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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Evidence of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed Ethylene Flames. Evidence of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed Ethylene Flames. Abstract: Chemical composition of...

2

Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

1981-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

3

Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relationships between the crystal structures of two polymorphs of sodium naproxen dihydrate and its monohydrate and anhydrate phases provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.

Bond, A.D.

2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

4

Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a .sup.196 Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (S. Hamilton, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Rheological Study of Mutarotation of Fructose in Anhydrous State  

SciTech Connect

Rheological measurement was employed to study the mutarotation of D-fructose in anhydrous state. By monitoring the evolution of shear viscosity with time, rate constants for mutarotation were estimated, and two different stages of this reaction were identified. One of the mutarotation stages is rapid and has a low activation energy, whereas the other is much slower and has a much higher activation energy. Possible conversions corresponding to these two phases are discussed. This work demonstrates that, in addition to the routine techniques such polarimetry and gas liquid chromatography, rheological measurement can be used as an alternative method to continuously monitor the mutarotation of sugars.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Wlodarczyk, Patryk [Institute ofNon-Ferrous Metals, Sowinskiego Gliwice, POLAND; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Paluch, Marian W [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with increasing n. However, the frequencies of aliphatic dicarboxylate dianions in bulk... . Identification of C3-C10 Aliphatic Dicarboxylic-Acids in Airborne Particulate...

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary amines Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

results for: aliphatic primary amines Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ELSEVIER Marine Chemistry 51 (1995) 45-54 Aliphatic amines in Chesapeake Bay sediments Summary: ELSEVIER...

8

A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Olivine, pyroxene and garnet are nominally anhydrous but can accommodate tens to hundreds of parts per million (ppm) H2O or "water" in the form of protons incorporated in defects in their mineral structure. This review concerns the amount of water in nominally anhydrous minerals from mantle and mantle-derived rocks: peridotites, eclogites, megacrysts, basalts and kimberlites. Trends between internal and external parameters

9

Aliphatic Polyester Block Polymers: Renewable, Degradable, and Sustainable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aliphatic Polyester Block Polymers: Renewable, Degradable, and Sustainable ... Yet, such polymers are “challenged” with respect to sustainability. ... The Earth harbors finite carbon-based feedstocks that are being rapidly depleted by our increasing energy demand. ...

Marc A. Hillmyer; William B. Tolman

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

10

Retention of anhydrous ammonia as influenced by clay mineral types, cations, temperature and moisture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to various temperature levels . . . . . ~ 20 5a 6. 70 Ammoni. a retained sxuressed as psr cent of cation-exchange capacity for olays treated with anhydrous ammonia prior to heating to various temperature levels . ~. . . . . . ~ ~ . 21 Ammonia retained... encountered in the use of anhydrous ammoni. . . REVIEW OF LITER4TURE Some of the early work with anhydx ous ammonia was done by anderson, et al. (2), and Enderson and Eattson (3). St that t1ms anhydrous ammonia as sn inorganic source of nitrogen fertiliaer...

McBee, George G

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

An investigation of some of the effects of anhydrous ammonia on the clay minerals montmorillonite and illite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with various dominant ions on the exchange complex. 2. The effect of heat in an atmosphere of steam on the (001) spacing of montmorillonite saturated with various ions and treated with anhydrous ammonia. 3. The effect of drying at 110?C. for 24. hours... on the (001) spacing of montmorillonite saturated with various dominant ions and treated with anhydrous ammonia? 4.. The effect of relative humidity and anhydrous ammonia on the (001) spacing of illite with various dominant ions on the exchange complex...

Whiteley, Eli Lamar

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

12

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Anhydrous Phosphoric Acid Functionalized Sintered Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anhydrous Phosphoric Acid Functionalized Sintered Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells ... The cell performance and stability may be further improved through an optimization of the interfacial contact between the electrocatalytic layer and the inorganic membrane. ... polycondensation procedure was optimized for individual case of PBI synthesis in order to obtain inherent viscosity of ?1 dL/g. ...

Jie Zeng; Beibei He; Krystina Lamb; Roland De Marco; Pei Kang Shen; San Ping Jiang

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alcohols studies Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alcohols studies Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aliphatic alcohols studies Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Electron...

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic amines extraction Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 37 Exploratory Studies on Fast Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading Summary: using Aliphatic Tertiary Amines... -1 Acetic Acid Recovery from Fast...

16

Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Molecular dynamics simulation of anhydrous lithium acetate: crystalline and molten phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of molecular dynamics simulations of the crystalline and molten phase of anhydrous lithium acetate are presented. The potential parameters were obtained from empirical fitting to the crystalline phases of the material. The simulations were carried out for 216 molecules in an NPT ensemble using the DLPOLY program. A structural model is proposed for both the crystalline and molten phases of lithium acetate. Calculated values of the melting point, diffusion coefficient and structural parameters of lithium acetate are in reasonable agreement with experimental results.

L.S. Barreto; K.A. Mort; R.A. Jackson; O.L. Alves

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Optimizing the efficiency of anhydrous ethanol purification via regenerable molecular sieve  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In response to the global energy development trend and greenhouse effects, bio-energy applications are gradually being taken seriously. Gasohol is an alternative fuel that consists of anhydrous ethanol (purity 99.3 wt% or higher) blended with gasoline, which produces less air pollution than standard car fuels. A system was constructed for bio-ethanol production from molasses feedstock. The molasses was fermented and then distilled using a distillation tower, producing up to 90 wt% ethanol concentration. This sample was further concentrated using 3A-type molecular sieves to adsorb water from the ethanol samples until saturated. The sieves were then regenerated for reuse via continuous heating by high-temperature nitrogen. The response surface methodology was applied to determine an optimized operational model for regeneration of molecular sieves. The results indicate that the cost of molecular sieve regeneration (unit energy yield was 0.283 L/kW h) which can stand comparison with other purify methods. The optimal parameters were at a temperature of 193 °C and a heating time of 7 h. 40 min. The results also demonstrated that a yield of 60 L anhydrous ethanol required energy consumption of 212.1 kW h.

Wei-Cheng Chen; Chung-Teh Sheng; Yu-Cheng Liu; Wei-Jen Chen; Wen-Luh Huang; Shih-Hsien Chang; Wei-Che Chang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic chains affects Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C-O-S, carbonyl C... aliphatic C-C-H groups was nearly constant at each sampling platform, with the Twin Otter samples having... phase oxidation of volatile compounds. The...

20

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(ii) in degradative solidification/stabilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation examines the applicability of the iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (DS/S-Fe(II)) to various chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) that are common chemicals of concern at contaminated sites. The research...

Jung, Bahng Mi

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Occurrence of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediments of Daliao River System, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In August of 2005 a study was carried out to evaluate contamination of aliphatic hydrocarbons(AHc) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments...?1 in surface water, from 22.68 to 5,725.36...?1 in ...

W. Guo; M. C. He; Z. F. Yang; C. Y. Lin…

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A DATA-DRIVEN, SYSTEMATIC SEARCH ALGORITHM FOR STRUCTURE DETERMINATION OF DENATURED OR DISORDERED PROTEINS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

laboratory-denatured and natively-disordered proteins, the number of restraints measured by the current NMR denatured and disordered proteins, we formulate the structure determination problem as the computation proteins are disordered or partially- disordered in their native state in solution. Such natively

Richardson, David

24

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

25

IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 68. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Compounds C3C14 With Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 68. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Compounds C3­C14 With Water 16, 1999 This volume covers the solubilities of halogenated aliphatic C3­C14 compounds with water, heavy water, and electrolyte solutions. All data were critically examined for their reliability and best

Magee, Joseph W.

26

Growth of Fe3N films via chemical vapor deposition of iron acetylacetonate and anhydrous ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polycrystalline Fe3N films have been grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on 50-?m thick polycrystalline Ti substrates using iron acetylacetonate (IAA) and anhydrous ammonia (NH3) in a cold-wall vertical pancake-style reactor. X-ray diffraction data indicated that single phase Fe3N was present in films deposited at and above 600°C; below this temperature no deposition occurred. The composition of the Fe3N films did not vary with changes in the deposition temperature, the NH3 flow rate or the deposition rate at a constant deposition pressure of 100 Torr. The surface macrostructure of the as-deposited films was independent of the deposition temperature and was very similar to that of the uncoated Ti substrate. The microstructure of the films was porous with a thickness variation of ?1 ?m across the surface of the films. Larger grains were produced at 600 and 800°C, while smaller and more uniform grains were produced at 700°C. Energy dispersive X-ray data indicated that films deposited at and above 600°C contained low levels of both carbon and oxygen.

S.L. Roberson; D. Finello; A.D. Banks; R.F. Davis

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

EN MIKROKALORIMETRISK UNDERSØGELSE AF SOLUTTERS EFFEKT PÅ DEN TERMISK INDUCEREDE, IRREVERSIBLE DENATURERING AF BACILLUS HALMAPALUS ?-AMYLASE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I dette studie er den termisk inducerede irreversible denaturering af rekombinant Bacillus halmapalus ?-amylase (BHA) under tilstedeværelsen af varierende koncentrationer af sorbitol, glycerol, betain, (NH4)2SO4,… (more)

Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Single-molecule denaturation and degradation of proteins by the AAA+ ClpXP protease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ClpXP is an ATP-fueled molecular machine that unfolds and degrades target proteins. ClpX, an AAA+ enzyme, recognizes specific proteins, and then uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to denature any native structure and to translocate ...

Shin, Yongdae

29

Aliphatic thioether polymers as novel cathode active materials for rechargeable lithium battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two aliphatic thioether polymers, poly[methanetetryl-tetra(thiomethylene)] (PMTTM) and poly(2,4-dithiopentanylene) (PDTP) were designed, synthesized, characterized and tested as cathode active materials. The chemical structure of polymers was confirmed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, and XPS spectral analysis. Both polymers were found to have electrochemical activity as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium battery by the electrochemical tests. The specific capacity of PMTTM was 504 mA h g?1 at the third cycle and faded to 200 mA h g?1 after 10 cycles; PDTP showed low and stable specific capacity around 100 mA h g?1 even after 50 cycles. The specific capacity of fully saturated aliphatic thioether polymers demonstrated that thioether bonds offered energy storage. It was proposed that thioether bond was oxidized to form thioether cations with the help of ether solvents.

Jingyu Zhang; Lingbo Kong; Lizhi Zhan; Jing Tang; Hui Zhan; Yunhong Zhou; Caimao Zhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Scope for denaturizing weapons-grade plutonium in a subcritical heavy-water blanket of candu type  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The following features occur in denaturing weapons plutonium by irradiating a mixture of plutonium and neptunium as oxides in a neutron flux: 1) ...

G. V. Kiselev; L. A. Myrtsymova

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Observation of Solvent Penetration during Cold Denaturation of E. coli Phosphofructokinase-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observation of Solvent Penetration during Cold Denaturation of E. coli Phosphofructokinase-2 Ce; unexpectedly, amide exchange increased throughout the protein over time at 3 C. The rate of increase in amide exchange over time at 3 C was the same for each region and equaled the rate of dimer dissociation measured

Komives, Elizabeth A.

32

The thermal denaturation of DNA studied with neutron scattering Andrew Wildes,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal denaturation of DNA studied with neutron scattering Andrew Wildes,1 Nikos characterized using neutron scattering. A Bragg peak from B-form fibre DNA has been measured as a function techniques have proved to be excellent probes8 . We have used neutron scattering to measure the tem- perature

Boyer, Edmond

33

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Uranium-plutonium-neptunium fuel cycle to produce isotopically denatured plutonium  

SciTech Connect

In view of the considerable amount of /sup 237/ Np produced as a by-product in nuclear power reactors, possible utilization of this nuclide in the nuclear fuel cycle has been studied. In particular, the performance of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor as a neptunium burner was assessed. A strategy was developed and mass flows were computed for a denatured plutonium LWR strategy using uranium, plutonium and neptunium recycling. 10 refs.

Wydler, P.; Heer, W.; Stiller, P.; Wenger, H.U.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Novel Ionophores with 2n-Crown-n Topology: Anion Sensing via Pure Aliphatic C–H···Anion Hydrogen Bonding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of novel coronands having a 2n-crown-n topology based on trioxane (6-crown-3) derivatives are designed and characterized. These neutral hosts can sense anions through pure aliphatic C–H hydrogen bonding (HB) in condensed phases due to the unusual ...

Genggongwo Shi; Changdev G. Gadhe; Sung-Woo Park; Kwang S. Kim; Jongmin Kang; Humaira Seema; N. Jiten Singh; Seung Joo Cho

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Spatial variations and chronologies of aliphatic hydrocarbons in Lake Michigan sediments.  

SciTech Connect

Four sediment cores were collected in fine-grained depositional areas of the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Spatial variations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments were consistent with a lakeward movement of riverine sediments in a series of resuspension-settling cycles in which an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons associated with dense sediments is deposited in nearshore areas, fine-grained sediments of terrestrial origin accumulate in the deep basin, and planktonic hydrocarbons are depleted by microbial degradation during transport to the deep basin. The rate of accumulation of the UCM (a marker of petroleum residues) in deep basin sediments has increased by more than an order of magnitude since 1880, from 60 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} to approximately 960 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} in 1980. Crude estimates of the atmospheric loading of the UCM (1100 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) indicate that accumulations in deep-basin sediments might be supported by atmospheric deposition. Agreement was poor between the atmospheric flux of the terrestrial n-alkanes ({Sigma}C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}) to the deep basin (3200 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) and the sediment accumulation rate (660 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}). Understanding of atmospheric fluxes, estimated from the very few available data, would be improved by more frequent measurement of the levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons in air and precipitation and a better knowledge of the particle deposition velocities and precipitation scavenging coefficients.

Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research

2001-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

Scoggins, Lacey E

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

A comparison of the urea and guanidinium chloride denaturation of four proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-lactoglobulin was lyophilized and stored below 0 C. until used' 0 2. Ribonuclease. Ribonuclease (Lot No. 99B-8020) lghs obtained in the form of a lyophilized powder (Type III A) from Sigma Chemical Company. Bradbury and King (19) found that sulfate ions are bound to Sigma... significant error. Bradbury and King ( 39, 40) have studied the urea denaturation of lysozyme using NMR and found evidence for the presence of an intermediate state. They pro- posed that a hydrophobic core unfolds only after a more hydrophilic exterior...

Greene, Raymond Franklin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

39

The unusual hydrocarbon emission from the early carbon star HD 100764: The connection between aromatics and aliphatics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain spectra of HD 100764, an apparently single carbon star with a circumstellar disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are shifted to longer wavelengths than normally seen, as characteristic of ``class C'' systems in the classification scheme of Peeters et al. All seven of the known class C PAH sources are illuminated by radiation fields that are cooler than those which typically excite PAH emission features. The observed wavelength shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose that the class C PAH spectra are distinctive because the carbonaceous material has not been subjected to a strong ultraviolet radiation field, allowing relatively fragile aliphatic materials to survive.

G. C. Sloan; M. Jura; W. W. Duley; K. E. Kraemer; J. Bernard-Salas; W. J. Forrest; B. Sargent; A. Li; D. J. Barry; C. J. Bohac; D. M. Watson; J. R. Houck

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

40

Quantitative structure–activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: Wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

Karel Chroust; Martina Pavlová; Zbyn?k Prokop; Jan Mendel; Kate?ina Božková; Zden?k Kubát; Veronika Zaj?´?ková; Ji??´ Damborský

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Plant observation report and evaluation, Pennwalt Corporation, secondary and tertiary aliphatic monoamines  

SciTech Connect

A site visit was made to the amine manufacturing facility of the Pennwalt Corporation, Wyandotte, Michigan, to evaluate the facility in regard to the Secondary and Tertiary Aliphatic Monoamines Criteria Document. A total of 21 people were directly in contact with the amine production process. Two to four of the maintenance personnel may also come in contact with the process. Maintenance workers ran the risk of exposure not only to primary, secondary and tertiary amine compounds, but also to several other chemicals being used in the process. The processes used to unload raw materials are described, along with reactor operations, decanter and recycling operations, distillation operations, product storage and shipping. Medical monitoring at the facility included chest x-ray, respiratory function tests, sight screening, urinalysis, and back x-rays. Restricted and potentially hazardous area signs were clearly posted. Employees wore hard hats and safety glasses on the job as well as gloves, rubber boots, face shields, goggles, and respirators as necessary. Emergency procedures are described, including fire protection. Sanitation and personal hygiene are discussed, along with monitoring of the workplace conditions.

Not Available

1980-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

42

Application of organolithium compounds for the preparation of some aliphatic and alicyclic phosphines, phosphine oxides and phosphine sulfides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L-a-pr?wylphssyhiae) to 6)t? (triaethyl- phosphiae)i Those yielgs esasot bo eoasi4ore4 to bo the sssiasa possible ~ siaeo so stagy of tho osao resotioa vss ?agertsbss sa4er vsrioss eoagitioaa. Sae a44itioa of sa ether selatios of phosphorus espehlsrigo te ss eseoos ef...Lpllithiuw& 20, 7 gi(0&19 sole) of yhosyhorus trichloride ia $0 al of anhydrous other was a44od dropwioo at a toaperature between 20' and -10" ~ . 'ftor the o44itioa of the phosphor?s triohloride the cooling bath?as resowed snd the reostioa aixturo...

Screttas, Constantinos G

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

The hydrophobic effect and its role in cold denaturation q Cristiano L. Dias a,*, Tapio Ala-Nissila b,c  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-called `intrinsi- cally disordered proteins' are known to be resistant against heat denaturation and experiments denaturation Proteins a b s t r a c t The hydrophobic effect is considered the main driving force for protein the native state of the protein loses its stability upon cooling, is also attributed to this effect

Grant, Martin

44

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed reactor system at Building 9212. Draft environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is Iocated within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The current AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems were designed and constructed more than 40 years ago. Because of their deteriorating condition, the corrosive nature of the materials processed, and the antiquated design philosophy upon which they are based, their long-term reliability cannot be assured. The current AHF supply system cannot mitigate an accidental release of AHF and vents fugitive AHF directly to the atmosphere during operations. the proposed action would reduce the risk of exposing the Y-12 Plant work force, the public, and the environment to an accidental release of AHF and would ensure the continuing ability of the Y-12 Plant to manufacture highly enriched uranium metal and process uranium from retired weapons for storage.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Chemical and morphological characterization of soot and soot precursors generated in an inverse diffusion flame with aromatic and aliphatic fuels  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the chemical and physical structure of young soot and its precursors is very useful in understanding the paths leading to soot particle inception. This paper presents chemical and morphological characterization of the products generated in ethylene and benzene inverse diffusion flames (IDF) using different analytical techniques. The trend in the data indicates that the soot precursor material and soot particles generated in the benzene IDF have a higher degree of complexity than the samples obtained in the ethylene IDF, which is reflected by an increase in the aromaticity of the chloroform extracts observed by {sup 1}H NMR and FT-IR, and shape and size of soot particles obtained by TEM and HR-TEM. It is important to highlight that the soot precursor material obtained at the lower positions in the ethylene IDF has a significant contribution of aliphatic groups, which play an important role in the particle inception and mass growth processes during the early stages of soot formation. However, these groups progressively disappear in the samples taken at higher positions in the flame, due to thermal decomposition processes. (author)

Santamaria, Alexander; Mondragon, Fanor [Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yang, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Eddings, Eric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Sake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Preventing Theft of Anhydrous Ammonia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to occur in waves, with thieves striking the same location several times. Thefts have occurred at such unlikely places as refrig- eration systems, underground pipelines and rail cars. However, most criminals steal from above-ground tanks on farms... such as bottles or tanks may be left behind; these pose a risk to anyone who comes across them and handles them. Signs of Theft Evidence of theft includes valves not tightly closed or that seem to have been tampered with, footprints in the soil, and tire...

Smith, David

2004-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

48

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Production Oxygenate Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Captive Refinery Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities located within or adjacent to a refinery complex. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasohol A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration of 10 percent or less by volume. Data on gasohol that has at least 2.7 percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale inside carbon monoxide nonattainment areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. Merchant Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities that are not associated with a petroleum refinery. Production from these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market to refiners or other gasoline blenders.

49

Size exclusion chromatography for the unambiguous detection of aliphatics in fractions from petroleum vacuum residues, coal liquids, and standard materials, in the presence of aromatics  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in heptane eluent that can detect aliphatics unambiguously without fractionation to remove aromatics. Spherical molecules such as colloidal silicas elute at the exclusion limit, while alkanes up to C{sub 50} elute through the porosity of the column. Detection of aliphatics was defined by use of an evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector with the simultaneous absence of UV absorbance at 300 nm. Alkanes smaller than C{sub 12} were not detected because the conditions of operation of the ELS caused their evaporation. All aromatics eluted after the permeation limit of about 25 min and were not detected until well after 45 min by their UV absorbance. The SEC method was applied to petroleum vacuum residues and coal liquids, and their fractions were soluble in pentane or heptane. High-temperature (HT) GC-MS confirmed the presence of alkanes in the pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum vacuum residues, but did not elute any of the aromatics known to be present from SEC. Alkanes were examined in pentane-soluble fractions of a coal digest and a low-temperature coal tar; alkanes up to C{sub 40} were detected in the low-temperature tar and, although present in the digest, were masked by aromatics. No alkanes were detected by either SEC or HT GC-MS in fractions from a coal tar pitch. Aromatics in coal liquids and one petroleum residue were also examined by SEC using NMP as eluent and by UV fluorescence spectroscopy. The SEC method will find application to pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum liquids and coal liquids where the alkanes are concentrated relative to the more abundant aromatics. 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Eiman M. Al-Muhareb; Fatma Karaca; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Ian D. Bull; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The properties of catalysts used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are determined to a significant degree by the carriers used in their preparation. This paper deals with a study of the effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt-based catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/. Co catalysts that are active in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are those on which the adsorption of H/sub 2/ exceeds 3.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co and the adsorptin of carbon monoxide exceeds 7.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen are adsorbed on active catalysts in weakly bound forms. A mechanism is proposed for the formatin of an active center and the adsorption of carbon monoxide on Co-catalysts which includes the appearance of a partial positive charge on the cobalt atom.

Lapidus, A.L.; Jem, H.C.; Krylova, A.Y.

1983-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

51

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones over the temperature range 240-440 K  

SciTech Connect

Absolute rate constants have been determined for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones by the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence measurement technique. Experiments were performed over the temperature range 240-440 K at total pressures (using Ar diluent gas) between 25 and 50 Torr. The rate constant data for acetone (k/sub 1/), 2-butanone (k/sub 2/), and 3-pentanone (k/sub 3/) were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions k/sub 1/ = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10/sup -12/ exp(-(600 +/- 75)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, k/sub 2/ = (2.3 +/- 1.1) x 10/sup -12/ exp(-170 +/- 120)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, and k/sub 3/ = (2.8 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -12/ exp(10 +/- 35)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. At 296 K, the measured rate constants (in units of 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) were k/sub 1/ = 2.16 +/- 0.16, k/sub 2/ = 11.5 +/- 1.0, and k/sub 3/ = 27.4 +/- 1.3. Room temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with a number of other 2-ketones were also determined. These were (in the above units) 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone (12.1 +/- 0.5), 2-pentanone (40.0 +/- 2.9), 2-hexanone (66.4 +/- 5.6), 2-heptanone (86.7 +/- 8.4reverse arrow, 2-octanone (110 +/- 9), 2-nonanone (122 +/- 13), and 2-decanone (132 +/- 12). The error limits represent 2 standard deviations (from the least-squares analysis); the authors estimate that an additional 5% uncertainty should be added to account for possible systematic error in the measurements. These results are discussed in terms of reactivity trends for C-H bonds located in the ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma.. positions with respect to the carbonyl group.

Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J.

1987-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

52

Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

The system is charged when ammonia, NH3, is heated in the Endothermic reactor by the sun (Qsol) transforming it into N2 and H2. These gasses are then cooled and stored in the...

53

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Input Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB) Non-certified Foreign Refinery gasoline classified by an importer as blendstock to be either blended or reclassified with respect to reformulated or conventional gasoline. GTAB was classified on EIA surveys as either reformulated or conventional based on emissions performance and the intended end use in data through the end of December 2009. Designation of GTAB as reformulated or conventional was discontinued beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB was reported as a single product beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB data for January 2010 and later months is presented as conventional motor gasoline blending components whenreported as a subset of motor gasoline blending components.

54

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of these polyesters are already commercially produced in bacteria under nutrient-limited conditions; however a mixture of the polymer in methanol (approximately 100 ppm) to which was added 10 % of methanol saturated

56

Are denatured proteins ever random coils?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exponential function. The study by Pappu et al. shows that the number of states...will require more studies like that of Pappu et al. and doubtless will require an...Macromolecules 9 : 41 – 47 , 1249990 . 4 Pappu R V Srinivasan R Rose G D ( 2000 ) Proc Natl Acad...

Robert L. Baldwin; Bruno H. Zimm

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

biodegradable photoluminescent Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 216 Recent Patents on Biomedical Engineering 2009, 2, 216-227 1874-764709 100.00+.00 2009 Bentham Science...

58

Formation of membranes from aliphatic polyamide-polyvinylpyrrolidone blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of polyacrylic acid of various molecular weights and of its ... Na2EDTA as inhibitors of deposit formation and as dispersants was examined.

O. V. Suberlyak; Yu. Ya. Mel’nik; N. M. Baran

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Modeling the oxyethylation of primary aliphatic alcohols by ethylene oxide  

SciTech Connect

From the point of view of safety and the production of the narrowest distribution of oxyethyl groups it is advantageous to use an idealdisplacement tube reactor for continuous oxyethylation under pressure. For the process under consideration here, a high-capacity, ideal-displacement reactor has the difficulty of removing the reaction heat, so that a precise choice of tube diameter is required. Based on kinetic data obtained at the D.I. Mendeleev Moscow Chemical Technology Institute for the oxyethylation of PAA by ethylene oxide, a mathematical model has been developed and is presented here of an ideal-displacement ethoxylation reactor, the suitability of which has been tested on an oxyethylation pilot plant.

Panaev, Y.D.; Latyshev, I.E.; Ternovskii, S.A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Quantitative relationships between structure and reactivity of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bnglneering -xpcrtuent station and fron the Robert A. belch IIosearoh Foundation. Introduat ion . ' ethos of ~lysis ~ 0 Quleul-. tion of;1~to Oonst nt, s : iste riel s ~ o ~ I. 'iyters ~ ~ ~ 16 lC 11, . i~::' . ' Crt ~d*iP' 1~&'" :~ppsrstus z&& rl...-tt'rdor Rotc Cansta, ts for . :. oetntas IIIc. Ceoond- rder ". :;te Const tots ". tr Identicr lly Jis tbstt ttttod stars 't 0 IV. Ct, t" an "ct. 'tyl stere V. . )c' o~ cot otcs z2 'tl, . &oto on fde. otic. . t ly Cisubctitttted . . coors . 1. mymificction...

Yager, Billy Joe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Substrate denaturation and translocation by a proteolytic machine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many AAA+ molecular machines generate power and drive cellular processes by harnessing energy from cycles of ATP hydrolysis. ClpX is a relatively simple AAA+ ATPase that powers regulated protein degradation by binding ...

Kenniston, Jon Anders

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Substrate stabilization of lysozyme to thermal and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. , and Mayer, R ~ J ~ (1976) Biochemic J. 154, 359-370 Schimke, T T. ('1964) J Biol Chem 239, 3808-3817 Goldberg, A. L. and St. John, A. C. (1976) Annu. Rev. Biochem, 45, 748-803 Dice, J ~ F. , Dehlinger, P ~ J ~, and Schimke, R ~ T. (1973) JB Biol Chem... 248, 4220-4228 Dehlinger, P. J ~ and Schimke, R ~ T ~ (1972) J ~ Biol. Chem 246, 2574-2583 Dice, J F. and Goldberg, A L, (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad Scil U ~ ST A. 72, 3893-3897 Bohley, P ~, Kirschke, H, Langner, J ~, Niederanders, 8 ~, Ansorge...

McGrath, Timothy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

63

Denaturant-Induced Conformational Transitions in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) differ from ordered proteins at several levels: structural, functional, and...

Paolo Neyroz; Stefano Ciurli…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A microfluidic device for DNA sequencing by denaturation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stage insert Thermoelectric modules for heating/cooling PEEKThermoelectric (TE) modules are incorporated to provide heating and coolingCooling and heating capabilities are provided by thermoelectric modules,

Walsh, Matthew Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Barnase as a model for the denatured state of proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

procedure for Barnase purification. Without him we would still be stuck with the old method of purification. I need to thank David Schell and Saul Trevino for their support and advise on all practical matters of laboratory work as well the rest... of the Pace/Sholtz lab for their support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . nl ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . . TABLE OF CONTENTS. V1 LIST OF FIGURES. . V11 INTRODUCTION. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. . Expression and Purification Scheme I. Expression and Purification...

Hoffart, Lee Michael

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

66

Characterization of Anti-Irradiation-Denatured Ovalbumin Monoclonal Antibodies. Immunochemical and Structural Analysis of Irradiation-Denatured Ovalbumin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Five monoclonal antibodies (OVA-01, -02, -03, -04, -06) produced against irradiated ovalbumin were investigated in relation to the conformational change in the ovalbumin molecule induced by irradiation with Cobalt-60 ?-rays. Four antibodies (OVA-01, -02, -...

Tetsuya Masuda; Sakiyo-Yamaoka Koseki; Kyoden Yasumoto; Naofumi Kitabatake

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

67

Nominally anhydrous minerals and Earth's deep water cycle Joseph R. Smyth* and Steven D. Jacobsen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the surface, hence oceans and dry land, almost as far back as we can see in geologic time. Oxygen isotope after accretion and differentiation from relatively D-enriched comets [Robert, 2001; Delsemme, 1999

Smyth, Joseph R.

68

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous portland cements Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainability of Concrete Construction Tarun R. Naik, F.ASCE1 Summary: , a greenhouse gas GHG ; production of one ton of portland cement produces about one ton of CO2 and other...

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous phospholipidic membranes Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

manipulation, liposomal membranes adhered to each other only in a certain range of CaCl2... to and add positive charges to the lipids, and that membranes are separated and...

70

Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers Used to Recycle Anhydrous HCl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is car- ried out in an electrolyzer similar to a H2-O2 polymer electrolyte membrane PEM fuel cell. The Du-coated Nafion 115 membrane was measured as a function of HCl flow rate and temperature at a constant cell 50% of the chlorine used in the chemical industry ends up as hydrogen chloride, a waste byproduct.2

Weidner, John W.

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous silicate melt Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

glass... transition fragility The viscosity of silicate ... Source: Russell, Kelly - Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia Collection:...

72

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous magnesium chloride Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

magnesium ion concentration dependence of strand exchange... M Tris-acetate or Tris-HCI (pH 7.5), IO mM magnesium acetate or magnesium chloride, 3.7% glycerol, 1 m... and...

73

An investigation of the effectiveness of anhydrous mud acid to remove damage in sandstone formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENT NO. 3. DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENT NO. 4. . . DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENT NO. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. . . . . Conclusions. . Recommendations. REFERENCES. APPENDIX A. Page 1V Vl vln 1X 18 20 22 24 26 28 28 29... Class 8536 Size 00 thru 4 Type S NEMA Starters (Internal Connsdion) Fedory Vrdre p n 4 5I I STOP Il 6 L J N. C. Contests + COIL 4, 3 Wire Control Separate Source Overload Contact Thermal Unit 3 Required X2 4 r""l 4 (Ground If Used) F F (If...

Haase, Dalan David

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous alcohol evaporated Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

peroxide Copper, chromium, iron, most metals or their salts, alcohols, acetone... , carbon tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia...

75

Impact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up scaling from experimental  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into the atmosphere. CO2 is captured from exhaust gas in power plants or industrial units and then stored of the saturation profile evolution with two phase flow model integrating thermal effects. An up scaling on recent experiments and numerical simulations, the near-well injection zone is identified

Boyer, Edmond

76

Degradation of untreated and anhydrous ammonia-treated wheat straw by two strains of rumen anaerobic fungi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cellulose and xylans of hemicel- luloses, but little is known about the specif- ic role of each species, the phloem and the parenchyma were slightly degraded and rhizoids were visible on the surface of the plant frag- ments. After 24 h the mass of rhizoids on the surface of the plant fragments was so large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has made an award to University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

78

A study of the condensation of propene and isobutene with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STUDT Qt THE OCNZESlSATIQS OP PHQP%SE ASO ZSOSOTESE SZTH EEWZCEE IH THE ~QE Qp ASHTCEOUS WEEHZQ OHX QEISE Lewis Lialea Qarpeater Jwas 1ESS Approval as to style aa4 contest rsec~alehi H Q o t 0 p rtasat o Ohealstrr ma Qh~ A STUDI Of THE O... of the 44rlsaltaral an4 Hsshaaf sal Oolloso ef Texas Partial Falfilmoat of ihs Reqairsasats for the BeSres of Raster of Solsaae Ha Jor Sab)eot s Ohematsal Eagaoerlsg By Loafs Lla4sa OarPsa'tor yea? LOSS ) zzP 7 gest-& The writer ?%shee ae express...

Carpenter, Louis Linden

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Anhydrous ferric chloride as an alkylation catalyst: The condensation of 2-methylpropene and benzene, preparation and identification of several fractions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-butylbe!!zeno. i':o tri-t-buty''oe:&zones ar, fo& ~ ed d!&r-'n~ t ! &. s &. en c't i c&n 24. . ? Dej", e, J. . 'r . Ch. !-. oc. , 60 2079 , lot&7) 25. ? Price an Cir):o;;. .-:. ' i, ibid. , (0, 2! 9o (lo3&&) 26. ? Fairbrother, Trans. Fa~ra av '~oc. , 37, 7'. 3...

Mommessin, Pierre Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

A Predictably Selective Aliphatic C–H Oxidation Reaction for Complex Molecule Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...selective. We report an iron (Fe)–based small molecule...herein report an electrophilic iron catalyst, 4, with a...O-i-Pr) 2 . acac, acetylacetonate; DET, diethyl tartrate. Several nonheme iron complexes have shown promising...

Mark S. Chen; M. Christina White

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Gas Chromatographic—Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Aliphatic Glycols in Environmental Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mL for the determination of diol method...containing boron was facilitated...characteristic isotope ratio of boron (1 0 B...characteristic isotope ratio distribution of boron. Quantitative...laboratory for the determination of glycols......

A. Raksit; S. Punani

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

established that the new ILMs provided good spottospot reproducibility and high ionization efficiency compared/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDIMS). The polymers, formed by a condensation reaction of three components

Yang, Jian

83

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic friedel-crafts alkylations Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 28 A process for the rapid removal of dialkylamino-substituents from aromatic rings. Application to the expedient...

84

A quantitative study of the effect of structure on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(calibrated by the U ~ So National Bureau of Standards) in conjunction with a Wheatstone bridge. 30a 31 Electric timers were used to time the reactionsi The timers were found to be dependable by cheching their accuracy over a period of several days...' The resistance of the reaction mixture was determined by a Wheatstone bridge consisting of three decade resistance boxes' 30b Either a cathode ray oscilloscope or a null detector was used 30c to obtain the null pointi This was done visually, either...

Gonzalez, Federico P

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Quantitative Determination of Aliphatic Sulfur-Containing Additives by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......pyrolysis (7), infrared (8), combustion to SO4 = with subsequent determination...Drushel. The Analytical Chemistry of Sulfur and Its Compounds...London, p. 358. Sulfur in Coal and Coke by the Bomb Washing...organic materials by oxygen bomb combustion. Anal. Chem. 33:1760......

J.W. Sinclair; L. Schall; N.T. Crabb

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic halogenase syrb2 Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Technologies and Information Sciences ; Engineering 63 Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended...

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alkyl quaternaries Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to almost... (e.g. Ar-Cl, tertiary amine, quaternary amine) NuH R'R"NH 11CCarbon Monoxide - In ring closure... is a nucleophilic subsitition of bisulfite by 11Ccyanide ion...

88

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary diamines Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Davis Collection: Biotechnology 56 Production of 11C-Labeled Summary: Carbon Monoxide - For preparation of 11C-labeled primary amides or hydrazides The method is...

89

Calorimetric study of adsorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons on reduced cobalt catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of the heats of adsorption and the adsorption isotherms of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons on Co at 298/sup 0/K; the content of organic matter in the catalyst has been determined after use in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It is concluded that the Fischer-Tropsch process includes stages of diffusion of the original reactants and the products through a liquid film of hydrocarbons coating the catalyst; the hydrocarbon molecules are adsorbed on the surface in the ''lying down'' position; the adsorption of paraffins is reversible and is described by the BET theory; olefins form an irreversibly chemisorbed monolayer, above which reversible adsorption takes place; the ease of desorption of the paraffins explains their preferential formation in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Ostrovskii, V.E.; Medvedkova, E.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Hyperbranched Aliphatic Polyesters and Reactive Diluents in Thermally Cured Coil Coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactive diluents (35-38) act as solvents in liquid paint, lowering the viscosity, and then chemically react into the film during cure. ... DSC studies were performed using a Mettler Toledo DSC820 equipped with a Mettler Toledo Sample Robot TSO801RO calibrated using standard procedures. ... Air-drying high solids alkyd paints for decorative coatings ...

Katarina Johansson; Tina Bergman; Mats Johansson

2008-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

91

DEOTERIUM MAGNETIC RESONANCE OF SOME POLYMORPHIC LIQUID CRYSTALS: THE CONFORMATION OF THE ALIPHATIC END CHAINS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in "Magnetic Resonance in Colloid and Interface Science"in "Magnetic Resonance in Colloid and Interface Science"

Hsi, Shan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Synthesis Gas Conversion to Aliphatic Alcohols: Study of MoS2 catalytic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by sulfidation of ammonium thiomolybate and acetate salts of co-promoters. Several catalyst formulations were prepared by calcination, followed by doping with alkali promoters. Solid state modifications were made in some cases to dilute the active MoS2 material...

Baksh, Faisal

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

93

Phenolic and Short-Chained Aliphatic Organic Acid Constituents of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) Seeds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Following this after-ripening period, seeds were sown in Sun-Gro Sunshine Mix #1 (SunGro Horticulture, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) in pots measuring 10 × 10 × 35 cm (Stuewe & Sons, Inc., Tangent, OR). ... Repeated measurements of the temperature and light conditions associated with each population cluster indicated that there were no significant differences in growth conditions among the clusters (data not shown). ... Natural lighting was supplemented with two 400 W high pressure sodium lamps set to a 16 h photoperiod. ...

R. S. Gallagher; R. Ananth; K. Granger; B. Bradley; J.V. Anderson; E. P. Fuerst

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

94

Alteration and release of aliphatic compounds by the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars) experimentally fed with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fed with hydrocarbons a , a b b *Franck Gilbert , Georges Stora , Gaston Desrosiers , Bruno Deflandre-491-826-548. E-mail address: gilbert@mailhost.com.univ-mrs.fr (F. Gilbert). #12;included under the term; Gilbert et al., 1994, 1996; Kure and Forbes, 1997). During the mixing of sediments, bioturbating

Mailhes, Corinne

95

Alteration and release of aliphatic compounds by the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars) experimentally fed with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fed with hydrocarbons a , a b b *Franck Gilbert , Georges Stora , Gaston Desrosiers , Bruno Deflandre-491-826-548. E-mail address: gilbert@mailhost.com.univ-mrs.fr (F. Gilbert). hal-00763824,version1-11Dec2012 adsorbed onto the sediment (Gardner et al., 1979; Karickhoff and Morris, 1985; Reynoldson, 1987; Gilbert et

Boyer, Edmond

96

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic carbon-centered radicals Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

preprintsreprints & other Collection: Physics 15 Acetone-Photosensitized Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Summary: ) Ross, A. B.; Neta, P. Rate constants for reactions of...

97

Nanotube Confinement Denatures Protein Helices Eric J. Sorin and Vijay S. Pande*,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Simulations were performed on the Folding@Home distributed computing network as described previously11 using

Sorin, Eric J.

98

Probing structural heterogeneities and fluctuations of nucleic acids and denatured proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

polyelec- trolytes and protein folding in particular, standsdynamics ? protein folding ? single-molecule ?uorescencestructure and dynamics. Protein folding is the most spec-

Laurence, T A; Kong, X X; Jager, M; Weiss, S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

caused progressive damage to the molecular structure of type I collagen as assessed by Fourier transform aortic valve cusps were 65.2 ± 8.66 g uronic acid/10 mg of dry weight for control and 7.91 ± 1.1 g uronic acid/10 mg of dry weight for 10­300 million cycled cusps. Together, these molecular changes contribute

Zand, Robert

100

Effect of the Protein Denaturants Urea and Guanidinium on Water Structure: A Structural and Thermodynamic Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the hydrogen bond network of water in the first hydration shell of urea and guanidinium were analyzed in terms of the random network model using Monte Carlo simulations. Bulk water consists of two populations of hydrogen and more bent hydrogen bonds. In the first shell of urea, hydrogen bonds between waters solvating the amino

Sharp, Kim

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

J. Mol. Biol. (1995) 252, 672708 Acid and Thermal Denaturation of Barnase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.g. on tyrosine and tryptophan sidechains. The hydrogen-bonding propensity of the water molecules tends structural elements, where water molecules compete with the interstrand and intrahelical hydrogen bonds state to a partially unfoldedDepartment of Chemistry conformation has been studied by molecular dynamics

Caflisch, Amedeo

102

Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double-Gradient Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial Ecology Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double, including the presence or absence of vegetation, depth into sediment, and season. Double- gradient of these similarity coefficients were used to group banding patterns by depth into sediment, presence or absence

Sherman, Tim

103

Evaluation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to differentiate Escherichia coli populations in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be an effective tool to differentiate unique E. coli popu- lations and should be useful to characterize E. coli, 1977; USEPA, 1986a). Second, several strains of E. coli are toxic to humans and are infectious via) to differentiate mixed assemblages of E. coli in the natural environment. After confirming the identity of 184

Sigler, Von

104

Toward a Taxonomy of the Denatured State: Small Angle Scattering Studies of Unfolded Proteins  

SciTech Connect

Despite the critical role the unfolded state plays in defining protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics (Berg et al., 2002; Dunker, 2002; Shortle, 2002; Wright and Dyson, 2002), our understanding of its detailed structure remains rather rudimentary; the heterogeneity of the unfolded ensemble renders difficult or impossible its study by traditional, atomic-level structural methods. Consequently, recent years have seen a significant expansion of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) techniques that provide direct, albeit rotationally and time-averaged, measures of the geometric properties of the unfolded ensemble. These studies have reached a critical mass, allowing us for the first time to define general observations regarding the nature of the geometry - and possibly the chemistry and physics - of unfolded proteins.

Millett, I.S.; Doniach, S.; Plaxco, K.W. (Stanford); (UCSB)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated constant denaturant Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Medicine Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 21 Single-molecule protein folding: Diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies Summary: are fairly...

106

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-denatured acbp controlled Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

; Biology and Medicine 5 Rapid mixing methods for exploring the kinetics of protein folding Heinrich Roder,a,b,* Kosuke Maki,a,1 Summary: events, such as cis-trans...

107

Drinking Drivers in Sweden Who Consume Denatured Alcohol Preparations: An Analytical-Toxicological Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of analyzing alcohol increases with the concentrationof...100-500 mg/L in red wine, whisky, and fruit...in the blood therefore increases under these conditions...system, and strong beer, wines, and spirits can only...Economic Control of Quality of the Manufac- tured......

A.W. Jones; Monica Lund; Eva Andersson

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer study of protein dynamics under denaturing conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Biochemistry 30, 10436 -10443. 1931968 45 Shastry, M. C. R., Agashe, V. R. & Udgaonkar, J. B. ( 1994 ) Protein Sci. 3, 1409 -1417...2004 ) Protein Sci. 13, 633 -639. 14767081 48 Pappu, R. V., Srinivasan, R. & Rose, G. D. ( 2000...

Elza V. Kuzmenkina; Colin D. Heyes; G. Ulrich Nienhaus

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the gasification products of oil shale from the Leningrad and Kashpir deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental results of the gasification of oil shale from the Leningrad and Kashpir deposits and...

T. A. Avakyan; Yu. A. Strizhakova; A. S. Malinovskii; A. L. Lapidus

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Asbestiform sepiolite coated by aliphatic hydrocarbons from Perletoa, Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy): characterization, genesis and possible hazards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...spectra collected on composite films between xylan-type hemicelluloses (polysaccharides...and probably interacts with the fibre surfaces via specific bonds. These interactions...hydrocarbon coating and the sepiolite fibres surface slowly but inexorably opened new interstices...

R. Giustetto; K. Seenivasan; E. Belluso

111

Use of Aliphatic n-Alkynes To Discriminate Soil Nitrification Activities of Ammonia-Oxidizing Thaumarchaea and Bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MC, Madras cropped; KC, Klamath cropped; and CC, Corvallis...of a functionally distinct group of AOA that differs from the groups responding to organic N mineralization...Agricultural Research Center, the Klamath Basin Research and Extension...

Anne E. Taylor; Neeraja Vajrala; Andrew T. Giguere; Alix I. Gitelman; Daniel J. Arp; David D. Myrold; Luis Sayavedra-Soto; Peter J. Bottomley

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

112

bus, a Bushy Arabidopsis CYP79F1 Knockout Mutant with Abolished Synthesis of Short-Chain Aliphatic Glucosinolates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...methyl donor in trans-methylation reactions, and the hormone ethylene (). In addition, methionine is an immediate progenitor of...metabolism in plants Reintanz B. Rodman J.E. Karol K.G. Price R.A. Sytsma K.J. Molecules, morphology, and Dahlgrens...

Birgit Reintanz; Michaela Lehnen; Michael Reichelt; Jonathan Gershenzon; Marius Kowalczyk; Goran Sandberg; Matthias Godde; Rainer Uhl; Klaus Palme

113

CHANGES IN ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON TRACER COMPOSITION DURING THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS OF THE MARINE WORM NEREIS VIRENS. PRELIMINARY RESULTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEREIS VIRENS. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. F. GILBERT a,b, G. STORA b, G. DESROSIERS a, J-P. GAGNE a, B hydrocarbons to a harsh chemical and active microbiological environment11. If the metabolization of polycyclic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Generation, Observation, and Free Radical Reactivity of Aliphatic Bisketenes:? The Solution to a Long-Standing Problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Annette D. Allen , Michael H. Fenwick , Amir Jabri , Huzaifa Rangwala , Kazem Saidi , and Thomas T. Tidwell * ... (g) Allen, A. D.; Rangwala, H.; Saidi, K.; Tidwell, T. T.; Wang, J. Russ. ...

Annette D. Allen; Michael H. Fenwick; Amir Jabri; Huzaifa Rangwala; Kazem Saidi; Thomas T. Tidwell

2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

116

/ www.sciencexpress.org / 24 September 2009 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1178658 The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is an ongoing surficial process. OH/H2O production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration. The Moon has been believed to be quite dry

Perfect, Ed

117

Melt Inclusion Formation Mechanisms and Compositional Effects in High-An Feldspar and High-Fo Olivine in Anhydrous Mafic Silicate Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a single 1 cm phenocryst (Sinton et al., 1993; Nielsen et al., 1995; Johnson et al, 1996; Sours-Page et al or enriched in particular major, minor or trace elements (Sinton et al., 1993; Nielsen et al., 1995; Saal et

Kurapov, Alexander

118

Enthalpy of Solution for Anhydrous VOSO4 and Estimated Enthalpy of Reaction for Formation of the Ion Pair [VOSO4]0  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) is showing great promise as an efficient new energy-storage system for a wide range of applications. ... Oriji, G.; Katayama, Y.; Miura, T. Investigation on V(IV)/V(V) species in a vanadium redox flow battery Electrochim. ... Investigation on V(IV)/V(V) species in a vanadium redox flow battery ...

Jian-Guo Liu; Wei-Feng Xue; Ye Qin; Chuan-Wei Yan; Jia-Zhen Yang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The effect of ionizing radiation on dielectric properties of bovine achilles tendon collagen in the temperature range of thermal denaturation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ?-irradiation, with doses from 102?2×103 kGy, on the dielectric properties of solid-state collagen was studied. The temperature dependence of the constants ?? and ??' revealed a decrease in the dena...

F. Jaroszyk; E. Marzec

1994-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Protein folding from a highly disordered denatured state: The folding pathway of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 at atomic resolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...theoretical study of polyalanine peptides by Pappu et al. (31) suggests that the Flory...F J Otzen D E Ladurner A G Fersht A R ( 1995 ) J Mol Biol 254 : 968 – 979...10.1073/ pnas.090104997) . 31 Pappu R V Srinivasan R Rose G D ( 2000 ) Proc...

Steven L. Kazmirski; Kam-Bo Wong; Stefan M. V. Freund; Yee-Joo Tan; Alan R. Fersht; Valerie Daggett

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetoacetic acid Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chapter 2 Synthesis Chapter 2 Synthesis of Labelled Inhibitors Summary: (anhydrous) Lithium aluminium hydride THF (anhydrous) Thionyl chloride Hydrochloric acid Methanol n......

122

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501918 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Beaded with ZnO Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(SDS) followed by reaction of zinc acetate with lithium hy- droxide monohydrate in anhydrous ethanol

Wei, Ji

123

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES, II. A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, IN BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The normal hydrocarbons of the rich oil shale from the Green River Formation exhibit...n-C17 alkane in the Green River oil shale is consistent with the theory that...rise to the organic material of rich oil shale. Although the Florida Mud Lake ooze...

Jerry Han; E. D. McCarthy; William Van Hoeven; Melvin Calvin; W. H. Bradley

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES, II. A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, IN BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...higher-molecular- TABLE 1. Hydrocarbons from algae. n-C, n-C1. Pristane A-C17 n-Cl? Branched C1s Phytane n-Cis, n-Ci8 n-C2u Higher mol wt hydrocarbons Major component .-Blue-Green Algae- Nostoc Anacysti8 0.42 28 0.42 3.4 4.0 100 100 19...

Jerry Han; E. D. McCarthy; William Van Hoeven; Melvin Calvin; W. H. Bradley

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization 35042 Rennes Cedex, France. Abstract A new copper(II) complex Cu(II)-L containing N2O2 donor atoms has of copper acetate monohydrate. It was characterized by spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, UV­vis, mass

Boyer, Edmond

126

Complete Detoxification of Short Chain Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds: Isolation of Halorespiring Organisms and Biochemical Studies of the Dehalogenating Enzyme Systems - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Work focused on the isolation and characterization of halorespiring populations, and the initial investigation of the dechlorinating enzyme systems. In addition, tools to evaluate the presence/activity to halorespiring populations in the environment were developed. The tools developed in this work (measurements of hydrogen consumption thresholds, molecular probes) are relevant for regulatory agencies in order to facilitate decisions on which bioremediation technology (biostimulation or bioaugmentation) is most promising at a particular site. In addition, a better understanding of the physiology of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems enhances our knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

Tiedje, J.M.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Forsterite, hydrous and anhydrous wadsleyite and ringwoodite (Mg2SiO4): 29Si NMR results for chemical shift anisotropy, spin-lattice relaxation, and mechanism of hydration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Devreux, F., Boilot, J.P., Chaput, F., and Sapoval, B. (1990) NMR determination of the fractal dimension in silica aerogels. Physical Review Letters, 65, 614-617. Frost, D.J., Poe, B.T., Tronnes, R.G., Liebske, C., Duba, A...

Jonathan F. Stebbins; Joseph R. Smyth; Wendy R. Panero; Daniel J. Frost

128

Protein folding by distributed computing and the denatured state ensemble Neelan J. Marianayagam, Nicolas L. Fawzi, and Teresa Head-Gordon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

July 26, 2005) The distributed computing (DC) paradigm in conjunction with the folding@home (FH) client from higher energy subpopulations in the DSE. folding mechanism folding@home two-state kinetics Poisson a particular strength of the distributed computing (DC) approach known as folding@home (FH), which compares

Head-Gordon, Teresa L.

129

Denaturation and Renaturation of a ?-1,6;1,3-Glucan, Lentinan, Associated with Expression of T-Cell-mediated Responses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...4/30, in gel electrophoresis apparatus EL-4...Sweden) and electrophoresis was run at a constant...at 3'C. The electrode buffer was 0...value of 25 in water changed to 2 in...urea and DMSO by dialysis against water resulted...Dof Lentinan by Treatment with NaOH. Fig...

Yukiko Y. Maeda; Sumiyo T. Watanabe; Chie Chihara; and Makoto Rokutanda

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cloning of the Arabidopsis RSF1 Gene by Using a Mapping Strategy Based on High-Density DNA Arrays and Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Alto, California 94304 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, La Jolla, California 92037...Associate Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Aarts M.G.M. Corzaan...genomics Nagatani A. Plant biology. Lighting up the nucleus Neff M.M. Neff J.D...

Jamie I. Spiegelman; Michael N. Mindrinos; Christian Fankhauser; Daniel Richards; Jason Lutes; Joanne Chory; Peter J. Oefner

131

Cloning of the Arabidopsis RSF1 Gene by Using a Mapping Strategy Based on High-Density DNA Arrays and Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...combined with its low operating cost, make DHPLC an effective and...organisms. Improvements (e.g., cost and more amenable markers...Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Aarts M.G.M...Nagatani A. Plant biology. Lighting up the nucleus Neff M.M...

Jamie I. Spiegelman; Michael N. Mindrinos; Christian Fankhauser; Daniel Richards; Jason Lutes; Joanne Chory; Peter J. Oefner

132

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins and Their Environment: Effects of Strong Denaturants, Temperature, pH, Counter Ions, Membranes, Binding Partners, Osmolytes, and Macromolecular Crowding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) differ from “normal” ordered proteins at several levels, structural, functional and ... is complementary to the catalytic activities of ordered proteins. Amino acid biases...

Vladimir N. Uversky

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Cloning of the Arabidopsis RSF1 Gene by Using a Mapping Strategy Based on High-Density DNA Arrays and Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...both are amenable to high-throughput automation, which is an essential prerequisite in...tairpub@ftp.arabidopsis.org/home/tair/Software">ftp://tairpub:tairpub@ftp.arabidopsis.org/home/tair/Software. Marker scores...

Jamie I. Spiegelman; Michael N. Mindrinos; Christian Fankhauser; Daniel Richards; Jason Lutes; Joanne Chory; Peter J. Oefner

134

Interpretation of the Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Spectrum of [Ru(phen)3]2+*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), was prepared by reduction of anhydrous 1,10-phenanthroline with an excess of lithium metal under an inert

Bernhard, Stefan

135

University of California Radiation Laboratory Progress Report for November, 1947  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

preparE Since anhydrous uranyl nitrate for use in the studyevacuation of the hydrated uranyl nitrate salts resulted in

Perlman, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Semipermeable polymers and method for producing the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polyamide membrane including reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant having one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane including the polyamide membrane on a porous support.

Buschmann, Wayne E

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

E-Print Network 3.0 - arbitrarily amplified dna Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

given DNA sequence millions of times. A. Denaturation: DNA is denatured. B. Annealing: Primer... acronyms associated with molecular markers AFLP Amplified Fragment Length...

138

Comment on flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones over the temperature range 240-440 K  

SciTech Connect

The recent flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence study of Wallington and Kurylo dealing with the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with ketones has greatly expanded the literature data base concerning this class of organic compounds. For 2- and 3-pentanone and 2-hexanone the absolute room temperature rate constants determined by Wallington and Kurylo can be compared to rate constants obtained by using a relative rate technique, and significant discrepancies, outside of the combined stated experimental error limits, are evident. The relative rate constant measurements were carried out in a 60-L Teflon chamber, and problems ascribed to first-order wall losses of the ketones during the irradiations were observed.

Atkinson, R.; Aschmann, S.M.

1988-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

American Mineralogist, Volume 98, pages 16881692, 2013 0003-004X/13/00101688$05.00/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2138/am.2013.4475 1688  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% of stoichiometrically incorporated water and lies along the brucite­anhydrous phase B join of the MgO-SiO2-Mg(OH)2

Smyth, Joseph R.

140

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PER GALLON ANHYDROUS ETHANOL) ENERGY CONSUMPTION FARMINGmaterial. Table 17 ETHANOL SEPARATION ENERGY REQUIREMENTS *PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM MOLASSES* (ENERGIES ARE IN BTU

Wilke, Charles R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Manufacturing improvement and thermal property characterization of the frame structure of an Ultra-high Throughput Mutational Spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE) is a DNA separation technique that allows the detection of mutants at a fraction of 10Ì???. CDCE uses a region of constant temperature and constant denaturant concentration ...

Lin, Jiengju J. (Jiengju James)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Insertion of Endocellulase Catalytic Domains into Thermostable Consensus Ankyrin Scaffolds: Effects on Stability and Cellulolytic Activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of these microbes produce a battery of secreted cellulases with...consensus ankyrin protein, the thermal denaturation midpoint (Tm...enhancements. We determined the thermal denaturation of these constructs...averaging five wavelength scans. Thermal unfolding transitions were...

Eva S. Cunha; Christine L. Hatem; Doug Barrick

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloplastic graft material Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ovei the level of grafting, ease of control of the final material properties... Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization* Abstract......

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous polyketone latices Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11 Alternating aliphatic polyketones, produced by co-and terpolymerization of carbon monoxide and olefins (mixtures of ethylene and propylene) using palladium-based Summary:...

145

Water-soluble polyesters from long chain alkylesters of citric acid and poly(ethylene glycol) .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Long chain aliphatic alcohols have been used as model compounds to develop a preparative method for a water-soluble material, which could be a carrier for… (more)

Barroso Bujans, Fabienne

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon clusters Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

aliphatic chains as key intermediates for the nucleation Summary: to macromolecular building blocks (nanoparticles) that eventually turn into soot. Polycyclic aromatic...

147

Density, Speed of Sound, and Viscosity Measurements of Reference Materials for Biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of density, speed of sound, and viscosity have been carried out on liquid certified reference materials for biofuels as a function of temperature at ambient pressure. The samples included anhydrous and hydrated bioethanol and two biodiesel ...

Arno Laesecke; Tara J. Fortin; Jolene D. Splett

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Multivalent Manganese Hydrazide Gels for Kubas-Type Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Manganese(II) hydrazide gels designed for Kubas-type hydrogen storage were synthesized from the reaction between bis(trimethylsilylmethyl) manganese and anhydrous hydrazine. The synthetic materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen ...

Tuan K. A. Hoang; Leah Morris; Jeremy M. Rawson; Michel L. Trudeau; David M. Antonelli

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

149

PREPRINT  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

dried before using by dissolving in a minimum amount of ether, drying over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and removing the ether under vacuum. This material is >95% pure and may be...

150

Organosilicon Derivatives of Phosphorus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a mixture of trimethylchlorosilanes and anhydrous orthophosphoric acid (molar ratio 3: 1) is heated to boiling [62a] or when H3PO4 is added gradually to trimethylchlorosilane [430, 525, 526], hydrogen chlori...

S. N. Borisov; M. G. Voronkov…

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES CHEMICALS EXCLUDED FROM TRACKING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Name CAS Number Ammonium iodide 12027064 Lithium acetate 546894 Potassium acetate 127082 Ammonium phosphate, dibasic 7783280 Lithium acetate, dihydrate 6108147 Potassium bicarbonate 298146 Ammonium silicate 10102257 Potassium phosphate, dibasic 7758114 Calcium acetate, anhydrous 62544 Lithium sulfate

Jia, Songtao

152

An integrated approach to predict ettringite formation in sulfate soils and identifying sulfate damage along SH 130.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Expansive soils are treated with anhydrous or hydrated lime. The use of calcium-based stabilizers such as calcium oxide (lime) in sulfate-bearing clay soils has historically… (more)

Sachin, Kunagalli Natarajan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

INCOMPATIBLE CHEMICAL LIST PRUDENT PRACTICES FOR HANDLING CHEMICALS IN LABORATORIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia (anhydrous) Mercury (in oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals, sulfur tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate Sulfuric and other acids Potassium perchlorate (see also

Cho, Junghyun

154

CX-012111: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 05/06/2014 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office

155

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1091910932, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/10919/2013/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

examined in detail. Although a few field stud- ies have suggested that primary particulate organic carbon both black carbon and or- ganic aerosol (OA), particularly in some developing coun- tries where aliphatic bridges or loops. The aromatic bonds are very stable compared to the aliphatic bridges and loops

Meskhidze, Nicholas

156

Normal coordinate analysis of trimethyl-antimony oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and from Columbia Organic Chemicals, Co. , Inc. Anhydrous ether, from J. T. Baker Chemical Company, was dried over sodium wire. Red and white phosphorus were obtained from Mallinckrodt Chemical Works. Sodium thiosulfate was purchased from Merck and Co.... Silver nitrate was obtained from Sargent-Welch Scientific Company. Anhydrous calcium chloride, from Matheson, Coleman, and Bell, was oven-dried at 110 before use. Antimony trichloride, methanol, magnesium turnings, and iodine were all obtained from...

Morris, Wayne A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

Semipermeable polymers and method for producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polyamide membrane comprising reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst; and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant comprising one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane comprising the polyamide membrane on a porous support. A method of making a composite semipermeable membrane by coating a porous support with an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, a polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, to form an activated pre-polymer layer on the porous support and contacting the activated pre-polymer layer with an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional amine-reactive reactant to interfacially condense the amine-reactive reactant with the polyfunctional secondary amine, thereby forming a cross-linked, interfacial polyamide layer on the porous support. A method of impregnating a composite semipermeable membrane with nanoparticles selected from heavy metals and/or oxides of heavy metals.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted peritoneal dialysis Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

review Practical considerations in refolding proteins from inclusion bodies Summary: , removal of the denaturant, and assistance of refolding by small molecule additives. We...

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - albumin bsa nanoparticles Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the temperature of BSA denatur... albumin and -globulin, starting from their acid-expanded, most hydrated ... Source: Bloomfield, Victor A. - Department of Biochemistry,...

160

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium thiocyanates Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thiocyanate-phenol chloroform method (31). Briefly, pools... of microdissection medium, into 400 l of denaturing solution (4 M guanidinium thiocyanate, 25 mM sodium citrate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-ley igg reversal Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

unfolded without the need to denature ... Source: Mochrie, Simon - Department of Applied Physics, Yale University; Regan, Lynne - Department of Molecular Biophysics and...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - alter rna duplex Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

investigated using thermal denaturation (Tm) studies of a 12 base pair RNA ... Source: Beal, Peter A. - Department of Chemistry, University of Utah Collection: Chemistry 14 David...

163

Nucleic Acid Homology in the Genus Mycobacterium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in an L2-65 Beckman ultracentrifuge. Thermal denaturation. Denaturation temperatures...with immobilized homologous DNA, the thermal stability of the duplexes formed should...different clusters. Because a selective battery of only 42 tests is used, it has been...

Wendy M. Gross; Lawrence G. Wayne

1970-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Amyloid protein SAA is an apoprotein of mouse plasma high density lipoprotein  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...less cumbersome and more rapid method of thermal denaturation, which has been used to...6 M urea buffer were subjected to this thermal denaturation. Antigen solutions in the...migration (anode at bot- tom); stain, Sudan black B. plasma is illustrated in Fig...

E P Benditt; N Eriksen; R H Hanson

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Internal Porosity of Mineral Coating Supports Microbial Activity in Rapid Sand Filters for Groundwater Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...5-min denaturation at 95C, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 94C for 30 s and primer...physical and chemical properties. In general the mass of mineral coating decreased...H Smidt. 2013. Impact of long-term diesel contamination on soil microbial community...

Arda Gülay; Karolina Tatari; Sanin Musovic; Ramona V. Mateiu; Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen; Barth F. Smets

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

166

Nitrification and Autotrophic Nitrifying Bacteria in a Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...PCR mixture (). The thermal cycle included an initial denaturation...94C for 120 s, followed by 35 cycles consisting of denaturation at...elongation at 68C for 60 s. The cycle was completed by a final elongation...presence of an extra dose of diesel fuel but not in the initial...

Jamal Deni; Michel J. Penninckx

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

OZONOLYSIS OF “POLYMER-TYPE” MATERIAL IN COAL, KEROGEN AND IN THE ORGUEIL METEORITE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aggregate of aliphatic structures with some cycloalkane and mononuclear aromatic ring components; and (3) coaly-oil-shale-type, which has properties intermediate be- tween the two. The nature of the insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous...

Sister Mary Carol Bitz; Bartholomew Nagy

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol.Process. 15, 2877-2892 (2001)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

soil surface, and it is caused by the leaching of hydrophobic compounds, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons). These compounds can escapeinto the atmosphere, or move into the soil atmosphere and condense *Correspondence to: L). The condensation of these compounds form

MacDonald, Lee

169

Quantification of NA processes for the CAH-contamination in Karlsruhe-Ost/Killisfeld with the help of a groundwater model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactive transport of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) was simulated with a process oriented multi-species-model for a model domain of 4 km2. The objective of the calculations was the quantification of NA...

Dr.-Ing. W. Schäfer; Dr. F. Wickert; Dr. A. Tiehm

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic substitution photo-nocas Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and to structural differences in the aliphatic... (a) and HMBC (b) spectra for TCV oil as an example. The degree of substitution of the aromatic... MS and the degree of...

171

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402244 Chemocatalytic Upgrading of Tailored Fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for blending with gasoline,[7­9] production of longer chain alcohols for jet and diesel blendstocks suffers reported a chemical catalysis route to generate aliphatic ketones (C5­C19) that are components of gasoline

Toste, Dean

172

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Cobalt-cement catalysts for the synthesis of motor fuel components from synthesis gas obtained from oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly effective cobalt-cement catalysts for the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H2, which are formed upon the thermolysis or gasification of oil shale or coals, are considered. The formation of t...

A. L. Lapidus; E. Z. Golosman; Yu. A. Strizhakova

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Innovative Remediation Technology for Contaminated Military Sites: A Canadian Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and innovative technology has been developed in Canada to clean-up soil contaminated with a wide range of organic pollutants, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, phthala...

Igor J. Marvan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Nickel-catalyzed preparation of acrylamides from alpha olefins and isocyanates ; Synthetic studies toward ripostatin A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter I. In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of a-olefins and branched aliphatic isocyanates provides c,-unsaturated amides arising from preferential C-C ...

Schleicher, Kristin D. (Kristin Diann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/97/$04.00 0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oxidation. CF8 and P. butanovora were able to degrade other chlorinated hydrocarbons, including. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) cause serious environmental problems through contamination of ground wa- ter, drinking water, and soil. In situ bioremediation of CAHs by aerobic cometabolism

Semprini, Lewis

177

Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

Yang, Z; Sarkar, M; Kumar, A; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; R.L. Huhnke

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Positive active material for an electric cell, a method of preparing the positive active material and a cell which uses it  

SciTech Connect

A positive active material is disclosed for an electric cell, said material being constituted by anhydrous copper borate whose formula is Cu/sub 3/B/sub 2/O/sub 6/. A method of making such an active material. An electric cell whose positive active material is anhydrous copper borate Cu/sub 3/B/sub 2/O/sub 6/, whose negative active material is lithium and whose electrolyte is a solution which is liquid at ambient temperature and whose solvent is an aprotic compound.

Broussely, M.; Lecerf, A.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Effect of milk fat globule membranes on emulsion stability of recombined sterilized milk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recombined oil-in-water emulsions containing 3% protein and 3% milk fat were prepared from low-heat nonfat dry milk, whey protein concentrate and anhydrous milk fat. The effect of casein to whey protein ratios of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 and 0...

Hernandez, Gabriela Perez

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Tricalcium silicate Ca3SiO5 superstructure analysis: a route towards the structure of the M1 polymorph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and one rhombohedral (R). At room temperature, impurities stabilise some of the high temperature forms to the low temperature triclinic T3 structure (within the Golovastikov model) than to the higher temperature characteristic Bragg lines of the superstructure. Introduction Anhydrous Portland cement is essentially composed

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Isothermal and isochoric crystallization of highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide of aqueous solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An oil-like aqueous solution of highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide (PNO) has been compressed in a diamond-anvil cell and single crystals of PNO have been grown under isothermal and isochoric conditions. The PNO anhydrate ambient-pressure structure is stabilized by CHO contacts up to 2 GPa at least.

Patyk, E.

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

protocols buffers et#31F4C7.doc 1/26/06 1 General-purpose solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ml 0.2M CaCl2 (22.2 g/l of anhydrous CaCl2) 35 ml 1.0M NaOH. (40 g/l) Check the pH and store at 4°C

Cross, George

183

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal of the isomorphous anhydrous ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid and (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and that of the hemihydrate ammonium salt of 4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid show two-dimensional layered structures based on conjoined cyclic hydrogen-bonded motifs.

Smith, G.

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

184

Solution structures of beta peptide and its constituent fragments: relation to amyloid deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rinsed in dilute HCQ and HF. 19. The effects of...cal-culated from individual laser fusion ofseven grains is 1...output from an Ar-ion laser with defocused beam. Laser power output, pneumatically...deprotected in anhydrous HF and then purified by...

CJ Barrow; MG Zagorski

1991-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

185

Determination of Sodium Fluoroacetate (Compound 1080) in Biological Tissues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......potassium carbonate, as the base with varying success (20-23). However, derivatization of fluoroacetic acid was found to pro- ceed best when anhydrous potassium carbonate and acetone were used, a finding comparable to that of Okuno and Meeker (15). Chromatographic......

William J. Allender

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Presilphiperfolan-1-ol (2) Methods for Determination of Enantiomeric Excess SI 24 Comparison of Spectral Data) was purchased from Strem. Anhydrous lithium hydroxide and P(NMe2)3 were purchased from Acros Organics. Li,N- dimethylaminomethyl)phenyl]lithium (SI-5) were prepared according the method of Ritter and stored in a N2-filled glove

Stoltz, Brian M.

187

Diclofenac Solubility: Independent Determination of the Intrinsic Solubility of Three Crystal Antonio Llina`s, Jonathan C. Burley, Karl J. Box, Robert C. Glen, and Jonathan M. Goodman*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were anhydrous and corresponded to an earlier crystal structure. Separate solubility measurements. The experimental conditions were precisely controlled. Introduction Measurements of solubility reported solubility, Saq,a refers to the solution of the solute in distilled water. Measurements may also be made in p

de Gispert, Adrià

188

STRUCTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF Nb5+ IN DRY AND FLUID-RICH (H2O, F) SILICATE GLASSES: A COMBINED XANES AND EXAFS STUDY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...anhydrous sodium silicate glasses (NS2: Na2Si2O5, NS3: Na2Si3O7...from the EXAFS baseline (VIPER code, Klementiev 1989), which creates...from centrosymmetry. In the NS2 and NS3 glasses (Fig. 5...significant interest. In the NS2 and NS3 glasses, the doublet...

Paula C. Piilonen; François Farges; Robert L. Linnen; Gordon E. Brown; Jr.; Marcin Pawlak; Allen Pratt

189

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

Minnesota, University of

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium halides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POCl3, SOCl2, SO2Cl2 Anhydrous metal halides, such as AlCl3, TiCl4, ZrCl4, SnCl4... Phosphorus pentoxide Calcium carbide Organic acid halides and anhydrides of low molecular...

191

Investigation of the near-infrared spectral character of putative Martian chloride deposits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of the near-infrared spectral character of putative Martian chloride deposits Heidi B in near-infrared ratio spectra. It is hypothesized that the admixture of anhydrous chlorides or unoxidized of these deposits. Citation: Jensen, H. B., and T. D. Glotch (2011), Investigation of the near-infrared spectral

Glotch, Timothy D.

192

Ocean Energy: Forms and Prospects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...be relatively simple-turbines, paddle wheels, and...others. For example, if wind is forced to move through...and to interact with turbines of much re-duced dimensions...anhydrous ammonia) for turbine operation is the common...Systems envisaged are huge offshore floating or near-surface...

John D. Isaacs; Walter R. Schmitt

1980-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

193

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

0.24 per gallon. E85 is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of denatured ethanol and hydrocarbon and typically contains 85% ethanol by volume, but must contain at...

194

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

E85 Definition E85 motor fuel is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of ethanol and hydrocarbon, of which the ethanol portion is 75-85% denatured fuel ethanol by volume...

195

Cyanovirin-N: a sugar-binding antiviral protein with a new twist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, originally iso- lated from cultures of the cyanobacterium (blue-green al- gae) Nostoc ellipsosporum [3-thaw cycles, as well as after treatment with organic solvents (CH3CN, CH3OH, DMSO), denaturants (8M Gn

196

Ni(II) coordination to mixed sites modulates DNA binding of HpNikR via a long-range effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H...using a Coy inert atmospheric chamber (95% N2...Inductively coupled plasma...6-coordinate sites. Thermal/li-bration/screw...conducted using a 7% non-denaturing acrylamide...

Abby L. West; Sarah E. Evans; Javier M. González; Lester G. Carter; Hiro Tsuruta; Edwin Pozharski; Sarah L. J. Michel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Normal Operating Range of Bacterial Communities in Soil Used for Potato Cropping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...quantitative PCR, clone library, and PCR-denaturing...3 years, 12 clone libraries consisting of bacterial...rRNA gene sequence libraries from environmental...introducing myRDP space and quality controlled public data. Nucleic Acids...

Özgül ?nceo?lu; Leo Simon van Overbeek; Joana Falcão Salles; Jan Dirk van Elsas

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

198

Systems Analysis of the Response of Photosynthesis, Metabolism, and Growth to an Increase in Irradiance in the Photosynthetic Model Organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...checked by electrophoresis on 2% denaturing agarose gels; RNA quality was assessed by determining the 260 nm/280 nm absorbance...H. (2011). Advancing our understanding and capacity to engineer natures CO2-sequestering enzyme, Rubisco. Plant Physiol...

Tabea Mettler; Timo Mühlhaus; Dorothea Hemme; Mark-Aurel Schöttler; Jens Rupprecht; Adam Idoine; Daniel Veyel; Sunil Kumar Pal; Liliya Yaneva-Roder; Flavia Vischi Winck; Frederik Sommer; Daniel Vosloh; Bettina Seiwert; Alexander Erban; Asdrubal Burgos; Samuel Arvidsson; Stephanie Schönfelder; Anne Arnold; Manuela Günther; Ursula Krause; Marc Lohse; Joachim Kopka; Zoran Nikoloski; Bernd Mueller-Roeber; Lothar Willmitzer; Ralph Bock; Michael Schroda; Mark Stitt

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

199

On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

Burns, Daniel James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Biological Monitoring of Fire Fighters: Sister Chromatid Exchange and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts in Peripheral Blood Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels...exposure to carcinogenic combustion products. Cytoge...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; CI, confidence interval...estimating exposures to combustion and pyrolysis products...into water, briefly heat denatured (100 Cfor...

Saou-Hsing Liou; David Jacobson-Kram; Miriam C. Poirier; Dung Nguyen; Paul T. Strickland; and Melvyn S. Tockman

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

There is a correlation between the DNA affinity and mutagenicity of several 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indoles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chemicals produced by incomplete combustion processes represent a significant...series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but the observation was...experiment involving addition of heat-denaturated DNA (1.52...Unlike polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the indole derivatives are...

J M Pezzuto; P P Lau; Y Luh; P D Moore; G N Wogan; S M Hecht

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Changes in Community Structure of Sediment Bacteria Along the Florida Coastal Everglades Marsh–Mangrove–Seagrass Salinity Gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Community structure of sediment bacteria in the Everglades freshwater marsh, fringing mangrove forest, and Florida Bay seagrass meadows were described based on polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel el...

Makoto Ikenaga; Rafael Guevara; Amanda L. Dean; Cristina Pisani…

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Structure and interactions in simple solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...was performed on molecular ensembles containing 300 water molecules...In From semiconductors to proteins: beyond the average structure...tein denaturations. Adv. Protein Chem. 14, 163. Neilson...refinement for liquids and disordered materials. In Local structure...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Functional proteomics in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-state of E. coli corresponding to hundreds of unique gene products. The copurification of proteins when fractionated at varying pHs could suggest the components of higher order complexes. This non-denaturing proteomic approach should provide physiological...

Champion, Matthew Maurice

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

206

Biological Monitoring of Fire Fighters: Sister Chromatid Exchange and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts in Peripheral Blood Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels...to carcinogenic combustion products. Cytoge...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; CI, confidence...controlled for during data analysis. Collection...estimating exposures to combustion and pyrolysis products...water, briefly heat denatured (100...

Saou-Hsing Liou; David Jacobson-Kram; Miriam C. Poirier; Dung Nguyen; Paul T. Strickland; and Melvyn S. Tockman

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Electroporation and lysis of marine microalga Karenia brevis for RNA extraction and amplification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal or enzymatic means in order...agents has been shown [17]. Thermal lysis denatures proteins but...and M. A. Northrup 2000 A battery-powered notebook thermal cycler for rapid multiplex real-time...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Intermediate-Scale, Semicontinuous Solid-Phase Fermentation Process for Production of Fuel Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...0.47/liter for 95% ethanol. The calculated energy balance (energy output...0.47/liter for 95% ethanol. The calculated energy balance (energy output...denatured 95% (vol/vol) ethanol. Energy balances for pasteurized...

William R. Gibbons; Carl A. Westby; Thomas L. Dobbs

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

E-Print Network 3.0 - analyzing forced unfolding Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in solution. In recent years, we have also seen explosive progress in the study of protein folding... the unfolding of proteins after the addition of denaturant since unfolding is...

210

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

products that have been denatured. Methyl alcohol is a motor fuel that is most commonly derived from wood products. (Reference South Dakota Statutes 10-47B-3 and 10-47B-4...

211

Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Miknis, F.P.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Solvent- and chromatography-free amination of ?-deficient nitrogen heterocycles under microwave irradiation. A fast, efficient and green route to 9-aminoacridines, 4-aminoquinolines and 4-aminoquinazolines and its application to the synthesis of the drugs amsacrine and bistacrine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Focused microwave irradiation of equimolecular mixtures of 9-chloroacridines, 4-chloroquinolines and 4-chloroquinazolines with amines in the presence of 2 equiv of phenol allows the general, fast and high-yielding synthesis of aminated heterocycles, with a very broad scope in terms of amine structure (aromatic, linear primary aliphatic, ?-branched primary aliphatic, secondary aliphatic and diamines). Workup consisted of a simple washing with water and purification could be achieved by crystallization, avoiding the use of organic solvents in extraction and chromatographic purification steps. This protocol provides a solution to the long-standing synthetic problem of achieving a practical and efficient method for the amination of ?-deficient nitrogen heterocycles for medicinal chemistry applications.

Matteo Staderini; Nieves Cabezas; Maria Laura Bolognesi; J. Carlos Menéndez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Table (2.2) (OTM, 1999). Crude oils are composed of 80 to 90% hydrogen saturated aliphatic alkanes (paraffins) and cycloalkanes (naphthenes). Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes (olefins) comprise 10- 20% and 1%, respectively, of crude oil composition....2 Hydrocarbon Contents in Crude Oil (ATSDR, 1995; OTM, 1999) HYDROCARBONS GENERAL FORMULA CHAIN TYPE STATE (Room temp) EXAMPLES Paraffins (Aliphatic) CnH2n+2 (n:1 to20) Linear or Branched Gas or Liquid Methane, Propane Hexane Aromatic C6H5-Y...

Myint, Lay L.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Catalytic properties of nickel activated by elements of I-VII of the periodic system in conversion of hydrocarbons with steam  

SciTech Connect

Efficient recovery of benzene from pyrocondensates is considered to be one of the important problems of modern petroleum chemistry. In the paper presented, several nickel catalysts activated by elements of groups I to VII of the periodic system were synthesized and tested in steam conversion of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. Samples of nickel catalysts activated by W and Bi had the highest selectivity in obtaining aromatic hydrocarbons from their mixtures with aliphatic hydrocarbons. Nickel catalysts activated by V/sub 2/O/sub 3/ showed the highest activity in steam conversion of hydrocarbons of both classes. (JMT)

Grinberg, D.N.; Shapiro, A.L.; Gankin, V.Yu.; Ivanova, M.L.; Yakovleva, N.V.; Moshkevich, A.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

216

A hybrid thermochemical-electrolytic process for hydrogen production based on the Reverse Deacon Reaction.  

SciTech Connect

Development has been initiated on a three-reaction, hybrid thermochemical-electrolytic process for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. This process can be run at 500 C, making it suitable for linking to nuclear reactors that run colder than the very highest temperature gas cooled reactors. This feature also makes the materials requirements less stringent than for high temperature cycles, many of which require temperatures in the range of 800-900 C. The process consists of three reactions - two thermochemical and one electrolytic. The thermochemical reactions sum to the reverse Deacon reaction. The electrolytic step involves the electrolysis of anhydrous HCl. The estimated energy savings for this process relative to electrolysis of water are in the vicinity of 15%, due to the low energy requirements of anhydrous HCl electrolysis. Preliminary experimental results indicate that a silicalite-supported catalyst for the reverse Deacon reaction has the potential of promoting fast reaction kinetics and long-term stability of the solids.

Simpson, M. F.; Herrmann, S. D.; Boyle, B. D.; Engineering Technology

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Paint Thinner MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solvent {Mineral spirits; Aliphatic Petroleum Distillates; White spirits} 8052-41-3 CAS # 95.0 -100 as hazardous under OSHA regulations. OSHA Regulatory Status: Inhalation Acute Exposure Effects: May cause: Reports have associated repeated and prolonged overexposure to solvents with neurological and other

Rollins, Andrew M.

218

Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the Centerline of a Coflow Diffusion Flame  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot particles sampled along the centerline of a coflow diffusion flame of a three-component Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n= 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found to be the major components of the particle material. These particles become enriched with aliphatic components as they grow in mass and size. Before carbonization occurs, the constituent species in young soot particles are aliphatic and aromatic compounds 200-600 amu in mass, some of which are oxygenated. Particles dominated by PAHs or mixtures of PAHs and aliphatics can both exhibit liquid-like appearance observed by electron microscopy and be transparent to visible light. The variations in chemical composition observed here indicate that the molecular processes of soot formation in coflow diffusion flames may be more complex than previously thought. For example, the mass growth and enrichment of aliphatic components in an initially, mostly aromatic structure region of the flame that is absent of H atoms or other free radicals indicates that there must exist at least another mechanism of soot mass growth in addition to the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon addition mechanism currently considered in fundamental models of soot formation.

Cain, Jeremy P.; Laskin, Alexander; Kholghy, Mohammad Reza; Thomson, Murray; Wang, Hai

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

219

Materials science aspects of coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber fossilized organic matter used for centuries for ornamentation.

Charles Wert; Manfred Weller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Bibliography and Index to the Literature on Gas Chromatography: January 1, 1963 to November 1, 1963  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......THE STUDY OF RESINS IN BLACK COAL TARS, Ferrand, R., Chim...ALIPHATIC ESTERS. PART I. SLOW COMBUSTION OF ETHYL ACETATE, Fish...French) 421 USE OF CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FILA- MENTS FOR QUALITATIVE...1363-1368 (Sept. 1963) 433 THE CHEMISTRY OF SERUM LIPOPRO- TEINS......

Seaton T. Preston; Jr.; Geneva Hyder; Mignon Gill

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Bibliography and Index to the Literature on Gas Chromatography—1965 November 1, 1964 to November 1, 1965  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......German) 842 COMPOSITION OF SOFT COAL. X. CHEM ICAL COMPOSITION...R. C., NAA-SR-9731 Chemistry, OTS (Oct. 15, 1964) 912...HYDROCARBONS PRO- DUCED DURING COMBUSTION OF SIMPLE ALIPHATIC FUELS...1200 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN THE CHEMISTRY OF CEREALS. NOTE I, Mun......

Seaton T. Preston; Jr.; Mignon Gill

1965-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

223

Revised version Organic Geochemistry 28, 411-415, 1998.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Abstract A resistant soil organic residue, `humin', has been analysed by solid-state 13 C-NMR and pyrolysis, carbohydrates and phenols. Keywords : 13 C of soil alkanes, NMR, resistant aliphatic biopolymer, pyrolysis biomass decomposition products as well as from root exudates, the new proposed pathway is based upon

224

A Case for Safer Building Materials: Lifecycle Concerns, Data Gaps, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; microenvironments · Heating and ventilation · Dampness and humidity · Chemicals in building materials · VOCs have;Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) · Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and associated supplies · Adhesives · Building materials · Furnishings and clothing · Combustion appliances

Lee, Seung-Wuk

225

Understanding the chemistry and physics of coal structure (A Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and heteroatom forms in...oxygen forms, and (iii) heat capacity and NMR studies...C2H3I as the reagent. Combustion of the C2H3I-alkylated...molecular weight products. HEAT CAPACITY AND NMR STUDIES...

Duane G. Levine; Richard H. Schlosberg; Bernard G. Silbernagel

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Midterm Exam: Chemistry 223 McGill University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or ethanol. a) Write balanced equations for the combustion reactions. b) How much heat is produced by each and show how, and in what sense, it becomes the heat absorbed by the sys- tem. c) What is a Joule and to define any sym- bols. 5. (20%) Gasoline is a mixture of various aliphatic hydrocarbons, however, here we

Ronis, David M.

227

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons but also in the finding...with the more numerous hydrocarbons. However...on the production of hydrocarbons from sugars...N-enrichment. Stepwise combustion of IOMs of this and...and was altered by heat (21). That is, molecular...

Sandra Pizzarello; Stephen K. Davidowski; Gregory P. Holland; Lynda B. Williams

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Understanding the chemistry and physics of coal structure (A Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aliphatic hydrocarbons and heteroatom...and (iii) heat capacity...reagent. Combustion of the C2H3I-alkylated...2H20 in the combustion products...These data, combined...products. HEAT CAPACITY...with the heat capacity data at these...

Duane G. Levine; Richard H. Schlosberg; Bernard G. Silbernagel

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Estimation of Molar Heat Capacities in Solution from Gas Chromatographic Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the solutions of hydrocarbons--the general...and the molar heat capacity Abstract...Chromatographic Data K roly H berger...measure- ments of heat capacities and...Chem. Eng. Data 20: 24346 (1975...R. Fuchs. Heat capacities of...Enthalpies of combustion of some aliphatic......

Károly Héberger; Miklós Görgényi

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

PHONON DISPERSION CURVES OF ORDERED PHASES OF T.B.B.A. Abstract. --The lattice dynamics of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured by mean of inelastic neutron scattering of the molecules. Previous neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been done on non-deuterated single of a melting of the terminal aliphatic chains. So neutron coherent inelastic scattering measure- ments have

Boyer, Edmond

232

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

233

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other Halogenated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other, California 94305-4020 Enhanced in-situ transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was observed under anoxic Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)with one or two carbon atoms are widely used as solvents, degreasing

Semprini, Lewis

235

ELSEVIER Journal of Hazardous Materials 41 (1995)205-216 HIIZIIRDOUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with elemental iron Bradley R. Helland, Pedro J.J. Alvarez*, Jerald L-1527, USA Received 3 August 1994;accepted in revised form 15 November 1994 Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (CC aliphatics such as carbon tetrachloride (CC14) are common environ- mental contaminants due

Alvarez, Pedro J.

236

A Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Method for Analyzing Extractable Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water and Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......fuel samples, including gasoline (18,20,21), diesel...temperature of 340 C. Run times were approximately...sample containing C9C36 straight chain aliphatics and...Determination of oxygenates in gasoline by GC GC. J. High Resolut...aromatic hydrocar- bons in gasolines by flow modulated comprehensive......

Stacy K. Seeley; Steven V. Bandurski; Robert G. Brown; James D. McCurry; John V. Seeley

237

Le taux de conversion de volumes de bois frais en biomasse : amlioration de ses mthodes d'estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Le taux de conversion de volumes de bois frais en biomasse : amélioration de ses méthodes d taux de conversion du volume en biomasse défini par le rapport du poids anhydre d'un échantillon à son, branche, billon, etc.). L'autre consiste à appliquer le taux de conversion du volume en biomasse défini

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Intramolecular rearrangement of trimethylsilyl pyrazoles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with hexamethyldi- si lazane under anhydrous conditions. Four compounds wi th different ring substi tuents were thus synthesi zed. Nu- clear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectra of these compounds indicated the non-equivalence of the 3, 5-substi tuents at room... temperature. All the compounds showed temperature- dependent nmr spectra. The peak separation between the 3, 5-substi tuents of each compound was found to be a func- tion of temperature. As the temperature was increased the peak separation decreased...

Hrung, Chang-Po

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

239

Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect

A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

Dale, Bruce E.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

240

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts CARMELA FREDA,1, * DON R. BAKER,1,2 February 3, 2005) Abstract--We measured the diffusion coefficients of sulfur in two different basaltic for sulfur diffusion in anhydrous basalts: D 2.19 10 4 exp 226.3 58.3 RT where D is the diffusion coefficient

Long, Bernard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Galvin, Thomas M. (Darien, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

.Research Module: Scheme 2. N-Benzylation of N-H Pyrazolidinones 3. 3 6. 60 Scheme 2 Procedure: N-Alkylation Using Aldehyde  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

folder. It will actually produce two NMR printouts for you. The first one will be dominated by methanol Scheme 1, add 10 mL of anhydrous methanol. · For 4-methoxy compoud 3c, add 20 mL of methanol, since the 4-Benzylation Synthesis of N-Benzyl Pyrazolidinones NH NH O R1 3a-e + H O 4 Methanol Solvent 0.05 CF3CO2H (catalyst) N N O

Jasperse, Craig P.

243

Department of Homeland Security Inventory DHS_inventory_form_revision_4_2011.doc Page 1 of 5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-90-3 Phosphorus oxychloride 10025-87-3 Phosphorus trichloride 7719-12-2 Thiodiglycol 111-48-8 #12;Department feet) Acetylene 74-86-2 Ammonia (anhydrous) 7664-41-7 Arsine 7784-42-1 Boron trichloride 10294-77-4 Diborane 19287-45-7 Dichlorosilane 4109-96-0 Dinitrogen tetroxide 10544-72-6 Fluorine 7782-41-4 Germane

Pawlowski, Wojtek

244

Carbon Dioxide Carbonates in the Earth;s Mantle: Implications to the Deep Carbon Cycle  

SciTech Connect

An increase in the ionic character in C-O bonds at high pressures and temperatures is shown by the chemical/phase transformation diagram of CO{sub 2}. The presence of carbonate carbon dioxide (i-CO{sub 2}) near the Earth's core-mantle boundary condition provides insights into both the deep carbon cycle and the transport of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to anhydrous silicates in the mantle and iron core.

Yoo, Choong-Shik; Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob (Princeton); (WSU)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

245

BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

Hamilton, Robert S. (Youngstown, NY)

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method is described for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl{sub 2} in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

Wheeler, D.R.; Pollagi, T.P.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

247

An Experimental Study of the Performance of PCM-Enhanced Cellulose Insulation Used in Residential Building Walls Exposed to Full Weather Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and could potentially cause installation problems. Hydrated Salt Hydrated salts are formed by anhydrous salts and a few fixed number of water molecules, which are usually called ?water of crystallization? (Telkes, 1980). Hydrated salts have...-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Current ORNL Research Projects. Oak Ridge National Laboratory website. Telkes M. 1980. Thermal Storage in Salt-hydrates. Solar Materials Science, Academic Press: 337-404 Zhu D., 2005, A comparative heat transfer examination...

Fang, Y.; Medina, M.; Evers, A.

248

Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl.sub.2 in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Pollagi, Timothy P. (Dayton, OH)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

250

Study of the effects of interleakage of ammonia and seawater on corrosion and scaling of candidate materials for OTEC heat exchngers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Assessment has been made on the effect of small concentrations of ammonia in seawater and varying concentrations of seawater in anhydrous ammonia upon corrosion and scaling of candidate OTEC heat exchanger materials - A1-5052, Alclad 3003, copper alloys 706, 715 and 722, AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium. Results are presented. AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium showed exceptional corrosion resistance to all test environments. Alclad alloy 3003 showed satisfactory performance in seawater and seawater plus ammonia environments. Only minimal pitting was observed and this was limited to the sacrificial cladding in seawater plus ammonia only. Cladding alloy 7072 showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in anhydrous ammonia containing low seawater concentrations. Al-5052 tubes showed unsatisfactory corrosion behavior in the presence of seawater flow with ammonia interleakage. Copper alloys considered showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in all seawater environments containing ammonia. Low pressure differentials between seawater and anhydrous ammonia in the tube testing unit resulted in scaling and moderately efficient plug seal formation at the artificial leak sites of the tubes. It is recommended that Alclad 3003, CP titanium and AL-6X stainless steel tubes be assessed for suitability in the presence of probable OTEC cleaning systems.

Grimes, W D; Schrieber, C F; Manning, J A

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed 55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed 55 Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with denatured fuel ethanol where the volume percent of denatured fuel ethanol exceeds 55%.

252

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Blender Net Production Blender Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55 Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with denatured fuel ethanol where the volume percent of denatured fuel ethanol exceeds 55%.

253

Sensitivity analysis and study of the mixing uniformity of a microfluidic mixer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a microfluidic mixer based on hydrodynamic focusing, which is used to initiate the folding process of individual proteins. The folding process is initiated by quickly diluting a local denaturant concentration, and we define mixing time as the time advecting proteins experience a specified to achieve a local drop in denaturant concentration. In previous work, we presented a minimization of mixing time which considered optimal geometry and flow conditions, and achieved a design with a predicted mixing time of 0.10 $\\mu$s. The aim of the current paper is twofold. First, we explore the sensitivity of mixing time to key geometric and flow parameters. In particular, we study the angle between inlets, the shape of the channel intersections, channel widths, mixer depth, mixer symmetry, inlet velocities, working fluid physical properties, and denaturant concentration thresholds. Second, we analyze the uniformity of mixing times as a function of inlet flow streamlines. We find the shape of the intersection,...

Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Ángel M; Santiago, Juan G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Comparative studies of diverged members of the phosphotriesterase family  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

then placed in a thermal cycler for an initial 5 minute 95'C denaturation followed by 40-cycles of a I minute 95'C denaturation, I minute at 55'C, and a 2 minute 72'C elongation step. Each reaction was run on an agarose gel using electrophoresis. Pool ?2... had a band 1 kB in length, the size predicted for ponL CLONING AND SEQUENCING PON I To generate the PCR fragment for cloning, PCR was repeated with Pool ?2 and a small portion was run on a gel to verify the presence of the I kb band. The remaining...

Arriens, Cristina Gale

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

255

Proposal of Afipia gen. nov., with Afipia felis sp. nov. (formerly the cat scratch disease bacillus), Afipia clevelandensis sp. nov. (formerly the Cleveland Clinic Foundation strain), Afipia broomeae sp. nov., and three unnamed genospecies.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1 ARNOLD F. KAUFMANN,8 DOUGLAS J. WEAR,2 AND JAY D. WENGER' Meningitis and...Lymph node, patient with CSD, 1987 D. J. Wear, AFIP F6400 = G1492 = ATCC 53690 A. felis...and photo- graphed by using Polaroid 665 B/W film. The restriction fragments were denatured...

D J Brenner; D G Hollis; C W Moss; C K English; G S Hall; J Vincent; J Radosevic; K A Birkness; W F Bibb; F D Quinn

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The cobT gene of Salmonella typhimurium encodes the NaMN: 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of N1-(5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, an intermediate in the synthesis of the nucleotide loop of cobalamin.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Denatured protein was pelleted at 15,850 x g for 5 min in a Marathon 13K/M microcentrifuge (Fisher Scientific, Itasca, Ill...Scientific) in 0.5 ml of 2.0 N HCl was placed in a 130 C oil bath; after 2 h of incubation the ampule was opened, 1 ml...

J R Trzebiatowski; G A O'Toole; J C Escalante-Semerena

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

High-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the experimental studies have found that the SH responded to the structural modifications of col- lagen, such as thermal denaturation, nonenzymatic glycation, and partial enzymatic cleavage.8 These modifications injury, diabetes, aging, abnormal wound healing, and malignant transformation of dys- plastic nevi. SHG

Chen, Zhongping

258

J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 119, No. 2, March 2007, pp. 6169. Indian Academy of Sciences. *For correspondence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 119, No. 2, March 2007, pp. 61­69. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 61 *For intermediate structure. The value of a property (parameter) observed at any point on the denaturation titration of molecules at the point of observation corresponding to p1 and p2 res- pectively, with (f1 + f2) = 1

259

Two-Dimensional Continuous Extraction in Multiphase Lipid Bilayers To Separate, Enrich, and Sort Membrane-Bound Species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane-Bound Species Ling Chao,, Mark J. Richards, Chih-Yun Hsia, and Susan Daniel* School of Chemical yield of each species. This new procedure sorts membrane species on the basis of chemical properties denaturation. This platform could facilitate the separation and identification of lipid membrane domain

Daniel, Susan

260

Trapping of palindromic ligands within native transthyretin prevents amyloid formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperatures of the thermal unfolding transition...GE Healthcare). Thermal denaturation of TTR...inhibitors in blood plasma . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98 : 5566...calorimetric study of non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic...Research Support, Non-U.S...NH2). m/z (atmospheric pressure chemical...

Simon E. Kolstoe; Palma P. Mangione; Vittorio Bellotti; Graham W. Taylor; Glenys A. Tennent; Stéphanie Deroo; Angus J. Morrison; Alexander J. A. Cobb; Anthony Coyne; Margaret G. McCammon; Timothy D. Warner; Jane Mitchell; Raj Gill; Martin D. Smith; Steven V. Ley; Carol V. Robinson; Stephen P. Wood; Mark B. Pepys

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Trapping of palindromic ligands within native transthyretin prevents amyloid formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...protomers and large aggregates...interface in this area and the...place, the large number of...temperatures of the thermal unfolding...Healthcare). Thermal denaturation of...P ( 1983 ) Frequency and distribution...inhibitors in blood plasma . Proc Natl...calorimetric study of non-amyloidogenic and...m/z (atmospheric pressure chemical...

Simon E. Kolstoe; Palma P. Mangione; Vittorio Bellotti; Graham W. Taylor; Glenys A. Tennent; Stéphanie Deroo; Angus J. Morrison; Alexander J. A. Cobb; Anthony Coyne; Margaret G. McCammon; Timothy D. Warner; Jane Mitchell; Raj Gill; Martin D. Smith; Steven V. Ley; Carol V. Robinson; Stephen P. Wood; Mark B. Pepys

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Neoplastic transformation by a cloned human cytomegalovirus DNA fragment uniquely homologous to one of the transforming regions of herpes simplex virus type 2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...heat-denatured salmon testes DNA at 200 gg/ml. Hybridization with nick-translated (17) 32P-labeled probes (specific activity...trans- formation process induced by this specific HCMV fragment merit discussion. Nitrocellulose filter hybridization in a range...

D J Clanton; R J Jariwalla; C Kress; L J Rosenthal

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Developmental Abnormalities and Reduced Fruit Softening in Tomato Plants Expressing an Antisense Rab11 GTPase Gene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sterile distilled water. Seed were sown...sterile deionized water. An equal volume...fractionated by gel electrophoresis on a denaturing...separated by gel electrophoresis in a 1% agarose...were used for each treatment, and the experiment...supernatant was placed in dialysis tubing and then...

Chungui Lu; Zamri Zainal; Gregory A. Tucker; Grantley W. Lycett

264

ClpB1 Overproduction in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Increases Tolerance to Rapid Heat Shock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...proteins (group I) upon heat shock to be due to a loss of large, functional complexes by heat or by enzyme activity...2004. Aggregation of heat-shock-denatured, endogenous proteins and distribution of the IbpA/B and Fda...

C. Raul Gonzalez-Esquer; Wim F. J. Vermaas

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

265

Quantitative PCR for Determining the Infectivity of Bacteriophage MS2 upon Inactivation by Heat, UV-B Radiation, and Singlet Oxygen: Advantages and Limitations of an Enzymatic Treatment To Reduce False-Positive Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wavelength; Sankyo Denki, Tokyo, Japan) for 1 to 4 min. The UV irradiance...described elsewhere (32). UV radiation exposures of 1 to 4 min were...of MS2 before exposure to UV radiation. Samples were taken during...denaturation, e.g., UV radiation. A further analysis into the...

Brian M. Pecson; Luisa Valério Martin; Tamar Kohn

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

266

Supplemental Data Directed Evolution of ATP Binding Proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supplemental Data Directed Evolution of ATP Binding Proteins from a Zinc Finger Domain Using m TG 3'). Denaturing Ni-NTA was performed on the ATP-column elution for round 2, and then FLAG with the resin, but instead passed directly over the immobilized ATP. The selection was performed at room

Heller, Eric

267

Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 87, pp. 6388-6392, August 1990  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/conformational entropy) HUE SUN CHAN AND KEN A. DILL Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, the stabilities (observed in the distribution; see below) decrease with length (18-20). (ii) The most stable residues (18-20), and these are 100% helical up to nearly the denaturation temperature of the protein. (iii

Chan, Hue Sun

268

Gene Expression and Cell Proliferation in Rat Liver after 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...subgroup is the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon TCDD.1 This chemical is a highly toxic...the bleaching of paper pulp, and the combustion of chlorine- containing organic materials...were dried (Speed-Vac; Savant); heat-denatured (65 Cfor 5 min) in a 50...

Tony R. Fox; Lang L. Best; Susan M. Goldsworthy; Jeremy J. Mills; and Thomas L. Goldsworthy

1993-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effects of Strenuous Exercise on Stallion Sperm Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

account for approximately 20% of the observed variation in fertility rate (Jasko et al., 1992). Love and Kenney (1998) determined the relationship between fertility and susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation in 84 actively breeding, clinically...………………………………………………………………. 46 APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………………... 51 APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………………... 52 APPENDIX C………………………………………………………………………… 53 APPENDIX D………………………………………………………………………... 54 APPENDIX E………………………………………………………………………… 57 APPENDIX F...

Rosenberg, Jennifer L.

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

270

Different anti-aggregation and pro-degradative functions of the members of the mammalian sHSP family in neurological disorders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the cellular capacity to refold heat-denatured luciferase (a...on the ATP-dependent H+-pump [103]). Cell lysates used...expression and induction of small heat shock proteins in rat brain and...2008 Expression of the small heat shock protein family in the mouse...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Elevated Transcriptional Complexity and Decrease in Enzymatic DNA Methylation in Cells Treated with l-Ethionine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1). Nonidet P-40 (Shell Oil Co., Frankfurt, GermanFederal...reactions were terminated by heating to 65 for 5 min and the addition...DNA was thermally denatured by heating to 98 in a water bath for 15...8. Christman. J. K., Price, P., Pedrinan, L., and...

Thomas L. J. Boehm and Dusan Drahovsky

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Preface xxiii How to Use This Book xxv  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2 Determination of Denatured or Disordered Proteins 55 7.2.1 A Probabilistic Interpretation of Restraints Algorithms for Ensemble-Based Protein Design 97 12.1 Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) Enzymes 97 12.2 K xxxi 1 Introduction to Protein Structure and NMR 1 1.1 Protein Structure 1 1.2 Structure Determination

Richardson, David

273

Part 1: Protein Dynamics Folded protein at physiologic or room temperature samples wide range of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

protein molecule is likely to differ significantly from average structure - folded protein is an ensemble(unfolded state) 2 Aside 1: What disordered states are relevant to understand protein folding? compact denatured Protein Motions within Folded State Ensemble high energy costs of deformations of bond lengths, angles

Chan, Hue Sun

274

pE-DB: a database of structural ensembles of intrinsically disordered and of unfolded proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pE-DB: a database of structural ensembles of intrinsically disordered and of unfolded proteins ensembles of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and of denatured proteins based on nuclear magnetic) the structural ensembles consistent with these data, provided as a set of models in a Protein Data Bank format

Sussman, Joel L.

275

Proteolytic cleavage of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gB is not necessary for its function in BHV-1 or pseudorabies virus.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ing, 100 s at 72?C for extension, and 80 s at 95?C for denaturation, the last extension reaction was allowed to pro- ceed for 8 min at 72?C. Thereafter, samples were electropho- resed on 2% agarose gels. Immunoprecipitation. Precipitation...

A Kopp; E Blewett; V Misra; T C Mettenleiter

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Noncatalytic Ions Direct the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Bacterial Double-Stranded RNA Virus ?6 from De Novo Initiation to Elongation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the interaction between heparin and a battery of mutant enzymes (Fig. 4A). Mutations...like WT) has a significantly lower thermal stability than WT even in the presence...and structure refinement.) Fig. S1 (Thermal denaturation curves.) Fig. S2 (Electron...

Sam Wright; Minna M. Poranen; Dennis H. Bamford; David I. Stuart; Jonathan M. Grimes

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

277

A new approach to determining the rates of recruitment of circulating leukocytes into tissues: Application to the measurement of leukocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic?lesions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Reactions were performed in an Ericomp thermal cycler with heated lid. The first denaturing...intercostal artery ostia stained positively with Sudan IV. We dissected equal sized segments...obtained only from the segment that showed Sudan IV staining (lane 6). Radioassay of...

Daniel Steinberg; John C. Khoo; Christopher K. Glass; Wulf Palinski; Felicidad Almazan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Chemical Characterization of 465 Known or Suspected Carcinogens and Their Correlation with Mutagenic Activity in the Salmonella typhimurium System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ponceau MX, and FD and C Red No. 1. Only Sudan II is mutagenic; thin-layer chromatography...Lead acetate (Chemical 464) Low Azo Sudan I (Chemical 11) Orange I (Chemical...DNA by optical rotatory profile of the thermal denaturation of ONA-gibberellin complexes...

Stephen J. Rinkus and Marvin S. Legator

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...10 mM of MgCl 2, and 0.2 mM of each dNTP. The first thermal cycle consisted of 3 min denaturation at 94°C, 1 min of annealing...Mexico Vernonieae/Lepidonia ndhF, ITS V. lasiopus O. Hoffm. Sudan Vernonieae/Stengelia ndhF V. mespilifolia Less. South Africa...

Hyi-Gyung Kim; Sterling C. Keeley; Peter S. Vroom; Robert K. Jansen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

In utero Exposure of Mice to Dibenzo[a,l]Pyrene Produces Lymphoma in the Offspring: Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 3-methylcholanthrene...from incomplete combustion of many organic...diesel. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR...nonspecific binding. Data were collected...water, were heat denatured and...Modeling survival data: extending the...to polycyclic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic...

Zhen Yu; Christiane V. Loehr; Kay A. Fischer; Mandy A. Louderback; Sharon K. Krueger; Roderick H. Dashwood; Nancy I. Kerkvliet; Clifford B. Pereira; Jamie E. Jennings-Gee; Stephanie T. Dance; Mark Steven Miller; George S. Bailey; and David E. Williams

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Gene Expression and Cell Proliferation in Rat Liver after 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon TCDD.1 This chemical...paper pulp, and the combustion of chlorine- containing...Speed-Vac; Savant); heat-denatured (65 Cfor...of unpaired multiple data sets was used to determine...the model and actual data obtained from liquid...

Tony R. Fox; Lang L. Best; Susan M. Goldsworthy; Jeremy J. Mills; and Thomas L. Goldsworthy

1993-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

There is a correlation between the DNA affinity and mutagenicity of several 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indoles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...produced by incomplete combustion processes represent...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but the observation...were scored and the data were expressed as...involving addition of heat-denaturated DNA...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the indole derivatives...equilibrium dialysis (data not shown), which...

J M Pezzuto; P P Lau; Y Luh; P D Moore; G N Wogan; S M Hecht

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

VOLUME 84, NUMBER 4 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 JANUARY 2000 Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Lattices: Experimental Detection in a Josephson Array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of discrete breathers in an underdamped Josephson-junction array. Breathers exist under a range of dc current denaturation [6], and the dynamics of Josephson-junction networks [7­9]. Also, they have been shown the experimental detection of discrete breathers in an underdamped Josephson-junction array. Anisotropic Josephson-junction

Orlando, Terry P.

284

Harnessing disorder: onychophorans use highly unstructured proteins, not silks, for prey capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...protein samples were separated by SDS-PAGE on 3-8% Tris-acetate gradient gels to separate high-molecular-weight proteins...protein denaturing and chaotropic reagents: urea (6 M), lithium bromide (20 mM) or SDS (2% w/v). Fourier transform-infrared...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan* , G. Albert Wu* , John D. Chodera, CA, May 2, 2007 (received for review April 13, 2006) How do proteins fold so quickly? Some denatured proteins fold to their native structures in only microseconds, on average, implying that there is a folding

Southern California, University of

286

From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R. Nussinov Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

225 From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R in the transition state. Key Words: Protein folding; energy landscape; transition state ensemble; denatured state- sively applied to the analysis of protein folding (1­5). Although proteins are essential macromolecules

Caflisch, Amedeo

287

To link to this article: DOI:10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303 URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

observed toward high-temperature range of the collagen denaturation and 2) the stiffening of the chainsTo link to this article: DOI:10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303 URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2012, Florian and Dandurand, Jany and Lacabanne, Colette Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma Jet on Thermal

Mailhes, Corinne

288

J. Mol. Riol. (1991) 222, 1085-1108 Complementary Recognition in Condensed DNA: Accelerated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Mol. Riol. (1991) 222, 1085-1108 Complementary Recognition in Condensed DNA: Accelerated DNA) Condensation of denatured DNA greatly accelerates the kinetics of DNA renaturation. We propose a unifying explanation for the effects of several accelerating solvents studied here including polymers, di

Church, George M.

289

Available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/watres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/v ethanol, 5% v/v hydrocarbon mixture as a denaturant) was released at the water table in an 8150-L September 2006 Available online 28 November 2006 Keywords: Fuel-grade ethanol Capillary-zone Hydrocarbons evidence that the fuel hydrocarbons phase separated from the E95 mixture as ethanol was diluted by pore

Alvarez, Pedro J.

290

Random-coil behavior and the dimensions of chemically unfolded proteins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Soenke Seifert P. Thiyagarajan Tobin R. Sosnick M. Zahid Hasan Vijay S. Pande...denatured-state radii of gyration (R G) and by reexamining proteins that...Chem. Soc. 122 , 12017 –12018. 48 Pappu, R. V., Srinivasan, R. & Rose, G. D. ( 2000...

Jonathan E. Kohn; Ian S. Millett; Jaby Jacob; Bojan Zagrovic; Thomas M. Dillon; Nikolina Cingel; Robin S. Dothager; Soenke Seifert; P. Thiyagarajan; Tobin R. Sosnick; M. Zahid Hasan; Vijay S. Pande; Ingo Ruczinski; Sebastian Doniach; Kevin W. Plaxco

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

In vitro protein refolding by chromatographic procedures Zhi-Guo Su,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in small-scale refolding studies because of its simplicity. However, the protein concentration has and initial purification one does not have to take the risk of denaturation of the target proteins, thus, not optimal for large-scale production as ex- tensive concentration is required after

Lebendiker, Mario

292

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces of DNA (about 3-5 kilobases in length on average) that  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces. Plasmid purification procedures selectively enrich plasmid DNA over genomic DNA, which is present the small plasmids remain intact. Thus, when denatured, the plasmids remain linked to their complementary

293

TroubleshootingGuide A. Protein Expression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

binding b) Dilute an aliquot of lysate (1:10), or sonicate, and check binding on a small scale. c) Try. Apparent low · Insoluble Use denaturing extraction expression over-expressed and purification conditions sample for purification after proper buffering B. Loading/Washing Problem Possible Cause Solution 1

Lebendiker, Mario

294

For polyhistidine-tagged protein purification BD Biosciences Clontech www.clontech.com 800-662-2566  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

levels, or trial-level purification protocols. For small-scale single-use applications such as verifying-662-2566 TALONTM Products TALONTM Metal Affinity Resin Resin ready for loading in columns for small or medium-scale His- tagged proteins by small-scale or batch/gravity flow, under native or denaturing conditions

Lebendiker, Mario

295

Mini review Practical considerations in refolding proteins from inclusion bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, removal of the denaturant, and assistance of refolding by small molecule additives. We will review key concentration, and (3) the effect of small molecule additives on refolding and aggregation of the proteins. Ã?- nomic sequence database, on a rapid, large-scale pro- duction of recombinant proteins. The proteins thus

Lebendiker, Mario

296

Prospects & Overviews Chaperone discovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

assist de novo protein folding and facilitate the refolding of stress-denatured proteins. The molecular in understanding how these factors support protein folding. Here, we focus on how various chaper- one proteins were first identified to play roles in protein folding. Examples are used to illustrate traditional routes

Bardwell, James

297

Copolymers useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle hydrocarbon distillates, and compositions of middle hydrocarbon distillates comprising them  

SciTech Connect

Products useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle distillates have a molecular weight from 1,000 to 50,000, and are obtained by reacting a compound of the formula R-Z((CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ NH) /SUB m/ H or HO-CH/sub 2/-R'-NH/sub 2/ where R is a monovalent saturated aliphatic radical of 1-30 carbon atoms, Z is -NH- or oxygen, n is 2 to 4, m is zero or 1 to 4 and R' is a saturated divalent aliphatic radical of 1-18 carbon atoms, with a copolymer comprising recurrent units (A) from an alkyl ester of an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid and/or a vinyl ester of a saturated monocarboxylic acid, recurrent units (B) from diisobutylene and recurrent units (C) from an unsaturated a,b-dicarboxylic compound.

Durand, J. P.; Damin, B.; Dawans, F.; Leger, R.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

298

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

64Cu-1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid-6-aminohexanoic acid-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-Met-NH2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. recently reported that the NOTA-based 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14) NH2 conjugate (where 8-Aoc = 8 pharmacokinetic properties of the 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14)NH2 conjugate, Lane et al. synthesized a new group of conjugates with the NOTA derivative NO2A and replaced the spacer 8-Aoc with an aliphatic or aromatic linking

Levin, Judith G.

300

64Cu-1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid-9-aminonanoic acid-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-Met-NH2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. recently reported that the NOTA-based 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14) NH2 conjugate (where 8-Aoc = 8 pharmacokinetic properties of the 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14)NH2 conjugate, Lane et al. synthesized a new group of conjugates with the NOTA derivative NO2A and replaced the spacer 8-Aoc with an aliphatic or aromatic linking

Levin, Judith G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Effects of shipment on diffusive dosimetry recovery efficiency for pentane, hexane and heptane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sciences College of Pharmacy Chairman of' Advisory Committee: Mr. Charles L. Gilmore The effects of' shipment on recovery was investigated for three aliphatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on the 3M Company's $3500 Organic Vapor Monitor and the Scientific Kit... of the contaminant compound of interest and the adsorptive properties of the adsorbing (3-6) medium, activated charcoal, for collection. The diffusive dosimeter is easy to use and can be placed on the worker by the first line supervisor each day at the beginning...

Read, Ronald Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and that reaction is difficult to reverse (Streitwieser and Heathcock, 1976; King and Poole, 1994). Tertiary amines (R, N) do not form amides but generally give lower K, values than secondary amines. For the extraction of undissociated carboxylic acids, aliphatic... by acidifying with carbon dioxide under pressure in the presence of a suitable solvent (Busche, 1988). Gregor has used electrodialysis to recover acetic acid from dilute (1-5 wt%) acetate solutions. With newer membranes, acid concentrations up to 30% were...

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Signalling pathway in appressorium formation in Magnaporthe grisea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this project. I thank all the friends from Plant Pathology Department, especially Dr Ebbole?s lab and Angelina Biscati, for their help during my studies. I thank Plant Pathology and Microbiology Department for the opportunity. I thank Texas A&M University... hydrophobic aliphatic compounds (Kolattukudy and Roger 1995), Gilbert et al. (1996), investigating the signal responsible for activating the appressorium formation pathway in M. grisea, tested the effects of specific cutin monomers, lipids compounds...

Filippi, Marta Cristina

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Composition of the ozonolytic degradation products of the organic matter of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal  

SciTech Connect

The ozonization of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal in chloroform and the composition of ozonolytic degradation products were studied. Water-insoluble high-molecular-weight products were predominant among the ozonization products. A half of water-soluble substances consisted of aliphatic C{sub 5}-C{sub 12} dicarboxylic acids and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Sapromyxite has been suggested as a substitute for crude petroleum in the manufacture of motor fuels.

S.A. Semenova; Y.F.Patrakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

306

Effect of Plasticization of Epoxy Networks by Organic Modifier on Exfoliation of Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Plasticization of Epoxy Networks by Organic Modifier on Exfoliation of Nanoclay ... Plasticization of cross-linked epoxy networks by hydrocarbon chains of quaternary ammonium ions and its effect on exfoliation behavior of nanoclay particles in mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic epoxies were investigated. ... In an aromatic epoxy?nanoclay system, values of G‘/?* in the range 2?4 1/s produced exfoliation, while those less than 1 1/s produced intercalated structures. ...

Jonghyun Park; Sadhan C. Jana

2003-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

307

Correlated Microanalysis of Cometary Organic Grains Returned by Stardust  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous matter in Stardust samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 is observed to contain a wide variety of organic functional chemistry. However, some of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We investigated six carbonaceous Stardust samples that had been previously analyzed and six new samples from Stardust Track 80 using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM revealed that samples from Track 35 containing abundant aliphatic XANES signatures were predominantly composed of cometary organic matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed to be soluble in the epoxy embedding medium. The nitrogen-rich samples in this study (from Track 22 and Track 80) both contained metal oxide nanoparticles, and are likely contaminants. Only two types of cometary organic matter appear to be relatively unaltered during particle capture. These are (1) polyaromatic carbonyl-containing organic matter, similar to that observed in insoluble organic matter (IOM) from primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and in other carbonaceous Stardust samples, and (2) highly aromatic refractory organic matter, which primarily constitutes nanoglobule-like features. Anomalous isotopic compositions in some of these samples also confirm their cometary heritage. There also appears to be a significant labile aliphatic component of Wild 2 organic matter, but this material could not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector.

B De Gregorio; R Stroud; G Cody; L Nittler; A Kilcoyne; S Wirick

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Process for the production of aqueous hydrochloric acid having a concentration of at least 35. 5% by weight  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a process for continuously producing aqueous hydrochloric acid having a concentration of at least 3.5% by weight comprising: continuously introducing water to the top of an absorption unit, continuously introducing a gas stream containing anhydrous hydrogen chloride to the bottom of said absorption unit, removing an overhead gaseous stream from said unit, said gaseous stream containing no more than 3% by weight, and preferably no more than 1% by weight hydrogen chloride, and removing a bottom liquid stream from said unit, said bottom stream containing at least 35.5% by weight hydrogen chloride, and returning a portion of said bottom stream to said unit.

Parigi, J.V.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

309

Effect of Water on Hydrolytic Cleavage of Non-Terminal ?-Glycosidic Bonds in Cyclodextrins To Generate Monosaccharides and Their Derivatives in a Dimethyl Sulfoxide–Water Mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4) Moreover, for the purpose of the high-yield production of such target chemicals as 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) and anhydrous saccharides, the DMSO–water mixture, in which the water–water hydrogen bonds are dramatically broken by the dipolar aprotic solvent, was found to be a promising binary mixture solvent. ... (20-26) This is because 5-HMF is regarded as a potential platform chemical with a wide application profile. ... (18, 19) Once we succeed in obtaining the reactive monomer from such biomass as starch (edible) and cellulose (inedible), this can meet the increasing demand for green and sustainable chemistry. ...

Hiroshi Kimura; Masaki Hirayama; Ken Yoshida; Yasuhiro Uosaki; Masaru Nakahara

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

310

System and process for capture of H.sub.2S from gaseous process streams and process for regeneration of the capture agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and process are disclosed for selective removal and recovery of H.sub.2S from a gaseous volume, e.g., from natural gas. Anhydrous organic, sorbents chemically capture H.sub.2S gas to form hydrosulfide salts. Regeneration of the capture solvent involves addition of an anti-solvent that releases the captured H.sub.2S gas from the capture sorbent. The capture sorbent and anti-solvent are reactivated for reuse, e.g., by simple distillation.

Heldenbrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Bearden, Mark D; Zheng, Feng

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

Sugama, T.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

313

Controlling the properties of bulk metal oxides at a molecular level: Alkoxides vs carboxylates-alkoxides routes  

SciTech Connect

The reactions between alkoxides and/or alkoxides and anhydrous acetates have been investigated for access to advanced multicomponent niobates or titanates and with the aim to get insight into relationships between the nature of the initial precursors single or mixed metal derivatives, ligands (OAc or OR, R = Et, iPr),...- and the properties of the final material. Data are based on a variety of techniques: FT-IR, multinuclear NMR ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 113}Cd), X-ray investigations on single crystals. Powders have been analyzed by TGA, SEM-EDX, light scattering and XRD.

Hubert-Pfalzgraf, L.G.; Daniele, S.; Boulmaaz, S.; Papiernik, R. [Univ. de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

315

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

317

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

318

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (21 Barnes Road, Wading River, NY 11792); Colombo, Peter (44 N. Pinelake Dr., Patchogue, NY 11772)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

320

The viability of stallion spermatozoa as influenced by storage media and antibiotics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Monroe Armstrong, for the loan of a mare. Mr. Burl Hill, Horseman of the Animal Husbandry Department, and his student wc>rkers, for assistance in semen collections from the stallions used in this study. Owners of stallions in the Bryan-College Station... of anhydrous glucose per 100 cc. distilled water was optimum for diluting stallion semen. Rumjanceva (194-0) noted that semen-glucose in a 1:3 dilution was most suitable for jack sperm. In the United States, the discovery by Phillips and Lardy (194...

Gazder, Pesi Jamshed

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Hygroscopic substances such as AICl3 or CaCIZ readily adsorb water when they are exposed to ambient air. In technical: pro cesses it is often impossible to preserve these salts absolutely anhydrous. There fore ammines consisting of a hygroscopic salt... of the central molecule. Applying the above ratio rule leads to NH3 and H20 as the most promising ligands. The ex istence of a complex compound, however, depends on the adsorbent as well as the adsorbate. For practical applications, the price, the toxicity...

Rockenfeller, U.

322

Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

Steen, C R

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

undersized due to the low bidder syndrome (1). 4. New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower. State of the Art Upgrading Users of cooling towers are not par ticularly concerned with the thermal analysis involving calculus, or delving... HISTORY I Anhydrous Ammonia Plant The Hawkeye Chemical Corporation, a subsidiary of the Getty Oil Company, pro jected a 50% expansion of their anhydroug ammonia output from 120,000 tons (1.09 Kg) per year to ~ production level of 225,000 tons (2...

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Influence of the Particle Size of Activated Carbons on Their Performance as Fe Supports for Developing Fenton-like Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fenton process exploits the reaction between iron(II) and hydrogen peroxide for the formation of hydroxyl radicals, species that are able to attack and oxidize organic matter nonselectively. ... Beta (?-Fe2O3) and epsilon (?-Fe2O3) iron(III) oxides are less frequent polymorphs. ... According to Tagawa,(21) the decomposition of hydrated FeSO4 does not yield anhydrate, but rather yields iron(III) oxide through previous oxidation to Fe2(SO4)3, although the crystal system of Fe2O3 was not specified. ...

Filipa Duarte; F. J. Maldonado-Hódar; Luis M. Madeira

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

325

Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical compounds composed of chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alco- hols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by

327

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2)) n -OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydro- gen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar

328

ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 1992.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POLICY ACT OF 1992 POLICY ACT OF 1992 SEC. 301. DEFINITIONS. Source (http://energy.nfesc.navy.mil/law_us/92epact/hr776toc.htm) For purposes of this title, title IV, and title V (unless otherwise specified)- (1) the term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; (2) the term "alternative fuel" means methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 5 percent or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70 percent, as determined by the Secretary, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of ethanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials;

329

Proliferation resistant fuel for pebble bed modular reactors  

SciTech Connect

We show that it is possible to denature the Plutonium produced in Pebble Bed Modular Reactors (PBMR) by doping the nuclear fuel with either 3050 ppm of {sup 237}Np or 2100 ppm of Am vector. A correct choice of these isotopes concentration yields denatured Plutonium with isotopic ratio {sup 238}Pu/Pu {>=} 6%, for the entire fuel burnup cycle. The penalty for introducing these isotopes into the nuclear fuel is a subsequent shortening of the fuel burnup cycle, with respect to a non-doped reference fuel, by 41.2 Full Power Days (FPDs) and 19.9 FPDs, respectively, which correspond to 4070 MWd/ton and 1965 MWd/ton reduction in fuel discharge burnup. (authors)

Ronen, Y.; Aboudy, M.; Regev, D.; Gilad, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Flow of pH-responsive microcapsules in porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. There are numerous examples in the pharmaceutical industry where encapsulation would be beneficial. For example, if biological materials such as enzymes, which are susceptible to denaturation, are encapsulated their biological activity can be retained (Keen et al... display industry, for example by increasing the lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes, by preventing moisture and oxygen diffusion into the display area (Chwang et al., 2003; Seo et al., 2013). Within the oil industry, no journal articles...

Gun, Wei Jin; Routh, Alexander F.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

331

Broccoli: Rapid Selection of an RNA Mimic of Green Fluorescent Protein by Fluorescence-Based Selection and Directed Evolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Broccoli: Rapid Selection of an RNA Mimic of Green Fluorescent Protein by Fluorescence-Based Selection and Directed Evolution ... The green-fluorescent protein (GFP) that functions as a bioluminescence energy transfer acceptor in the jellyfish Aequorea was renatured with ?90% yield following acid, base, or guanidine denaturation. ... Detailed output, in the form of structure plots with or without reliability information, single strand frequency plots and energy dot plots', are available for the folding of single sequences. ...

Grigory S. Filonov; Jared D. Moon; Nina Svensen; Samie R. Jaffrey

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

332

Effects of heat on the rheological and stability properties of cultured buttermilk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Nutritive significance of the browning reac- tion Rheology of Milk and Dairy Products Rheology of Milk Rheology of Milk Gels. Electron Microscopy of Milk and Dairy Products. Microstructure of Milk Microstructure of Milk Gels. Microstructure.... Testing of Gel Strength Data Analysis Relative Viscosity. Stability Serum Protein Denaturation. Electron Microscopy Fixation 16 16 17 17 22 22 22 22 23 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont. ) Page Dehydration and Embedding Sectioning and Viewing...

Pan, Shelley Hsi-Ling

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of the Maillard reaction on the stability and chemical properties of globular proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the blood proteins to gel upon heating. This suggests an important approach for min- imizing the effect of heat denaturation on the functional properties of food proteins. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects..., 000 by light scattering. Isoelectric oint. The isoelectric point is of special significance in protein chemistry, since the properties of the proteins undergo unique changes at this point. The sol- ubility of proteins and other physical properties...

Morales, Margioly de Leon de

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Net Production Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55 Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with denatured fuel ethanol where the volume percent of denatured fuel ethanol exceeds 55%. Distillate Fuel Oil A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation.

335

Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

336

Surface [4 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Thymine on Si(111)7×7 Observed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

WATLab and Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada ... Simple hydrocarbons(1) with aliphatic chain backbones, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic molecules without and with heteroatoms(3) have been investigated by a number of experimental methods, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as computational methods based on density functional theory (DFT), Moller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and semiempirical techniques. ...

A. Chatterjee; L. Zhang; K. T. Leung

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with cyclic ethers  

SciTech Connect

Absolute rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of dioxanes and other cyclic ethers by using the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Kinetic data for 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane, reactions 1 and 2, over the temperature range 240-440 K were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions. These results are compared to our earlier measurements for aliphatic ethers and are discussed in terms of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of reaction rates for such compounds from group reactivity values.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

338

Microbial degradation of sedimentary organic matter associated with shale gas and coalbed methane in eastern Illinois Basin (Indiana), USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular biodegradation indices for extracts from five Pennsylvanian coals and six New Albany Shale (Devonian – Mississippian) samples from the eastern part of the Illinois Basin help constrain relationships between the degradation of biomarkers and the generation of coalbed methane and shale gas. Investigation of these gas source rocks of varying thermal maturity from different depths facilitates evaluation of the association of microbial degradation with biogenic gas formation distinct from thermogenic processes. Extensive biodegradation of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is observed in the coal extracts, whereas in shale extracts only short-chain (C15–C19) n-alkanes from the shallowest depth appear to be microbially altered with minimal evidence for losses of acyclic isoprenoid alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. By contrast, biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, specifically alkylated naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, occurs in coal extracts in concert with losses of n-alkanes attributable to microbial activity. Thus, the progress of hydrocarbon biodegradation in coals differs from the sequence recognized in petroleum where the effects of microbial alteration of aromatic constituents only appear after extensive losses of aliphatic compounds. The extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation in these coals also decreases with depth, as recorded by the ?(nC25–nC30) index (i.e. abundance relative to 17?(H), 21?(H)-hopane) among the aliphatic constituents and several aromatic compounds (methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, and trimethyl- and tetramethylphananthrenes). However, the depth variations in the distributions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the shale extracts primarily reflect the effects of thermal maturity rather than biodegradation. Overall, variations in the extent and patterns of biomarker biodegradation among coals and shales likely reflect their distinct microbial consortia that can be attributed to differences in (i) surviving microorganisms and inoculations from meteoric water, (ii) the characteristics of the sedimentary organic matter, especially the preponderance of aromatic constituents in coals, and (iii) the accessibility to that substrate through pores and cleats. These results help constrain the processes involved in biodegradation and controls on its extent, which, in turn, assist in recognizing sites favorable for methanogenesis and improved estimates of biogenic gas resources in the Illinois Basin.

Ling Gao; Simon C. Brassell; Maria Mastalerz; Arndt Schimmelmann

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Kinetic data base for combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Molybdenum recovery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the preparation of propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol. It comprises: propylene and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide are reacted in an epoxidation reaction zone in solution in tertiary butyl alcohol in the presence of a soluble molybdenum catalyst to provide an epoxidation reaction product comprising unreacted propylene, unreacted tertiary butyl hydroperoxide, propylene oxide, tertiary butyl alcohol, dissolved molybdenum catalyst and impurities, including lower aliphatic C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} carboxylic acids, and wherein the epoxidation reaction product is resolved into product fractions in a distillation zone including a distillate propylene fraction.

Meyer, R.A.; Marquis, E.T.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations  

SciTech Connect

Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences ?a, ?b, ?c between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z???? and Z???? transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to ?3 ???, ?1 ???, and ?2 ??? transitions, respectively. ?-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p–carboxyl, C 2p–side chain, and C 2p–carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical anisotropy for the absorption and complex dielectric function, with more structured curves for incident light polarized along the 100 and 101 directions.

Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil)] [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Silva, A. M. [Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri-Pi (Brazil)] [Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri-Pi (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S., E-mail: ewcaetano@gmail.com [Instituto de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)] [Instituto de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)] [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

343

NETL: Gasification Systems - Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Project Number: DE-SC00008243 TDA Research, Inc. is developing a high-capacity, low-cost sorbent that removes anhydrous ammonia (NH3), mercury (Hg), and trace contaminants from coal- and coal/biomass-derived syngas. The clean-up system will be used after the bulk warm gas sulfur removal step, and remove NH3 and Hg in a regenerable manner while irreversibly capturing all other trace metals (e.g., Arsenic, Selenium) reducing their concentrations to sub parts per million (ppm) levels. Current project plans include identifying optimum chemical composition and structure that provide the best sorbent performance for removing trace contaminants, determining the effect of operating parameters, conducting multiple-cycle experiments to test the life of the sorbent for NH3 and Hg removal, and conducting a preliminary design of the sorbent reactor.

344

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Titanium Alloys Manufacturing Co Div  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Titanium Alloys Manufacturing Co Titanium Alloys Manufacturing Co Div of National Lead of Ohio - NY 41 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: TITANIUM ALLOYS MANUFACTURING CO., DIV. OF NATIONAL LEAD OF OHIO (NY.41) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Titanium Alloy Metals Titanium Alloy Manufacturing Division Titanium Alloy Manufacturing (TAM) Division of National Lead Company The Titanium Pigment Co. NL Industries ICD/Niagara NY.41-1 NY.41-2 NY.41-3 Location: Niagara Falls , New York NY.41-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 NY.41-4 Site Operations: Produced commercial grade zirconium tetrachloride; conducted research and development relating to solid metallic hydride moderators; and experimental work relative to the conversion of thorium scrap to anhydrous tetrachloride. NY.41-5

345

STATES GOVERNMENT S. R. Sapirle~, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

oh&- 1) +9-y l "UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT S. R. Sapirle~, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations NOVEMBER 2.3 1954 S : J. C. Clarke, Acting Manager, New York . . SUBJXT: REQUEST FOR URMWJM TEm-CHLORIDE SYMBOL: AM:% "& ATTENTION: Mr.N. Woodruff The Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania has under date .of October 26, 1954; requested that we arrange for the shipment of approximately one kilogram of normal uranium tetra-chloride, preferably anhydrous to Mr. C. C> Fawcett, S. F. Accountability Officer, station FAR,Pitman-Dunn Laboratories, Frankford Arsenal, Fhiladelphia 37, Pa. This material will be used in experimental research. It $s ex,- petted that all material will be salvaged and returned td your control at the conclusion of the work.

346

The University of Chicago, Chicago, I  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

.** .** # [Contribution from the George Herbert Jones Laboratory, The University of Chicago, Chicago, I l l i n o i s ] ffjl j t18 The Isotopic Discrimination of Some Solutes in Liquid Ammonia YQHJCLY ItHbEASABLS Arlen Viste and Henry Taube (1) ( a ) Department of Chemistry, Augustana College, Sioux F a l l s , South Dakota; (b) Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California. Abstract The nitrogen isotopic discrimination of some s a l t s and metals, studied in liquid ammonia solution at -50°C, decreases in magnitude in the order Pb , Ca , Li , Ag , Na , Li, K , Na, K. The i s o t o p i c discrimination appears t o provide q u a l i t a t i v e information about the strength of the cation-solvent i n t e r a c t i o n in liquid ammonia. Introduction Dissolving an anhydrous s

347

George Andrew Olah - Patents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Patents - George Andrew Olah Patents - George Andrew Olah Olah Page · Resources with Additional Information US 4,394,247 LIQUEFACTION OF COALS USING RECYCLABLE SUPERACID CATALYST - Olah, George A.; July 19, 1983 This invention discloses a process for the liquefaction of coals and other predominantly hydrocarbonaceous materials by treating the same with a superacidic catalyst system consisting of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and boron trifluoride in the presence of super-atmospheric hydrogen. US 4,433,192 CONDENSATION OF NATURAL GAS OR METHANE INTO GASOLINE RANGE HYDROCARBONS - Olah, George A.; February 21, 1984 This invention relates to a new process for the direct conversion of natural gas or methane into gasoline-range hydrocarbons (i.e., synthetic transportation fuels or lower olefins) via catalytic condensation using superacid catalysts.

348

Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: Effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose > glucose > galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, ?-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst.

Xun Hu; Liping Wu; Yi Wang; Yao Song; Daniel Mourant; Richard Gunawan; Mortaza Gholizadeh; Chun-Zhu Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Synthesis of cumulenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6 ($) 6 6 C H /Cn-OCH5 ' ~c=c=c=c, ' C, H, Stannous chloride in acidic anhydrous ether gave negligible results. However, to reduce 1, 1, 4, 4- tetrapheny1-1, 4. -dihydroxy-2-butyne to the 1, 1, 4, 4- tetraphenylbutatriene, stannous chloride..., (4) formed a compound believed to be the dimer (5). l-OCH6 C H POCH6 Hi C ? C S sc 66CCCrC& 6 hv C66 ~ [ 66 ChH6 Ch H6 C6H6 C ? C, , ~C6H6 (4) H CO ( C6H6 This dimer was also obtained in a small amount as a by- product from the preparation...

Adam, Klaus

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Synthesis and thermal chemistry of selected N-vinylisoquinuclidenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. wi th thi onyl 0 Ph I 0 H02C H02C / N 0 CH 0 C CH 02C Ph g=0 OCH3 CH302C CH3 2 =0 27 chloride in anhydrous methanol at 25'C t'o furnish, in 81K yield, an interesting product g. This new product contained not only the desired..., 690 cm 1 UV (CH3CN) ~ 287 nm (c 20, 900; H-NMR (CDC13)6 3. 75 (m, 2H, H-5 and H-6), 4. 1 (m, 1H, H-4), 4. 0 (s, 6H, OCH3), 5. 4 (m, 1H, H-l), 6. 4 (d, 1H, J=16 Hz, N-vinyl), 6. 9 (m, 2H, H-7 and H-8 vinyl), 7. 6 (m, SH, aromatic), 7. 8 (d, 1H, J=16...

Beamer, Ralph Lewis

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Maturity Studies of Marsh Seedless Grapefruit in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 1934.) Stem-end Blossom-end Determination -------- ------ - Nov. 8 1 Nov. 22 1 Av. Solu hle solids (degrees Rrix) ............... Citric acid anhydrous (76). ....... Brix to acid ratio. invert sugar (%I.. ...... ............. Sllcrose... cent) 1.56 1.43 1.34 1.30 1.40 1.53 1.40 1.40 1.24 1.39 1.59 1.54 1.42 1.37 1.48 1.58 1.46 1.36 1.35 1.43 1.55 1.44 1.37 1.32 1.42 ware p- Oct. 17 Nov. 14 Dec. 17 Jan. 18 -- Av ..... -- Oct. 17 Nov. 14 Dec. 17 Jan...

Wood, J. F. (John Fielding); Reed, H. M. (Harold M.)

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Synthesis and properties of polynitrophenyltetrazolatocobalt(III) complexes  

SciTech Connect

The explosive 3,5-dinitrophenyltetrazolato complex (3,5-DNP) tends to propagate in the deflagration mode which suggests its use as a pressure cartridge charge. However, the existence of 3,5-DNP as a hydrate appears to result in variations of thermomechanical properties thus rendering it undesirable for component use. The 2,4-DNP and 2,4,6-TNP analogs were synthesized. These exist in the anhydrous form under normal conditions and underwent DDT in component configuration. This negated their use in pressure cartridge applications. Synthetic procedures have been developed for 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)tetrazole and 5-picryltetrazole as well as for the precursor 2,4-dinitro- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzonitriles. 6 refs.

Fronabarger, J.; Johnson, R.; Fleming, W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study  

SciTech Connect

A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Aspects of uranium chemistry pertaining to UF{sub 6} cylinder handling  

SciTech Connect

Under normal conditions, the bulk of UF{sub 6} in storage cylinders will be in the solid state with an overpressure of gaseous UF{sub 6} well below one atmosphere. Corrosion of the interior of the cylinder will be very slow, with formation of a small amount of reduced fluoride, probably U{sub 2}F{sub 9}. The UO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 2}O phase diagram indicates that reaction of any inleaking water vapor with the solid UF{sub 6} will generate the solid material [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}(U(OH){sub 4}F{sub 4}) in equilibrium with an aqueous HF solution containing only small amounts of uranium. The corrosion of the steel cylinder by these materials may be enhanced over that observed with gaseous anhydrous UF{sub 6}.

Ritter, R.L.; Barber, E.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Evaluation of calcium chloride and ammonium thiosulfate as ammonia volatilization inhibitors for surface-applied urea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

million tons Total fertilizer Total N NH4NOs Anhydrous NHs N solutions Urea 22. 7 24. 9 42. 5 52. 8 41. 8 50. 1 1. 6 2. 74 8. 60 11. 4 9. 13 11. 1 1. 12 1. 23 2. 80 2. 63 2. 15 2. 19 0. 35 0. 71 4. 02 5. 48 3. 84 4. 71 0. 21 0. 65 4. 11 6. 67 6...-12 10-12 10-12 0-2 12-14 0-2 120 144 96 24 36 24 261 3128 218 1878 225 3104 In general, three major effects were observed: 1) The lag phase of NHs volatilization was delayed or lengthened. 2) The maximum N loss rate occurred later...

Sloan, John J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Studies of selected transuranium and lanthanide triiodides under pressure using absorption spectrophotometry  

SciTech Connect

The anhydrous triiodides of plutonium, americium, and curium under pressure have been investigated using absorption spectrophotometry. These initial studies on plutonium and curium triiodides together with the published data for americium triiodide show that the rhombohedral (BiI/sub 3/-type structure) form of these compounds can be converted to the same orthorhombic (PuBr/sub 3/-type structure) form by applying pressure at room temperature. Absorption spectrophotometry can often differentiate between two crystallographic forms of materials and has been used in the present high pressure studies to monitor the effects of pressure on the triiodides. A complication in these studies of the triiodides is a significant shift of their absorption edges from the near uv to the visible spectral region with pressure. With curium triiodide this shift causes interference with the major f-f absorption peaks and precludes identification by absorption spectrophotometry of the high pressure phase of CmI/sub 3/. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Haire, R.G.; Young, J.P.; Peterson, J.R.; Benedict, U.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

358

Petrologic constraints on the development of a large-volume, high temperature, silicic magma system: The Twin Falls eruptive centre, central Snake River Plain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Explosive volcanism associated with the Yellowstone hotspot spanning ~ 11.3 to 9 Ma, thought to have erupted from the Twin Falls eruptive centre, is recorded in the Cassia Mountains of southern Idaho and northern Nevada. The stratigraphy contains intensely welded, rhyolitic (SiO2 69–76 wt.%) ignimbrites with an anhydrous mineralogy: plagioclase, sanidine, quartz, pigeonite, augite, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, accessory zircon and apatite. Several different thermometers indicate high temperature rhyolitic magmas (> 900 °C). All Cassia Mountain ignimbrites show a significant depletion in ?18OVSMOW with magmatic feldspar values between 1.7 and 3.0‰, reflecting incorporation of a hydrothermally altered protolith. Multiple compositions of both pigeonite (Mg# 30–46) and augite (Mg# 17–53) may occur within an individual ignimbrite while crystal aggregates contain only a single composition of each. The compositional heterogeneity within the ignimbrites reflects a complex magmatic system whereby magma was segregated into multiple smaller chambers prior to eruption.

Ben S. Ellis; Tiffany Barry; Michael J. Branney; John A. Wolff; Ilya Bindeman; Rob Wilson; Bill Bonnichsen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization The Great Plains Synfuels Plant in Beulah, North Dakota source: Dakota Gasification Great Plains Synfuels Plant The Great Plains Synfuels Plant (GPSP) in Beulah, North Dakota has been in operation producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) from lignite coal for 25 years and remains the only coal-to-SNG facility in the United States. In addition to the production of SNG, the plant also produces high purity carbon dioxide (CO2), which is distributed through a pipeline to end users in Canada for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. The plant also produces and sells anhydrous ammonia, as well as the following byproducts: ammonium sulfate, krypton, xenon, dephenolized cresylic acid, liquid nitrogen, phenol, and naphtha, most of the last of which is burned as fuel

360

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Blended Fuel Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blended Fuel Definition Ethanol blended fuel, such as gasohol, is defined as any gasoline blended with 10% or more of anhydrous ethanol. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-240

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Impact of Ferrocene on the Structure of Diesel Exhaust Soot as Probed with Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering and C(1s) NEXAFS Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We report on the structure of a set of diesel exhaust samples that were obtained from reference diesel fuel and diesel fuel mixed with ferrocene. Characterization was carried out with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (C(1s) NEXAFS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The reference diesel soot shows a pronounced graphite-like microstructure and molecular structure, with a strong (0 0 2) graphite Bragg reflex and a strong aromatic C{double_bond}C resonance at 285 eV. The mineral matter in the reference soot could be identified as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hematite. The soot specimen from the diesel mixed with ferrocene has an entirely different structure and lacks significantly in graphite-like characteristics. NEXAFS spectra of such soot barely show aromatics but pronounced contributions from aliphatic structures. WAXS patterns show almost no intensity at the Bragg (0 0 2) reflection of graphite, but a strong aliphatic {gamma}-side band. The iron from the ferrocene transforms to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} maghemite.

Braun,A.; Huggins, F.; Kelly, K.; Mun, B.; Ehrlich, S.; Huffman, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Study of thermal conversion of naphthenic oils on the basis of analysis of their middle fractions  

SciTech Connect

The composition of the middle fractions of the thermal decomposition products of naphthenic oils obtained at 300, 350, and 400{degrees}C was studied. It was shown that the character of conversions of petroleum hydrocarbons is governed by the intensity of thermal treatment and by the chemical nature of the starting oil. The removal of aliphatic chains from high-boiling components of the petroleum at a temperature below 350{degrees}C results in the new formation of linear and isoprene alkanes in their middle fractions similarly to the catagenic transformations of oils in deposits. The rise in temperature up to 400{degrees}C enhances the destruction processes related to extension of the reactions of the homolytic cleavage of C-C bonds in aliphatic chains. This results in practically complete destruction of isoprene alkanes and in predominance of low-molecular homologs among the linear alkanes. On the basis of the results obtained it can be supposed that the thermal treatment is an important factor in the conversion of naphthenic oils into paraffin oils. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kayukova, G.P.; Kurbskii, G.P.; Mutalapova, R.I. [A.E. Arbuzov Inst. of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

364

Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Isolation and characterization of two crude oil-degrading yeast strains, Yarrowia lipolytica PG-20 and PG-32, from the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Among six crude oil-degrading yeasts that were isolated from an oil-polluted area in the Persian Gulf, two yeast strains showed high degradation activity of aliphatic hydrocarbons. From an analysis of 18S rRNA sequences and biochemical characteristics, these strains were identified as Yarrowia lipolytica strains PG-20 and PG-32. Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after 1 week at 30 °C showed that the strains PG-20 and PG-32 degraded 68% and 58% of crude oil, respectively. The optimal growth condition and biodegradation of hydrocarbons was in ONR medium with an acidic pH (pH 5). These two strains may degrade aliphatic hydrocarbons more efficiently than aromatic hydrocarbons, although strain PG-20 had better degradation than strain PG-32. The two Y. lipolytica strains reduce surface tension when cultured on hydrocarbon substrates (1% v/v). These strains showed a cell surface hydrophobicity higher than 70%. These results suggested that Y. lipolytica strains PG-20 and PG-32 have high crude oil degrading activity due to their high emulsifying activity and cell hydrophobicity. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process in the Persian Gulf and decreasing oil pollution in this marine ecosystem.

Mehdi Hassanshahian; Hamid Tebyanian; Simone Cappello

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Diffusion Of Hydrophobin Proteins In Solution And Interactions With A Graphite Surface  

SciTech Connect

Background Hydrophobins are small proteins produced by filamentous fungi that have a variety of biological functions including coating of spores and surface adhesion. To accomplish these functions, they rely on unique interface-binding properties. Using atomic-detail implicit solvent rigid-body Brownian dynamics simulations, we studied the diffusion of HFBI, a class II hydrophobin from Trichoderma reesei, in aqueous solution in the presence and absence of a graphite surface. Results In the simulations, HFBI exists in solution as a mixture of monomers in equilibrium with different types of oligomers. The oligomerization state depends on the conformation of HFBI. When a Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) layer is present in the simulated system, HFBI tends to interact with the HOPG layer through a hydrophobic patch on the protein. Conclusions From the simulations of HFBI solutions, we identify a tetrameric encounter complex stabilized by non-polar interactions between the aliphatic residues in the hydrophobic patch on HFBI. After the formation of the encounter complex, a local structural rearrangement at the protein interfaces is required to obtain the tetrameric arrangement seen in HFBI crystals. Simulations performed with the graphite surface show that, due to a combination of a geometric hindrance and the interaction of the aliphatic sidechains with the graphite layer, HFBI proteins tend to accumulate close to the hydrophobic surface.

Mereghetti, Paolo; Wade, Rebecca C.

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

367

Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 1097 PROBED BY AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect

With the Infrared Camera on board AKARI, we carried out near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec region of the barred spiral galaxy, NGC 1097, categorized as Seyfert 1 with a circumnuclear starburst ring. Our observations mapped the area of {approx}50'' Multiplication-Sign 10'' with the resolution of {approx}5'', covering about a half of the ring and the galactic center. As a result, we spatially resolve the starburst ring in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m, the aliphatic hydrocarbon 3.4-3.6 {mu}m features, and the hydrogen Br{alpha} 4.05 {mu}m emission. They exhibit spatial distributions significantly different from each other, indicating that the environments vary considerably around the ring. In particular, the aliphatic features are enhanced near the bar connecting the ring with the nucleus, where the structure of hydrocarbon grains seems to be relatively disordered. Near the center, the continuum emission and the CO/SiO absorption features are strong, which indicates that the environments inside the ring are dominated by old stellar populations. The near-infrared spectra do not show any evidence for the presence of nuclear activity.

Kondo, Toru; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Mori, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suzuki, Toyoaki, E-mail: kondo@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

369

Crosslinked Polyamide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crosslinked polyamide material and a process for preparing the crosslinked polyamide material are disclosed. The crosslinked polyamide material comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (1) a polyamide of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n is between about 50 and 10,000, wherein each R is between 1 and 50 carbon atoms alone and is optionally substituted with heteroatoms, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone forming the polyamide, and wherein two or more of the R contain an amino group; and (2) a crosslinking agent containing at least two functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide. In one embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic or aromatic isocyanate compound having 2 or more --N.dbd.C.dbd.O groups. In another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic aldehyde or aromatic aldehyde compound having 2 or more --CHO groups. In still another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.2 P(B) and mixtures thereof, wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, and B is hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, or aryl. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins having more than one epoxide group per molecule.

Huang, Zhi H. (East Lansing, MI); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

370

Improving GC-PPC-SAFT equation of state for LLE of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds with water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The GC-PPC-SAFT model has been shown to be useful for predicting the liquid–liquid phase split with water [Nguyen-Huynh et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50 (2011) 7467–7483]. In order to extend the use of this model to oxygenated compounds for a large number of families (aliphatic ethers, aldehydes, ketones, formates, acetates, propionates/butyrates, n-aliphatic acids), it is proposed to consider cross-association in addition to a binary interaction parameter lij on the combining rules for the cross-segment diameter between water and the investigated compound. The binary interaction parameters lij, u ? ? , and w ? ? are fitted on mutual solubilities of water and organic compounds. The regressed values which are obtained for each chemical family, are subsequently used for predicting infinite dilution activity coefficient in water and n-octanol/water partition coefficient. In general, the results obtained are very much improved compared to the predictive approach discussed previously [Nguyen et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52 (2013) 7014–7029]. The global deviation values on the decimal log scale for infinite dilution activity coefficient in water, water solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient are 0.377, 0.419, and 0.469, respectively.

Thanh-Binh Nguyen; Jean-Charles de Hemptinne; Benoit Creton; Georgios M. Kontogeorgis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Pathogen Detection Lab-On-A-Chip (PADLOC) System for Plant Pathogen Diagnosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approximately 95°C.4 Afterwards, the sample is cooled down to 48-74°C to let the primers in the sample to anneal to denatured DNAs. This temperature range is referred to as annealing temperature and it is directly related to the melting temperature... devices and circular traversing devices. The first serpentine rectangular channel device came out in1998 by Kopp et al.14 The channel length was 2.2 m long and the sample went through three temperature zones of 95, 60 and 77°C for 20 times. The flow...

Cifci, Osman

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

372

Thermal behavior of bovine serum albumin after exposure to barrier discharge helium plasma jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Non-thermal plasma jets at atmospheric pressure are useful tools nowadays in plasma medicine. Various applications are tested such as cauterization coagulation wound healing natural and artificial surfaces decontamination and sterilization. In order to know more about the effects of gas plasma on biological supramolecules we exposed proteinpowders to a barrier discharge helium plasma jet. Then spectroscopic investigations were carried out in order to obtain information on protein secondary tertiary and quaternary structures. We obtained a reduction of the protein alpha-helix content after the plasma exposure and a different behavior for both thermal denaturation/renaturation kinetics and thermal aggregation process.

R. Jijie; V. Pohoata; I. Topala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Dissipative Dynamics of Enzymes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We explore enzyme conformational dynamics at sub-Å resolution, specifically, temperature effects. The ensemble-averaged mechanical response of the folded enzyme is viscoelastic in the whole temperature range between the warm and cold denaturation transitions. The dissipation parameter ? of the viscoelastic description decreases by a factor of 2 as the temperature is raised from 10 to 45?°C; the elastic parameter K shows a similar decrease. Thus, when probed dynamically, the enzyme softens for increasing temperature. Equilibrium mechanical experiments with the DNA spring (and a different enzyme) also show, qualitatively, a small softening for increasing temperature.

Amila Ariyaratne; Chenhao Wu; Chiao-Yu Tseng; Giovanni Zocchi

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

374

Neutronics and safety characteristics of a 100% MOX fueled PWR using weapons grade plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary neutronics and safety studies, pertaining to the feasibility of using 100% weapons grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in an advanced PWR Westinghouse design are presented in this paper. The preliminary results include information on boron concentration, power distribution, reactivity coefficients and xenon and control rode worth for the initial and the equilibrium cycle. Important safety issues related to rod ejection and steam line break accidents and shutdown margin requirements are also discussed. No significant change from the commercial design is needed to denature weapons-grade plutonium under the current safety and licensing criteria.

Biswas, D.; Rathbun, R.; Lee, Si Young [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Rosenthal, P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

376

Purification and characterization of an adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase from human lung  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Texas ABM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. B. Moore, 0 r. A cyclic AMP-speci fi c phosphodiesterase was purified from human lung tissue. Ion-exchange chromatography, hydroxylapatite chroma- tography, gel-exclusion chromatography..., and preparative isoelectric focusing yielded a 300 fold purification. The enzyme was homoge- neous, as judged by non-denaturing gels. The purified phosphodiesterase had a molecular ~eight of 60, 000, a sedimentation coefficient of 3. 2-3. 45, and a pI of 4. 6...

Schroedter, Dwight Edward

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Functional Stability of a Mixed Microbial Consortium Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources  

SciTech Connect

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) represent an environmentally-effective alternative to synthetic thermoplastics; however, current production practices are not sustainable. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing real wastewaters and mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum. Polymer production reached 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. Employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts, distinctly different communities were observed between and within wastewaters following enrichment. Most importantly, functional stability was maintained despite differing and contrasting microbial populations.

David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Hard boiling eggs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hard boiling eggs Hard boiling eggs Name: Sandburg J High Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We have been studying chemical and physical changes in 6th grade science class and we were wondering whether hard boiling an egg would be a chemical or a physical change? Thanks for a reply! Replies: You decide. Here's what's going on: the proteins in the fresh egg are in the shape of tight little balls. When you boil the egg, these proteins unravel ("denature"), like balls of yarn unraveling into loose skeins. The strands of protein then get all tangled up with one another, so much so that they are locked in place and can no longer move. They also lock into place the other liquid components of the egg, forming all together what's called a "gel" instead of the liquid you started off with. The gel acts like a soft, rubbery solid because of the network of protein strands holding it all together. It's certainly true that when the protein denatures some chemical bonds are broken, but the most important effect is the tangling up process.

379

Studies on the thermal inactivation of immobilized enzymes  

SciTech Connect

The thermal inactivation of a great number of immobilized enzymes shows a biphasic kinetics, which distinctly differs from the first-order inactivation kinetics of the corresponding soluble enzymes. As shown for ..cap alpha..-amylase, chymotrypsin, and trypsin covalently bound to silica, polystyrene, or polyacrylamide, the dependence of the remaining activities on the heating time can be well described by the sum of two exponential terms. To interpret this mathematical model function, the catalytic properties of immobilized enzymes (number of active sites in silica-bound trypsin, Km and Ea values in silica-bound ..cap alpha..-amylase and chymotrypsin) at different stages of inactivation and the influence of various factors (coupling conditions, addition of denaturants or stabilizers, etc.) on the thermal inactivation of silica-bound ..cap alpha..-amylase were studied. Furthermore, conformational alterations in the thermal denaturation of spin-labeled soluble and silica-bound ..beta..-amylase were compared by electron spin resonance (ESR) studies. The results suggest that the biphasic inactivation kinetics reflects two different pathways according to which catalytically identical enzyme molecules are predominantly inactivated. 45 references.

Ulbrich, R.; Schellenberger, A.; Damerau, W.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

Goodwin, Edwin H. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

Atomic-level characterization of disordered protein ensembles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The roles of unfolded states of proteins in normal folding and in diseases involving aggregation, as well as the prevalence and regulatory functions of intrinsically disordered proteins, have become increasingly recognized. The structural representation of these disordered states as ensembles of interconverting conformers can therefore provide critical insights. Experimental methods can be used to probe ensemble-averaged structural properties of disordered states and computational approaches generate representative ensembles of conformers using experimental restraints. In particular, NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering provide quantitative data that can readily be incorporated into calculations. These techniques have gleaned structural information about denatured, unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins. The use of experimental data in different computational approaches, including ensemble molecular dynamics simulations and algorithms that assign populations to pregenerated conformers, has highlighted the presence of both local and long-range structure, and the occurrence of native-like and non-native interactions in unfolded and denatured states. Analysis of the resulting ensembles has suggested important implications of this fluctuating structure for folding, aggregation and binding.

Tanja Mittag; Julie D Forman-Kay

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A unified description of solvent effects in the helix-coil transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the problem of the helix-coil transition in explicit solvents analytically by using spin-based models incorporating two different mechanisms of solvent action: explicit solvent action through the formation of solvent-polymer hydrogen bonds that can compete with the intrinsic intra-polymer hydrogen bonded configurations (competing interactions) and implicit solvent action, where the solvent-polymer interactions tune biopolymer configurations by changing the activity of the solvent (non-competing interactions). The overall spin Hamiltonian is comprised of three terms: the background \\emph{in vacuo} Hamiltonian of the "Generalized Model of Polypeptide Chain" type and two additive terms that account for the two above mechanisms of solvent action. We show that on this level the solvent degrees of freedom can be {\\sl explicitly} and {\\sl exactly} traced over, the ensuing effective partition function combining all the solvent effects in a unified framework. In this way we are able to address helix-coil transitions for polypeptides, proteins, and DNA, with different buffers and different external constraints. Our spin-based effective Hamiltonian is applicable for treatment of such diverse phenomena as cold denaturation, effects of osmotic pressure on the cold and warm denaturation, complicated temperature dependence of the hydrophobic effect as well as providing a conceptual base for understanding the behavior of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins and their analogues.

Artem Badasyan; Shushanik A. Tonoyan; Achille Giacometti; Rudolf Podgornik; V. Adrian Parsegian; Yevgeni Sh. Mamasakhlisov; Vladimir F. Morozov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

Tan, H.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Theoretical Perspectives on Protein Folding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding how monomeric proteins fold under in vitro conditions is crucial to describing their functions in the cellular context. Significant advances both in theory and experiments have resulted in a conceptual framework for describing the folding mechanisms of globular proteins. The experimental data and theoretical methods have revealed the multifaceted character of proteins. Proteins exhibit universal features that can be determined using only the number of amino acid residues (N) and polymer concepts. The sizes of proteins in the denatured and folded states, cooperativity of the folding transition, dispersions in the melting temperatures at the residue level, and time scales of folding are to a large extent determined by N. The consequences of finite N especially on how individual residues order upon folding depends on the topology of the folded states. Such intricate details can be predicted using the Molecular Transfer Model that combines simulations with measured transfer free energies of protein building blocks from water to the desired concentration of the denaturant. By watching one molecule fold at a time, using single molecule methods, the validity of the theoretically anticipated heterogeneity in the folding routes, and the N-dependent time scales for the three stages in the approach to the native state have been established. Despite the successes of theory, of which only a few examples are documented here, we conclude that much remains to be done to solve the "protein folding problem" in the broadest sense.

D. Thirumalai; Edward P. O'Brien; Greg Morrison; Changbong Hyeon

2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

385

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensed Toxicity Summary for TETRACHLOROETHYLENE Condensed Toxicity Summary for TETRACHLOROETHYLENE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. MARCH 1993 Prepared by: Mary Lou Daugherty, M.S., Chemical Hazard Evaluation Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. Tetrachloroethylene (CAS No. 127-18-4) is a halogenated aliphatic

386

Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels MAY 29, 2007 Bookmark and Share S-XANES absorbance and third derivative absorbance edge spectra of Duvernay (A) Type II kerogen and the results of curve fits using spectra from model compounds. Notice that sharp features appear in the thrid derivative spectrum that are easily associated with FeS2, aliphatic sulfur and

387

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-FC36-95GO10099 U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-FC36-95GO10099 WAIVER NO. W(A)-96-015, CH0907. The attached petition by General Electric Corporation (hereafter GE) is for an advance waiver of patent rights under Contract No. DE-FC36-95GO10099. GE requests that the Department of Energy grant an advance waiver for the domestic and foreign rights to inventions made in the performance of work under the above identified contract and in particular, for materials and processes for the production of long-chain aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (diacids) and in applications of diacids in polymeric materials. Further, that these rights vest in GE subject to the standard Advance Waiver Patent Rights Clause with the enclosed U.S. Competitiveness paragraph as previously agreed to. Additionally, GE has accepted the standard

388

Method for the production of hydrocarbons using iron-carbon-based catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing C/sub 2/+ aliphatic hydrocarbons from a CO and H/sub 2/ mixture comprising the step of contacting the mixture with a catalyst comprising finely divided nonpyrophoric iron-carbon catalyst particles comprising iron and carbon, in the substantial absence of silicon, a substantial portion of which is dementite, which was produced in a reaction zone in the presence of laser radiation under such conditions of laser flux density, power adsorption, concentration of iron compound reactants selected from the group consisting of iron carbonyls, iron acetylacetonate, and ferrocene, and pressure sufficient to produce non-pyrophoric iron-carbon particles having average diameters between 1 and 100 nm.

Rice, G.W.; Fiato, R.A.; Soled, S.L.

1988-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

389

Profiles in Chemistry: A Historical Perspective on the National Organic Symposium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, he also must have been thinking of his upcoming talk at the first Symposium on Organic Chemistry that was to begin in two weeks in Rochester, NY, because in the weeks leading up to the Symposium, Norris was inspired to change the title of his talk(2, 3) from the advertised Quantitative Measurement of Chemical Reactivity of Organic Compounds to the actual talk he gave on December 29, which was entitled The Opportunities for Research in Aliphatic Chemistry. ... Photo by Bachrach and courtesy of the School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois. ... Ihde, A. J. Chemistry as Viewed from Bascom’s Hill; Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin: Madison, 1990; pp 611– 612. ...

Edward E. Fenlon; Brian J. Myers

2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

390

Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effect of modifying host oil on coprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is rich in aliphatic and naphthenic compounds, but usually contains relatively few aromatic or hydroaromatic compounds. This paper will explore ways in which petroleum resids (1000{degrees}F+) can be modified to improve them as coprocessing media with coal. Modifications of the resid include (1) hydrogenation with iron and molybdenum-based catalysts, (2) mild hydrogenation with dicobalt octacarbonyl (CO{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}) to convert any aromatics in the resid to hydroaromatics, (3) addition of certain polynuclear aromatic compounds that are excellent hydrogen shuttlers, and (4) catalytic hydrocracking of the resid. The untreated resid and modified oils were evaluated in thermal and catalytic coprocessing experiments. Measures for evaluating coprocessing performance include the fraction of coal converted to M soluble products and the yield of distillable oil, as measured using simulated distillation.

Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance  

SciTech Connect

Using a combination of instrumental and chemical methods, many new classes of compounds appearing as homologous series have been detected in Athabasca oil sand bitumen and in the chemical and thermal degradative products of asphaltene and the heavy ends of maltene. In general, the volatile portion of the maltene is rich in cyclic terpenoid structures and devoid in aliphatic compounds or normal alkane-derived cyclic molecules while the asphaltene fraction and heavy ends of maltene are abundant in normal alkyl-substituted aromatics, thianes, thiolanes, thiophenes, benzo- and dibenzothiophenes. This paper reports that Ru(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation permitted the quantitative estimation of the n-alkyl groups attached to aromatic carbons and of n-alkyl bridges between two aromatic units and their concentration distribution according to chain length. It also showed the presence of a large naphthenic core containing cyclic sulfides, which, during oxidation, were converted to their sulfones.

Strausz, O.P.; Lown, E.M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Complete genome sequence of Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens type strain (BL-DC-9T) and comparison to Dehalococcoides strains  

SciTech Connect

Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens is the type species of the genus Dehalogenimonas, which belongs to a deeply branching lineage within the phylum Chloroflexi. This strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, non spore forming, Gram negative staining bacterium was first isolated from chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater at a Superfund site located near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. D. lykanthroporepellens was of interest for genome sequencing for two reasons: (a) its unusual ability to couple growth with reductive dechlorination of environmentally important polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes and (b) its phylogenetic position distant from previously sequenced bacteria. The 1,686,510 bp circular chromosome of strain BL-DC-9{sup T} contains 1,720 predicted protein coding genes, 47 tRNA genes, a single large subunit rRNA (23S-5S) locus, and a single, orphan, small unit rRNA (16S) locus.

Siddaramappa, Shivakumara [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Delano, Susana [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Green, Lance D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yan, Jun [Louisiana State University; Bowman, Kimberly [Louisiana State University; Da Costa, Milton S, [University of Coimbra, Coimbra Portugal; Rainey, Fred A. [University of Alaska; Moe, William M. [Louisiana State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Pressurized thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of algae, wood chip residue, and grape marc: A comparative study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pressurized thermal decomposition of two marine algae, Pinus radiata chip residue and grape marc using high temperature, high pressure reactions has been studied. The yields and composition of the products obtained from liquefactions under CO of a mixture of biomass and H2O (with or without catalyst) were compared with products from liquefaction of dry biomass under N2, at different temperatures, gas pressures and for CO runs, water to biomass ratios. Thermochemical reactions of algae produced significantly higher dichloromethane solubles and generally higher product yields to oil and asphaltene than Pinus radiata and grape marc under the reaction conditions used. Furthermore, the biofuels derived from algae contained significant concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons as opposed to those from radiata pine and grape marc which were richer in aromatic compounds. The possibility of air transport fuel production from algae thus appears to have considerable advantages over that from radiata pine and grape marc.

Dirgarini J.N. Subagyono; Marc Marshall; W. Roy Jackson; Alan L. Chaffee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two differents techniques were used, in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR measurements and BTU measurements. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis. Drying coal causes hydrogen bonds between water and coal to be broken. Liquids produced above 500{degrees}C are much higher in aromatic content, thus, effectively reducing the concentration of aliphatic groups in the overall liquid yield. BTU values of coals after methane treatment are higher than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Effect of temperature on the extraction of nitric acid and plutonium(IV) nitrate with 30 vol% tributyl phosphate (TBP)  

SciTech Connect

The author's own and published data were evaluated for characterizing the effect of temperature on the distribution of nitric acid and plutonium(IV). The solutes were distributed between 30 vol% TBP in an aliphatic diluent and aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and zero to macro amounts of plutonium(IV) and uranyl nitrates. The temperature dependence of the distribution ratios is described with empirical model equations and examples of the dependence in the absence and presence of uranium(VI) are given. Taking infinite dilution of all solutes of the system as a standard state, the enthalpy change of the extraction reaction could be estimated as -17 kJ/mol for nitric acid, but no numerical estimate was possible for plutonium(IV).

Kolarik, Z.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Demonstration of a TODGA/TBP process for recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from a PUREX raffinate  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of the partitioning of trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate has been demonstrated with a TODGA + TBP extractant mixture dissolved in an industrial aliphatic solvent TPH. Based on the results coming from cold and hot batch extraction studies and with the aid of computer code calculations a continuous counter current process have been developed and two flowsheets were tested using miniature centrifugal contactors. The feed solutions was a synthetic PUREX raffinate, spiked with {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs. More than 99.9 % of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides were extracted and back-extracted and very high decontamination factors to most fission products were obtained. Co-extraction of zirconium, molybdenum and palladium was prevented using oxalic acid and HEDTA. However 10% of ruthenium was extracted and only 3 % could be back extracted using diluted nitric acid. (authors)

Modolo, G.; Asp, H.; Vijgen, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energieforschung, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Valrho - CEA, DRCP/SCPS, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Advances in the design of co-poly(ether-imide) membranes for CO2 separations. Influence of aromatic rigidity on crystallinity, phase segregation and gas transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In our previous works, it was observed a clear relationship between the structure and the properties for different copoly(ether-imide)s, besides a good relation was found between SAXS characterization and permeability results. Here, a series of aliphatic aromatic copoly(ether-imide)s, based on an aromatic diamine (ODA), a diamine terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO2000) of a molecular weight of 2000 g/mol and different aromatic dianhydrides (BPDA, BKDA (or BTDA) and PMDA) has been synthesized and characterized. The permeability for O2, N2, CO2 and CH4, increased with the rigidity of the monomers (BKDA CO2/N2 separation. This work gives indications on how to design advanced materials for this separation with the increasing possibilities of controlled structure and properties.

Alberto Tena; Ángel Marcos-Fernández; Mónica de la Viuda; Laura Palacio; Pedro Prádanos; Ángel E. Lozano; Javier de Abajo; Antonio Hernández

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

Terry Brown; Song Jin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Comparative analysis of structural transformations of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity during carbonization  

SciTech Connect

The variation of the volume of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity (MF) values has been determined using carbonization tests, and the quality of coke obtained has been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The structural and chemical changes in bituminous coals at the pre-plastic stage during carbonization were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques and compared to the changes in their electric and dielectric parameters. It was observed that the structural and chemical transformations occurred in the disordered phase of both coals in different ways. These differences are attributed to the different redistributions of hydrogen between the radicals generated in the aliphatic and aromatic parts of the macromolecule fragments. 42 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Valentina Zubkova; Victor Prezhdo; Andrzej Strojwas [Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland). Institute of Chemistry

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Protein Vivisection Reveals Elusive Intermediates in Folding  

SciTech Connect

Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here, we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu {yields} Glu{sup -}) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We applied this strategy to ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the {beta}5-strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high-energy states.

Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

402

Chemical Forms of Mercury And Selenium in Fish Following Digestion With Simulated Gastric Fluid  

SciTech Connect

Fish is a major dietary source of potentially neurotoxic methylmercury compounds for humans. It is also a rich source of essential selenium. We have used in situ mercury L{sub III}-edge and selenium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to chemically characterize the methylmercury and selenium in both fresh fish and fish digested with simulated gastric fluid. For the mercury, we confirm our earlier finding [Harris et al. (2003) Science301, 1203] that the methylmercury is coordinated by a single thiolate donor, which resembles cysteine, and for the selenium, we find a mixture of organic forms that resemble selenomethionine and an aliphatic selenenyl sulfide such as Cys-S-Se-Cys. We find that local chemical environments of mercury and selenium do not change upon digestion of the fish with simulated gastric fluid. We discuss the toxicological implications for humans consuming fish.

George, G.N.; Singh, S.P.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Statistical Copolymers Bearing Perfluoroalkylsulfonic Acid Moieties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Number-average molecular weight (Mn) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymeric materials were measured using a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) system consisting of a Waters Alliance 2695 separation module, an online multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector fitted with a gallium arsenide laser (power: 20 mW) operating at 690 nm (MiniDAWN, Wyatt Technology Inc.), an interferometric refractometer (Optilab DSP, Wyatt Technology Inc.), and two Polymer Laboratories mixed D columns (5 ?m bead size) connected in series. ... (23) After experimentation with several alternative neutralizing agents including pyridine and alkali metal hydroxides and carbonates, we determined that the aliphatic tertiary amine, N,N-diisopropylethylamine, produces a salt with favorable solubility and crystallization behavior. ... It is sparingly soluble in water, which facilitates isolation, and as will be shown, it may be used directly in polymerization, and under these conditions, the free amine is released and volatilized out of the polymer product. ...

Haibo Li; Andrew B. Jackson; Nathan J. Kirk; Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robson F. Storey

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

404

Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges  

SciTech Connect

Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. (Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: Oil matrix of constructed biopiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dynamic multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the partitioning and fate of petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and aromatic indicator compounds within the soil: oil matrix of three biopiles. Each biopile was characterised by four compartments: air, water, soil solids and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). Equilibrium partitioning in biopile A and B suggested that most fractions resided in the NAPL, with the exception of the aromatic fraction with an equivalent carbon number from 5 to 7 (EC5?7). In Biopile C, which had the highest soil organic carbon content (13%), the soil solids were the most important compartment for both light aliphatic fractions (EC5?6 and EC6?8) and aromatic fractions, excluding the EC16?21 and EC21?35. Our starting hypothesis was that hydrocarbons do not degrade within the NAPL. This was supported by the agreement between predicted and measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Biopile B when the degradation rate constant in NAPL was set to zero. In all scenarios, biodegradation in soil was predicted as the dominant removal process for all fractions, except for the aliphatic EC5?6 which was predominantly lost via volatilization. The absence of an explicit NAPL phase in the model yielded a similar prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) behaviour; however the predicted concentrations in the air and water phases were significantly increased with consequent changes in potential mobility. Further comparisons between predictions and measured data, particularly concentrations in the soil mobile phases, are required to ascertain the true value of including an explicit NAPL in models of this kind.

Frédéric Coulon; Michael J. Whelan; Graeme I. Paton; Kirk T. Semple; Raffaella Villa; Simon J.T. Pollard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Isothermal decomposition of New Albany shale from Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The isothermal decomposition of a New Albany oil shale has been studied in the temperature range of 375/sup 0/C to 425/sup 0/C. The amount of conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas and residue products was obtained for different reaction times in this temperature range. Elemental analyses were obtained on the bitumen, oil, and solid reaction products. Molecular weights and /sup 13/C NMR measurements of the aliphatic and aromatic carbon fractions in the solid products were made to complete the analyses. The results show that the thermal decomposition of the New Albany oil shale exhibits complex behavior. None of the data fit a simple first-order kinetic expression with respect to kerogen concentration for all temperatures, indicating that multiple parallel reactions occur during the decomposition. However, by fitting the initial slopes of the oil conversion data, it was possible to obtain the weighted average rate constants at each temperature. These data gave a good fit to the Arrhenius equation with the frequency factor equal to 6.38 x 10/sup 15/ min/sup -1/, and the activation energy equal to 207.5 k.j mol/sup -1/ for the kerogen decomposition. The maximum bitumen concentration was 10% or less of the original kerogen at any temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas and residue occurs during heating. Since the highly aliphatic Green River oil shale forms large amounts of bitumen whereas the more aromatic New Albany shale forms only small amounts, the formation of bitumen may be related to the aromatic nature of the kerogen. In general, the chemical properties of the oil were fairly constant at all reaction times and temperatures studied. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant species in the gas phase. The solid and liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data show that the net increase of total aromatic carbon in the products was about 30% of the raw shale value. 37 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Conn, P.J.; Turner, T.F.; Berdan, G.L.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Reducible Supports for Ni-based Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chain’s spin relaxation rates is attributed to cation–cation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spin–lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for C–H bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.

Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

Simpson, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Catalytic bromine recovery from HBr waste  

SciTech Connect

Waste HBr is formed during the bromination of many organic molecules, such as flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. For over 50 years attempts to recover the bromine from waste HBr by catalytic oxidation have been unsuccessful due to low catalyst activity and stability. The discovery of a new high-activity catalysts with excellent long-term stability and life capable of high HBr conversion below 300{degrees}C has made catalytic oxidation of waste HBr commercially feasible. The oxidation of anhydrous HBr using oxygen is highly exothermic, giving an adiabatic temperature rise of 2000{degrees}C. Use of 48 wt% HBr in the oxidation reduces the adiabatic temperature rise to only 300{degrees}C. A multitubular heat exchanger type of reactor can then be used to manage the heat. A 5,000 kg/yr pilot plant was built to verify the performance of the catalyst, the suitability of the reactor materials of construction, and the multibular reactor concept. The pilot unit has a single full-scale reactor tube 4 m long and 2.54 cm in diameter with a hot oil jacket for heat management. Excellent catalyst stability was observed during a 600 h catalyst-life test. HBr conversion of 99% was maintained throughout the run, and over 360 kg of bromine was produced. The temperature at a localized hot spot near the reactor inlet was only 15-20{degrees}C above the reactor inlet temperature, indicating efficient heat management.

Schubert, P.F.; Beatty, R.D.; Mahajan, S. [Catalytica Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

1980-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Perform Tests and Document Results and Analysis of Oxide Layer Effects and Comparisons  

SciTech Connect

During the initial feasibility test using actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding in FY 2012, an incubation period of 30–45 minutes was observed in the initial dry chlorination. The cladding hull used in the test had been previously oxidized in a dry air oxidation pretreatment prior to removal of the fuel. The cause of this incubation period was attributed to the resistance to chlorination of an oxide layer imparted by the dry oxidation pretreatment on the cladding. Subsequently in 2013, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) reported on their chlorination study [R1] on ~9-gram samples of unirradiated ZirloTM cladding tubes that had been previously oxidized in air at 500oC for various time periods to impart oxide layers of varying thickness. In early 2014, discussions with Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contracted technical consultants from Westinghouse described their previous development (and patents) [R2] on methods of chemical washing to remove some or all of the hydrous oxide layer imparted on UNF cladding during irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) . Thus, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) study, described herein, was planned to extend the KAERI study on the effects of anhydrous oxide layers, but on larger ~100-gram samples of unirradiated zirconium alloy cladding tubes, and to investigate the effects of various methods of chemical pretreatment prior to chlorination with 100% chlorine on the average reaction rates and Cl2 usage efficiencies.

Collins, E. D. [ORNL; DelCul, G. D. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL; Hunt, R. D. [ORNL; Ausmus, C. [ORNL

2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

Coarse-grained model for the interconversion between different crystalline cellulose allomorphs  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of Langevin dynamics simulations on a coarse grained model for crystalline cellulose. In particular, we analyze two different cellulose crystalline forms: cellulose I (the natural form of cellulose) and cellulose IIII (obtained after cellulose I is treated with anhydrous liquid ammonia). Cellulose IIII has been the focus of wide interest in the field of cellulosic biofuels as it can be efficiently hydrolyzed to glucose (its enzymatic degradation rates are up to 5 fold higher than those of cellulose I ). In turn, glucose can eventually be fermented into fuels. The coarse-grained model presented in this study is based on a simplified geometry and on an effective potential mimicking the changes in both intracrystalline hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions during the transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII. The model accurately reproduces both structural and thermomechanical properties of cellulose I and IIII. The work presented herein describes the structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII as driven by the change in the equilibrium state of two degrees of freedom in the cellulose chains. The structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII is essentially reduced to a search for optimal spatial arrangement of the cellulose chains.

Langan, Paul [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Plume opacity investigation at a stoker-fired power generating station  

SciTech Connect

A public utility contacted the Conoco Coal Research Division through Consolidation Coal Company and requested technical assistance in determining the cause of a high plume opacity at one of their stoker-fired power generating stations. The sporadic occurrence of a high opacity plume (>20%) had been reported for several years. Although the utility was burning low sulfur coal, sulfuric acid mist had been suspected as the cause of the plume opacity; therefore, anhydrous ammonia had been injected into the flue gas at the ESP inlet plenums to control the plume opacity with some degree of success. However, for the last two years, the high plume opacity has occurred more frequently. The possible causes of the high plume opacity investigated were: 1) organic species emissions, 2) particulate mass loading, 3) particle size distribution, and 4) sulfuric acid emissions. The investigation included detailed sampling inside the boiler, stack, and plume areas. It was determined that the major cause of the high plume opacity was submicron particle growth at the stack exit due to sulfuric acid/water condensation. The larger particles more efficiently scattered light which resulted in the visible plume at the stack exit. The organic emissions and particulate mass loading in the stack flue gas had minimal effect on the high plume opacity. The fly ash size distribution would also have had minimal effect if the sulfuric acid had not been present.

Lewis, G.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites  

SciTech Connect

Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

420

Method for directly recovering fluorine from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a process for the direct recovery of gaseous fluorine from waste-gas streams or the like. The process comprises passing the gas stream through a bed of anhydrous K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets to fluorinate the same to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 and subsequently desorbing the fluorine by heating the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 pellets to a temperature re-converting them to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6. The efficiency of the fluorine-absorption step is maximized by operating in a selected and conveniently low temperature. The desorbed fluorine is highly pure and is at a pressure of several atmospheres. Preferably, the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets are prepared by a method including the steps of forming agglomerates of hydrated K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5, sintering the agglomerates to form K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5 pellets of enhanced reactivity with respect to fluorine, and fluorinating the sintered pellets to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6.

Orlett, Michael J. (Portsmouth, OH); Saraceno, Anthony J. (Waverly, OH)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Oxidation of heterocyclic nitrogen yields to nitroheterocycles. [Nitrofurazans  

SciTech Connect

In the process of finding new routes to synthesize nitrofurazans the investigators compared the oxidation of a sulfilimide and a phosphine imine derived from 3-amino-4-(chlorophenyl)furazan (1). The sulfilimine, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-dimethyl-sulfiliminofurazan (2), was prepared by treating 1 with dimethyl sulfide ditriflate. Oxidation of 1 with peroxytrifluoroacetic acid (ptfa) in dichloromethane gave a mixture that was chromatographed to give 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- nitro-furazan (5) in 11% yield and azoxy(4-chlorophenylfurazan) (6) in 32% yield. Under the same conditions, 2 gave a 96% yield of 5 with no trace of 6. Oxidation of diaminofurazan (7) with ptfa gives 3-amino-4-nitrofurazan (8), which was converted to the sulfilimine. Treatment of the sulfilimine with anhydrous ptfa in dichloromethane gave a solution that contained dimethyl sulfone according to /sup 13/C-NMR analysis, but no nitrocarbon could be detected. However, the /sup 14/N-NMR spectrum contained a very sharp singlet with a width at half-height of 19 Hz and a chemical shift almost identical to that of 5. Thus, it appears that we may have formed dinitrofurazan in solution, but we have not been able to isolate it in pure form as yet. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Coburn, M.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Microstructure of tricalcium silicate and Portland cement systems at middle periods of hydration-development of Hadley grains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of the microstructure of C3S paste and a Portland cement paste was studied between 7 and 24 h by means of backscattered electrons in a field-emission SEM. The course of hydration was measured by isothermal calorimetry. While the abundant occurrence of Hadley grains (hollow-shells) in Portland cement systems is well documented from a number of SEM and other microscopy studies, some earlier reports have noted that Hadley grains do not form in C3S or alite paste alone. This report shows evidence of Hadley grains in C3S paste, and follows their development from middle to late hydration stages. At around 10 h the microstructure with respect to Hadley grains were seen to develop in a very similar manner in C3S and cement. In both systems, a narrow gap often developed between the receding anhydrous cores and layer of reaction product enveloping the cores. By 1 day, Hadley grains had continued to develop only in the cement paste, where they became a prominent feature. Only small ‘hollowed-out’ hydration shells were observed in the C3S paste by 1 day. These were presumably reminiscences of the small gapped Hadley grains seen at the earlier hydration stages.

K.O. Kjellsen; B. Lagerblad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Microstructure of tricalcium silicate and Portland cement systems at middle periods of hydration-development of Hadley grains  

SciTech Connect

The development of the microstructure of C{sub 3}S paste and a Portland cement paste was studied between 7 and 24 h by means of backscattered electrons in a field-emission SEM. The course of hydration was measured by isothermal calorimetry. While the abundant occurrence of Hadley grains (hollow-shells) in Portland cement systems is well documented from a number of SEM and other microscopy studies, some earlier reports have noted that Hadley grains do not form in C{sub 3}S or alite paste alone. This report shows evidence of Hadley grains in C{sub 3}S paste, and follows their development from middle to late hydration stages. At around 10 h the microstructure with respect to Hadley grains were seen to develop in a very similar manner in C{sub 3}S and cement. In both systems, a narrow gap often developed between the receding anhydrous cores and layer of reaction product enveloping the cores. By 1 day, Hadley grains had continued to develop only in the cement paste, where they became a prominent feature. Only small 'hollowed-out' hydration shells were observed in the C{sub 3}S paste by 1 day. These were presumably reminiscences of the small gapped Hadley grains seen at the earlier hydration stages.

Kjellsen, K.O. [Norcem A.S, Heidelberg Cement Group, N-3950 Brevik (Norway)]. E-mail: knut.kjellsen@norcem.no; Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in-situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust grains. It has a mass resolution m/{\\Delta}m of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these mi...

Krüger, Harald; Engrand, Cécile; Briois, Christelle; Siljeström, Sandra; Merouane, Sihane; Baklouti, Donia; Fischer, Henning; Fray, Nicolas; Hornung, Klaus; Lehto, Harry; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Rynö, Jouni; Schulz, Rita; Silen, Johan; Thirkell, Laurent; Trieloff, Mario; Hilchenbach, Martin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate Within one year after the Montana Department of Transportation has certified that ethanol producers in the state have produced a total of 40 million gallons of denatured ethanol and have maintained that level of

426

ConsumTechNotes2012.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oxygenate. oxygenate. A small amount of fuel ethanol is used as an alternative fuel, such as E85. It is typ- ically produced chemically from ethylene, or biologically from fermenta- tion of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural crops and cellulosic residues from crops or wood. For 1981 forward, fuel ethanol es- timates are maintained separately from motor gasoline in SEDS and shown in the state energy consumption data tables to illustrate renewable energy use. The U.S. total fuel ethanol consumption in SEDS is a series developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from annual reports of field production of oxygenated gasoline (prior to 2005), finished motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components adjustments (2005 for- ward), and refinery and blender net inputs of fuel ethanol (all years). The fuel ethanol series used in SEDS is denatured fuel ethanol,

427

The Entire Molecular Biology Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Biology Archives Molecular Biology Archives Molecular Biology, Since May 2000 Table of Contents: Blood pH and Oxygen DNA Extraction Flesh Eating Bacteria Amino Acid Differences Lyme Disease Effects Vinegar and Alcohol Mosquito and Blood Caffeine and Smoking Bread Mold and pH Hemocyanin and Hemerythrin Hodospin Man-made Bacteria Pregnancy Tips mRNA Killing Bacteria Gram Stain Milk Bacteria Denatured Protein Pseudmands Bacteria Nucleotide Order Bacteria Resistance Albinism Genes DNA Healing Re-constitution of Proteins H. pylori and Multiple sclerosis Smallest Organism Sugars and Fats Bacteria Systematics Slow Regeneration Media Cultures Butter and Bacteria AIDS and Survival in Air Cell Intelligence Giardia gingivalis Meat Bacteria Pus and Immune Cells Chalones Culture of T. ferrooxisans Amphibian E. coli

428

Definition: Ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethanol Ethanol A colorless, flammable liquid produced by fermentation of sugars. While it is also the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it can be denatured for fuel use. Fuel ethanol is used principally for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or octane enhancer. In high concentrations, it is used to fuel alternative-fuel vehicles specially designed for its use.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion liters. From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type

429

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

& Blender Net Production & Blender Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol.

430

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Tax Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Tax Credit An ethanol facility is eligible for a credit of $0.075 per gallon of ethanol, before denaturing, for new production for up to 36 consecutive

431

Financial determinants of corn market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies the effects of the TNX ten-year treasury note, the crude oil light sweet, the denatured fuel ethanol, the S&P 500 Stock Index and the US dollar/yen exchange rate on the conditional mean and variance return of corn futures. It employs daily data from January 1, 2002 to August 31, 2009. Using the GJR-GARCH(1, 1) model, we provide empirical evidence of positive influence of bond, energy and capital market on corn market. There is also evidence that the volatility shocks of the US dollar/yen exchange rate have a positive impact on the conditional volatility of corn futures returns. Finally, the structural analysis of volatility with the GJR-GARCH model has shown that current volatility is more influenced by past volatility rather than by the previous day shocks.

Nikolaos Sariannidis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Characterization of the microdialysis junction interface for capillary electrophoresis/microelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) interface, based on an electric circuit across a microdialysis membrane surrounding a short capillary segment closely connected to the separation capillary terminus, is demonstrated to be sensitive, efficient, and rugged. A microspray type ionization emitter produces a stable electrospray at the low flow rates provided by CE and thus avoids both the need for a makeup liquid flow provided by liquid junction or sheath flow interfaces and the subsequent dilution and reduction in sensitivity. Reproducibility studies and comparisons with CE/UV and the CE/sheath flow interface with ESI-MS are presented. Additionally, postrun acidification via the microdialysis junction interface is demonstrated and shown to be capable of denaturing the holomyoglobin protein noncovalent complex while maintaining separation efficiency. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Severs, J.C.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Unwinding relaxation dynamics of polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relaxation dynamics of a polymer wound around a fixed obstacle constitutes a fundamental instance of polymer with twist and torque and it is of relevance also for DNA denaturation dynamics. We investigate it by simulations and Langevin equation analysis. The latter predicts a relaxation time scaling as a power of the polymer length times a logarithmic correction related to the equilibrium fluctuations of the winding angle. The numerical data support this result and show that at short times the winding angle decreases as a power-law. This is also in agreement with the Langevin equation provided a winding-dependent friction is used, suggesting that such reduced description of the system captures the basic features of the problem.

Jean-Charles Walter; Marco Baiesi; Gerard Barkema; Enrico Carlon

2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

434

Exploring the conformational energy landscape of proteins  

SciTech Connect

Proteins possess a complex energy landscape with a large number of local minima called conformational substates that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Here we discuss experiments aimed at the elucidation of the energy landscape in carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO). In the highest tier of the hierarchy, a few taxonomic substates exist. Because of their small number, these substates are accessible to detailed structural investigations. Spectroscopic experiments are discussed that elucidate the role of protonations of amino acid side chains in creating the substates. The lower tiers of the hierarchy contain a large number of statistical substates. Substate interconversions are observed in the entire temperature range from below 1 K up to the denaturation temperature, indicating a wide spectrum of energy barriers that separate the substates.

Nienhaus, G.U. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); [Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Mueller, J.D.; McMahon, B.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A Unique Box in 28S rRNA Is Shared by the Enigmatic Insect Order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[66]. The primer sets used for amplification as well as sequencing were listed in Table S2. The functions of these primers were annotated in File S1. The PCR protocal for 28S rDNA included an initial denaturation at 94uC for 1 minute, followed by 30... cycles of 30 seconds at 94uC, 30 seconds-1 minute at 48–55uC and 1–2 minutes at 72uC, ending with a final extension at 72uC for 8–10 minutes. The thermal cycling program for 18S rDNA followed Johnson and Clayton [67]. All fragments were sequenced in both...

Wang, Yanhui; Engel, Michael S.; Rafael, Jose A.; Dang, Kai; Wu, Haoyang; Wang, Ying; Xie, Quang; Bu, Wenjun

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

436

Protein folding and cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

González-Diáz, P F

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Rhoptry protein 6 from Toxoplasma gondii is an intrinsically disordered protein  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Rhoptry protein 6 (ROP6) from Toxoplasma gondii is a 480-amino acid protein with no homology to any reported excretory or secretory protein. Especially, unlike the many other rhoptry protein types, ROP6 does not have a kinase domain. The biochemical and biophysical properties of ROP6 are unknown. Here, we investigated its structure using an in silico analysis method and overexpression and purification using an Escherichia coli system. The protein was purified to more than 85% homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity chromatography in denaturing conditions. After purification, ROP6 showed slow migration in SDS–PAGE, including fast proteolysis. This implies that ROP6 has a high percentage of flexible regions or extended loop structures. Secondary structure prediction and prediction of intrinsically disordered regions by using various bioinformatics tools, indicated that approximately 60% of ROP6 is predicted to be intrinsically disordered or random coil regions. These observations indicate that ROP6 is an intrinsically disordered protein.

Won-Kyu Lee; Hye-Jin Ahn; Yeon Gyu Yu; Ho-Woo Nam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 ?mol g?1 dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

Minh Tuan Nguyen; Nazlina Haiza Mohd Yasin; Toshiki Miyazaki; Toshinari Maeda

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Stabilizing effect of small concentrations of PAMAM dendrimers at the insulin aggregation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Dendrimers’ action on proteins and peptides has a dual and controversial character. On one hand, they dissolve prion protein and amyloid fibrils aggregates, which are otherwise only soluble in solvents containing both detergents and high denaturant concentrations. On the other hand they are able to destabilize proteins in generation dependent manner. In present work we estimated the influence of small concentrations (up to 1.4 ?g/ml) of cationic, neutral and anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of 3rd and 4th generations on dithiotreitol induced aggregation of insulin. It was found that cationic dendrimers decreased the insulin aggregation, while anionic and neutral ones did not. At the same time, destabilizing effect of dendrimers on insulin structure was not observed. The conclusion was made that small concentrations of dendrimers can be applied to prevent or decrease the formation of misfolded structures of protein.

Olga Nowacka; Dzmitry Shcharbin; Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz; Maria Bryszewska

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Protein folding and cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz; C. L. Siguenza

1997-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Putting the Squeeze on Biology: Biomolecules Under Pressure  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Modest pressures encountered in the biosphere (i.e., below a few kbar) have extraordinary effects on biomembranes and proteins. These include pressure denaturation of proteins, dramatic changes in protein-protein association, substrate binding, membrane ion transport, DNA transcription, virus infectivity, and enzyme kinetics. Yet all of the biomaterials involved are highly incompressible. The challenge to the physicist is to understand the structural coupling between these effects and pressure to elucidate the relevant mechanisms. X-ray diffraction studies of membranes and proteins under pressure will be described. It is seen that it is not so much the magnitude of the changes, but rather the differential compressibilities of different parts of the structure that are responsible for effects.

Sol Gruner

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

442

Kinder Morgan Central Florida Pipeline Ethanol Project  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

KINDER MORGAN CENTRAL FLORIDA PIPELINE ETHANOL PROJECT ï‚· In December 2008, Kinder Morgan began transporting commercial batches of denatured ethanol along with gasoline shipments in its 16-inch Central Florida Pipeline (CFPL) from Tampa to Orlando, making CFPL the first transmarket gasoline pipeline in the United States to do so. The 16-inch pipeline previously only transported regular and premium gasoline. ï‚· Kinder Morgan invested approximately $10 million to modify the line for ethanol shipments which involved chemically cleaning the pipeline, replacing pipeline equipment that was incompatible with ethanol and expanding storage capacity at its Orlando terminal to handle ethanol shipments. ï‚· Kinder Morgan is responding to customer interest in ethanol blending. Our Florida

443

Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

E85 Definition to E85 Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type E85 Definition E85 motor fuel is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of ethanol and hydrocarbon, of which the ethanol portion is 75-85% denatured fuel ethanol by volume and complies with the most current ASTM specification

444

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard Within six months following the point at which monthly production of denatured ethanol produced in Louisiana equals or exceeds a minimum annualized production volume of 50 million gallons, at least 2% of the

445

Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment  

SciTech Connect

A motored engine study using premixed charges of fuel and air at a wide range of diesel-relevant equivalence ratios was performed to investigate autoignition differences among surrogates for conventional diesel fuel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel, and biodiesel, as well as n-heptane. Experiments were performed by delivering a premixed charge of vaporized fuel and air and increasing the compression ratio in a stepwise manner to increase the extent of reaction while monitoring the exhaust composition via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and collecting condensable exhaust gas for subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Each fuel demonstrated a two-stage ignition process, with a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) event followed by the main combustion, or high-temperature heat release (HTHR). Among the three diesel-relevant fuels, the magnitude of LTHR was highest for GTL diesel, followed by methyl decanoate, and conventional diesel fuel last. FTIR analysis of the exhaust for n-heptane, the conventional diesel surrogate, and the GTL diesel surrogate revealed that LTHR produces high concentrations of aldehydes and CO while producing only negligible amounts of CO{sub 2}. Methyl decanoate differed from the other two-stage ignition fuels only in that there were significant amounts of CO{sub 2} produced during LTHR; this was the result of decarboxylation of the ester group, not the result of oxidation. GC/MS analysis of LTHR exhaust condensate for n-heptane revealed high concentrations of 2,5-heptanedione, a di-ketone that can be closely tied to species in existing autoignition models for n-heptane. GC/MS analysis of the LTHR condensate for conventional diesel fuel and GTL diesel fuel revealed a series of high molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, which were expected, as well as a series of organic acids, which are not commonly reported as products of combustion. The GC/MS analysis of the methyl decanoate exhaust condensate revealed that the aliphatic chain acts similarly to n-paraffins during LTHR, while the ester group remains intact. Thus, although the FTIR data revealed that decarboxylation occurs at significant levels for methyl decanoate, it was concluded that this occurs after the aliphatic chain has been largely consumed by other LTHR reactions. (author)

Szybist, James P.; Boehman, Andre L.; Haworth, Daniel C. [Pennsylvania State University, Fuel Science Program, 405 Academic Activities Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Koga, Hibiki [Honda R and D Company, Ltd., Asaka-shi, Saitama 351-0024 (Japan)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

In situ dehydration behavior of zeolite-like pentagonite: A single-crystal X-ray study  

SciTech Connect

The structural modifications upon heating of pentagonite, Ca(VO)(Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (space group Ccm2{sub 1}, a=10.3708(2), b=14.0643(2), c=8.97810(10) A, V=1309.53(3) A{sup 3}) were investigated by in situ temperature dependent single-crystal X-ray structure refinements. Diffraction data of a sample from Poona district (India) have been measured in steps of 25 up to 250 Degree-Sign C and in steps of 50 Degree-Sign C between 250 and 400 Degree-Sign C. Pentagonite has a porous framework structure made up by layers of silicate tetrahedra connected by V{sup 4+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. Ca and H{sub 2}O molecules are extraframework occupants. Room temperature diffraction data allowed refinement of H positions. The hydrogen-bond system links the extraframework occupants to the silicate layers and also interconnects the H{sub 2}O molecules located inside the channels. Ca is seven-fold coordinated forming four bonds to O of the tetrahedral framework and three bonds to extraframework H{sub 2}O. The H{sub 2}O molecule at O9 showing a high displacement parameter is not bonded to Ca. The dehydration in pentagonite proceeds in three steps. At 100 Degree-Sign C the H{sub 2}O molecule at O8 was released while O9 moved towards Ca. As a consequence the displacement parameter of H{sub 2}O at O9 halved compared to that at room temperature. The unit-cell volume decreased to 1287.33(3) A{sup 3} leading to a formula with 3H{sub 2}O per formula unit (pfu). Ca remained seven-fold coordinated. At 175 Degree-Sign C Ca(VO)(Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}){center_dot}3H{sub 2}O transformed into a new phase with 1H{sub 2}O molecule pfu characterized by doubling of the c axis and the monoclinic space group Pn. Severe bending of specific T--O--T angles led to contraction of the porous three-dimensional framework. In addition, H{sub 2}O at O9 was expelled while H{sub 2}O at O7 approached a position in the center of the channel. The normalized volume decreased to 1069.44(9) A{sup 3}. The Ca coordination reduced from seven- to six-fold. At 225 Degree-Sign C a new anhydrous phase with space group Pna2{sub 1} but without doubling of c had formed. Release of H{sub 2}O at O7 caused additional contraction of T--O--T angles and volume reduction (V=1036.31(9) A{sup 3}). Ca adopted five-fold coordination. During heating excursion up to 400 Degree-Sign C this anhydrous phase remained preserved. Between room temperature and 225 Degree-Sign C the unit-cell volume decreased by 21% due to dehydration. The dehydration steps compare well with the thermo-gravimetric data reported in the literature. - Graphical abstract: Pentagonite structure at room temperature and at 225 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the relationship between the removal of H{sub 2}O molecules and structural modifications of the framework of pentagonite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentagonite undergoes phase transitions upon heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze similarities and differences between pentagonite and related structures.

Danisi, Rosa Micaela, E-mail: rosa.danisi@krist.unibe.ch [Mineralogical Crystallography, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland); Armbruster, Thomas; Lazic, Biljana [Mineralogical Crystallography, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

XAS Catches the Chemical Form of Mercury in Fish  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

view large image view large image contact info Friday, 29 August 2003 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Catches the Chemical Form of Mercury in Fish - SSRL Scientists Reveal New Findings in Science Article The presence of "methyl mercury" in fish is well-known, but until now the detailed chemical identity of the mercury has remained a mystery. In an x-ray absorption spectroscopy study published in the August 29 issue of Science (Science 301, 2003: 1203; Science now: Murky Picture on Fish Mercury), SSRL scientists report that the chemical form of mercury involves a sulfur atom (most likely in a so-called aliphatic form). The study presents significant new knowledge - because the toxic properties of mercury (or any element) are critically dependent upon its chemical form - and represents an important milestone in developing an understanding of how harmful mercury in fish might actually be. The study was carried out by SSRL staff scientists Ingrid Pickering and Graham George and postdoctoral fellow Hugh Harris using SSRL's structural molecular biology beam line 9-3. The very high flux, excellent beam stability and state-of-the-art detector technology allowed the team to measure samples of fish containing micromolar levels of mercury, much lower than had previously been possible.

448

Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S?1 h?1. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

Fulvia Tambone; Laura Terruzzi; Barbara Scaglia; Fabrizio Adani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase  

SciTech Connect

Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report  

SciTech Connect

Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The influence of a presence of a heavy atom on the spin-spin coupling constants between two light nuclei in organometallic compounds and halogen derivatives  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 1}J{sub CC} and {sup 1}J{sub CH} spin-spin coupling constants have been calculated by means of density functional theory (DFT) for a set of derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with I, At, Cd, and Hg in order to evaluate the substituent and relativistic effects for these properties. The main goal was to estimate HALA (heavy-atom-on-light-atom) effects on spin-spin coupling constants and to explore the factors which may influence the HALA effect on these properties, including the nature of the heavy atom substituent and carbon hybridization. The methods applied range, in order of reduced complexity, from Dirac-Kohn-Sham method (density functional theory with four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian), through DFT with two- and one-component Zeroth Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonians, to scalar non-relativistic effective core potentials with the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. Thus, we are able to compare the performance of ZORA-DFT and Dirac-Kohn-Sham methods for modelling of the HALA effects on the spin-spin coupling constants.

Wody?ski, Artur; Pecul, Magdalena, E-mail: mpecul@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

ON THE EXCITATION AND FORMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR FULLERENES  

SciTech Connect

We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds: Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C{sub 60} and little or no emission is present from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strengths of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae are very similar, while the ratios of the [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.8 {mu}m fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, are markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9 {mu}m region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated with mixtures of aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon solids. We hypothesize on the origin of this band, which is likely related to the fullerene formation mechanism, and compare it with modeled hydrogenated amorphous carbon that present emission in this region.

Bernard-Salas, J.; Jones, A. P. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay (France); Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Micelotta, E. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Groenewegen, M. A. T., E-mail: jbernard@ias.u-psud.fr [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

454

Yellow perch embryo-larval survival and growth in surface waters associated with oil-sands mining  

SciTech Connect

As part of their land reclamation strategy, Syncrude Canada Ltd. is currently developing environmentally acceptable tailings disposal methods. Fine tailings, a suspension of clay and residual bitumen, is the waste product from oil sands extraction. Fine-tailings contain naphthenic acids, a group of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids, which occur naturally in petroleum and are partly responsible for the toxicity of process water. The wet landscape method involves covering fine tails with a layer of water such that a self-sustaining ecosystem can be established. A 5 ha demonstration pond with a bottom of fine-tailings was constructed and stocked with yellow perch for experimental purposes. Two other reclaimed ponds formed with oil-sands overburden material were also stocked with perch. Adult perch sampled in the fall of 1995 from the experimental and reclaimed ponds exhibited a 2-fold induction of MFO activity compared to the source lake; indicating organic compound exposure. Perch from one of the reclaimed ponds showed significantly reduced circulating reproductive hormone levels, gonad size and smaller ovarian follicles. Reproductive parameters were not different between the source lake and the remaining ponds. Paired lab and field experiments were conducted to determine if contaminants present would be detrimental to egg viability and development of larvae either through direct exposure of spawned eggs or indirectly by effecting oogenesis. An early life stage toxicity test was also performed using commercially available naphthenic acid standard. Endpoints measured were percent fertilization, percent hatch, mortality, deformities, timing of developmental periods and larval growth.

Peters, L.E.; Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. Van [Syncrude Canada, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Interfacial activity of phosphonated-polyethylene glycol functionalized cerium oxide nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent publication, we have highlighted the potential of phosphonic acid terminated PEG oligomers to functionalize strong UV absorption cerium oxide nanoparticles[1], which yield suspensions that are stable in aqueous or organic solvents and are redispersible in different solvent after freeze-drying. In the present work, we highlight the interfacial activity of the functional ceria nanoparticles and their potential to modify hydrophobic surfaces. We first investigated Phosphonated-PEG amphiphilic oligomers behavior as strong surface active species forming irreversibly adsorbed layers. We then show that the oligomers interfacial properties translate to the functional nanoparticles. In particular, the addition of a small fraction of phosphonated-PEG oligomers with an extra C16 aliphatic chain (stickers) into the formulation enabled the tuning of i) the nanoparticles adsorption at the air/water, polystyrene/water, oil/water interfaces and ii) the particle/particle interaction in aqueous solutions. We also found that dense and closely packed two dimensional monolayers of nanoceria can be formed by spontaneous adsorption or surface compression using a Langmuir trough. A hexagonal organization controlled by reversible and repulsive repulsion has been characterized by GISAXS. Mono- or multilayers can also be stably formed or transferred on solid surfaces. Our results are key features in the field of polymer surface modification, solid stabilized emulsions (Pickering) or supracolloidal assemblies.

L. Qi; J. Fresnais; P. Muller; O. Theodoly; J. -F. Berret; J. -P. Chapel

2013-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

456

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this two-year project was to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. The two processing steps, physical cleaning and devolatilization under different environments, led to the following results. Cleaning coal incompletely removes mineral matter which decreases catalytic activity and increases micropore structure. Water forms hydrogen bonds to oxygen functional groups in coal, and during drying, coals undergo structural changes which affect mild gasification. When methane reacts wit coal, devolatilization and carbon deposition occur, the rates of which depend on temperature and amount of ash. Thermal decomposition of IBC-101 coal starts at 300 C, which is much lower than previously believed, but maximum yields of liquids occur at 500 C for IBC-101 coal and at 550 C for IBC-102 coal. Aliphatic-to-aromatic ratios increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures to 300 C and then decrease; therefore, liquids formed during gasification of 550 C or higher contain mainly aromatic compounds. Btu values of chars are higher after methane treatment than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters  

SciTech Connect

Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C/sub 2/ through C/sub 5/) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

Lico, M.S.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Wright, V.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Evaluation of the In Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Ethenes by Toluene-Utilizing Microorganisms Using Push-Pull Tests  

SciTech Connect

Single-well-push-pull tests were used in a contaminated aquifer to evaluate the ability of toluene-oxidizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) such as trichloroethene (TCE). Groundwater containing dissolved toluene was injected into the saturated zone in biostimulate indigenous toluene-utilizers. The test solution was injected into the aquifer using a standard monitoring well and then was transported under natural-gradient conditions. Transport tests demonstrated similar transport characteristics of the conservative tracer and the reactive solutes. Biostimulation tests were then performed by injecting a test solution containing dissolved toluene substrate, hydrogen peroxide, bromide and nitrate in order to increase the biomass of toluene-utilizing microorganisms. During the biostimulation tests, decreases in toluene concentration and the production of o-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product, indicated the simulation of toluene-utilizing microorganisms containing an ortho-monooxygenase enzyme. Transformation tests conducted after biostimulation demonstrated that indigenous microorganisms have the capability to transform the surrogate compounds (e.g. isobutene). Isobutene was transformed to isobutene oxide, indicating transformation by a toluene ortho-monooxygenase.

Azizian, Mohammad F.; Istok, Jonathan; Semprini, Lewis

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

459

Thauera linaloolentis sp. nov. and Thauera terpenica sp. nov., Isolated on Oxygen-containing Monoterpenes (Linalool, Menthol, and Eucalyptol and Nitrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary The monoterpenes menthol, linalool, and eucalyptol were recently used as sole electron donor and carbon source for the isolation of three denitrifying bacterial strains 21Mol, 47Lol, and 58Eu. The motile, mesophilic, Gram-negative rods had a strictly respiratory metabolism. Monoterpenes were completely mineralised to carbon dioxide, nitrate was reduced to dinitrogen. Strain 47Lol utilised aliphatic monoterpenes, strain 21Mol oxygenated monocyclic monoterpenes, and strain 58Eu the bicyclic eucalyptol and monocyclic monoterpene alkenes. The fatty acid composition of the strains indicated an allocation to the rRNA group III of pseudomonads. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the new isolates can be assigned as members of the genus Thauera within the beta subclass of Proteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridisation studies indicated a relateness of 68.5% between strains 21Mol and 58Eu which shared 36.0% and 40.6% DNA similarity with strain 47Lol. The strains are described as new species belonging to the genus Thauera, strain 47Lol (DSM 12138T) as T. linaloolentis sp. nov. and strains 21Mol and 58Eu as T. terpenica sp. nov. with strain 58Eu (DSM 12139T) as type strain.

S. Foss; J. Harder

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

The Molecular Structure of a Phosphatidylserine Bilayer Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids play essential roles in biological processes, including enzyme activation and apoptosis. We report on the molecular structure and atomic scale interactions of a fluid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS). A scattering density profile model, aided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was developed to jointly refine different contrast small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, which yielded a lipid area of 62.7 A2 at 25 C. MD simulations with POPS lipid area constrained at different values were also performed using all-atom and aliphatic united-atom models. The optimal simulated bilayer was obtained using a model-free comparison approach. Examination of the simulated bilayer, which agrees best with the experimental scattering data, reveals a preferential interaction between Na+ ions and the terminal serine and phosphate moieties. Long-range inter-lipid interactions were identified, primarily between the positively charged ammonium, and the negatively charged carboxylic and phosphate oxygens. The area compressibility modulus KA of the POPS bilayer was derived by quantifying lipid area as a function of surface tension from area-constrained MD simulations. It was found that POPS bilayers possess a much larger KA than that of neutral phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. We propose that the unique molecular features of POPS bilayers may play an important role in certain physiological functions.

Pan, Jianjun [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF)] [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF); Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL] [ORNL; Monticelli, Luca [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France] [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Tieleman, D. Peter [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada] [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A replacement solvent cleaner/degreaser study at Duffy Electric and Machine Company  

SciTech Connect

Duffy Electric & Machine Company repairs and rebuilds electric motors. The company overhauls large electric motors (AC and DC with greater than 15 hp output). The company also overhauls small electric motors. The process involves gross cleaning of electromechanical devices to achieve a level of cleanliness that facilitates inspection, repair, and testing. The cleaner used in this study, Petroferm BIOACT{trademark} 285, was selected because it is representative of its class of material. BIOACT{trademark} is a mixture of high molecular-weight aliphatic esters and can be categorized as a semi-aqueous fluid. The cleaner is meant to be used without dilution and must be rinsed with alcohol, such as IPA, rather than with water. The alcohol is a technical grade that is at least 98% IPA, with the remainder being water. The IPA rinse is completely miscible with the ester solvent. The IPA evaporates rapidly due to its high vapor pressure (3 mm Hg @ 68{degrees}F).This report describes the performance of the ester and alcohol cleansers with regard to pollution abatement and health hazards as well as cleaning performance.

Springer, J. Jr. [Risk Reduction Engineering Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sass, B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Development of a Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous Separation of Strontium and Cesium from Acidic Solutions  

SciTech Connect

A synergistic extraction solvent for the simultaneous removal of cesium and strontium from acidic solutions has been investigated. The extraction solvent consists of, 4,4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB modifier) in a branched aliphatic kerosene (Isopar® L). Extraction synergy for strontium was observed when DtBuCH18C6 was combined with the BOBCalixC6 cesium extractant solvent and Cs-7SB modifier or if the Cs-7SB modifier was substituted into the SREX (Strontium Extraction) solvent in place of TBP. The novel process extracted both cesium and strontium simultaneously from 1 M nitric acid solutions with distribution ratios of 8.8 and 7.7 for strontium and cesium, respectively, at ambient temperature. Distribution coefficients for cesium and strontium as a function of nitric acid concentration and temperature were also obtained with 0.5 M<[HNO3]<2.5 M giving favorable distribution ratios. This new process utilizing the combined solvent has been named the Fission Product Extraction Process (FPEX).

Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: (1) polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides; (2) carbamate and organophosphorus; (3) herbicides; (4) phenols; (5) halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) phthalate esters; (7) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and (8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Process that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate process are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the US are discussed. 699 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs.

Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, T.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

SciTech Connect

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Microscopic measurement of the linear compressibilities of two-dimensional fatty acid mesophases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The linear compressibility of two-dimensional fatty acid mesophases has determined by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Surface pressure vs molecular area isotherms were reconstructed from these measurements, and the linear compressibility (relative distortion along a given direction for isotropic applied stress) was determined both in the sample plane and in a plane normal to the aliphatic chain director (transverse plane). The linear compressibilities range over two orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 10 m/N and are distributed depending on their magnitude in 4 different sets which we are able to associate with different molecular mechanisms. The largest compressibilities (10m/N) are observed in the tilted phases. They are apparently independent of the chain length and could be related to the reorganization of the headgroup hydrogen-bounded network, whose role should be revalued. Intermediate compressibilities are observed in phases with quasi long-range order (directions normal to the molecular tilt in L_2 or L_2' phases, S phase), and could be related to the ordering of these phases. The lowest compressibilities are observed in the solid untilted CS phase and for 1 direction of the S and L_2'' phases. They are similar to the compressibility of crystalline polymers and correspond to the interactions between methyl groups in the crystal. Finally, negative compressibilities are observed in the transverse plane for L_2' and L_2'' phases and can be traced to subtle reorganizations upon untilting.

C. Fradin; J. Daillant; A. Braslau; D. Luzet; M. Alba; M. Goldmann

1997-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

468

Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Kim, Jang Sub (State College, PA); Pawlow, James H. (Gainesville, FL); Murtuza, Shahid (State College, PA); Kacker, Smita (Annandale, NJ); Wojcinski, III, Louis M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The Internal Molecular Potential Between the Substituent Groups in a Benzene Ring as Derived from the Heats of Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that differences in the observed heats of combustion of isomeric benzene derivatives can be interpreted as the internal molecular potential existing between their substituent groups. A like interpretation can be given for the differences between the values observed for the heats of combustion of certain nonisomeric benzene derivatives and those calculated by the rule of additivity. This internal potential, to which the attractive and repulsive forces between the groups are due, results from the electrostatic potential of the group moments (dipole effect), the polarization of the substituents and of the ring (induction effect), the dispersion effect, and from steric hindrance. We have, therefore, a new and direct method of measuring the internal potential, which determines both the internal motion of groups within an organic molecule and its most stable configuration. The values thus measured are in good agreement with values theoretically evaluated from the above intermolecular (van der Waals) forces. From the data derived by this method we conclude in the case of o-xylene that valence angles of 120° between the C—CH3 bond and the aromatic C—C bonds are extremely stable, for the energy required to distort these angles through 10° is greater than 2 K cal/mole. We find, also, very restricted rotation for the butane molecule, from which it follows that saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the gaseous state tend to form zigzag chains. Such restricted rotation is found for the ether molecule as well.

H. A. Stuart

1931-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

Tabak, S.A. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Lab.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

473

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

474

Classes of compounds responsible for mutagenic and cytotoxic activity in tars and oils formed during low BTU gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI), in cooperation with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has completed toxicity screening of vapors, liquids and solids formed during operation of an experimental pressurized, stirred-bed, coal gasifier at METC. Vapors collected from the cooled process stream on Tenax resins had no mutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella assay. Dichloromethane extracts of liquids and solids collected from the effluent or process streams were fractionated by gel chromatography into fractions containing mostly aliphatic compounds; neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); polar (PAH) and heterocyclic compounds; and salts. The polar fraction was partitioned into acids, bases, water soluble compounds and phenols. Bacterial mutagenic activity was highest in the basic fraction with additional activity in the neutral PAHs. Highest cytotoxicity toward both the bacteria and canine alveolar macrophages was in the phenolic fraction. Treatment of the gasifier tars by nitrosation or by acetylation to remove primary aromatic amines (PAA) reduced the bacterial mutagenicity by 50-60%, indicating that some, but not all, of the mutagenicity was due to PAA.

Henderson, R.F.; Bechtold, W.F.; Benson, J.M.; Newton, G.J.; Hanson, R.L.; Brooks, A.L.; Dutcher, J.S.; Royer, R.E.; Hobbs, C.H.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)  

SciTech Connect

To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

477

Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Tailoring key fuel properties of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol blends for diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alternative fuel research for the profusely growing number of diesel run automotive has intensified due to environmental reasons and turmoil in petroleum market. Government initiatives all around the world, their energy policies and steps to emphasis the use of biodiesel; proved biodiesel as a number one renewable substitute for No. 2 diesel fuels. Among all biodiesel feedstock, palm oil is a potential source with higher yield rate without much fertilizer use especially in tropical region. However, the application of transesterified palm biodiesel is objected by many auto-manufacturers due to adverse effects on engine in long term operation. The aim of this study was to modify the key fuel properties of palm biodiesel which causes engine fouling in long term operation. A significant amount of work is devoted to mix biodiesel and diesel at arbitrary percentages and test engine performance. Numerous fuel additives are developed for biodiesels automotive use. In this study, chemical properties of biodiesel are tailored by ethanol and an optimum formulation is derived mathematically. Ethanol is used at a controlled proportion (6%) with palm oil methyl ester (POME) as additive to reduce the higher viscosity of POME. This optimum palm biodiesel–ethanol blend was mixed at varying proportions (i.e. 0–30%) with No. 2 diesel to produce ternary blends of diesel–palm biodiesel–ethanol. Cold flow properties (such as, could point, pour point) of these ternary blends has improved and minute percentage of ethanol adding did not adversely affect the oxidation stability and corrosiveness of the fuel blend. Ethanol has significantly reduces the flash point, but the flammability of ternary blends is classified as Class II; similar to that of diesel. Cetane number is reduced in ternary blends by ethanol. So, palm biodiesel with minute percentage of anhydrous ethanol as additive in the ternary blend significantly improved key fuel properties significantly.

Md. Jayed Hussan; Masjuki Hj. Hassan; Md. Abul Kalam; Liaquat Ali Memon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Thermal stability of certain hydrated phases in systems made using portland cement. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the study of hydraulic-cement system for use in possible underground isolation of nuclear wastes, this study was made to determine the temperature stability of ettringite and chloroaluminate. Either or both of these phases may be expected in a hydraulic cement system depending on the presence of salt (NaCl). The study of ettringite was made using 15 mixtures that contained portland cement, plaster, 2 levels of water, and in some mixtures, 1 of 6 pozzolans (3 fly ashes, 1 slag, a silica fume, a natural pozzolan), plus a 16th mixture with anhydrous sodium sulfate replacing plaster (CaSO4 . 1/2H20). Specimens were made and stored at 23, 50, and 75 C or 23, 75, and 100 C (all four temperatures in one case) for periodic examination by x-ray diffraction for phase compositiion and ettringite stability, and testing for compressive strength and restrained expansion. A more limited study of the stability of chloroaluminate was made along the same lines using fewer mixtures, salt instead of plaster, and higher temperatures plus some pressure. It was found that while some ettringette was decomposed at 75 C, depending on the composition of the mixture, all ettringite was undetectable by x-ray diffraction at 100 C, usually within a few days. The evidence indicates that the ettringite became amorphous and no significant test phases formed in its place. Since there was no corresponding loss in strength or reduction in volume, this loss of ettringite crystallinity was considered to be damaging. Based on much more limited data, chloroaluminate was found to decompose between 130 C at 25 psi and 170 C at 100 psi; no significant phases replaced it.

Buck, A.D.; Burkes, J.P.; Poole, T.S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Brucite [Mg(OH2)] carbonation in wet supercritical CO2: An in situ high pressure X-ray diffraction study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding mechanisms and kinetics of mineral carbonation reactions relevant to sequestering carbon dioxide as a supercritical fluid (scCO2) in geologic formations is crucial to accurately predicting long-term storage risks. Most attention so far has been focused on reactions occurring between silicate minerals and rocks in the aqueous dominated CO2-bearing fluid. However, water-bearing scCO2 also comprises a reactive fluid, and in this situation mineral carbonation mechanisms are poorly understood. Using in situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction, the carbonation of brucite [Mg(OH)2] in wet scCO2 was examined at pressure (82 bar) as a function of water concentration and temperature (50 and 75 °C). Exposing brucite to anhydrous scCO2 at either temperature resulted in little or no detectable reaction over three days. However, addition of trace amounts of water resulted in partial carbonation of brucite into nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] within a few hours at 50 °C. By increasing water content to well above the saturation level of the scCO2, complete conversion of brucite into nesquehonite was observed. Tests conducted at 75 °C resulted in the conversion of brucite into magnesite [MgCO3] instead, apparently through an intermediate nesquehonite step. Raman spectroscopy applied to brucite reacted with 18O-labeled water in scCO2 show it was incorporated into carbonate at a relatively high concentration. This supports a carbonation mechanism with at least one step involving a direct reaction between the mineral and water molecules without mediation by a condensed aqueous layer.

H.T. Schaef; C.F. Windisch Jr.; B.P. McGrail; P.F. Martin; K.M. Rosso

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "anhydrous denatured aliphatic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals  

SciTech Connect

An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

482

Complexation Studies of Bidentate Heterocyclic N-Donor Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)  

SciTech Connect

A new bidentate nitrogen donor complexing agent that combines pyridine and triazole functional groups, 2-((4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine (PTMP), has been synthesized. The strength of its complexes with trivalent americium (Am3+) and neodymium (Nd3+) in anhydrous methanol has been evaluated using spectrophotometric techniques. The purpose of this investigation is to assess this ligand (as representative of a class of similarly structured species) as a possible model compound for the challenging separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides. This separation, important in the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles, is best achieved through the agency of multidentate chelating agents containing some number of nitrogen or sulfur donor groups. To evaluate the relative strength of the bidentate complexes, the derived constants are compared to those of the same metal ions with 2,2*-bipyridyl (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), and 2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole (PBIm). At issue is the relative affinity of the triazole moiety for trivalent f element ions. For all ligands, the derived stability constants are higher for Am3+ than Nd3+. In the case of Am3+ complexes with phen and PBIm, the presence of 1:2 (AmL2) species is indicated. Possible separations are suggested based on the relative stability and stoichiometry of the Am3+ and Nd3+ complexes. It can be noted that the 1,2,3-triazolyl group imparts a potentially useful selectivity for trivalent actinides (An(III)) over trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)), though the attainment of higher complex stoichiometries in actinide compared with lanthanide complexes may be an important driver for developing successful separations.

Ogden, Mark; Hoch, Courtney L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

483

Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of high oxidation state silver fluorides and related compounds  

SciTech Connect

This thesis has been largely concerned with defining the oxidizing power of Ag(III) and Ag(II) in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) solution. Emphasis was on cationic species, since in a cation the electronegativity of a given oxidation state is greatest. Cationic Ag(III) solv has a short half life at ordinary temperatures, oxidizing the solvent to elemental fluorine with formation of Ag(II). Salts of such a cation have not yet been preparable, but solutions which must contain such a species have proved to be effective and powerful oxidizers. In presence of PtF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, RuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, or RhF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, Ag(III) solv effectively oxidizes the anions to release the neutral hexafluorides. Such reactivity ranks cationic Ag(III) as the most powerfully oxidizing chemical agent known as far. Unlike its trivalent relative Ag (II) solv is thermodynamically stable in acid aHF. Nevertheless, it oxidizes IrF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} to IrF{sub 6} at room temperature, placing its oxidizing potential not more than 2 eV below that of cationic Ag(III). Range of Ag{sup 2+} (MF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}){sub 2} salts attainable in aHF has been explored. An anion must be stable with respect to electron loss to Ag{sup 2+}. The anion must also be a poor F{sup {minus}} donor; otherwise, either AgF{sup +} salts or AgF{sub 2} are generated.

Lucier, G.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

A Synthetic Resilin Is Largely Unstructured  

SciTech Connect

Proresilin is the precursor protein for resilin, an extremely elastic, hydrated, cross-linked insoluble protein found in insects. We investigated the secondary-structure distribution in solution of a synthetic proresilin (AN16), based on 16 units of the consensus proresilin repeat from Anopheles gambiae. Raman spectroscopy was used to verify that the secondary-structure distributions in cross-linked AN16 resilin and in AN16 proresilin are similar, and hence that solution techniques (such as NMR and circular dichroism) may be used to gain information about the structure of the cross-linked solid. The synthetic proresilin AN16 is an intrinsically unstructured protein, displaying under native conditions many of the characteristics normally observed in denatured proteins. There are no apparent {alpha}-helical or {beta}-sheet features in the NMR spectra, and the majority of backbone protons and carbons exhibit chemical shifts characteristic of random-coil configurations. Relatively few peaks are observed in the nuclear Overhauser effect spectra, indicating that overall the protein is dynamic and unstructured. The radius of gyration of AN16 corresponds to the value expected for a denatured protein of similar chain length. This high degree of disorder is also consistent with observed circular dichroism and Raman spectra. The temperature dependences of the NH proton chemical shifts were also measured. Most values were indicative of protons exposed to water, although smaller dependences were observed for glycine and alanine within the Tyr-Gly-Ala-Pro sequence conserved in all resilins found to date, which is the site of dityrosine cross-link formation. This result implies that these residues are involved in hydrogen bonds, possibly to enable efficient self-association and subsequent cross-linking. The {beta}-spiral model for elastic proteins, where the protein is itself shaped like a spring, is not supported by the results for AN16. Both the random-network elastomer model and the sliding {beta}-turn model are consistent with the data. The results indicate a flat energy landscape for AN16, with very little energy required to switch between conformations. This ease of switching is likely to lead to the extremely low energy loss on deformation of resilin.

Nairn, Kate M.; Lyons, Russell E.; Mulder, Roger J.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Cookson, David J.; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Kim, Misook; Lau, Deborah; Scholes, Fiona H.; Elvin, Christopher M. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO/MHT); (CSIRO/LI); (Aust. Synch.)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

485

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has deciphered the crystal structure of a critical control element within chaperonin, the protein complex responsible for the correct folding of other proteins. Chaperonins promote the proper folding of newly translated proteins and proteins that have been stress-denatured-meaning they've lost their structure-by encapsulating them inside a protective chamber formed from two rings of molecular complexes stacked back-to-back. There are two classes of chaperonins, group I found in prokaryotes and group II found in eukaryotes and archaea (organisms with no cell membrane or internal membrane-bound organelles). Much of the basic architecture has been evolutionarily preserved (conserved) across these two classes but they do differ in how the protective chamber is opened to accept proteins and closed to fold them. Whereas group I chaperonins require a detachable ring-shaped molecular lid to open and close the chamber, group II chaperonins have a built-in lid.

486

Molecular architecture of classical cytological landmarks: Centromeres and telomeres  

SciTech Connect

Both the human telomere repeat and the pericentromeric repeat sequence (GGAAT)n were isolated based on evolutionary conservation. Their isolation was based on the premise that chromosomal features as structurally and functionally important as telomeres and centromeres should be highly conserved. Both sequences were isolated by high stringency screening of a human repetitive DNA library with rodent repetitive DNA. The pHuR library (plasmid Human Repeat) used for this project was enriched for repetitive DNA by using a modification of the standard DNA library preparation method. Usually DNA for a library is cut with restriction enzymes, packaged, infected, and the library is screened. A problem with this approach is that many tandem repeats don`t have any (or many) common restriction sites. Therefore, many of the repeat sequences will not be represented in the library because they are not restricted to a viable length for the vector used. To prepare the pHuR library, human DNA was mechanically sheared to a small size. These relatively short DNA fragments were denatured and then renatured to C{sub o}t 50. Theoretically only repetitive DNA sequences should renature under C{sub o}t 50 conditions. The single-stranded regions were digested using S1 nuclease, leaving the double-stranded, renatured repeat sequences.

Meyne, J.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Improvement of protein stability and enzyme recovery under stress conditions by using a small HSP (tpv-HSP 14.3) from Thermoplasma volcanium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study we cloned and expressed a small heat shock protein, tpv-HSP 14.3, from thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma volcanium. This novel recombinant small heat shock protein was purified to homogeneity and produced a protein band of 14.3 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Transmission electron microscopy images of the negatively stained tpv-HSP 14.3 samples showed spherical particles of 13 nm diameter. E. coli cells over expressing tpv-HSP 14.3 endowed the cells with some degree of thermotolerance. After exposure to 52 °C for 120 min, survivability of the E. coli cells expressing tpv-HSP 14.3 was approximately 2.5-fold higher than the control cells. As a molecular chaperone tpv-HSP 14.3 enhanced the thermal stabilization of substrate proteins, pig heart citrate synthase and bovine l-glutamic dehdyrogenase, considerably. The highest protection effect of tpv-HSP 14.3 was observed at 47 °C for pig heart citrate synthase; the remaining activity was 5-fold higher than that of the sample without tpv-HSP 14.3. The tpv-sHSP 14.3 prevented inactivation of bovine l-glutamic dehdyrogenase the most effectively at 53 °C; the residual activity was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the sample heated without tpv-HSP 14.3. However, refolding activity of the tpv-HSP 14.3 was relatively weak for the chemically denatured substrate proteins.

Semra Kocab?y?k; Sema Aygar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Characterization of the MVST waste tanks located at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

During the fall of 1996 there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns of the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report only discusses the analytical characterization data for the MVST waste tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report support the position that fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium were ``denatured`` as required by administrative controls. In general, MVST sludge was found to be both hazardous by RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well about the limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Initiation of glycogen biosynthesis in rat heart. Studies with a purified preparation  

SciTech Connect

Two fractions of glycogen synthase were isolated from rat cardiac muscle on the basis of a different affinity for DEAE-cellulose and omega-aminobutyl-agarose. One of these fractions was able to transfer glucosyl residues from UDP-glucose not only to glycogen (GS-1 activity) but also to an endogenous acceptor. The latter reaction (GS-2 activity) occurred in the absence of added glycogen, and its reaction product was insoluble in trichloroacetic acid. This compound was degraded by amylolytic enzymes, thus showing that the product synthesized on the endogenous acceptor was an alpha 1,4-glucan. After incubation with alpha-amylase-free proteolytic enzyme, the compound was rendered trichloroacetic acid-soluble. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, under both native and denaturing conditions, showed that GS-2 reaction products moved electrophoretically associated to protein. The results give further evidence for the association between an alpha 1,4-glucan and protein, which the authors postulate is related to the initiation of glycogen biosynthesis.

Blumenfeld, M.L.; Krisman, C.R.

1985-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

490

Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

491

Changes in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c/sub 2/ and subsequent renaturation: An /sup 15/N NMR study  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 15/N-enriched ferrocytochrome c/sub 2/from Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied by /sup 15/N NMR at different solvent pH values. The mobility and chemical shift to the N-terminal glutamic acid (335.4 ppm at pH 5.1) were found to depend on pH. It was least mobile between pH 8 and 9.0, which is explained in terms of pH-dependent conformational changes and formation of salt linkages and/or hydrogen bonds. The resonances of the lysine side chains are centered around 341.7 ppm at low pH and move upfield with pH by about 8.4 ppm with pH/sub a/ values of 10.8. The exchange rates of the epsilonNH protons are lowest near the pK/sub a/ values. The protein is very stable in the pH range between 4.9 and 10.0 but unfolds abruptly at pH 10.5-11. Denaturation was verified by the measurement of several parameters by NMR. The renaturation of the protein demonstrates that the folding begins with reformation of home coordination and establishment of a hydrophobic core, followed by positioning of side chains and peptide backbones linking the nucleation centers. The repositioning processes had time scales of minutes to hours in contrast to the reported values of seconds in some studies.

Yu, L.P.; Smith, G.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Removal of phenols from acidic environment by horseradish peroxidase (HRP): Aqueous thermostabilization of HRP by polysaccharide additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The bio-productive property of combinatorial polysaccharide additives (dextran and sodium alginate) on stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for removal of phenols from acidic solutions was studied in this paper. The optimum pH range and temperature were determined for the stabilized enzyme as 3.6–5.4 and 65 °C, respectively. Enzyme stabilization experiments were conducted in the solution state without enzyme immobilization or encapsulation. The combinatorial polysaccharides were selected to construct an appropriate response surface methodology (RSM) for maximum HRP stabilization together with sodium acetate buffer to optimize the polysaccharide additives. The RSM results suggest 10.08% of dextran, 0.41% of sodium alginate and 64 mM sodium acetate buffer for maximum HRP stabilization at 65 °C with a predicted percentage residual activity of 60.01%. DSC results corroborated that the denaturation temperature (TD) values of stabilized HRP to be 30 °C higher than that of the native enzyme. The effect of pH on phenol removal for both native and stabilized HRP suggested that stabilized HRP exhibited high phenol removal activities even under acidic environment and successfully removed phenols.

Ellappan Kalaiarasan; Thayumanavan Palvannan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain  

SciTech Connect

Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

The potential of glycerol in freezing preservation of turbine oil-degrading bacterial consortium and the ability of the revised consortium to degrade petroleum wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The turbine oil (TuO)-degrading bacterial consortium Tank-2 (original Tank-2) was preserved as a glycerol stock at ?80 °C from 2009 to 2012. Storage methods have been unavailable so far for any TuO-degrading bacterial consortia or isolates. To evaluate the usefulness of glycerol stock, the original Tank-2 consortium frozen in glycerol at ?80 °C was thawed and then revived by repeated culture in mineral salts medium (MSM) containing 0.5% (w/w) TuO (revived Tank-2). The revived Tank-2 consortium exhibited a high activity to degrade TuO, which was equivalent to that of original Tank-2. It also degraded car engine oil, used car engine oil, Arabian light and Vityaz crude oils and TuO in wastewater. These results indicated that a glycerol stock at ?80 °C was useful for storing Tank-2. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) that targeted the V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the DGGE band profiles of principal bacteria were significantly different between the original and revived Tank-2 consortia and between the revived Tank-2 culture grown in MSM containing TuO and that grown in MSM containing other types of petroleum products. This suggested that bacterial strains inherently residing in Tank-2 could adjust their compositions based on the storage and culture conditions.

Kumiko Kurachi; Reia Hosokawa; Marina Takahashi; Hidetoshi Okuyama

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Renewal sequences, disordered potentials, and pinning phenomena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an overview of the state of the art of the analysis of disordered models of pinning on a defect line. This class of models includes a number of well known and much studied systems (like polymer pinning on a defect line, wetting of interfaces on a disordered substrate and the Poland-Scheraga model of DNA denaturation). A remarkable aspect is that, in absence of disorder, all the models in this class are exactly solvable and they display a localization-delocalization transition that one understands in full detail. Moreover the behavior of such systems near criticality is controlled by a parameter and one observes, by tuning the parameter, the full spectrum of critical behaviors, ranging from first order to infinite order transitions. This is therefore an ideal set-up in which to address the question of the effect of disorder on the phase transition,notably on critical properties. We will review recent results that show that the physical prediction that goes under the name of Harris criterion is indeed fully correct for pinning models. Beyond summarizing the results, we will sketch most of the arguments of proof.

Giambattista Giacomin

2008-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

496

Relationship between rubisco sulfhydryl content and relative sensitivity of potato cultivars to ozone  

SciTech Connect

Ozone (O{sub 3}) induced a reduction in quantity of rubisco in potato foliage. In vitro, O{sub 3} predisposed purified rubisco to elevated proteolysis; reagents which protected sulfhydryl (SH) groups suppressed this effect. We hypothesized that rubisco SH content correlated directly with foliar O{sub 3} sensitivity. Rubisco was purified from Solanum tuberosum L. O{sub 3}-tolerant cv. Superior (SP) and Norgold Russet (NR), and O{sub 3}-susceptible cv. Norland (NL) and Cherokee (CK). When native rubisco was titrated with DTNB, protein of NL contained 1.33 and 1.26 times more SH groups than SP and NR, respectively. Rubisco from CK also contained more SH groups than SP and NR, but the difference was not significant. Rubisco of SP, NR and CK denatured by SDS exhibited identical number of SH groups, however, NL exhibited 1.15 times more SH groups. The greater number of SH groups in rubisco from NL versus SP and NR may explain its relative sensitivity to ozone. The role of SH groups in ozone-sensitivity of CK will require further study.

Enyedi, A.J.; Pell, E.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

A turbine oil-degrading bacterial consortium from soils of oil fields and its characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A microbial consortium capable of degrading turbine oil (TuO), which consisted mainly of recalcitrant cycloalkanes and isoalkanes, was obtained from a soil sample collected from oil fields using repeated enrichment. When this consortium, named Atsuta A, was cultured in minimal salts medium containing 0.5% (w/v) TuO, it degraded 90% of TuO at 30 °C and pH 7 over 5 days. Although nine bacterial strains were isolated from the Atsuta A consortium, TuO degradation by the individual isolates and by a mixture of them was negligible. The community structure of the consortium, which was investigated by PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes, changed significantly during the degradation of TuO. Four major bands (F, K, N and T) out of at least 23 DGGE bands significantly increased in intensity over time during incubation. The DGGE bands F, K and N corresponded to those of previously isolated species. However, DGGE band T did not correspond to any isolated strain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence collected from band T was 98% homologous to that of an unculturable strain belonging to the ?-Proteobacteria. The degradation of TuO in the consortium may occur by cooperation between the unculturable species corresponding to band T and other strains in the consortium, including species corresponding to bands F, K and N.

Hitoshi Ito; Reia Hosokawa; Masaaki Morikawa; Hidetoshi Okuyama

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

499

Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector. The cloning vector has an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe. 1 fig.

Dunn, J.J.; Quesada, M.A.; Randesi, M.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

500

Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z