans based on eight hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures for approximately...

Read, Ronald Bruce

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

315

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural studies on asphaltenes and heavy ends have, until recently, only yielded information on some of the gross compositional features of these materials. Spectroscopic methods, for sample, are limited in the sense that even if several functional groups (e.g., aromatic or aliphatic carbon, carbonyl groups, etc.) can be identified, no information on the molecular environment can be deduced. Selective chemical degradative methods, on the other hand, offer more potential and this paper describes some of their recent results on the chemical degradation of asphaltene and heavy ends. Quantitative recoveries of alkyl side chains and bridging units attached to aromatic rings have been achieved, and some insights into the aliphatic framework have been gained. The results could be particularly helpful with regard to monitoring the dealkylation processes during thermal treatment of bitumens. The aliphatic framework of the asphaltene contains units of five- and six-membered ring sulfides and thermal breakdown of these units also contributes to depolymerization and the production of alkanes. Some of the heteroatom-containing classes of compounds identified in the asphaltene and resin fractions of Athabasca bitumen will be briefly discussed.

Strausz, O.P. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Correlated Microanalysis of Cometary Organic Grains Returned by Stardust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous matter in Stardust samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 is observed to contain a wide variety of organic functional chemistry. However, some of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We investigated six carbonaceous Stardust samples that had been previously analyzed and six new samples from Stardust Track 80 using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM revealed that samples from Track 35 containing abundant aliphatic XANES signatures were predominantly composed of cometary organic matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed to be soluble in the epoxy embedding medium. The nitrogen-rich samples in this study (from Track 22 and Track 80) both contained metal oxide nanoparticles, and are likely contaminants. Only two types of cometary organic matter appear to be relatively unaltered during particle capture. These are (1) polyaromatic carbonyl-containing organic matter, similar to that observed in insoluble organic matter (IOM) from primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and in other carbonaceous Stardust samples, and (2) highly aromatic refractory organic matter, which primarily constitutes nanoglobule-like features. Anomalous isotopic compositions in some of these samples also confirm their cometary heritage. There also appears to be a significant labile aliphatic component of Wild 2 organic matter, but this material could not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector.

B De Gregorio; R Stroud; G Cody; L Nittler; A Kilcoyne; S Wirick

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Chemical emergency preparedness and prevention advisory: Hydrogen fluoride, series 8, No. 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advisory recommends ways Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and chemical facilities can reduce risks posed by the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in their communities. Hydrogen fluoride, a strong inorganic acid, is produced and used as a gas or liquid without water (i.e., in anhydrous form), or in a water (aqueous) solution. Inhalation of hydrogen fluoride vapor, either in anhydrous form or from water solutions, can cause irritation if the exposure is mild (i.e., low concentration in air for a short time), or severe damage to the respiratory system or death in the case of exposure to high concentrations. Contact with the liquid or vapor can severely burn the skin, eyes, and other tissue. The largest use of hydrogen fluoride is in the manufacture of fluorine-containing chemicals, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Hydrogen fluoride may be used in some petroleum refinery operations, aluminum production, nuclear applications, glass etching and polishing, and metal treating and cleaning. Hydrogen fluoride's acute toxicity prompted EPA to list it as an extremely hazardous substance (EHS), with a threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 pounds, under Section 302 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (commonly known as SARA Title III).

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of Potassium Carbonate Sesquihydrate, K2CO3·1.5H2O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions with dehydrated potassium carbonates through K2CO3·1.5H2O + CO2 = 2KHCO3 + 0.5H2O(g) are analyzed. The energy change and the chemical potential of this reaction have been calculated and used to evaluate its thermodynamic properties and phase transitions. The results indicate that the K2CO3·1.5H2O can only be applied for postcombustion CO2 capture technology at temperatures lower than its phase transition temperature, which depends on the CO2 pressure and the steam pressure with the best range being PH2O ? 1.0 bar. Above the phase transition temperature, the sorbent will be regenerated into anhydrous K2CO3. If the steam pressure PH2O is much greater than 1.0 bar, it is possible to use the K2CO3·1.5H2O sorbent for precombustion CO2 capture technology. Compared to anhydrous K2CO3, K2CO3·1.5H2O requires less energy for regeneration.

Duan, Yuhua; Luebkes,David R.; Pennline, Henry W; Li, Bingyun Li; Janik, Michael J.; Halley, Woods

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.

Wu, M.; Winschel, R.A. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research & Development

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Proliferation resistant fuel for pebble bed modular reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that it is possible to denature the Plutonium produced in Pebble Bed Modular Reactors (PBMR) by doping the nuclear fuel with either 3050 ppm of {sup 237}Np or 2100 ppm of Am vector. A correct choice of these isotopes concentration yields denatured Plutonium with isotopic ratio {sup 238}Pu/Pu {>=} 6%, for the entire fuel burnup cycle. The penalty for introducing these isotopes into the nuclear fuel is a subsequent shortening of the fuel burnup cycle, with respect to a non-doped reference fuel, by 41.2 Full Power Days (FPDs) and 19.9 FPDs, respectively, which correspond to 4070 MWd/ton and 1965 MWd/ton reduction in fuel discharge burnup. (authors)

Ronen, Y.; Aboudy, M.; Regev, D.; Gilad, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Efficacy of amodiaquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and their combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Cameroon at the time of policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mutations of pfcrt, pfmdr-1, dhfr and dhps genes as previously described by Pearce et al [16]. Heat denatured (95°C for 2 minutes), nested PCR products encompassing polymorphisms were spotted onto nylon membranes alongside other PCR products of known... , Chinwengozi M, Chendjou P: Efficacité et tolérance de la combinaison artesunate + amodiaquine pour le traitement du paludisme simple dans le District de Sante de NDOP, Province du Nord- Ouest, Cameroun, 2007. Report to Ministry of Health . 27. Mbacham W...

Mbacham, Wilfred F; Evehe, Marie-Solange B; Netongo, Palmer M; Ateh, Isabel A; Mimche, Patrice N; Ajua, Anthony; Nji, Akindeh M; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Tawe, Bantar; Hallett, Rachel; Roper, Cally; Targett, Geoffrey; Greenwood, Brian

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

323

There are two ways of fixing parasites for IF or FISH. Either the cells are settled onto non-silanized coverslips (Fisher 12mm, #15) and then fixed (faster but harsher), or the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Washings (24-well plate) 1. Defrost PBG and store it on ice. Pre-heat formamide / 2xSSC to 37°C (formamide. Rinse briefly in pre-heated 2x SSC (50°C) 9. The probe/hyb mix should be denatured by now. Spot (50 µ as for hybridization) 4. Repeat wash, using vacuum pump to aspirate washing solution 5. Wash at RT as follows: 6. 2 x 5

Cross, George

324

Flow of pH-responsive microcapsules in porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. There are numerous examples in the pharmaceutical industry where encapsulation would be beneficial. For example, if biological materials such as enzymes, which are susceptible to denaturation, are encapsulated their biological activity can be retained (Keen et al... display industry, for example by increasing the lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes, by preventing moisture and oxygen diffusion into the display area (Chwang et al., 2003; Seo et al., 2013). Within the oil industry, no journal articles...

Gun, Wei Jin; Routh, Alexander F.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Care and Cleaning of Furniture and Furnishings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. SILVER Plated or Sterling Commercially-prepared polishes in liquid, powder or paste form are readily available. Through recent research, a tarnish preventative silver polish has been developed. Many silversmith companies recommend and some produce... removes tarnish, it also kills the depth of pattern and luster of silver. The method is omitted from this booklet. Cleaner for Sterling or Plated Silver How to make: 3 parts fine whiting 1 part either household ammonia (clear) or denatured alcohol...

O'Donnell, Dorothy C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

Golovchenko, Jene A. (Lexington, MA); Li, Jiali (Fayetteville, AR); Stein, Derek (Delft, NL); Gershow, Marc H. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

328

A Quasi-continuous Interpolation Scheme for Pathways between Distant Configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, where the chain-crossing is avoided. Nevertheless, they can lie below stationary points of the potential energy surface associated with the higher energy denatured or liquid-like phase of a finite system. This energy overlap makes the unphysical paths... procedure. The local maxima were then converged tightly to tran- sition states using hybrid eigenvector-following,20, 76, 77 and the connectivity verified by calculating approximate steepest-descent paths using energy minimisation following small...

Carr, Joanne M; Wales, David J

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effects of heat on the rheological and stability properties of cultured buttermilk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Nutritive significance of the browning reac- tion Rheology of Milk and Dairy Products Rheology of Milk Rheology of Milk Gels. Electron Microscopy of Milk and Dairy Products. Microstructure of Milk Microstructure of Milk Gels. Microstructure.... Testing of Gel Strength Data Analysis Relative Viscosity. Stability Serum Protein Denaturation. Electron Microscopy Fixation 16 16 17 17 22 22 22 22 23 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont. ) Page Dehydration and Embedding Sectioning and Viewing...

Pan, Shelley Hsi-Ling

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Effect of the Maillard reaction on the stability and chemical properties of globular proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the blood proteins to gel upon heating. This suggests an important approach for min- imizing the effect of heat denaturation on the functional properties of food proteins. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects..., 000 by light scattering. Isoelectric oint. The isoelectric point is of special significance in protein chemistry, since the properties of the proteins undergo unique changes at this point. The sol- ubility of proteins and other physical properties...

Morales, Margioly de Leon de

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and optimize microfluidic mixers to investigate the kinetics of protein secondary structure formation with Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The mixers are designed to rapidly initiate protein folding reaction through the dilution of denaturant. The devices are fabricated out of fused silica, so that they are transparent in the UV. We present characterization of mixing in the fabricated devices, as well as the initial SRCD data on proteins inside the mixers.

Kane, A; Hertzog, D; Baumgartel, P; Lengefeld, J; Horsley, D; Schuler, B; Bakajin, O

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

332

Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

333

L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences ?a, ?b, ?c between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Ĺ, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z???? and Z???? transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to ?3 ???, ?1 ???, and ?2 ??? transitions, respectively. ?-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p–carboxyl, C 2p–side chain, and C 2p–carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical anisotropy for the absorption and complex dielectric function, with more structured curves for incident light polarized along the 100 and 101 directions.

Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil)] [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Silva, A. M. [Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri-Pi (Brazil)] [Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri-Pi (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S., E-mail: ewcaetano@gmail.com [Instituto de Educaçăo, Cięncia e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)] [Instituto de Educaçăo, Cięncia e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)] [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

334

Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE.

Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Kinetic data base for combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

337

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

339

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocartons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hermandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Aspects of uranium chemistry pertaining to UF{sub 6} cylinder handling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under normal conditions, the bulk of UF{sub 6} in storage cylinders will be in the solid state with an overpressure of gaseous UF{sub 6} well below one atmosphere. Corrosion of the interior of the cylinder will be very slow, with formation of a small amount of reduced fluoride, probably U{sub 2}F{sub 9}. The UO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 2}O phase diagram indicates that reaction of any inleaking water vapor with the solid UF{sub 6} will generate the solid material [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}(U(OH){sub 4}F{sub 4}) in equilibrium with an aqueous HF solution containing only small amounts of uranium. The corrosion of the steel cylinder by these materials may be enhanced over that observed with gaseous anhydrous UF{sub 6}.

Ritter, R.L.; Barber, E.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Use of isopropanol to distinguish H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ from particulate sulfate on filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential interferences in the anhydrous isopropanol (a-IPA) extraction method for separating sulfuric acid from particulate sulfate on filters were investigated. The method involves separation and recovery of the acid with a-IPA, followed by aqueous extraction of the particulate. Analysis for sulfate in the separate fractions was performed by ion chromatography. The solubility of ammonium sulfate in a-IPA was measured, and the effects of temperature and moisture content of the solvent on ammonium sulfate solubility were determined. Neither a small uptake of moisture by the a-IPA nor elevated temperatures up to 30 C had a significant effect on the solubility of ammonium sulfate in IPA. Ammonium sulfate was determined to be very highly insoluble in a-IPA and therefore, exposure of samples to any source of ammonia will result in low recoveries of sulfuric acid by the solvent-recovery procedure.

Cheney, J.L.; Fortune, C.R.; Turlington, C.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Synthesis and properties of polynitrophenyltetrazolatocobalt(III) complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The explosive 3,5-dinitrophenyltetrazolato complex (3,5-DNP) tends to propagate in the deflagration mode which suggests its use as a pressure cartridge charge. However, the existence of 3,5-DNP as a hydrate appears to result in variations of thermomechanical properties thus rendering it undesirable for component use. The 2,4-DNP and 2,4,6-TNP analogs were synthesized. These exist in the anhydrous form under normal conditions and underwent DDT in component configuration. This negated their use in pressure cartridge applications. Synthetic procedures have been developed for 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)tetrazole and 5-picryltetrazole as well as for the precursor 2,4-dinitro- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzonitriles. 6 refs.

Fronabarger, J.; Johnson, R.; Fleming, W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Maturity Studies of Marsh Seedless Grapefruit in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1934.) Stem-end Blossom-end Determination -------- ------ - Nov. 8 1 Nov. 22 1 Av. Solu hle solids (degrees Rrix) ............... Citric acid anhydrous (76). ....... Brix to acid ratio. invert sugar (%I.. ...... ............. Sllcrose... cent) 1.56 1.43 1.34 1.30 1.40 1.53 1.40 1.40 1.24 1.39 1.59 1.54 1.42 1.37 1.48 1.58 1.46 1.36 1.35 1.43 1.55 1.44 1.37 1.32 1.42 ware p- Oct. 17 Nov. 14 Dec. 17 Jan. 18 -- Av ..... -- Oct. 17 Nov. 14 Dec. 17 Jan...

Wood, J. F. (John Fielding); Reed, H. M. (Harold M.)

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Phase states of water near the surface of a polymer membrane. Phase microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase microscopy is used to show that the refractive index in the near-surface layer of water at the surface of a polymer Nafion membrane increases by a factor of 1.1 as compared to bulk water. Moreover, this layer exhibits birefringence. Experiments on UV irradiation of dry (anhydrous) and water-soaked Nafion are performed in grazing-incidence geometry to study their stimulated luminescence spectra. These spectra are found to be identical in both cases. For dry Nafion, luminescence can only be excited if probing radiation illuminates the polymer surface. The luminescence of water-soaked Nafion can also be excited if the distance between the optical axis and the surface is several hundred micrometers.

Bunkin, N. F., E-mail: nbunkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gorelik, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: v.kozlov@hotmail.com; Shkirin, A. V., E-mail: avshkirin@mephi.ru; Suyazov, N. V., E-mail: nvs@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Rational enhancement of enzyme performance in organic solvents. Final technical report, 1992--1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on the following: the dependence of enzymatic activity of several model hydrolases in nonaqueous solvents; control of substrate selectivity of the protease subtilisin Carlsberg by the solvent; control of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of this enzyme in organic solvents by immobilization support; lipase-catalyzed acylation of sugars in anhydrous hydrophobic media; the possibility of accelerating enzymatic processes in organic solvents by certain cosolvents; whether lipase catalysis in organic solvents can be enhanced by introducing interfaces in the in the reaction medium; the structure of proteins suspended in organic solvents; improving enzymatic enantioselectivity in organic solvents; analyzing the plunge in enzymatic activity upon replacing water with organic solvents; and the structural basis for the phenomenon of molecular memory of imprinted proteins in organic solvents.

Klibanov, A.M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Synthesis of cumulenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 ($) 6 6 C H /Cn-OCH5 ' ~c=c=c=c, ' C, H, Stannous chloride in acidic anhydrous ether gave negligible results. However, to reduce 1, 1, 4, 4- tetrapheny1-1, 4. -dihydroxy-2-butyne to the 1, 1, 4, 4- tetraphenylbutatriene, stannous chloride..., (4) formed a compound believed to be the dimer (5). l-OCH6 C H POCH6 Hi C ? C S sc 66CCCrC& 6 hv C66 ~ [ 66 ChH6 Ch H6 C6H6 C ? C, , ~C6H6 (4) H CO ( C6H6 This dimer was also obtained in a small amount as a by- product from the preparation...

Adam, Klaus

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Synthesis and thermal chemistry of selected N-vinylisoquinuclidenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. wi th thi onyl 0 Ph I 0 H02C H02C / N 0 CH 0 C CH 02C Ph g=0 OCH3 CH302C CH3 2 =0 27 chloride in anhydrous methanol at 25'C t'o furnish, in 81K yield, an interesting product g. This new product contained not only the desired..., 690 cm 1 UV (CH3CN) ~ 287 nm (c 20, 900; H-NMR (CDC13)6 3. 75 (m, 2H, H-5 and H-6), 4. 1 (m, 1H, H-4), 4. 0 (s, 6H, OCH3), 5. 4 (m, 1H, H-l), 6. 4 (d, 1H, J=16 Hz, N-vinyl), 6. 9 (m, 2H, H-7 and H-8 vinyl), 7. 6 (m, SH, aromatic), 7. 8 (d, 1H, J=16...

Beamer, Ralph Lewis

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

In Situ Molecular Spectroscopic Evidence for CO2 Intercalation into Montmorillonite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e. close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO2 molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO2 conditions is due to CO2 migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO2 molecules are rotationally constrained and do not appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO2 does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state.

Loring, John S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Thompson, Christopher J.; Miller, Quin RS; Martin, Paul F.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

352

Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm{sup -1} and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm{sup -1} with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline-citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TP-CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-induced TP-CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.

Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shun-Li, E-mail: wangshunli@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chia Yi University, Chia Yi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shan-Yang, E-mail: sylin@mail.ypu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF THE 10 Myr OLD EF Cha DEBRIS DISK: EVIDENCE FOR PHYLLOSILICATE-RICH DUST IN THE TERRESTRIAL ZONE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopic observations of the {approx}10 Myr old star, EF Cha. Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 {mu}m to 35 {mu}m confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with L{sub D} /L{sub *} {approx} 10{sup -3}, containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K, characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g., HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to the pyroxene ratio of {approx}2 also provides evidence of aqueous alteration. The large mass volume of grains with sizes comparable to or below the radiation blow-out limit implies that planetesimals may be colliding at a rate high enough to yield the emitting dust but not so high as to devolatize the planetesimals via impact processing. Because phyllosilicates are produced by the interactions between anhydrous rock and warm, reactive water, EF Cha's disk is a likely signpost for water delivery to the terrestrial zone of a young planetary system.

Currie, Thayne [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States); Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Rm. N204, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States)

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Effect of H[subscript 2]O on the density of silicate melts at high pressures: Static experiments and the application of a modified hard-sphere model of equation of state  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density of ultramafic silicate melts was determined using the sink/float technique at high pressures. Seven melt compositions were studied, among which three were dry compositions with different Mg's (molar MgO/(MgO + FeO) x 100) and the other four were hydrous compositions synthesized by adding 2-7 wt.% H{sub 2}O to the anhydrous ones. Experimental conditions range from 9 to 15 GPa and from 2173 to 2473 K. The sinking and floatation of density markers were observed for all melt compositions. Melt density data were analyzed by applying the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a newly developed equation of state for silicate melts based on the model of hard sphere mixtures. The presence of water can significantly reduce the density of melts due to its small molecular mass. On the other hand, water makes hydrous silicate melts more compressible than anhydrous melts and therefore the effect of H{sub 2}O on melt density is less significant at high pressures. The density of hydrous melts was then calculated as a function of H{sub 2}O content at the conditions of the bottom of the upper mantle, and was compared with the density of the dominant upper mantle minerals. Results show that the conditions for a negatively buoyant melt that coexists with a pyrolite mantle atop the 410 km discontinuity are marginally satisfied if H{sub 2}O is the only volatile component to facilitate melting, but such conditions will be satisfied by a broader range of conditions when other heavier volatile elements (C, K, etc.) are also present.

Jing, Zhicheng; Karato, Shun-ichiro (Yale); (UC)

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

355

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ? Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ? Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ? Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ? NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Soil organic matter factions of no-tilled and tilled soils and their reactivity with herbicides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of soil humic fractions were determined on surface and 7.5-15.0 cm soil samples of continuously (7-year) no-tilled and tilled cotton, corn, and soybean plots in West Tennessee. Soil humic and fulvic acid were extracted by standard methods and the humic acid was characterized by /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy, titration of total acidity and carboxyl groups, and infrared and elemental analysis. Humic acid composition differed by depth and crop. Small differences were observed between tillage systems. Humic acid aliphatic and aromatic carbons ranged from 48 to 65% and 25 to 40% of total peak area, respectively. The humic acids extracted from soils with larger amounts of carbon had larger aliphatic to aromatic ratios, indicating less decomposed organic matter. Carboxyl groups of the humic acids ranged from 9 to 13% and samples from tilled soil had slightly greater amounts of carboxyl and aromatic groups. Carboxyl group determinations by /sup 13/C-NMR, compared more closely with total acidity determinations by titration than with carboxyl determinations by titration. All infrared spectra were similar. Elemental composition of humic acid averaged C, 52.7%, 5.6%; N, 4.8%, and 36.9%.

Stearman, G.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of pure aromatic and aliphatic compounds from their mixtures is an important goal in chemical operations (e.g., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) that produce both types of compounds. In this work the authors have used 1,4-dicyanobutane (DCB) as a potential solvent for this separation. Liquid-liquid equilibrium results for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K are reported, where the alkane is hexane or nonane or dodecane or hexadecane and the aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene or methylbenzene or 1,2-dimethylbenzene, or 1,3-dimethylbenzene, or 1,4-dimethylbenzene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene or ethylbenzene. The results show that there is a small increase in the two-phase region as the chain length of the alkane is increased. The type of aromatic hydrocarbon present in the mixture has a noticeable effect on the slopes of the tie lines. There is also an increase in the area of the two phase-region with increasing substitution of methyl groups on the benzene ring. NRTL and UNIQUAC models were correlated to the data. The results show that 1,4-dicyanobutane may be used as a solvent for the separation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Letcher, T.M.; Naicker, P.K.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 10, October 1-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe Electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. Preliminary experiments have also been completed utilizing corn meal in which 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and carbon monoxide were both found to be effective methane suppressors. An analysis of the energy outputs and requirements for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from corn has been performed. As a means of expanding the number of potential substrates, pretreatment schemes are being investigated. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extractor system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. Although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process, the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential.

Sanderson, J.E.; Levy, P.F.; Wise, D.L.; Nabor, M.R.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Hughes, C.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The Influence of Different Processing Additives on Biodegradation of Poly(E-caprolactone)*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of different processing additives on the biodegradation of poly(e-caprolactone) film in the compost with plant treatment active sludge is described in this paper. Poly(c-caprolactone) was incubated for several weeks in compost in natural and laboratory conditions. The characteristic parameters of plant treatment active sludge such as: temperature, pH, moisture content and activity of dehydrogenases and their influence on degradation of poly(c-caprolactane) are presented and discussed. The loss of weight, intrinsic viscosity, tensile strength and morphological changes were tested during the period of degradation. Results of measurement indicate that the biodegradation of poly(c-caprotactone) without additives was very fast in compost with plant treatment active sludge and after six weeks the polymer film was completely assimilated. The introducing of processing additives gives better tensile strength of the materials and less vulnerable to microorganisms attack. Key Words: biodegradation; enzymatic attack; composting; active sludge, polycaprolactone be degraded in contact with living organisms. According to the literature, degradation of aliphatic polyesters in living environments can result from enzymatic attack or from simple hydrolysis of ester bonds or both (Scheme I) [l-4]. Poly(e-caprolactone) is an important member of the aliphatic polyester family known as susceptible material to biological degradation, which has been

Maria Rutkowskal; Katarzyna Krasowska T; Ra Heimowska L

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 1097 PROBED BY AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Infrared Camera on board AKARI, we carried out near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec region of the barred spiral galaxy, NGC 1097, categorized as Seyfert 1 with a circumnuclear starburst ring. Our observations mapped the area of {approx}50'' Multiplication-Sign 10'' with the resolution of {approx}5'', covering about a half of the ring and the galactic center. As a result, we spatially resolve the starburst ring in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m, the aliphatic hydrocarbon 3.4-3.6 {mu}m features, and the hydrogen Br{alpha} 4.05 {mu}m emission. They exhibit spatial distributions significantly different from each other, indicating that the environments vary considerably around the ring. In particular, the aliphatic features are enhanced near the bar connecting the ring with the nucleus, where the structure of hydrocarbon grains seems to be relatively disordered. Near the center, the continuum emission and the CO/SiO absorption features are strong, which indicates that the environments inside the ring are dominated by old stellar populations. The near-infrared spectra do not show any evidence for the presence of nuclear activity.

Kondo, Toru; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Mori, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suzuki, Toyoaki, E-mail: kondo@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Crosslinked Polyamide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A crosslinked polyamide material and a process for preparing the crosslinked polyamide material are disclosed. The crosslinked polyamide material comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (1) a polyamide of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n is between about 50 and 10,000, wherein each R is between 1 and 50 carbon atoms alone and is optionally substituted with heteroatoms, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone forming the polyamide, and wherein two or more of the R contain an amino group; and (2) a crosslinking agent containing at least two functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide. In one embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic or aromatic isocyanate compound having 2 or more --N.dbd.C.dbd.O groups. In another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic aldehyde or aromatic aldehyde compound having 2 or more --CHO groups. In still another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.2 P(B) and mixtures thereof, wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, and B is hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, or aryl. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins having more than one epoxide group per molecule.

Huang, Zhi H. (East Lansing, MI); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

365

Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Study of thermal conversion of naphthenic oils on the basis of analysis of their middle fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of the middle fractions of the thermal decomposition products of naphthenic oils obtained at 300, 350, and 400{degrees}C was studied. It was shown that the character of conversions of petroleum hydrocarbons is governed by the intensity of thermal treatment and by the chemical nature of the starting oil. The removal of aliphatic chains from high-boiling components of the petroleum at a temperature below 350{degrees}C results in the new formation of linear and isoprene alkanes in their middle fractions similarly to the catagenic transformations of oils in deposits. The rise in temperature up to 400{degrees}C enhances the destruction processes related to extension of the reactions of the homolytic cleavage of C-C bonds in aliphatic chains. This results in practically complete destruction of isoprene alkanes and in predominance of low-molecular homologs among the linear alkanes. On the basis of the results obtained it can be supposed that the thermal treatment is an important factor in the conversion of naphthenic oils into paraffin oils. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kayukova, G.P.; Kurbskii, G.P.; Mutalapova, R.I. [A.E. Arbuzov Inst. of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

367

The application of soft X-ray microscopy to the in-situ analysis of sporopollenin/sporinite in a rank variable suite of organic rich sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soft X-ray imaging and carbon near edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (C-NEXAFS) has been used for the in-situ analysis of sporinite in a rank variable suite of organic rich sediments extending from recent up to high volatile A bituminous coal. The acquisition of chemically based images (contrast based on the 1s - 1{pi}* transition of unsaturated carbon), revealed a homogeneous chemical structure in the spore exine. C-NEXAFS microanalysis indicates chemical structural evolution in sporopollenin/sporinite with increases in maturation. The most significant change in the C-NEXAFS spectrum is an increase in unsaturated carbon, presumably aromatic, with rank. The rate of aromatization in sporinite exceeds that of the surrounding vitrinite. Increases in the concentration of unsaturated carbon are compensated by losses of aliphatic and hydroxylated aliphatic carbon components. Carboxyl groups are present in low and variable concentrations. Absorption due to carboxyl persists in the most mature specimen in this series, a high volatile A rank coal. The reactions which drive sporopollenin chemical structural evolution during diagenesis presumably involve dehydration, Diels-Alder cyclo-addition, and dehydrogenation reactions which ultimately lead to a progressively aromatized bio/geopolymer.

Cody, G.D.; Botto, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Ade, H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wirick, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Kinetics of an Inverse Temperature Transition Process and Its Application on Supported Lipid Bilayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Objective The dynamics of the protein folding from a denatured random coil state to a native globule state in which it possess activity1 is not well understood.2-3 Studying the pathway and the mechanism of the protein folding may provide more information to know... and it is hard to study in aqueous solution.5 The study of the homopolymer chains collapse from extended random coils to compact globule states (coil-to-globule transition) may provide more understanding of initial stage of protein folding.1,6 Though the coil...

Chang, Chin-Yuan

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

371

Methods and kits for nucleic acid analysis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting the presence of a target nucleotide or sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid is disclosed. The method is comprised of forming an oligonucleotide labeled with two fluorophores on the nucleic acid target site. The doubly labeled oligonucleotide is formed by addition of a singly labeled dideoxynucleoside triphosphate to a singly labeled polynucleotide or by ligation of two singly labeled polynucleotides. Detection of fluorescence resonance energy transfer upon denaturation indicates the presence of the target. Kits are also provided. The method is particularly applicable to genotyping.

Kwok, Pui-Yan (Clayton, MO); Chen, Xiangning (St. Louis, MO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Purification and characterization of an adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase from human lung  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Texas ABM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. B. Moore, 0 r. A cyclic AMP-speci fi c phosphodiesterase was purified from human lung tissue. Ion-exchange chromatography, hydroxylapatite chroma- tography, gel-exclusion chromatography..., and preparative isoelectric focusing yielded a 300 fold purification. The enzyme was homoge- neous, as judged by non-denaturing gels. The purified phosphodiesterase had a molecular ~eight of 60, 000, a sedimentation coefficient of 3. 2-3. 45, and a pI of 4. 6...

Schroedter, Dwight Edward

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

Characterization of four single-site tryptophan variants of r  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposed. For the denatured state (10 M urea), the A. ?, ?values are (nm): 343 (Y52W), 342 (Y55W), 339 (T76W), 341 (Y81W); and the fluorescence intensities at A. , ?are: 23100 (Y52W), 26300 (Y55W), 25800 (T76W), 21500 (Y81W). N.... The change in conformational stability for each protein is (keel mol '): -2. 90 (Y52W), -2. 21 (Y55W), +0. 71 (T76W), -0. 40 (Y81W). T76W shows an increase in stability, indicating that the Trp can form a hydrogen bond and/or bury some hydrophobic surface...

Alston, Roy Willis

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Pathogen Detection Lab-On-A-Chip (PADLOC) System for Plant Pathogen Diagnosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximately 95°C.4 Afterwards, the sample is cooled down to 48-74°C to let the primers in the sample to anneal to denatured DNAs. This temperature range is referred to as annealing temperature and it is directly related to the melting temperature... devices and circular traversing devices. The first serpentine rectangular channel device came out in1998 by Kopp et al.14 The channel length was 2.2 m long and the sample went through three temperature zones of 95, 60 and 77°C for 20 times. The flow...

Cifci, Osman

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Functional Stability of a Mixed Microbial Consortium Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) represent an environmentally-effective alternative to synthetic thermoplastics; however, current production practices are not sustainable. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing real wastewaters and mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum. Polymer production reached 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. Employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts, distinctly different communities were observed between and within wastewaters following enrichment. Most importantly, functional stability was maintained despite differing and contrasting microbial populations.

David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Studies on an extracellular proteolytic enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-bound and that the size o= che protein-pigment complex decreased in che presence. a! 2 tn 5 molar concentrations of urea. The enzyme readily cleaved urea-denatured hemoglobin substrate and N-benzoyl-D L-alanine ethyl ester(BAlaEE)but did oot cleave H...-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (ATEE), a substrate wfzich was hydrnlyzed by other proteolytic enzyr. es produced in the same enzyz"e system. Tne proteinase was anionic at pH values of 6. 2 anci shovels Optizcal hydrnzysis of hemnclobin substrate occured near pH 7. 5...

Dunklin, Bivin Hugh

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

Goodwin, Edwin H. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Theoretical Perspectives on Protein Folding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding how monomeric proteins fold under in vitro conditions is crucial to describing their functions in the cellular context. Significant advances both in theory and experiments have resulted in a conceptual framework for describing the folding mechanisms of globular proteins. The experimental data and theoretical methods have revealed the multifaceted character of proteins. Proteins exhibit universal features that can be determined using only the number of amino acid residues (N) and polymer concepts. The sizes of proteins in the denatured and folded states, cooperativity of the folding transition, dispersions in the melting temperatures at the residue level, and time scales of folding are to a large extent determined by N. The consequences of finite N especially on how individual residues order upon folding depends on the topology of the folded states. Such intricate details can be predicted using the Molecular Transfer Model that combines simulations with measured transfer free energies of protein building blocks from water to the desired concentration of the denaturant. By watching one molecule fold at a time, using single molecule methods, the validity of the theoretically anticipated heterogeneity in the folding routes, and the N-dependent time scales for the three stages in the approach to the native state have been established. Despite the successes of theory, of which only a few examples are documented here, we conclude that much remains to be done to solve the "protein folding problem" in the broadest sense.

D. Thirumalai; Edward P. O'Brien; Greg Morrison; Changbong Hyeon

2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

380

Effect of temperature on the extraction of nitric acid and plutonium(IV) nitrate with 30 vol% tributyl phosphate (TBP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author's own and published data were evaluated for characterizing the effect of temperature on the distribution of nitric acid and plutonium(IV). The solutes were distributed between 30 vol% TBP in an aliphatic diluent and aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and zero to macro amounts of plutonium(IV) and uranyl nitrates. The temperature dependence of the distribution ratios is described with empirical model equations and examples of the dependence in the absence and presence of uranium(VI) are given. Taking infinite dilution of all solutes of the system as a standard state, the enthalpy change of the extraction reaction could be estimated as -17 kJ/mol for nitric acid, but no numerical estimate was possible for plutonium(IV).

Kolarik, Z.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Demonstration of a TODGA/TBP process for recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from a PUREX raffinate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of the partitioning of trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate has been demonstrated with a TODGA + TBP extractant mixture dissolved in an industrial aliphatic solvent TPH. Based on the results coming from cold and hot batch extraction studies and with the aid of computer code calculations a continuous counter current process have been developed and two flowsheets were tested using miniature centrifugal contactors. The feed solutions was a synthetic PUREX raffinate, spiked with {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs. More than 99.9 % of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides were extracted and back-extracted and very high decontamination factors to most fission products were obtained. Co-extraction of zirconium, molybdenum and palladium was prevented using oxalic acid and HEDTA. However 10% of ruthenium was extracted and only 3 % could be back extracted using diluted nitric acid. (authors)

Modolo, G.; Asp, H.; Vijgen, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energieforschung, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Valrho - CEA, DRCP/SCPS, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Solute retention in column liquid chromatography. X. Determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients in methanol, water, and their mixtures, by combined gas-liquid and liquid-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Raoult's-law activity coefficients of 3- to 7-carbon aliphatic aldehyde, ketone, ester, and alcohol solutes at infinite dilution in methanol, water, and mixtures of the two and in polydimethysiloxane, all at 293-308 K, have been determined for the first time by appropriate combination of GLC and LLC retention data. The latter data are reported in terms of mole factions, while the former are given in concentration units of molality. However, interpretation of the data is difficult because of the multiplicity of the retention mechanisms. Nevertheless, the combined GLC/LLC technique, which had been applied previously only to pure solvents, is said to offer a number of advantages over static techniques for the determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients with volatile solvents, especially with mixtures of solvents.

Djerki, R.A.; Laub, R.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Thompson, Lisa M. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

{gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S. [Institut Armand-Frappier, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

Terry Brown; Song Jin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

388

Biotreatment techniques get chemical help  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological treatment methods for contaminated soils and groundwater, including landfarming, pump-and-treat bioreactors and in situ bioremediation, are using hydrogen peroxide (H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) as an oxidant to reduce cleanup time and save money. Some examples of how the chemical is being used include the following: recent studies indicate peroxygen compounds, such as calcium peroxide, can be used to chemically aerate soils in landfarming applications. Pump-and-treat bioreactor systems for treating halogenated aliphatics can use an H[sub 2]O[sub 2] solution to deliver oxygen to oxygen-deficient systems. The solution has proven effective for improving bioreactor efficiency during limited oxygen solubility; in situ peroxidation can be used to partially oxidize soil contaminants to reduce their toxicity and enhance their biodegradability in the unsaturated zone prior to in situ bioremediation.

Elizardo, K. (Solvay Interox, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

390

Photochemical oxidation of coals and some selected model compounds by using copper(II) chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The H-donor ability of different rank coals was examined by using a copper(II)chloride-acetonitrile system as the dehydrogenator. A bituminous coal and two lignites were irradiated in the UV in the presence of copper(II)chloride in acetonitrile. The coal was dehydrogenated while the Cu(II) was reduced to CU(I). Considerable amounts of aliphatic or alicyclic hydrogen were removed from the coals. In the process, while the oxygen contents of coals do not increase, more condensed aromatic products occur. It was concluded that lignites are better reducing agents than bituminous coals. A photooxidation mechanism is proposed on the basis of the model compound reaction. Photooxidation of alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, benzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, and diphenyl carbinol), a hydroaromatic compound (tetrahydronaphthalene), and an aromatic ether (dibenzyl ether) was performed under similar reaction conditions.

Yilmaz, M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a combination of instrumental and chemical methods, many new classes of compounds appearing as homologous series have been detected in Athabasca oil sand bitumen and in the chemical and thermal degradative products of asphaltene and the heavy ends of maltene. In general, the volatile portion of the maltene is rich in cyclic terpenoid structures and devoid in aliphatic compounds or normal alkane-derived cyclic molecules while the asphaltene fraction and heavy ends of maltene are abundant in normal alkyl-substituted aromatics, thianes, thiolanes, thiophenes, benzo- and dibenzothiophenes. This paper reports that Ru(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation permitted the quantitative estimation of the n-alkyl groups attached to aromatic carbons and of n-alkyl bridges between two aromatic units and their concentration distribution according to chain length. It also showed the presence of a large naphthenic core containing cyclic sulfides, which, during oxidation, were converted to their sulfones.

Strausz, O.P.; Lown, E.M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Identification of organic compounds contained in the bitumen of Chattanooga oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bitumen of Chattanooga Oil Shale has been extracted with benzene. The benzene-soluble material was separated into acid base and neutral fractions with ion exchange chromatography. This separation scheme has been used extensively to separate the organic material in Green River Oil Shale. The acid fraction was esterified with BF/sub 3//MeOH. A large portion of the acid fraction was not esterified and this material was considered to be phenolic. The bases were separated into two fractions using alumina. The esters, the two base fractions and the total neutral fraction were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Two series constituting the methyl esters of normal and isoprenoid acids were identified. Several homologous series were indicated in the base fraction. The major components in the neutral fractions were two series constituting normal and isoprenoid alkanes. The analysis scheme apparently does a good job of separating and identifying aliphatic materials.

Mc Gowan, C.W.; Greenwell, B.E.; Markuszewski, R.; Richard, J.J.; Sepaniak, M.J.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

394

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

395

Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

Exploring the Genome and Proteome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB2 for its Protein Complexes Involved in Metal Reduction and Dechlorination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desulfitobacteria are of interest to DOE mission because of their ability to reduce many electron acceptors including Fe(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), As(V), Mn(IV), Se(VI), NO3- and well as CO2, sulfite, fumarate and humates, their ability to colonize more stressful environments because they form spores, fix nitrogen and they have the more protective Gram positive cell walls. Furthermore at least some of them reductively dechlorinate aromatic and aliphatic pollutants. Importantly, most of the metals and the organochlorine reductions are coupled to ATP production and support growth providing for the organism's natural selection at DOE's contaminant sites. This work was undertaken to gain insight into the genetic and metabolic pathways involved in dissimilatory metal reduction and reductive dechlorination, (ii) to discern the commonalities among these electron-accepting processes, (iii) to identify multi-protein complexes catalyzing these functions and (iv) to elucidate the coordination in expression of these pathways and processes.

Kim, Sang-Hoon, Christina Harzman, John K. Davis, Rachel Hutcheson, Joan B. Broderick, Terence L. Marsh, James M. Tiedje.

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

397

Protein Vivisection Reveals Elusive Intermediates in Folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here, we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu {yields} Glu{sup -}) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We applied this strategy to ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the {beta}5-strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high-energy states.

Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

398

Effect of modifying host oil on coprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum is rich in aliphatic and naphthenic compounds, but usually contains relatively few aromatic or hydroaromatic compounds. This paper will explore ways in which petroleum resids (1000{degrees}F+) can be modified to improve them as coprocessing media with coal. Modifications of the resid include (1) hydrogenation with iron and molybdenum-based catalysts, (2) mild hydrogenation with dicobalt octacarbonyl (CO{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}) to convert any aromatics in the resid to hydroaromatics, (3) addition of certain polynuclear aromatic compounds that are excellent hydrogen shuttlers, and (4) catalytic hydrocracking of the resid. The untreated resid and modified oils were evaluated in thermal and catalytic coprocessing experiments. Measures for evaluating coprocessing performance include the fraction of coal converted to M soluble products and the yield of distillable oil, as measured using simulated distillation.

Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two differents techniques were used, in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR measurements and BTU measurements. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis. Drying coal causes hydrogen bonds between water and coal to be broken. Liquids produced above 500{degrees}C are much higher in aromatic content, thus, effectively reducing the concentration of aliphatic groups in the overall liquid yield. BTU values of coals after methane treatment are higher than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

N,N'-DICYCLOHEXYL-N"-ISOTRIDECYLGUANIDINE AS SUPPRESSOR FOR THE NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (NG-CSSX) PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The purity, concentration, and source of the N,N'-dicyclohexyl-N"-isotridecylguanidine (DCiTG) suppressor (guanidine) used in the NG-CSSX process were found to influence solvent performance. As the starting isotridecanol used in the preparation of DCiTG is comprised of a mixture of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols, varying in composition with manufacturer, the resulting DCiTG itself is a mixture. Thus, it is necessary to address how the solvent performance will be affected by the different preparations of the DCiTG solvent component. In this study, four preparations of DCiTG from three sources were analyzed and evaluated for purity and performance, both in the absence and presence of an anionic surfactant impurity.

Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Rajbanshi, Arbin [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

New high pressure rare earth tantalates RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} (RE=La, Eu, Yb)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rare earth tantalates La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134} and Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077} have been prepared by solid state reaction at P=7.0 GPa and T=1050–1100 °C and studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. Low hydrated amorphous tantalum, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium hydroxides were used as starting materials. Aqueous as well as anhydrous compounds were obtained. Title tantalates are crystallized in the structure type of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} [Zibrov et al. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 48 (2003) 464–471] [5]. The structure was refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffractometer data: La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, a=10.5099(2), b=7.2679(1), c=6.9765(1) Ĺ, V=532.90(1) Ĺ{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134}, a=10.4182(3), b=7.2685(1), c=6.9832(1) Ĺ, V=528.80(2) Ĺ{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077}, a=10.4557(2), b=7.3853(1), c=6.8923(1) Ĺ, V=532.21(1) Ĺ{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam. RE atoms do not replace the tantalum in its positions but the only water in the channels of the structure. Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell so that its volume becomes less than that of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant decrease of the unit cell volume after water removal from the structure is possible due to the puckering of pentagonal bipyramid layers and change of the corrugation angle in the layer. - Graphical abstract: The structure of RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} and its HRTEM image (“A” arrows show empty channel, “B” arrows show filled channel). - Highlights: • We synthesized new tantalates of RE under high pressure high temperature conditions. • RE atoms replace water molecules in the channels of the structure. • Aqueous as well as anhydrous tantalates were obtained. • Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell decreasing RE–O distances.

Zibrov, Igor P., E-mail: zibrov@mail.ru [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kaluzhskoe Highway 14, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Filonenko, Vladimir P., E-mail: filv@hppi.troitsk.ru [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kaluzhskoe Highway 14, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Nikolai D., E-mail: zakharov@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Werner, Peter, E-mail: werner@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Drobot, Dmitrii V., E-mail: dvdrobot@mail.ru [Lomonosov Moscow University of Fine Chemical Technology, Prospect Vernadskogo 86, Moscow 119571 (Russian Federation); Nikishina, Elena E.; Lebedeva, Elena N., E-mail: helena_nick@mail.ru [Lomonosov Moscow University of Fine Chemical Technology, Prospect Vernadskogo 86, Moscow 119571 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Systematic modulation and enhancement of CO{sub 2} : N{sub 2} selectivity and water stability in an isoreticular series of bio-MOF-11 analogues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An isoreticular series of cobalt-adeninate bio-MOFs (bio-MOFs 11-14) is reported. The pores of bio-MOFs 11-14 are decorated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate, respectively. The nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption properties of these materials are studied and compared. The isosteric heats of adsorption for CO{sub 2} are calculated, and the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities for each material are 10 determined. As the lengths of the aliphatic chains decorating the pores in bio-MOFs 11-14 increase, the BET surface areas decrease from 1148 m{sup 2}/g to 17 m{sup 2}/g while the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities predicted from ideal adsorbed solution theory at 1 bar and 273 K for a 10:90 CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} mixture range from 73:1 for bio-MOF-11 to 123:1 for bio-MOF-12 and finally to 107:1 for bio-MOF-13. At 298 K, the selectivities are 43:1 for bio-MOF-11, 52:1 for bio-MOF-12, and 40:1 for bio-MOF-13. Additionally, it is shown that 15 bio-MOF-14 exhibits a unique molecular sieving property that allows it to adsorb CO{sub 2} but not N{sub 2} at 273 and 298 K. Finally, the water stability of bio-MOFs 11-14 increases with increasing aliphatic chain length. Bio-MOF-14 exhibits no loss of crystallinity or porosity after soaking in water for one month.

Li, Tao; Chen, De-Li; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Kozlowski, Mark T.; Johnson, J. Karl; Rosi, Nathaniel L.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Isothermal decomposition of New Albany shale from Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal decomposition of a New Albany oil shale has been studied in the temperature range of 375/sup 0/C to 425/sup 0/C. The amount of conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas and residue products was obtained for different reaction times in this temperature range. Elemental analyses were obtained on the bitumen, oil, and solid reaction products. Molecular weights and /sup 13/C NMR measurements of the aliphatic and aromatic carbon fractions in the solid products were made to complete the analyses. The results show that the thermal decomposition of the New Albany oil shale exhibits complex behavior. None of the data fit a simple first-order kinetic expression with respect to kerogen concentration for all temperatures, indicating that multiple parallel reactions occur during the decomposition. However, by fitting the initial slopes of the oil conversion data, it was possible to obtain the weighted average rate constants at each temperature. These data gave a good fit to the Arrhenius equation with the frequency factor equal to 6.38 x 10/sup 15/ min/sup -1/, and the activation energy equal to 207.5 k.j mol/sup -1/ for the kerogen decomposition. The maximum bitumen concentration was 10% or less of the original kerogen at any temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas and residue occurs during heating. Since the highly aliphatic Green River oil shale forms large amounts of bitumen whereas the more aromatic New Albany shale forms only small amounts, the formation of bitumen may be related to the aromatic nature of the kerogen. In general, the chemical properties of the oil were fairly constant at all reaction times and temperatures studied. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant species in the gas phase. The solid and liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data show that the net increase of total aromatic carbon in the products was about 30% of the raw shale value. 37 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Conn, P.J.; Turner, T.F.; Berdan, G.L.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

407

Structure of an Aluminophosphate EMM-8: a Multi-Technique Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of an aluminophosphate, EMM-8 (ExxonMobil Material No. 8), was determined in its calcined, anhydrous form from synchrotron powder diffraction data using the computer program FOCUS. A linkage of double four-ring (D4R) building units forms a two-dimensional framework with 12-MR and 8-MR channels, and differs from a similar SAPO-40 (AFR) framework only by the relationship between paired D4R units. Rietveld refinement reveals a fit of the model to the observed synchrotron data by R{sub 2p} = 0.1118, R(F{sup 2}) = 0.1769. Local environments of the tetrahedral phosphorus and aluminium sites were established by solid-state NMR, which detects distinct differences between as-synthesized and calcined materials. Distinct, reversible changes in the local symmetry of the P and Al atoms were observed by NMR upon calcination and subsequent hydration. These NMR data provided important constraints on the number of tetrahedral (T) atoms per unit cell and the connectivities of the T atoms. Detailed local structural information obtained by solid-state NMR thereby guided the ultimate determination of the structure of AlPO EMM-8 from the powder data. Comparisons are made to the recently published crystal structure of the fluoride-containing, as-synthesized SSZ-51, indicating that the unit-cell symmetry, axial dimensions and framework structure are preserved after calcination.

Cao,G.; Afeworki, M.; Kennedy, C.; Strohmaier, K.; Dorset, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Sol-gel synthesis of high-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride glasses are excellent laser hosts and are very well suited for a broad spectrum of optical applications. However, current fluoride glass synthesis is expensive. The sol-gel method is an affordable alternative for producing high-performance, optical-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses. The method involves forming a hydrous oxide gel of the constituent metal alkoxides and salts, polymerizing the solution to form a gel, fluorinating the gel with anhydrous HF, melting the amorphous material in an oxidizing atmosphere of SF[sub 6], and casting the melt into desired shapes. ZBLA (57ZrF[sub 4] [times] 36BaF[sub 2] [times] 4LaF[sub 3] [times] 3AlF[sub 3], in mol%) and Nd-doped (0.3 mol%) ZBLA glass rods were prepared by this process and their properties were measured. The sol-gel-based glasses had thermal and optical properties similar to those found in the literature for conventionally prepared fluorides.

Dejneka, M.; Riman, R.E.; Snitzer, E. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Ceramics)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Pilot-plant production of ammonium polyphosphate sulfate suspension fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TVA is developing a process for production of ammonium polyphosphate sulfate (APPS) suspension fertilizer from merchant-grade wet-process phosphoric acid, 93% sulfuric acid, and anhydrous ammonia. The two acids are simultaneously ammoniated in an ''enlarged'' pipecross reactor; the molten APPS is dissolved in water; and the fluid then is cooled to room temperature in an evaporative cooler. Attapulgite clay is mixed into the APPS fluid to prevent solids from settling during shipment, storage, and use. The process is energy efficient in that the hot APPS fluid provides all the heat required to preheat the phosphoric acid and vaporize the ammonia. Satisfactory suspension grades up to 11-30-0-3S can be made with 50% of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ present as polyphosphate. The sulfur present in the product should be useful either to reduce sulfur deficiencies in the soil or to provide maintenance dosages of sulfur. The APPS fluid fertilizer can be either applied directly to the soil or used in preparation of mixed suspension products of various ratios. 9 figs., 1 tab.

Mann, H.C.; McGill, K.E.; Holt, M.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Perform Tests and Document Results and Analysis of Oxide Layer Effects and Comparisons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the initial feasibility test using actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding in FY 2012, an incubation period of 30–45 minutes was observed in the initial dry chlorination. The cladding hull used in the test had been previously oxidized in a dry air oxidation pretreatment prior to removal of the fuel. The cause of this incubation period was attributed to the resistance to chlorination of an oxide layer imparted by the dry oxidation pretreatment on the cladding. Subsequently in 2013, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) reported on their chlorination study [R1] on ~9-gram samples of unirradiated ZirloTM cladding tubes that had been previously oxidized in air at 500oC for various time periods to impart oxide layers of varying thickness. In early 2014, discussions with Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contracted technical consultants from Westinghouse described their previous development (and patents) [R2] on methods of chemical washing to remove some or all of the hydrous oxide layer imparted on UNF cladding during irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) . Thus, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) study, described herein, was planned to extend the KAERI study on the effects of anhydrous oxide layers, but on larger ~100-gram samples of unirradiated zirconium alloy cladding tubes, and to investigate the effects of various methods of chemical pretreatment prior to chlorination with 100% chlorine on the average reaction rates and Cl2 usage efficiencies.

Collins, E. D. [ORNL; DelCul, G. D. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL; Hunt, R. D. [ORNL; Ausmus, C. [ORNL

2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

411

Plume opacity investigation at a stoker-fired power generating station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A public utility contacted the Conoco Coal Research Division through Consolidation Coal Company and requested technical assistance in determining the cause of a high plume opacity at one of their stoker-fired power generating stations. The sporadic occurrence of a high opacity plume (>20%) had been reported for several years. Although the utility was burning low sulfur coal, sulfuric acid mist had been suspected as the cause of the plume opacity; therefore, anhydrous ammonia had been injected into the flue gas at the ESP inlet plenums to control the plume opacity with some degree of success. However, for the last two years, the high plume opacity has occurred more frequently. The possible causes of the high plume opacity investigated were: 1) organic species emissions, 2) particulate mass loading, 3) particle size distribution, and 4) sulfuric acid emissions. The investigation included detailed sampling inside the boiler, stack, and plume areas. It was determined that the major cause of the high plume opacity was submicron particle growth at the stack exit due to sulfuric acid/water condensation. The larger particles more efficiently scattered light which resulted in the visible plume at the stack exit. The organic emissions and particulate mass loading in the stack flue gas had minimal effect on the high plume opacity. The fly ash size distribution would also have had minimal effect if the sulfuric acid had not been present.

Lewis, G.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Use of isopropanol to distinguish H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ from particulate sulfate on filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential interferences in the anhydrous isopropanol (a-IPA) extraction method for separating sulfuric acid from particulate sulfate on filters were investigated. The method involves separation and recovery of the acid with a-IPA, followed by aqueous extraction of the particulate sulfate. Analysis for sulfate in the two separate fractions was performed by ion chromatography. The solubility of ammonium sulfate in a-IPA was measured and the effects of temperature and moisture content of the solvent on ammonium sulfate solubility were determined. The solvent recovery procedure was used to analyze samples collected at an oil-fired utility boiler. Before analysis, each filter was cut in half and one half of each filter was exposed to an ammonia atmosphere to neutralize any free sulfuric acid. All filter halves were then extracted with a-IPA followed by a separate aqueous extraction by ultrasonication. Neither a small uptake of moisture by the a-IPA nor elevated temperatures up to 30/sup 0/C had a significant effect on the solubility of ammonium sulfate in IPA. Ammonium sulfate was determined to be very highly insoluble in a-IPA and therefore, exposure of samples to any source of ammonia will result in low recoveries of sulfuric acid by the solvent recovery procedure.

Cheney, J.L.; Fortune, C.R.; Turlington, C.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

414

Catalytic hydrolysis of urea with fly ash for generation of ammonia in a batch reactor for flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonia is a highly volatile noxious material with adverse physiological effects, which become intolerable even at very low concentrations and present substantial environmental and operating hazards and risk. Yet ammonia has long been known to be used for feedstock of flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction. Urea as the source of ammonia for the production of ammonia has the obvious advantages that no ammonia shipping, handling, and storage is required. The process of this invention minimizes the risks and hazards associated with the transport, storage, and use of anhydrous and aqueous ammonia. Yet no such rapid urea conversion process is available as per requirement of high conversion in shorter time, so here we study the catalytic hydrolysis of urea for fast conversion in a batch reactor. The catalyst used in this study is fly ash, a waste material originating in great amounts in combustion processes. A number of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at different catalytic doses, temperatures, times, and at a constant concentration of urea solution 10% by weight, and equilibrium and kinetic studies have been made.

Sahu, J.N.; Gangadharan, P.; Patwardhan, A.V.; Meikap, B.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Summary of the cost analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the Cost Analysis Report which provides comparative cost data for the management strategy alternatives. The PEIS and the Cost Analysis Report will help DOE select a management strategy. The Record of Decision, expected in 1998, will complete the first part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The second part of the Program will look at specific sites and technologies for carrying out the selected strategy. The Cost Analysis Report estimates the primary capital and operating costs for the different alternatives. It reflects the costs of technology development construction of facilities, operation, and decontamination and decommissioning. It also includes potential revenues from the sale of by-products such as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (ABF). These estimates are based on early designs. They are intended to help in comparing alternatives, rather than to indicate absolute costs for project budgets or bidding purposes. More detailed estimates and specific funding sources will be considered in part two of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program.

Dubrin, J.W.; Rahm-Crites, L.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Method of and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gases formed by combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gas formed by combustion particularly exhaust gas from an electricity generating power plant. The exhaust gas flows through a reaction zone which operates like a spray dryer. A purifying liquor consisting of an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is sprayed into the reaction zone, in which the heat content of the exhaust gases causes virtually all of the water content of the purifying liquor to be evaporated. The exhaust gas is subsequently passed through a filter. Anhydrous solids are withdrawn from the reaction zone and the filter and contain at least 75% of sodium sulfite, sodium sulfate and sodium chloride and are processed to form sodium carbonate. To that end the solids are dissolved and sulfite is oxidized to form sulfate so that a solution that contains sodium sulfate and sodium chloride is formed. The sulfate is separated from that solution and the remaining solution is used in the recovery of sodium carbonate by the solvay process.

Voeste, T.

1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Process for removing thorium and recovering vanadium from titanium chlorinator waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removal of thorium from titanium chlorinator waste comprising: (a) leaching an anhydrous titanium chlorinator waste in water or dilute hydrochloric acid solution and filtering to separate insoluble minerals and coke fractions from soluble metal chlorides; (b) beneficiating the insoluble fractions from step (a) on shaking tables to recover recyclable or otherwise useful TiO.sub.2 minerals and coke; and (c) treating filtrate from step (a) with reagents to precipitate and remove thorium by filtration along with acid metals of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta by the addition of the filtrate (a), a base and a precipitant to a boiling slurry of reaction products (d); treating filtrate from step (c) with reagents to precipitate and recover an iron vanadate product by the addition of the filtrate (c), a base and an oxidizing agent to a boiling slurry of reaction products; and (e) treating filtrate from step (d) to remove any remaining cations except Na by addition of Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and boiling.

Olsen, Richard S. (Albany, OR); Banks, John T. (Corvallis, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A comparison of lipase-catalyzed ester hydrolysis in reverse micelles, organic solvents, and biphase systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of lipases from Candida rugosa and wheat germ have been investigated in three reaction media using three acetate hydrolyses as model reactions (ethyl acetate, allyl acetate, and prenyl acetate). The effect of substrate properties and water content were studied for each system (organic solvent, biphasic system, and reverse micelles). Not unexpectedly, the effect of water content is distinct for each system, and the optimal water content for enzyme activity is not always the same as that for productivity. A theoretical model has been used to simulate and predict enzyme performance in reverse micelles, and a proposed partitioning model for biphasic systems agrees well with experimental results. While the highest activities observed were in the micellar system, productivity in microemulsions is limited by low enzyme concentrations. Biphasic systems, however, support relatively good activity and productivity. The addition of water to dry organic solvents, combined with the dispersion of lyophilized enzyme powders in the solvent, resulted in significant enzyme aggregation, which not surprisingly limits the applicability of the ``anhydrous`` enzyme suspension approach.

Yang, F.; Russell, A.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

420

Method for directly recovering fluorine from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a process for the direct recovery of gaseous fluorine from waste-gas streams or the like. The process comprises passing the gas stream through a bed of anhydrous K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets to fluorinate the same to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 and subsequently desorbing the fluorine by heating the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 pellets to a temperature re-converting them to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6. The efficiency of the fluorine-absorption step is maximized by operating in a selected and conveniently low temperature. The desorbed fluorine is highly pure and is at a pressure of several atmospheres. Preferably, the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets are prepared by a method including the steps of forming agglomerates of hydrated K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5, sintering the agglomerates to form K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5 pellets of enhanced reactivity with respect to fluorine, and fluorinating the sintered pellets to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6.

Orlett, Michael J. (Portsmouth, OH); Saraceno, Anthony J. (Waverly, OH)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

Simpson, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Oxidation of heterocyclic nitrogen yields to nitroheterocycles. [Nitrofurazans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of finding new routes to synthesize nitrofurazans the investigators compared the oxidation of a sulfilimide and a phosphine imine derived from 3-amino-4-(chlorophenyl)furazan (1). The sulfilimine, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-dimethyl-sulfiliminofurazan (2), was prepared by treating 1 with dimethyl sulfide ditriflate. Oxidation of 1 with peroxytrifluoroacetic acid (ptfa) in dichloromethane gave a mixture that was chromatographed to give 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- nitro-furazan (5) in 11% yield and azoxy(4-chlorophenylfurazan) (6) in 32% yield. Under the same conditions, 2 gave a 96% yield of 5 with no trace of 6. Oxidation of diaminofurazan (7) with ptfa gives 3-amino-4-nitrofurazan (8), which was converted to the sulfilimine. Treatment of the sulfilimine with anhydrous ptfa in dichloromethane gave a solution that contained dimethyl sulfone according to /sup 13/C-NMR analysis, but no nitrocarbon could be detected. However, the /sup 14/N-NMR spectrum contained a very sharp singlet with a width at half-height of 19 Hz and a chemical shift almost identical to that of 5. Thus, it appears that we may have formed dinitrofurazan in solution, but we have not been able to isolate it in pure form as yet. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Coburn, M.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in-situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust grains. It has a mass resolution m/{\\Delta}m of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these mi...

Krüger, Harald; Engrand, Cécile; Briois, Christelle; Siljeström, Sandra; Merouane, Sihane; Baklouti, Donia; Fischer, Henning; Fray, Nicolas; Hornung, Klaus; Lehto, Harry; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Rynö, Jouni; Schulz, Rita; Silen, Johan; Thirkell, Laurent; Trieloff, Mario; Hilchenbach, Martin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Facile preparation of titania hollow spheres by combination of the mixed solvent method and the sol-gel process and post-calcination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polystyrene (core)-titania (shell) composite spheres consisting were readily prepared by a sol-gel process of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile (3:1, v/v). Smooth and homogeneous titania coatings formed when the mixed solvent was dehydrated by anhydrous sodium sulfate. The thickness and surface roughness of titania coating increase with increase of the TBOT concentration. By adjusting the TBOT concentration in the range of 5.8-29.0 mM, the size of titania-coated PS spheres could be varied from 990 to 1125 nm. Calcination at elevated temperature gave dense, homogeneous, robust shells of anatase titania. The sizes of titania hollow spheres are 11.3-16.9% smaller than those of the titania-coated PS spheres as a result of calcination-induced shrinkage. The composite and hollow spheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements. These core-shell organic-inorganic spheres and hollow ceramic spheres may have wide applications in catalysts, adsorbents, lightweight fillers, capsules, etc.

Du Xin [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864 (China); He Junhui, E-mail: jhhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China)

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

426

SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

427

Analysis of the surface of tricalcium silicate during the induction period by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy allows the analysis of surface layers with a thickness of a few nanometers. The method is sensitive to the chemical environment of the atoms since the binding energy of the electrons depends on the chemical bonds to neighboring atoms. It has been applied to the hydration of tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}, C{sub 3}S) by analyzing a sample after 30 min of hydration. Also two references have been investigated namely anhydrous C{sub 3}S and intermediate phase in order to enable a quantitative evaluation of the experimental data. In the hydrated C{sub 3}S sample, the analyzed volume (0.2 mm{sup 2} surface by 13 nm depth) contained approximately 44 wt.% of C{sub 3}S and 56 wt.% of intermediate phase whereas C-S-H was not detected. Scanning Electron Microscopy data and geometric considerations indicate that the intermediate phase forms a thin layer having a thickness of approximately 2 nm and covers the complete surface instead of forming isolated clusters.

Bellmann, F., E-mail: frank.bellmann@uni-weimar.de [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Sowoidnich, T.; Ludwig, H.-M. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany)] [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Damidot, D. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedex (France)] [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedex (France)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Catalytic bromine recovery from HBr waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste HBr is formed during the bromination of many organic molecules, such as flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. For over 50 years attempts to recover the bromine from waste HBr by catalytic oxidation have been unsuccessful due to low catalyst activity and stability. The discovery of a new high-activity catalysts with excellent long-term stability and life capable of high HBr conversion below 300{degrees}C has made catalytic oxidation of waste HBr commercially feasible. The oxidation of anhydrous HBr using oxygen is highly exothermic, giving an adiabatic temperature rise of 2000{degrees}C. Use of 48 wt% HBr in the oxidation reduces the adiabatic temperature rise to only 300{degrees}C. A multitubular heat exchanger type of reactor can then be used to manage the heat. A 5,000 kg/yr pilot plant was built to verify the performance of the catalyst, the suitability of the reactor materials of construction, and the multibular reactor concept. The pilot unit has a single full-scale reactor tube 4 m long and 2.54 cm in diameter with a hot oil jacket for heat management. Excellent catalyst stability was observed during a 600 h catalyst-life test. HBr conversion of 99% was maintained throughout the run, and over 360 kg of bromine was produced. The temperature at a localized hot spot near the reactor inlet was only 15-20{degrees}C above the reactor inlet temperature, indicating efficient heat management.

Schubert, P.F.; Beatty, R.D.; Mahajan, S. [Catalytica Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Genetic studies for aquaculture and stock-enhancement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................... 23 3 Mean (standard deviation) and range of weight and length of 124-125 larvae from each of 13 spawns sampled in 2002.................... 25 4 Results of analysis of variance for early larval growth (weight) .......... 26 5 Mean (standard...× reaction buffer [500 mM KCl, 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.4)], 1.5 mM MgCl2, 2.5 mM of each DNTP, 5 pM of each primer, 0.5 units of Taq DNA polymerase (Gibco BRL). Thermal cycling was carried out as follows: initial denaturation at 95oC for 5 min, followed...

Ma, Liang

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

430

Characterization of the microdialysis junction interface for capillary electrophoresis/microelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) interface, based on an electric circuit across a microdialysis membrane surrounding a short capillary segment closely connected to the separation capillary terminus, is demonstrated to be sensitive, efficient, and rugged. A microspray type ionization emitter produces a stable electrospray at the low flow rates provided by CE and thus avoids both the need for a makeup liquid flow provided by liquid junction or sheath flow interfaces and the subsequent dilution and reduction in sensitivity. Reproducibility studies and comparisons with CE/UV and the CE/sheath flow interface with ESI-MS are presented. Additionally, postrun acidification via the microdialysis junction interface is demonstrated and shown to be capable of denaturing the holomyoglobin protein noncovalent complex while maintaining separation efficiency. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Severs, J.C.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Unwinding relaxation dynamics of polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relaxation dynamics of a polymer wound around a fixed obstacle constitutes a fundamental instance of polymer with twist and torque and it is of relevance also for DNA denaturation dynamics. We investigate it by simulations and Langevin equation analysis. The latter predicts a relaxation time scaling as a power of the polymer length times a logarithmic correction related to the equilibrium fluctuations of the winding angle. The numerical data support this result and show that at short times the winding angle decreases as a power-law. This is also in agreement with the Langevin equation provided a winding-dependent friction is used, suggesting that such reduced description of the system captures the basic features of the problem.

Jean-Charles Walter; Marco Baiesi; Gerard Barkema; Enrico Carlon

2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

432

Exploring the conformational energy landscape of proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proteins possess a complex energy landscape with a large number of local minima called conformational substates that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Here we discuss experiments aimed at the elucidation of the energy landscape in carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO). In the highest tier of the hierarchy, a few taxonomic substates exist. Because of their small number, these substates are accessible to detailed structural investigations. Spectroscopic experiments are discussed that elucidate the role of protonations of amino acid side chains in creating the substates. The lower tiers of the hierarchy contain a large number of statistical substates. Substate interconversions are observed in the entire temperature range from below 1 K up to the denaturation temperature, indicating a wide spectrum of energy barriers that separate the substates.

Nienhaus, G.U. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); [Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Mueller, J.D.; McMahon, B.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Protein folding and cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

González-Diáz, P F

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Atmospheric cloud water contains a diverse bacterial community  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric cloud water contains an active microbial community which can impact climate, human health and ecosystem processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Most studies on the composition of microbial communities in clouds have been performed with orographic clouds that are typically in direct contact with the ground. We collected water samples from cumulus clouds above the upper U.S. Midwest. The cloud water was analyzed for the diversity of bacterial phylotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. DGGE analyses of bacterial communities detected 17e21 bands per sample. Sequencing confirmed the presence of a diverse bacterial community; sequences from seven bacterial phyla were retrieved. Cloud water bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by members of the cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and firmicutes.

Kourtev, P. S.; Hill, Kimberly A.; Shepson, Paul B.; Konopka, Allan

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Role of Structure in the Protein Dynamical Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The protein dynamical transition is investigated as a function of protein structure using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Measurements performed for native state and denatured hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) show that protein structure is not necessary for the dynamical transition. We find the temperature dependence follows activated behavior and there is no evidence of a fragile to strong transition. Measurements of short chain poly alanine show a dynamical transition down to penta-alanine, however no transition is observed for di-alanine or tri-alanine. These measurements demonstrate that the temperature dependence arises strictly from the interaction of the side chains with the solvent. The lack of a transition for shorter chain polypeptides may indicate the temperature dependence arises from a net ordering of the adjacent water which scales with the length of the polypeptide chain.

He, Yunfen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Molecular characterization of vanadyl and nickel non-porphyrin compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel compounds in heavy crude petroleums has been the subject of current research. Arabian Heavy, Maya, Boscan, Cerro Negro, Prudhoe Bay, Wilmington Beta, Kern River, and Morichal crude petroleums have been examined. Fractions from D 2007 separations, porphyrin extractions, and solvent selective extraction with reversed phase column separations of these petroleums have been studied thoroughly by EPR. Important structural aspects are emerging from the presented data: (1) There are non-porphyrin metal complexes in the crude petroleums. (2) They appear to be smaller molecules with MW < 400 which are liberated when the tertiary structure of the large asphaltics is denatured. (3) The first coordination spheres of this class of compounds are possibly 4N, N O 2S, and 4S. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Gallegos, E.J.; Fish, R.H.; Komlenic, J.J.; Wines, B.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA and incorporated halodeoxyuridine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the simultaneous flow cylometric measurement of total cellular DNA content and of the uptake of DNA precursors as a measure of DNA synthesis during various phases of the cell cycle in normal and malignant cells in vitro and in vivo is described. The method comprises reacting cells with labelled halodeoxyuridine (HdU), partially denaturing cellular DNA, adding to the reaction medium monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reactive with HdU, reacting the bound mabs with a second labelled antibody, incubating the mixture with a DNA stain, and measuring simultaneously the intensity of the DNA stain as a measure of the total cellular DNA and the HdU incorporated as a measure of DNA synthesis. (ACR)

Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.

1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

440

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

Nguyen, Q.A.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

Nguyen, Q.A.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Protein folding and cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz; C. L. Siguenza

1997-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

443

Putting the Squeeze on Biology: Biomolecules Under Pressure  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Modest pressures encountered in the biosphere (i.e., below a few kbar) have extraordinary effects on biomembranes and proteins. These include pressure denaturation of proteins, dramatic changes in protein-protein association, substrate binding, membrane ion transport, DNA transcription, virus infectivity, and enzyme kinetics. Yet all of the biomaterials involved are highly incompressible. The challenge to the physicist is to understand the structural coupling between these effects and pressure to elucidate the relevant mechanisms. X-ray diffraction studies of membranes and proteins under pressure will be described. It is seen that it is not so much the magnitude of the changes, but rather the differential compressibilities of different parts of the structure that are responsible for effects.

Sol Gruner

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

444

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Thermal stability of certain hydrated phases in systems made using portland cement. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the study of hydraulic-cement system for use in possible underground isolation of nuclear wastes, this study was made to determine the temperature stability of ettringite and chloroaluminate. Either or both of these phases may be expected in a hydraulic cement system depending on the presence of salt (NaCl). The study of ettringite was made using 15 mixtures that contained portland cement, plaster, 2 levels of water, and in some mixtures, 1 of 6 pozzolans (3 fly ashes, 1 slag, a silica fume, a natural pozzolan), plus a 16th mixture with anhydrous sodium sulfate replacing plaster (CaSO4 . 1/2H20). Specimens were made and stored at 23, 50, and 75 C or 23, 75, and 100 C (all four temperatures in one case) for periodic examination by x-ray diffraction for phase compositiion and ettringite stability, and testing for compressive strength and restrained expansion. A more limited study of the stability of chloroaluminate was made along the same lines using fewer mixtures, salt instead of plaster, and higher temperatures plus some pressure. It was found that while some ettringette was decomposed at 75 C, depending on the composition of the mixture, all ettringite was undetectable by x-ray diffraction at 100 C, usually within a few days. The evidence indicates that the ettringite became amorphous and no significant test phases formed in its place. Since there was no corresponding loss in strength or reduction in volume, this loss of ettringite crystallinity was considered to be damaging. Based on much more limited data, chloroaluminate was found to decompose between 130 C at 25 psi and 170 C at 100 psi; no significant phases replaced it.

Buck, A.D.; Burkes, J.P.; Poole, T.S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

447

Screening Hofmann Compounds as CO{sub 2} Sorbents: Nontraditional Synthetic Route to Over 40 Different Pore-Functionalized and Flexible Pillared Cyanonickelates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple reaction scheme based on the heterogeneous intercalation of pillaring ligands (HIPLs) provides a convenient method for systematically tuning pore size, pore functionality, and network flexibility in an extended series of pillared cyanonickelates (PICNICs), commonly referred to as Hofmann compounds. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated through the preparation of over 40 different PICNICs containing pillar ligands ranging from ?4 to ?15 Ĺ in length and modified with a wide range of functional groups, including fluoro, aldehyde, alkylamine, alkyl, aryl, trifluoromethyl, ester, nitro, ether, and nonmetalated 4,4?-bipyrimidine. The HIPL method involves reaction of a suspension of preformed polymeric sheets of powdered anhydrous nickel cyanide with an appropriate pillar ligand in refluxing organic solvent, resulting in the conversion of the planar [Ni{sub 2}(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} networks into polycrystalline three-dimensional porous frameworks containing the organic pillar ligand. Preliminary investigations indicate that the HIPL reaction is also amenable to forming Co(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, and Fe(L)Pd(CN){sub 4} networks. The materials show variable adsorption behavior for CO{sub 2} depending on the pillar length and pillar functionalization. Several compounds show structurally flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the newly discovered flexible compounds include two flexible Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4} derivatives that are structurally related to previously reported porous spin-crossover compounds. The preparations of 20 pillar ligands based on ring-functionalized 4,4?-dipyridyls, 1,4-bis(4- pyridyl)benzenes, and N-(4-pyridyl)isonicotinamides are also described.

Culp, Jeffrey T.; Madden, Catherine; Kauffman, Kristi; Shi, Fan; Matranga, Christopher

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Cancrinite: Crystal Structure, Phase Transitions, and Dehydration Behavior with Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural behavior of a cancrinite, Na{sub 5.96}Ca{sub 1.52}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](CO{sub 3}){sub 1.57}{center_dot}1.75H{sub 2}O, was determined by using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data [{lambda} = 0.91806(5) {angstrom}] at room pressure and from 25 to 982 {sup o}C. The sample was heated at a rate of about 9.5 {sup o}C/min, and X-ray traces were collected at about 15 {sup o}C intervals. The satellite reflections in cancrinite were lost at about 504 {sup o}C, where a phase transition occurs. All the unit-cell parameters for cancrinite also show a discontinuity at 504 {sup o}C. Initially, the [Ca{center_dot}CO{sub 3}] clusters and their vacancies are ordered in the channels, and this ordering is destroyed on heating to give rise to the phase transition. Cancrinite loses water continuously until about 625 {sup o}C; thereafter an anhydrous cancrinite phase exists. From 25 to 952 {sup o}C, a minimal amount of CO{sub 2} is lost from the structure. Over this temperature range, the average bridging angle, which is an indication of the degree of rotation of the tetrahedra, increases from 143.7(4) to 147.7(5){sup o}. Rotations of the tetrahedra are caused by expansion of the Na1-O2 bond lengths.

Hassan,I.; Antao, S.; Parise, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The alteration of metamict zircon and its role in the remobilization of high-field strength elements in the Georgeville granite, Nova Scotia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure and composition of metamict zircon from the Georgeville epizonal A-type granite in the Antigonish Highlands, Nova Scotia, were determined using EMPA, SXRF, LA-ICP-MS, Raman microspectroscopy and TEM data. Individual crystals of zircon are variably altered and consist of four domains distinguished on the basis of texture and composition. Domain A consists of zircon and zirconium oxide nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix and is trace-element-enriched. Replacement of domain A in proximity to microfractures produced a porous and relatively trace-element-poor zircon (domain B) with disseminated Th-U- and Y-enriched inclusions (domain C). Domain D consists of amorphous zirconium silicate that is depleted in trace elements but enriched in Hf. It is found in fractures, together with minor amounts of thorite and thorianite. It Domain D is anhydrous and free of inclusions and pore spaces and has a composition similar to highly crystalline zircon. Micro- and nanoscale element-distribution maps indicate that high-field-strength trace elements in metamict zircon were redistributed during alteration by diffusion and by dissolution-and-reprecipitation processes near microfractures and other fluid channelways. The anomalous chondrite-normalized rare-earth-element patterns and Nd isotopic signature of the granite is attributed largely to the preferential transport and deposition of rare-earth elements during subsolidus re-equilibration of metamict zircon. Hydrothermally deposited zirconium silicate (domain D) has a composition similar to that of highly crystalline Hf-rich zircon but is completely amorphous. This observation emphasizes the need to verify the structural integrity and aqueous durability of hydrothermally deposited zircon before it is used to reconstruct hydrothermal processes.

Anderson, A.J.; Wirth, R.; Thomas, R. (SFX); (GFZ)

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

450

The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1991--December 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year`s project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year's project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Complexation Studies of Bidentate Heterocyclic N-Donor Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new bidentate nitrogen donor complexing agent that combines pyridine and triazole functional groups, 2-((4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine (PTMP), has been synthesized. The strength of its complexes with trivalent americium (Am3+) and neodymium (Nd3+) in anhydrous methanol has been evaluated using spectrophotometric techniques. The purpose of this investigation is to assess this ligand (as representative of a class of similarly structured species) as a possible model compound for the challenging separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides. This separation, important in the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles, is best achieved through the agency of multidentate chelating agents containing some number of nitrogen or sulfur donor groups. To evaluate the relative strength of the bidentate complexes, the derived constants are compared to those of the same metal ions with 2,2*-bipyridyl (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), and 2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole (PBIm). At issue is the relative affinity of the triazole moiety for trivalent f element ions. For all ligands, the derived stability constants are higher for Am3+ than Nd3+. In the case of Am3+ complexes with phen and PBIm, the presence of 1:2 (AmL2) species is indicated. Possible separations are suggested based on the relative stability and stoichiometry of the Am3+ and Nd3+ complexes. It can be noted that the 1,2,3-triazolyl group imparts a potentially useful selectivity for trivalent actinides (An(III)) over trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)), though the attainment of higher complex stoichiometries in actinide compared with lanthanide complexes may be an important driver for developing successful separations.

Ogden, Mark; Hoch, Courtney L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

453

Utilization of Methacrylates and Polymer Matrices for the Synthesis of Ion Specific Resins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal, storage, and/or transmutation of actinides such as americium (Am) will require the development of specific separation schemes. Existing efforts focus on solvent extraction systems for achieving suitable separation of actinide from lanthanides. However, previous work has shown the feasibility of ion-imprinting polymer-based resins for use in ion-exchange-type separations with metal ion recognition. Phenolic-based resins have been shown to function well for Am-Eu separations, but these resins exhibited slow kinetics and difficulties in the imprinting process. This project addresses the need for new and innovative methods for the selective separation of actinides through novel ion-imprinted resins. The project team will explore incorporation of metals into extended frameworks, including the possibility of 3D polymerized matrices that can serve as a solid-state template for specific resin preparation. For example, an anhydrous trivalent f-element chain can be formed directly from a metal carbonate, and methacrylic acid from water. From these simple coordination complexes, molecules of discrete size or shape can be formed via the utilization of coordinating ligands or by use of an anionic multi-ligand system incorporating methacrylate. Additionally, alkyl methyl methacrylates have been used successfully to create template nanospaces, which underscores their potential utility as 3D polymerized matrices. This evidence provides a unique route for the preparation of a specific metal ion template for the basis of ion-exchange separations. Such separations may prove to be excellent discriminators of metal ions, even between f-elements.

Czerwinski, Kenneth

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

454

Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of high oxidation state silver fluorides and related compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis has been largely concerned with defining the oxidizing power of Ag(III) and Ag(II) in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) solution. Emphasis was on cationic species, since in a cation the electronegativity of a given oxidation state is greatest. Cationic Ag(III) solv has a short half life at ordinary temperatures, oxidizing the solvent to elemental fluorine with formation of Ag(II). Salts of such a cation have not yet been preparable, but solutions which must contain such a species have proved to be effective and powerful oxidizers. In presence of PtF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, RuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, or RhF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, Ag(III) solv effectively oxidizes the anions to release the neutral hexafluorides. Such reactivity ranks cationic Ag(III) as the most powerfully oxidizing chemical agent known as far. Unlike its trivalent relative Ag (II) solv is thermodynamically stable in acid aHF. Nevertheless, it oxidizes IrF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} to IrF{sub 6} at room temperature, placing its oxidizing potential not more than 2 eV below that of cationic Ag(III). Range of Ag{sup 2+} (MF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}){sub 2} salts attainable in aHF has been explored. An anion must be stable with respect to electron loss to Ag{sup 2+}. The anion must also be a poor F{sup {minus}} donor; otherwise, either AgF{sup +} salts or AgF{sub 2} are generated.

Lucier, G.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Improved evidence for the existence of an intermediate phase during hydration of tricalcium silicate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) with a very small particle size of approximately 50 nm has been prepared and hydrated for a very short time (5 min) by two different modes in a paste experiment, using a water/solid-ratio of 1.20, and by hydration as a suspension employing a water/solid-ratio of 4000. A phase containing uncondensed silicate monomers close to hydrogen atoms (either hydroxyl groups or water molecules) was formed in both experiments. This phase is distinct from anhydrous tricalcium silicate and from the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase, commonly identified as the hydration product of tricalcium silicate. In the paste experiment, approximately 79% of silicon atoms were present in the hydrated phase containing silicate monomers as determined from {sup 29}Sileft brace{sup 1}Hright brace CP/MAS NMR. This result is used to show that the hydrated silicate monomers are part of a separate phase and that they cannot be attributed to a hydroxylated surface of tricalcium silicate after contact with water. The phase containing hydrated silicate monomers is metastable with respect to the C-S-H phase since it transforms into the latter in a half saturated calcium hydroxide solution. These data is used to emphasize that the hydration of tricalcium silicate proceeds in two consecutive steps. In the first reaction, an intermediate phase containing hydrated silicate monomers is formed which is subsequently transformed into C-S-H as the final hydration product in the second step. The introduction of an intermediate phase in calculations of the early hydration of tricalcium silicate can explain the presence of the induction period. It is shown that heterogeneous nucleation on appropriate crystal surfaces is able to reduce the length of the induction period and thus to accelerate the reaction of tricalcium silicate with water.

Bellmann, Frank, E-mail: frank.bellmann@uni-weimar.d [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Damidot, Denis [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedexi (France); Moeser, Bernd [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Skibsted, Jorgen [Instrument Center for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report for DE-FC26-07NT43091 â??Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Captureâ?ť. A detailed summary is provided of the ionic liquid (IL) discovery process, synthesis and testing results, process / systems modeling, lab-scale operational testing, corrosion testing and commercialization possibilities. The work resulted in the discovery of a new class of ionic liquids (ILs) that efficiently react with CO{sub 2} in a 1:1 stoichiometry with no water present and no increase in viscosity. The enthalpy of reaction was tuned to optimize process economics. The IL was found to have excellent corrosion behavior with and without CO{sub 2} present. In lab-scale tests, the IL was able to effectively remove CO{sub 2} from a simulated flue gas stream, although mass transfer was slower than with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) due to higher viscosities. The non-volatile nature of the solvent and its high thermal stability, however, make it an intriguing option. An independent systems analysis indicates that the economics of using the best IL discovered to date (NDIL0157), are at least comparable to â?? and potentially slightly better than -â?? the Fluor Econamine FG PlusTM process (DOE Case 12). Further work should be directed at improving mass transfer / lowering viscosity and developing commercial synthesis routes to make these ILs at scale in an inexpensive manner. Demonstration of the process at larger scales is also warranted, as is the exploration of other process configurations that leverage the anhydrous nature of the solvent and its extremely low volatility.

Maginn, Edward

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Low-temperature pyrolysis of coal to produce diesel-fuel blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature (623 to 773/sup 0/K) coal pyrolysis was investigated in a bench-scale retort. Factorially designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, coal-particle size, and nitrogen flow rate on the yield of liquid products. Yield of condensable organic products relative to the proximate coal volatile matter increased by 3.1 and 6.4 wt % after increasing nitrogen purge flow rate from 0.465 to 1.68 L/min and retort temperature from 623 to 723/sup 0/K, respectively. The liquid product may be suitable for blending with diesel fuel. The viscosity and density of coal liquids produced at 723/sup 0/K were compared with those of diesel fuel. The coal liquids had a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a lower aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio than premium quality No. 2 diesel fuel. It was recommended that liquids from coal pyrolysis be blended with diesel fuel to determine stability of the mixture and performance of the blend in internal combustion engines.

Shafer, T.B.; Jett, O.J.; Wu, J.S.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A replacement solvent cleaner/degreaser study at Duffy Electric and Machine Company  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Duffy Electric & Machine Company repairs and rebuilds electric motors. The company overhauls large electric motors (AC and DC with greater than 15 hp output). The company also overhauls small electric motors. The process involves gross cleaning of electromechanical devices to achieve a level of cleanliness that facilitates inspection, repair, and testing. The cleaner used in this study, Petroferm BIOACT{trademark} 285, was selected because it is representative of its class of material. BIOACT{trademark} is a mixture of high molecular-weight aliphatic esters and can be categorized as a semi-aqueous fluid. The cleaner is meant to be used without dilution and must be rinsed with alcohol, such as IPA, rather than with water. The alcohol is a technical grade that is at least 98% IPA, with the remainder being water. The IPA rinse is completely miscible with the ester solvent. The IPA evaporates rapidly due to its high vapor pressure (3 mm Hg @ 68{degrees}F).This report describes the performance of the ester and alcohol cleansers with regard to pollution abatement and health hazards as well as cleaning performance.

Springer, J. Jr. [Risk Reduction Engineering Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sass, B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water, C/sub 12+/-range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only a minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry-pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes of acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes, and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite.

Huizinga, B.J.; Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I.R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Development of a Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous Separation of Strontium and Cesium from Acidic Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A synergistic extraction solvent for the simultaneous removal of cesium and strontium from acidic solutions has been investigated. The extraction solvent consists of, 4,4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB modifier) in a branched aliphatic kerosene (Isopar® L). Extraction synergy for strontium was observed when DtBuCH18C6 was combined with the BOBCalixC6 cesium extractant solvent and Cs-7SB modifier or if the Cs-7SB modifier was substituted into the SREX (Strontium Extraction) solvent in place of TBP. The novel process extracted both cesium and strontium simultaneously from 1 M nitric acid solutions with distribution ratios of 8.8 and 7.7 for strontium and cesium, respectively, at ambient temperature. Distribution coefficients for cesium and strontium as a function of nitric acid concentration and temperature were also obtained with 0.5 M<[HNO3]<2.5 M giving favorable distribution ratios. This new process utilizing the combined solvent has been named the Fission Product Extraction Process (FPEX).

Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: (1) polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides; (2) carbamate and organophosphorus; (3) herbicides; (4) phenols; (5) halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) phthalate esters; (7) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and (8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Process that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate process are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the US are discussed. 699 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs.

Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, T.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

468

Interfacial activity of phosphonated-polyethylene glycol functionalized cerium oxide nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a recent publication, we have highlighted the potential of phosphonic acid terminated PEG oligomers to functionalize strong UV absorption cerium oxide nanoparticles[1], which yield suspensions that are stable in aqueous or organic solvents and are redispersible in different solvent after freeze-drying. In the present work, we highlight the interfacial activity of the functional ceria nanoparticles and their potential to modify hydrophobic surfaces. We first investigated Phosphonated-PEG amphiphilic oligomers behavior as strong surface active species forming irreversibly adsorbed layers. We then show that the oligomers interfacial properties translate to the functional nanoparticles. In particular, the addition of a small fraction of phosphonated-PEG oligomers with an extra C16 aliphatic chain (stickers) into the formulation enabled the tuning of i) the nanoparticles adsorption at the air/water, polystyrene/water, oil/water interfaces and ii) the particle/particle interaction in aqueous solutions. We also found that dense and closely packed two dimensional monolayers of nanoceria can be formed by spontaneous adsorption or surface compression using a Langmuir trough. A hexagonal organization controlled by reversible and repulsive repulsion has been characterized by GISAXS. Mono- or multilayers can also be stably formed or transferred on solid surfaces. Our results are key features in the field of polymer surface modification, solid stabilized emulsions (Pickering) or supracolloidal assemblies.

L. Qi; J. Fresnais; P. Muller; O. Theodoly; J. -F. Berret; J. -P. Chapel

2013-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

469

Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

The influence of a presence of a heavy atom on the spin-spin coupling constants between two light nuclei in organometallic compounds and halogen derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {sup 1}J{sub CC} and {sup 1}J{sub CH} spin-spin coupling constants have been calculated by means of density functional theory (DFT) for a set of derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with I, At, Cd, and Hg in order to evaluate the substituent and relativistic effects for these properties. The main goal was to estimate HALA (heavy-atom-on-light-atom) effects on spin-spin coupling constants and to explore the factors which may influence the HALA effect on these properties, including the nature of the heavy atom substituent and carbon hybridization. The methods applied range, in order of reduced complexity, from Dirac-Kohn-Sham method (density functional theory with four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian), through DFT with two- and one-component Zeroth Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonians, to scalar non-relativistic effective core potentials with the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. Thus, we are able to compare the performance of ZORA-DFT and Dirac-Kohn-Sham methods for modelling of the HALA effects on the spin-spin coupling constants.

Wody?ski, Artur; Pecul, Magdalena, E-mail: mpecul@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

471

Humic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds from low rank brown coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is one of the sources of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). Recovery of NCCs from brown coals in high yield was carried out from tars of stepwise semicoking of brown coals. Humic acids have been shown to contain many types of nitrogen compounds. Humic acids are thought to be complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, and aliphatic compounds that are involved in the linkages between the aromatic groups. Humic acids extracted from peats, brown coals, and lignites, are characterized using different techniques. Humic substances (HSs) have several known benefits to agriculture. The properties of humic substances vary from source to source, because they are heterogeneous mixtures of biochemical degradation products from plant and animal residues, and synthesis activities of microorganisms. HSs have been considered to be a significant floculant in surface water filtration plants for the production of drinking water as well as the processing of water. HSs are produced from chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from synthetic activities of microorganisms.

Demirbas, A.; Kar, Y.; Deveci, H. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Identification and origin of Delta sup 8(14) 5. alpha. - and. Delta. sup 14 5. alpha. -sterenes and related hydrocarbons in an immature bitumen from the Monterey Formation, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of an immature Monterey bitumen contains a high relative abundance of C{sub 27}-C{sub 29} {Delta}{sup 4}, {Delta}{sup 5}, {Delta}{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}- and {Delta}{sup 14} 5{alpha}-sterenes, each having a very similar carbon number distribution. This is the first report of abundant {Delta}{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}- and {Delta}{sup 14} 5{alpha}-sterenes in an immature sediment. The {Delta}{sup 4} and {Delta}{sup 5} sterenes appear to originate directly from {Delta}{sup 5} sterols. For the Delta{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}-sterenes the authors propose an origin from {Delta}{sup 7} 5{alpha}-sterols which may be derived from a microbial transformation of {Delta}{sup 5} sterols. The presence of 5{alpha}- and 5{beta}-steranes in an unusual ratio of ca. 55:45 suggests the formation of a high abundance of 5{beta}-stanols via the known microbial reduction pathway of {Delta}{sup 5} sterols.

Peakman, T.M. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)); Leeuw, J.W. de; Rijpstra, W.I.C. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Regioselective thermolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane enhanced by restricted radical mobility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of coal has been postulated to involve the formation of free radicals by processes such as the homolysis of aliphatic or ether-containing bridges which connect polycyclic aromatic units into a macromolecular structure. Understanding the thermal reactivity of coal is important in the study of pyrolysis, liquefaction, and coking. Mechanistic insights into the chemical reactivity of coal at the molecular level can be gained from the study of model compounds which represent structural features in coal. However, radicals generated in a cross-linked macromolecular material such as coal may experience restricted mobility when the radical center remains bound to the residual molecular structure. To model the effects of restricted radical mobility on thermally induced decomposition reactions, thermolyses of model compounds covalently attached to an inert support have been studied. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,2-diphenylethane showed a substantially altered free radical reaction pathway compared with the corresponding liquid phase behavior, while thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approximately}DPP) showed unexpected regioselectivity resulting from conformational restrictions on hydrogen transfer reactions as the surface coverage of {approximately}DPP decreased. In order to further explore the regionselectivity of hydrogen transfer induced by restricted diffusion, the thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,4-diphenylbutane ({approximately}DPB) is being examined.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Thermolysis of surface-attached 1,3-diphenylpropane: impact of surface immobilization on thermal reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempts to understand the thermal chemistry of coal at the molecular level are severely complicated by its inherent properties: a diverse array of structural units (e.g., aromatic, hydroaromatic, and heterocyclic aromatic clusters connected by short aliphatic and ether links) and functional groups (e.g., phenolic hydroxyls, carboxyls, and basic nitrogens) in a cross-linked macromolecular framework with no repeating units. One simplifying experimental approach has been the study of individual model compounds that highlight structural features in coal. We are studying the thermolysis of model compounds that are immobilized by covalent attachment to an inert surface. Previous studies of surface-immobilized bibenzyl (1,2-diphenylethane) showed that immobilization can profoundly alter free-radical reaction pathways compared with the corresponding fluid phase behavior. In particular, free-radical chain pathways became dominant decay routes leading to rearrangement, cyclization, and hydrogenolysis of the bibenzyl groups. In this paper we describe preliminary results on the effects of surface immobilization on the thermolysis of 1,3-diphenylpropane, whose fluid phase behavior has been extensively investigated.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Role of solid-state interactions in the acid-catalyzed thermolysis of surface-attached diphenylalkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cross-linked, network structure of coal may impose constraints on conventional reaction mechanisms as a consequence of restricted mass transport. We have examined this phenomenon for thermal reactions through the study of model compounds that are covalently anchored to an inert silica surface (1). We have now initiated studies that employ these immobilized model compounds as solid-state probes in modeling fundamental aspects of catalyzed, heterogeneous reactions of coal. There have been numerous recent reports on the development of unsupported, highly dispersed catalysts for improving the conversion and product selectivity in coal liquefaction (2,3) and hydropyrolysis (4). A potential advantage of such dispersed catalysts is the improved contact between the coal, solvent vehicle if present, hydrogen gas, and the catalyst surface, particularly when catalysts with very small particle sizes can be generated. In this paper, we report initial results from a model system that begins to address the mechanistic question of if, in the early stages of coal dissolution, significant activation of solid coal particles by solid catalyst can occur. For this study, surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approx}DPP) has been employed as a model for related trimethylene (and longer) aliphatic linking groups between aromatic clusters in coal, and its reactivity in the presence of a dispersed aluminosilicate at 310--375{degree}C has been investigated. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Biggs, C.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Thermolysis of surface-attached 1,3-diphenylpropane: Impact of surface immobilization on thermal reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempts to understand the thermal chemistry of coal at the molecular level are severely complicated by its inherent properties: a diverse array of structural units (e.g., aromatic, hydroaromatic, and heterocyclic aromatic clusters connected by short aliphatic and ether links) and functional groups (e.g., phenolic hydroxyls, carboxyls, and basic nitrogens) in a cross-linked macromolecular framework with no repeating units. One simplifying experimental approach has been the study of individual model compounds that highlight structural features in coal. A complicating feature in the interpretive extrapolation of model compound behavior to coal is the possible modifications in free-radical reactivity patterns resulting from restricted translational mobility in the coal where breaking one bond in the macromolecular structure will result in radical centers that are still attached to the residual framework. We are modeling this phenomenon by studying the thermolysis of model compounds that are immobilized by covalent attachment to an inert surface. Previous studies of surface-immobilized bibenzyl (1,2-diphenylethane) showed that immobilization can profoundly alter free-radical reaction pathways compared with the corresponding fluid phase behavior. In particular, free-radical chain pathways became dominant decay routes leading to rearrangement, cyclization, and hydrogenolysis of the bibenzyl groups. In this paper we describe preliminary results on the effects of surface immobilization on the thermolysis of 1,3-diphenylpropane, whose fluid phase behavior has been extensively investigated. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

482

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

484

Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-resolved one- and two-pulse laser dc photoconductivity has been used to observe two kinds of reducing species, anion-1 and anion-2, in liquid acetonitrile. At 25 C, the standard enthalpy of conversion from anion-1 to anion-2 is -44.3 {+-} 3.6 kJ/mol and the conversion time is 3 ns. The high-temperature form, anion-1, absorbs in the IR and migrates >3.3 times faster than any other ion in acetonitrile. This rapid migration has a low activation energy of 3.2 kJ/mol (vs 7.6 kJ/mol for other ions). Anion-1 rapidly transfers the electron to acceptors with high electron affinity, with rate constant up to 10{sup 11} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The low-temperature form, anion-2, absorbs in the visible and exhibits normal mobility and electron-transfer rates, ca. 1.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. It reacts, by proton transfer, with two hydrogen-bonded molecules of water and/or aliphatic alcohols. Laser photoexcitation of these two solvent anions in their respective absorption bands leads to the formation of CH{sub 3} and CN{sup -}. We present arguments indicating that anion-2 is a dimer radical anion of acetonitrile, whereas anion-1 is a multimer radical anion that may be regarded as a 'solvated electron'.

Shkrob, I. A.; Sauer, M. C.; Chemistry

2002-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

485

Effect of Ligands on Characteristics of (CdSe)13 Quantum Dot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The widespread applications of quantum dots (QDs) have spurred an increasing interest in the study of their coating ligands, which can not only protect the electronic structures of the central QDs, but also control their permeability through biological membranes with both size and shape. In this work, we have used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electronic structures of (CdSe)13 passivated by OPMe2(CH2)nMe ligands with different lengths and various numbers of branches (Me=methyl group, n = 0, 1-3). Our results show that the absorption peak in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra displays a clear blue-shift, on the scale of ~100 nm, upon the binding of ligands. Once the total number of ligands bound with (CdSe)13 reached a saturated number (9 or 10), no more blue-shift occurred in the absorption peak in the UV-vis spectra. On the other hand, the aliphatic chain length of ligands has a negligible effect on the optical properties of the QD core. Analyses of the bonding characteristics confirm that optical transitions are dominantly governed by the central QD core rather than the organic passivation. Interestingly, the density of states (DOS) share similar characteristics as vibrational spectra, even though there is no coordination vibration mode between the ligands and the central QD. These findings might provide insights on the material design for the passivation of quantum dots for biomedical applications.

Gao, Yang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Seung-gu; Xin, Minsi; Yang, Ping; Dai, Xing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Ruhong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have completed the pyrolysis/gas chromatographic analysis of all 40 coals in the present study, at two temperatures, 450/sup 0/ and 650/sup 0/C. We have also completed triplicate quantitative extraction analyses of all 40 coals, using tetrahydrofuran as the extractant solvent, and have completed a parallel set of extractions using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant solvent. In addition, we have completed analysis of over 100 additional isothermal Gieseler plastometer runs, and have made the first series of quantitative estimates of H(aromatic)/H(aliphatic) ratios from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy data. Exploratory work has begun on the petrographic characterization of the semi-coke residues from Gieseler plastometer runs, and also in characterizing THF extracts by thin layer chromatography and by column chromatography (quantitative group separations). Proximate, ultimate and petrographic characterization of the 40 coals has been completed previously. We are now prepared to start a study, using freshly re-sampled coals, of the effects of varying pressure upon the several parameters of fluidity.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Bowling, C.C.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Whitt, J.M.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

The Molecular Structure of a Phosphatidylserine Bilayer Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids play essential roles in biological processes, including enzyme activation and apoptosis. We report on the molecular structure and atomic scale interactions of a fluid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS). A scattering density profile model, aided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was developed to jointly refine different contrast small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, which yielded a lipid area of 62.7 A2 at 25 C. MD simulations with POPS lipid area constrained at different values were also performed using all-atom and aliphatic united-atom models. The optimal simulated bilayer was obtained using a model-free comparison approach. Examination of the simulated bilayer, which agrees best with the experimental scattering data, reveals a preferential interaction between Na+ ions and the terminal serine and phosphate moieties. Long-range inter-lipid interactions were identified, primarily between the positively charged ammonium, and the negatively charged carboxylic and phosphate oxygens. The area compressibility modulus KA of the POPS bilayer was derived by quantifying lipid area as a function of surface tension from area-constrained MD simulations. It was found that POPS bilayers possess a much larger KA than that of neutral phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. We propose that the unique molecular features of POPS bilayers may play an important role in certain physiological functions.

Pan, Jianjun [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF)] [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF); Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL] [ORNL; Monticelli, Luca [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France] [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Tieleman, D. Peter [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada] [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

ON THE EXCITATION AND FORMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR FULLERENES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds: Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C{sub 60} and little or no emission is present from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strengths of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae are very similar, while the ratios of the [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.8 {mu}m fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, are markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9 {mu}m region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated with mixtures of aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon solids. We hypothesize on the origin of this band, which is likely related to the fullerene formation mechanism, and compare it with modeled hydrogenated amorphous carbon that present emission in this region.

Bernard-Salas, J.; Jones, A. P. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay (France); Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Micelotta, E. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Groenewegen, M. A. T., E-mail: jbernard@ias.u-psud.fr [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

490

Yellow perch embryo-larval survival and growth in surface waters associated with oil-sands mining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of their land reclamation strategy, Syncrude Canada Ltd. is currently developing environmentally acceptable tailings disposal methods. Fine tailings, a suspension of clay and residual bitumen, is the waste product from oil sands extraction. Fine-tailings contain naphthenic acids, a group of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids, which occur naturally in petroleum and are partly responsible for the toxicity of process water. The wet landscape method involves covering fine tails with a layer of water such that a self-sustaining ecosystem can be established. A 5 ha demonstration pond with a bottom of fine-tailings was constructed and stocked with yellow perch for experimental purposes. Two other reclaimed ponds formed with oil-sands overburden material were also stocked with perch. Adult perch sampled in the fall of 1995 from the experimental and reclaimed ponds exhibited a 2-fold induction of MFO activity compared to the source lake; indicating organic compound exposure. Perch from one of the reclaimed ponds showed significantly reduced circulating reproductive hormone levels, gonad size and smaller ovarian follicles. Reproductive parameters were not different between the source lake and the remaining ponds. Paired lab and field experiments were conducted to determine if contaminants present would be detrimental to egg viability and development of larvae either through direct exposure of spawned eggs or indirectly by effecting oogenesis. An early life stage toxicity test was also performed using commercially available naphthenic acid standard. Endpoints measured were percent fertilization, percent hatch, mortality, deformities, timing of developmental periods and larval growth.

Peters, L.E.; Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. Van [Syncrude Canada, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

491

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this two-year project was to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. The two processing steps, physical cleaning and devolatilization under different environments, led to the following results. Cleaning coal incompletely removes mineral matter which decreases catalytic activity and increases micropore structure. Water forms hydrogen bonds to oxygen functional groups in coal, and during drying, coals undergo structural changes which affect mild gasification. When methane reacts wit coal, devolatilization and carbon deposition occur, the rates of which depend on temperature and amount of ash. Thermal decomposition of IBC-101 coal starts at 300 C, which is much lower than previously believed, but maximum yields of liquids occur at 500 C for IBC-101 coal and at 550 C for IBC-102 coal. Aliphatic-to-aromatic ratios increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures to 300 C and then decrease; therefore, liquids formed during gasification of 550 C or higher contain mainly aromatic compounds. Btu values of chars are higher after methane treatment than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

492

BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

493

Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Separation and structure elucidation of coal molecule fragments. Final report, February 1, 1976-August 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation and identification of the polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic fractions of solvent-refined coal and its recycle oil were performed using a combination of solvent partition and chromatographic fractionation procedures with glass-capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatographic profiles were generated for each fraction and some semiquantitative data were also obtained. In total, 146 polynuclear aromatic components of SRC were tentatively identified by their molecular weights, as indicated by the mass spectra of the gas chromatography peaks. In addition, wherever possible, specific isomers have been indicated, based on comparison of spectral characteristics and retention data. Separation and identification of nitrogen-containing aromatics of the recycle oil of SRC was accomplished with a combination solvent partition and capillary gas chromatography with deactivated glass columns. High-precision retention measurements of known pyridine and quinoline derivatives are reported, utilizing parent aza-arenes as retention standards. Both precisely measured retention data and mass spectral information combined lead to positive identification of some compounds in SRC samples. A total of 48 two-membered or three-membered aza-arenes have been tentatively identified in the recycle oil.

Schultz, R V; Jorgenson, J W; Maskarinec, M P; Kump, R L; Marli, F; Novotny, M; Todd, L J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

A Synthetic Resilin Is Largely Unstructured  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proresilin is the precursor protein for resilin, an extremely elastic, hydrated, cross-linked insoluble protein found in insects. We investigated the secondary-structure distribution in solution of a synthetic proresilin (AN16), based on 16 units of the consensus proresilin repeat from Anopheles gambiae. Raman spectroscopy was used to verify that the secondary-structure distributions in cross-linked AN16 resilin and in AN16 proresilin are similar, and hence that solution techniques (such as NMR and circular dichroism) may be used to gain information about the structure of the cross-linked solid. The synthetic proresilin AN16 is an intrinsically unstructured protein, displaying under native conditions many of the characteristics normally observed in denatured proteins. There are no apparent {alpha}-helical or {beta}-sheet features in the NMR spectra, and the majority of backbone protons and carbons exhibit chemical shifts characteristic of random-coil configurations. Relatively few peaks are observed in the nuclear Overhauser effect spectra, indicating that overall the protein is dynamic and unstructured. The radius of gyration of AN16 corresponds to the value expected for a denatured protein of similar chain length. This high degree of disorder is also consistent with observed circular dichroism and Raman spectra. The temperature dependences of the NH proton chemical shifts were also measured. Most values were indicative of protons exposed to water, although smaller dependences were observed for glycine and alanine within the Tyr-Gly-Ala-Pro sequence conserved in all resilins found to date, which is the site of dityrosine cross-link formation. This result implies that these residues are involved in hydrogen bonds, possibly to enable efficient self-association and subsequent cross-linking. The {beta}-spiral model for elastic proteins, where the protein is itself shaped like a spring, is not supported by the results for AN16. Both the random-network elastomer model and the sliding {beta}-turn model are consistent with the data. The results indicate a flat energy landscape for AN16, with very little energy required to switch between conformations. This ease of switching is likely to lead to the extremely low energy loss on deformation of resilin.

Nairn, Kate M.; Lyons, Russell E.; Mulder, Roger J.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Cookson, David J.; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Kim, Misook; Lau, Deborah; Scholes, Fiona H.; Elvin, Christopher M. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO/MHT); (CSIRO/LI); (Aust. Synch.)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

497

Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

Miles, Andrew J. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Fedosova, Natalya U. [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Hoffmann, Sřren V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)] [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Wallace, B.A. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Esmann, Mikael, E-mail: me@biophys.au.dk [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

500

Renewal sequences, disordered potentials, and pinning phenomena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give an overview of the state of the art of the analysis of disordered models of pinning on a defect line. This class of models includes a number of well known and much studied systems (like polymer pinning on a defect line, wetting of interfaces on a disordered substrate and the Poland-Scheraga model of DNA denaturation). A remarkable aspect is that, in absence of disorder, all the models in this class are exactly solvable and they display a localization-delocalization transition that one understands in full detail. Moreover the behavior of such systems near criticality is controlled by a parameter and one observes, by tuning the parameter, the full spectrum of critical behaviors, ranging from first order to infinite order transitions. This is therefore an ideal set-up in which to address the question of the effect of disorder on the phase transition,notably on critical properties. We will review recent results that show that the physical prediction that goes under the name of Harris criterion is indeed fully correct for pinning models. Beyond summarizing the results, we will sketch most of the arguments of proof.

Giambattista Giacomin

2008-07-27T23:59:59.000Z