Sample records for angola benin botswana

  1. Angola: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that prospects of Angola, free of political complications, are certain to bring a flurry of interest from oil firms and could mean an influx of foreign capital. Licensing will be under production-sharing terms, but incentives may be offered due to increased risks inherent in deeper water. Long term security and stability remain uncertain. In addition to Unita and previously communist MPLA, new factions from 16 years of civil war are gaining support and increasing possibilities for violence. Oil firms consider production-sharing terms high and current price cap clauses keep them from realizing benefits from price increases after contracts are signed. However, geology and exploration successes have overshadowed concerns.

  2. angola iran nigeria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the Question of Street Politics Illinois at Chicago, University of 12 Angola Croatia Iceland Nepal Sri Lanka Antigua & Barbuda Cuba India Netherlands St. Kitts & Nevis...

  3. Angola: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy Resources JumpAnaconda, Montana: Energy| Open EnergyAngola:

  4. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    instalações específicas da PIR. Jornal de Angola, June 27.the rapid intervention police (PIR) in the municipality at aassured civilians that the PIR’s mission in Soyo would be “

  5. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    iolence as Angola nears peak oil production and a widerproduction cuts may forestall peak oil by a few years, butAngolan oil production capacity is expected to peak between

  6. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aimed at securing oil resources in the Gulf of Guinea (of (as yet unproven) oil resources in Angola (EIA 2008; Lylemost valuable natural resource: oil. But oil extraction—both

  7. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum. 2007a. Angola LNG: A Lesson in How to Win Friendsand Zoe Eisenstein. 2004. LNG Plants Seed of Hope in Soyo.a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant to process and export

  8. People and Forests: a case study from Benin, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraus, Erika Beth

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how sacred forests in Benin, West Africa, contribute to forest conservation. Local use of natural resources is well-practiced in maintaining wooded space; the same use of those ...

  9. Botswana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotinsBoston College Jump to: navigation,Botswana:

  10. Angola, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan2809328°,Anfu Guanshan HydropowerTexas:Angola on

  11. L'IRD au BENIN, GHANA, NIGERIA et TOGO Rapport d'activit 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapport d'activité 2010 BENIN #12;L'IRD au BENIN, GHANA, NIGERIA et TOGO Rapport d'activité 2010 I'IRD AU NIGERIA p. 59 IV- L'IRD AU TOGO p. 61 Annexe 1 Publications Annexe 2 Organigramme Annexe 3 Budget

  12. The development stories of equatorial Guinea and Botswana : a game theory model of how public-private partnerships can turn resources from a curse into a blessing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzati, Valentina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth acceleration episodes characterizing Botswana and Equatorial Guinea were based on the respective discoveries of diamonds and oil. However, while Botswana, already characterized by inclusive and democratic ...

  13. Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    1 Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West.J.S. SONNEVELD [1] Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Universitaet Stuttgart, Germany (Roland Conservation University of Bonn, Germany [3] Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology, University

  14. Angola on the Lake, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan2809328°,Anfu Guanshan HydropowerTexas:Angola on the

  15. Earth Planets Space, 52, 329336, 2000 Rock magnetism of sediments in the Angola-Namibia upwelling system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamazaki, Toshitsugu

    Earth Planets Space, 52, 329­336, 2000 Rock magnetism of sediments in the Angola-Namibia upwelling system with special reference to loss of magnetization after core recovery Toshitsugu Yamazaki1 , Peter A Magnetism, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0128, U.S.A. 3Hawaii Institute of Geophysics

  16. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  17. AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA Algeria Afghanistan Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA Algeria Afghanistan Argentina Angola Armenia Bolivia Benin Azerbaijan Senegal Syria Seychelles Taiwan (Republic of China) Sierra Leone Tajikistan Somalia Thailand South Africa Kazakhstan Guinea Korea (North) Guinea-Bissau Korea (South) Kenya Kuwait Lesotho Kyrgyzstan Liberia Lao PDR

  18. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  19. Benin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions IncBayBelmont County, Ohio:Bendersville,

  20. Benin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative Sources of Funding: Case StudyAfrica

  1. IAEA-Botswana Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California:ProjectProgramsAlterationAl.,GRC Jay

  2. Botswana Innovation Hub | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotinsBoston College Jump to: navigation,

  3. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  4. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    threatening to onshore oil investments in Cabinda. It usedto a $2.2 billion oil and gas investment in Block 14. Oil,the full burden of capital investment, oil corporations also

  5. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005. Bassey, Nnimmo. 2000. “Oil and Gas in Africa. ” Paperat the Gulf of Guinea Oil and Gas Conference. February 5 –6,Mercury from Discharges from Oil and Gas Platforms. http://

  6. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gladstone. Australian Petroleum Production and ExplorationImpacts of Petroleum Production: Initial Results from thesubsistence. “To us, petroleum production is more for those

  7. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waged for control of oil reserves. A brutal war wracked theguarantee rights to the oil reserves, offer an opportunitygles over control of oil reserves, but it also encompasses

  8. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tion. A drop in world oil prices, coupled with a decrease indisbursements declined and oil prices dropped sharply inThe drastic drop in oil prices and further agricultural

  9. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ranks 17th in crude oil production globally (EIA 2008).the country’s crude oil production averaged only 157,770s production of nearly 2 million barrels of crude oil per

  10. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    www.int.iol.co.za. ———. 2004b. Heavy Oil Slick Oozes ontoThat Converts Ultra-Heavy Oil into Clean-Burning Fuel. Marchof heavy and ultra-heavy oil at the Richmond refinery (see

  11. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact of PAHs discharged in produced water should not bePAHs enter the marine environ- ment through the disposal of produced waterwater out of the formation. Mercury, zinc, cadmium, lead, and PAHs

  12. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water Reserves. Oil and Gas Journal. 101(44):54. NovemberSteady Worldwide. Oil and Gas Journal. 101(44):49. November

  13. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy,...

  14. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1998. Chevron Richmond Refinery to Pay $540,000. October15,Flournoy, Craig. 2000. Refinery Accidents, Anxiety Increase.City News. 2008. Study: Refinery Pollution Trapped in Homes.

  15. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    angop.ao. ———. 2004d. Governo concede regime aduaneiro eOctober 1. Folha 8. 2005a. Governo “deu” 80% da terra deLuanda: Imprensa Nacional. Governo Provincial de Cabinda.

  16. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury from Discharges from Oil and Gas Platforms. http://2003. “The Question of Oil and Gas, Its Impact on the SocialMore Deep- water Reserves. Oil and Gas Journal. 101(44):54.

  17. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their next meal and huff petrol as a form of escape (Masonblowing up only a small petrol storage tank at the port, butThere was no soap, no petrol, nothing. [My sister and I

  18. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remain Stable Despite Oil Production Cut. Octo- ber25.Chevron Expects Daily Oil Production of 620,000 Barrels in2008f. Oil Production Reaches 1.9 Million Barrels Per Day.

  19. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Holing 1990:29,24). Oil pollution also presents a threat toof the dangers of oil pollution” (Sonangol 2005). Thebearing the toxic burden of oil pollution. Ironically, these

  20. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    varieties are favored. Synthetic-based muds are less solublerisk. Safer synthetic drilling muds are widely available butof water-based barite muds and synthetic drilling fluids at

  1. Benin-Climate Finance Readiness Programme | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher Homes Jump to:formely SunAgreement-A

  2. Benin: Increased Access to Modern Energy Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions IncBayBelmont County, Ohio:Bendersville,Increased Access to

  3. www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that they achieve maximum impact. #12;5 Why assess impacts from energy interventions? World Bank: Clean energy change · Increasing energy access in Sub-Saharan Africa Annual investment needed: $4 billion · Current funding: $2 billion · Investment gap: $2 billion · Even if funding for energy investments raised

  4. Histories of the Subaltern from the Kgalagadi's Fringe, Botswana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David Reed

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis for on-site study of ceramic sherds at El Hibeh, Egypt.

  5. Histories of the Subaltern from the Kgalagadi's Fringe, Botswana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David Reed

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Balete and they were iron smelters. LM: Ehe go raya goreThamaga, and some were iron smelters. LM: Bone mme bane baof Cape Town Press. 2002 Smelter and smith: Iron Age metal

  6. Botswana-Climate Technology Initiative Private Financing Advisory Network

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,BelcherBlundell 1FortInformationJV JumpBoston,(CTI

  7. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Molecular markers of antifolate resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Luanda, Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Denoncin A, van Herp M, Balkan S, Dujardin JC, D’AlessandroD, Kwezi E, Priotto G, Balkan S, Bakyaita N, Brockman A,

  9. ‘Working the system’ : affect, amnesia and the aesthetics of power in the ‘New Angola’ 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Johannes Gabriel

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How political authority and legitimacy are sustained in societies marked by socio-economic inequality and political exclusion is a long-standing preoccupation in the social sciences. Since the end of its civil war in ...

  10. Characterization of organic matter in the Oligocene (Chattian) turbiditic fine grained deposits, offshore Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is discontinuous and produces layers of sediment in which OM quantity, type and diagenesis are heterogeneous (Cowie

  11. Regional tectonostratigraphy of the pre-salt in the Benguela-Namibe Basins, Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    and Further Reading Brownfield, M.E. and Charpentier, R.R. (2006). Geology and total petroleum systems

  12. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy Resources JumpAnaconda, Montana: Energy| Open Energy

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in the Environment Predicts Prevalence of Buruli Ulcer in Benin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Heather R.; Benbow, Mark Eric; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Johnson, Christian R.; Sopoh, Ghislain; Barogui, Yves; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU). In West Africa there is an association between BU and residence in low-lying rural villages where aquatic sources are plentiful. Infection occurs through unknown...

  14. 5 6 Institut de recherche pour le dveloppement < Health/Benin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and nutrition; agriculture and aquaculture; impact of climate change and adaptation of societies; energy, Congo, DR Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Chad. 5 8 for proposals now in course of preparation concern agroforestry, energy in the South, protected areas

  15. Benin-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study

  16. Benin-Supporting Low Carbon Development and Climate Resilient Strategies in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative Sources of Funding: Case StudyAfrica |

  17. Tourism development, rural livelihoods, and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mbaiwa, Joseph Elizeri

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzed changes in livelihoods before and after tourism development at Khwai, Mababe and Sankoyo villages in the Okavango Delta. Specifically, it analyzed how people interacted with species like giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), sable...

  18. Convex Approaches to Text Summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gawalt, Brian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obama, reported violence, president, state, new, said, military, mr nigerian, nigerias, africa, kenya, angola, muslim,

  19. Original article Effect of oven -heat and boiling on the germination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria University of Benin Department of Botany, P.MB, 1154, Benin City, Nigeria (Received 24 February 1999; accepted 31 August 1999) Abstract - Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight- est germination percentage and energy (94 %; 85 %). Treatment for 40 s also gave good results

  20. Volunteer Day Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    when you signed in: Benin Brazil Burkina Faso China Colombia Honduras Japan Jordan Korea Kuwait Libya

  1. Piecewise Affine Control for Fast Unmanned Ground Vehicles Andre Benine-Neto1 and Christophe Grand1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering shows development of PWA model used in the control synthesis, developed from a commonly used single

  2. On the Effectiveness of Global Private Regulation: The Implementation of the Equator Principles by Multinational Banks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyerstein, Ariel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy development programmes, necessitating WBG support to coal power projects in Botswana and South Africa. ?

  3. Thursday, February 9, 2012 ODU MODEL UN SOCIETY HOSTING 35TH ANNUAL HIGH SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and missions in Afghanistan, Botswana, the former Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Eritrea, Iraq, Italy, Kuwait, Libya

  4. Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa (Botswana)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds. Farley Abstract In an attempt to constrain the origin of polycrystalline diamond, combined analyses in the source of the polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa. The y13 C and y15 N isotopic values of À1.04 to À9.79x

  5. "Angola Is Not Just about Oil, War and Poverty": Reflections on Angolan Soccer, Nationalism and the Run to the 2006 World Cup Finals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleveland, Todd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    only for its prodigious oil reserves, protracted civil war (for its prodigious oil reserves, protracted civil war (1975-

  6. Margaret Kowalski Economics and Chinese Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Peter B.

    of Chinese "Checkbook Diplomacy" on Oil Production in Angola, Nigeria, and Sudan China's economic boom and incredible increase in energy consumption have recently the market in Angola, Nigeria, and Sudan. Many Western companies are concerned

  7. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy sup- plies and developing relations with numerous fossil fuel exporting coun- tries, including Venezuela, Nigeria, Sudan, Angola, Syria, Egypt,

  8. 2009-2010 RISO's The Accounting Club

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiegner, Tracy N.

    Angola Study Group Hilo Colony of the Phi Delta Chi Pharmacy Fraternity Hilo Ultimate Frisbee Org. (UFO

  9. S o u t h P a c i f i c O c e a n P a c i f i c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Cambodia Burundi Myanmar (Burma) Burkina Faso Bulgaria Brunei B r a z i l Botswana Bosnia & Herz. Bolivia

  10. Chiefly Power in a Frontline State: Kgosi Linchwe II, the Bakgatla and Botswana in the South African Liberation Struggle, 1948–1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantwell, Louisa

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Making of Chiefship, Community and State (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013); E. A.B van Rouveroy, ‘Chieftaincy in Africa: Three Facets of a Hybrid Role’, in E.A.B van Rouveroy and R. van Dijk (eds), African Chieftaincy in a New Socio... Later, MK member Vernon Nkadimeng was killed by a car bomb planted by South African agents in Gaborone.58 In 1978, South Africa embarked on a conscious strategy of destabilisation of its unsympathetic neighbours in the region,59 and ‘soldiers wantonly...

  11. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Emirates. b Includes Algeria, Angola (January 2007-present), Ecuador (1983-1992), Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and...

  12. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Emirates. 2 Includes Algeria, Angola (January 2007-present), Ecuador (1983-1992), Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and...

  13. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Emirates. c Includes Algeria, Angola (January 2007-present), Ecuador (1983-1992), Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and...

  14. antigua and barbuda: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Antarctic Territory Steiner, Ullrich 3 Angola Croatia Iceland Nepal Sri Lanka Antigua & Barbuda Cuba India Netherlands St. Kitts & Nevis...

  15. Countries - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Angola Australia Azerbaijan Brazil Canada China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Ecuador Egypt India Indonesia Iran Iraq Japan Kazakhstan Korea, South Kuwait Libya Malaysia Mexico...

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Angola Australia Azerbaijan Brazil Canada China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Ecuador Egypt India Indonesia Iran Iraq Japan Kazakhstan Korea, South Kuwait Libya Malaysia Mexico...

  17. Economic Crisis, Structural Adjustment, and Prospects for Political Stability in Nigeria's Third Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okolie, Andrew C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN) has consistentlyand Underdevelopment in Nigeria." in Julius lhonvbere (Capllllllsm and Crisis in Nigeria (Benin City: Jodah

  18. Incidence of Negative Appendectomy: Experience From a Company Hospital in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osime, O C; Ajayi, P A

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From a Company Hospital in Nigeria OC Osime, FMCS, FICSHospital Benin City, Nigeria ABSTRACT Objective: The aim ofin a company hospital in Nigeria. Background: Appendicitis

  19. International Students & Scholars Undergraduate Admission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    ) , Turkish, Serbian, Croatian (official in Burgenland), other (includes Slovene, official in Carinthia (official) Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Botswana Setswana , Kalanga, Sekgalagadi

  20. All Students Afghanistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    ) (Rank) (Rank) (1 Year) (5 Years) #12;Bosnia-Herzegovina 3 2 0 +50.0 -(90) (100) - Botswana 0 3 4 -100

  1. Washington State University INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Botswana 2 41 Lebanon 5 75 United Arab Emirates 1 8 Brazil 6 42 Lithuania 3 76 United Kingdom 9 9 Canada 50

  2. Dr. David Kemp Australian Minister of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooperative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program Ghana rural electrification Botswana / Senegal clean coal ­ Southern States/Thailand ­ sustainable industry development ­ Southern States/Brazil ­ clean coal power

  3. Slide07 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Algeria Australia Argentina Botswana Brazil Burkina Faso Cameroon Canada Chile Colombia Congo, DR Cote d'Ivoire Denmark Egypt Finland France Germany Ghana India Japan...

  4. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency and energy awareness in Botswana; ESI,awareness and training was the most frequently identified opportunity for improved energy

  5. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency and energy awareness in Botswana; ESI,attitudes towards and awareness of energy efficiency; •limited awareness of the availability of energy-saving and

  6. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 66, 2014 Rip currents and circulation on a high-energy low-tide-terraced beach (Grand Popo, Benin, West Africa) 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .g. Scott et al., 2011; Brander et al., 2013). In high-income countries (HICs) such as the United States States (United States Lifesaving Association, 2011) and 29 in Australia (Surf Life Saving Australia, 2011 performed for a long time. Yet, fatal drownings at beaches still occur with about 100 reported in the United

  7. Regional and Local-Scale Population Genetic Structure of a Primitive Teleost, the African Bonytongue (Heterotis niloticus), in Rivers of West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrera, Elizabeth

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    of the African bonytongue in Benin, West Africa, was examined using six microsatellite markers. In total, 221 H. niloticus individuals were sampled from 12 localities in Benin that include three river basins: Oueme-So (ten localities sampled); Mono (one locality...

  8. Adv. Geosci., 9, 313, 2006 www.adv-geosci.net/9/3/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Giertz (sgiertz@uni-bonn.de) 1 Introduction The shortage of fresh water resources is a severe problem to assess the water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ou´em´e catchment in Benin S. Giertz1, B on future water availability and water consumption in the Up- per Ou´em´e catchment in central Benin

  9. ancianos cuba 2003-2005: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Di Giovine 2009) that spreads over the world Tanaka, Maki 2011-01-01 85 Angola Croatia Iceland Nepal Sri Lanka Antigua & Barbuda Cuba India Netherlands St. Kitts & Nevis...

  10. agropecuarioen matanzas cuba: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Di Giovine 2009) that spreads over the world Tanaka, Maki 2011-01-01 55 Angola Croatia Iceland Nepal Sri Lanka Antigua & Barbuda Cuba India Netherlands St. Kitts & Nevis...

  11. Power Plays & Capacity Constraints: The Selection of Defendants in WTO Disputes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Andrew T; Simmons, Beth A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US * Bangladesh is the only LDC to have participated in DSU1995-1997 and LI from 1998-2002. LDC S 68 Afghanistan AngolaZambia To qualify as an LDC a country must have a gross

  12. POWER PLAYS & CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS: THE SELECTION OF DEFENDANTS IN WTO DISPUTES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Andrew T; Simmons, Beth A

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US * Bangladesh is the only LDC to have participated in DSU1995-1997 and LI from 1998-2002. LDC S 68 Afghanistan AngolaZambia To qualify as an LDC a country must have a gross

  13. International 31st March 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    Canary Islands Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Ceuta Chad Chile Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua / Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Ascension Island Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas

  14. Energy Independence for North America - Transition to the Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Non-OPEC*** 3,407 ***includes but not limited to Angola, Colombia, Russia, China, Norway and United Kingdom. 175.60 billion barrels U.S. PADD V 4.85 billion barrels U.S. PADD...

  15. TABLE40.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,986 Angola ... 63,341 285 1,577 0 0 0 0 443 0 0 Argentina ... 13,047 1,355 0 1,842 1,634 0 272 820 0 0...

  16. TABLE36.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7,565 5 117 Angola ... 5,371 0 0 0 0 0 0 383 0 0 Argentina ... 0 0 0 313 380 0 230 284 0 0 Bahamas...

  17. TABLE43.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 1,005 Angola ... 20,829 285 1,577 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina ... 1,065 1,151 0 260 0 0 42 0 0 0 Australia...

  18. TABLE35.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9,379 5 217 Angola ... 11,020 0 80 0 0 0 0 383 0 0 Argentina ... 1,972 0 0 313 380 0 230 284 0 0 Australia...

  19. TABLE41.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    402 911 Angola ... 33,919 0 0 0 0 0 0 443 0 0 Argentina ... 0 204 0 1,582 1,634 0 230 820 0 0 Bahamas...

  20. TABLE23.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 107 19 0 18 Angola ... 1,853 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Canada ... 30,038 3,557 0 0 76 0 107 19 0 18 Colombia...

  1. Writing on Multiple Journeys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Sarah; Pullen, Ann Ellis

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Travel--Angola.  I. Pullen, Ann Ellis, 1943- II. Darling,America by Sarah Robbins and Ann Ellis Pullen (c) 2011 byAmerica by Sarah Robbins and Ann Ellis Pullen (c) 2011 by

  2. Draft January 13, (ver 12) Africas technology leap are we part of the development?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Examples are countries like South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria and Angola. A driving factor has been Brazilian, ABB, Head of Public Affairs - Sweden and Northern Europe Region "Sun-energy project Sub Saharan Africa

  3. International Human Rights Activism in the United States during the Cold War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Zachary Steven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would be a reemergence of Kurdistan during World War II,the genocides in Iraqi Kurdistan, the former Yugoslavia, orAfghanistan, Somaliland, Iraqi Kurdistan, and Angola all had

  4. Volunteer Day Notes from the Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    students, listed by the country you put down when you signed in: Angola Argentina Bolivia Brazil Burkina policy to be strict with both punctuality and attendance. Also, it has to do with culture. To Americans

  5. Volunteer Weekend The Next Trip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    is a list of the many places of origin of our students: Angola Argentina Bolivia Brazil Burkina Faso Chile and Culture Q: Why are the teachers really strict with punctuality? A: First of all, the official ELI policy

  6. The Perceived Role of Literacy and its Attendant Problems in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godonoo, Prosper

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    History of Education in Nigeria (London: Allen and Unwin,p. 67. I3Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Policy onEducatio n A ny Futu re in Nigeria? (Benin City, Nigeria:

  7. International reserves management and the current account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Republic of Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Dominica Ecuador EritreaBotswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominicaof Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic

  8. 58-25 Queens Blvd., Woodside, NY 11377 T: (718) 204-7077; (800) 627-1244

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    INVITED TO JOIN THE SYRACUSE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION ON A WILDLIFE SAFARI TO BOTSWANA &VICTORIA FALLS, ZAMBIA, fountains and statues. Richly cloaked surroundings such as marble floors, plush carpets, magnificent stained

  9. Strengthening the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority: A Policy Analysis of the Nigerian Excess Crude Account and the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugwuibe, Cynthia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Land Grant Mexico Permanent Fund) Savings* Oil and otherBotswana East Timor Mexico Saudi Arabia Oil Oil State OilSavings Oil and other non-commodity sources New Mexico State

  10. Berea College Geographical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Ghana 2 South Korea 2 Kenya 4 Sri Lanka 1 Bolivia 2 Liberia 1 Taiwan 1 Brazil 1 Malawi 2 Tibet Malawi 0 2 2 Bolivia 0 2 2 Moldova 0 1 1 Botswana 0 1 1 Mon

  11. www.princeton.edu/admission Profile 201112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    to identifying students who possess the academic ability, energy, enthusiasm, and ambition to take full advantage,189 Application Volume and Admission Rates 5-Year History Albania Algeria Australia Bolivia Botswana Brazil

  12. Ar geochronology and structural data from the giant Okavango and related mac dyke swarms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyment, Jérôme

    N110 dyke swarm known as the Okavango giant dyke swarm (ODS/N110) and a second smaller set of N70 dolerites of the giant ODS/N110 and the SLDS/N70 in NE Botswana yield plateau ages between 179.6 þ 1-Ti (north) mafic rocks. Structural measurements on the ODS/N110 and SLDS/N70 Karoo dykes of NE Botswana

  13. CONSEQUENCES OF PARTY SYSTEM INSTITUTIONALIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Susan

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    for future research to test the theory more robustly. The statistical results are then tested through two case studies. I focused upon two nations with the highest and lowest institutional score: Botswana and Nigeria, respectively. Each case study... supports the proposed theory that the level of party system institutionalization is a predictor for intrastate conflict. Botswana has high levels of institutionalization and its incidence of conflict is the lowest in the sample while Nigeria has...

  14. An investigation on how the Scottish teachers for V.I. pupils differentiate Mathematics curriculum through flexible and effective methods of teaching and learning and adaptations and modifications, and support to meet the needs of V.I. pupils in integrated mainstream schools, with the view to drawing implications for the situation in Botswana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habangana-Magogodi, Neo

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is a small scale investigation in what the teachers of V.I. pupils in Scotland consider as the problems encountered in learning Maths and the causes to those problems. Also how they view differentiation of the Mathematics curriculum...

  15. The feasibility of reservoir monitoring using time-lapse marine CSEM Arnold Orange1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Key, Kerry

    . Since then, the concept has been embraced with enthusiasm by the exploration in- dustry, mainly. Although addressing these factors may be challenging using current exploration CSEM practices several years ago in a test by Statoil over the Girassol prospect, offshore Angola Ellingsrud et al., 2002

  16. The Oxford Programme on the Changing Character of War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    The Oxford Programme on the Changing Character of War Seminars Michaelmas Term 2013 Lunchtime Discussions with Changing Character of War Seminars are at 1.00pm, Seminar Room G, Manor Road Building, Oxford Oliveira (Oxford) War and Peace in Angola Tuesday 22nd October Professor Christopher Coker (LSE) Men at War

  17. We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates by negative-ion electrospray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates sample consumption. Angola and offshore Canadian crude oils and Athabasca bitumen were used as supplied differences of acidic species in crude oils and naphthenates and also afford structural characterization

  18. The Congo deep-sea fan: how far and for how long? A basin-wide view of the interaction between a giant submarine fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    basement at about 8 s (TWT). The seismic interpretation was carried out using Sismage Research TM software of thousands of km of 2D seismic-reflection profiles from the ZaiAngo project across the Congo-Angola passive to a re-interpretation of the post-rift history of sediment supply in the basin and a reconsideration

  19. INSTITUT D'ECONOMIE ET DE POLITIQUE DE L'ENERGIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INSTITUT D'ECONOMIE ET DE POLITIQUE DE L'ENERGIE La libéralisation du marché gazier européen et ses, Turkménistan, cf. annexe 1), les pays du Golfe, l'Afrique de l'Ouest (Nigeria, Angola), l'Amérique du Sud

  20. Supplement 15, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, Judith M.; Segal, Dorothy B.; Beard, Mary I.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Persia Jack, K. M., 1962 a, 289 Persia Jack, K. M., 1962 a, 272, 277 all from Angola Jack, K. M., 1962 a, 283 French Guinea Jack, K. M., 1962 a, 287 British Somaliland, Upper Egypt, Abyssinia Jack, K. M., 1962 a, 287 Kurdistan, Cyprus, South...

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Robertkiri field, onshore Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magbagbeola, Olusola Akintayo

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    progress upward from fine-grained prodelta and deep water shales of the Akata Formation through paralic sandstone-shale units of the Agbada Formation and finally to sandy non-marine deposits of the Benin Formation. The Agbada Formation is divided into six...

  2. peopleandplanet.net people and renewable energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of oil and 25 import all of their oil; for these nations, the tripling in oil prices has been an economic their own farmers rather than spending scarce foreign exchange on imported oil. Biofuel boom World biofuels tackles Benin's arid land q ICELAND EXCLUSIVE: Test driving the world's energy future q Heavy price

  3. Fish Assemblage and Food Web Structure in Whedos (Shallow Floodplain Habitats) of the Oueme River, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Andrew

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Oueme River, a lowland river in Benin, Africa, artificial ponds constructed in the floodplain (whedos) are colonized during the high-water period by a presumably random sample of fishes from the river channel. As water slowly recedes from...

  4. Journal of Coastal Research Longshore drift cell development on the human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the Volta River delta in Ghana, to the west, and the western conf River delta in Nigeria to the east the Volta River delta, terminus of a large river catchment of 397,000 km2, although wave energy conditions by the construction of three deepwater ports in Lomé (Togo), Cotonou (Benin) and Lagos (Nigeria) that have Volta River

  5. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Robertkiri field, onshore Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magbagbeola, Olusola Akintayo

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    progress upward from fine-grained prodelta and deep water shales of the Akata Formation through paralic sandstone-shale units of the Agbada Formation and finally to sandy non-marine deposits of the Benin Formation. The Agbada Formation is divided into six...

  6. Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    ACUTE POISONING jUNE 2012, Issue 6 Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization worldwide. The prevalence of acute poisoning in Southern Africa varies between 1 and 17%1 and available evidence from Botswana suggests that acute poisoning ranks third among

  7. QED: science and philosophy Robert Matthews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    /safariandwildlifeholidays/5788329/Botswana- Canoeing-in-the-wilderness-where-hippos-attack.html) Review: The House of Wittgenstein by Alexander Waugh (/culture/books/non_fictionreviews/3560018/Review- The-House on the commercial risks posed, while the Europeans fret about the risk to human and ecological health. As such

  8. Ending Africa's Poverty Trap Africa's development crisis is unique. Not only is Africa the poorest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland), and a num- ber of very small economies (Cape assistance on issues regarding energy and transport infrastructure. #12;than tropical Africa. They growEnding Africa's Poverty Trap Africa's development crisis is unique. Not only is Africa the poorest

  9. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 127137, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/127/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 127­137, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/127/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2006-10-127 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Centre, Maun, Botswana Received: 11 August 2005 ­ Published in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences

  10. You are invited to the 8th Annual Africa Institute of South Africa's (AISA) Young Graduates and Scholars Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    You are invited to the 8th Annual Africa Institute of South Africa's (AISA) Young Graduates, Botswana, Belgium, Kenya, and South Africa. The participants are from multidisciplinary backgrounds. Key Institute of South Africa's (AISA) Young Graduates and Scholars Conference (AYGS) University of Johannesburg

  11. Applying the Alaska model in a Resource-Poor State: The Example of Vermont

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    (Chile), diamonds (Botswana), or even phosphates (Kiribati). In the United States, the state of New Mexico has three SWFs, the Land Grant Permanent Fund (mineral resources and surface land), Severance Tax Permanent Fund (minerals), and Tobacco Settlement Permanent Fund. Wyoming has a fund from coal, oil, natural

  12. NC State Engineering A Wolfpack World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning, Peng

    and sustainability collaboration with The Energy and Resources Institute in India. Pachauri, an NC State engineering programs for engineering students. Australia Mexico Botswana South Africa Brazil Spain China Sweden Ghana, Dr. Ayman Hawari, is an advisor for the International Atomic Energy Agency and serves on the Jordan

  13. The Governance of Clean Development Working Paper 006 June 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Adrian

    , utilisation of indigenous coal resources and building new coal fired power stations will be necessary by the Hartwell report (Prins et al. 2010) with the `responsible use of coal' as part of a low carbon growth trajectory Key words: Botswana, Renewable Energy, Coal, Governance. About the author: School of International

  14. Supplement 20, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Judith H.; Hood, Martha W.

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acanthochondria tenuis Pearse, A. S., [1953 c], 223- n. sp. 225, figs. 97-102 Ogcocephalus nasutus Alligator Harbor, Florida Acanthocolax nov. gen. Vervoort, W., 1969 a, 1, 113- Bomolochidae 115 tod: A. similis nov. spec. Acanthocolax similis Vervoort, W...) Goff, M. L.; Loomis, R. ?.; and Brennan, J. M., 1972 a Acomatacarus (ifyracarus) lemnisconyia n. sp. Lemniscomys striatus Vercammen-Grandjean, P. H., 1957 c, 13, 1 A-15, 17, fig. I Alto Chicapa, Lunda, Angola Giesbrecht, W., 1895 b, 179...

  15. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  16. Reservoir and stimulation analysis of a Devonian Shale gas field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, James Stanley

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The Gas Research Institute (GRI) which sponsored this work under GRI Contract No. 5084-213-0980, "Analysis of Eastern Devonian Gas Shales Production Data;" 2. Doug Terry and Joe Petty with Union Drilling, Inc. who showed great interest in this study... and enhance productivity. ~St h The Devonian Shales in the Mason County Field study area can be subdivided using gamma ray logs as follows (in descending order): Upper Devonian Undivided, Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, Java Formation, Angola Shale...

  17. Chirac Said “Non” – Or Did He? Revisiting U.S. - UN Diplomacy on the 2003 Iraq War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rrecchia, Stefano

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    could for the most part be financed through sales of Iraqi oil.29 The belief that a protracted stabilization mission would be unnecessary in Iraq further reduced any incentive to secure UN approval as a means of legitimating the war and facilitating... Washington significant leverage over its foreign policy. Germany and Syria, by contrast, were firmly opposed. That put all the weight on the other six nonpermanent members, who remained uncommitted: Mexico, Chile, Pakistan, Angola, Cameroon, and Guinea...

  18. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fewer wells and less footage were drilled in 1986 compared to 1985. Total drilling decreased by 23% as 217 wells were completed compared to 289 in 1985. Footage drilled during 1986 declined by 52%; about 1.3 million ft were drilled compared to about 2.7 million feet in 1985. The success rate for exploration wells of 34% during 1986 is due to considerably higher success rates in Nigeria and Gabon compared to 1985. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition was the major geophysical activity during 1986. Seismic activity (2-D and 3-D) decreased by 12% to about 230 crew-months. Total 2-D seismic kilometers recorded increased by 26% to about 82,000 km due to significant 2-D marine seismic activity in Nigeria and Angola. Surface geology, photogeology, geochemistry, gravimetry, and aeromagnetic surveys decreased compared to 1985. Total oil production in 1986 was 834 million bbl (about 2.2 million BOPD), an increase of 2%, with the most significant increased in Cameroon and Angola. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries increased to 72% in 1986 compared to 67% in 1985. 32 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  20. Angold Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan2809328°,Anfu Guanshan HydropowerTexas:Angola

  1. Anhui Jinli Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan2809328°,Anfu Guanshan HydropowerTexas:AngolaAnhui

  2. Anhui Jinli Power Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan2809328°,Anfu Guanshan HydropowerTexas:AngolaAnhuiCo

  3. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. (BHP Petroleum, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  4. Developed Countries' Imposed Standards on Trade of Agricultural Imports from Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera, Raul; Cochran, Matt; Dangelmayr, Lauren; D'Aguilar, Gavin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Speir, Ian; Weigand, Courtney

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2002 2003 2004 1 , 0 0 0 h e a d EU-approved abattoirs Other facilities Source: Meat Board of Namibia 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 M e t r i c T o n s Exports to South Africa Exports elsewhere Source: Meat..., have stepped in to solve a ?coordination failure?, providing the institutional infrastructure necessary for a functioning and cost-competitive industry. Second, looking forward, the long-term challenge for Namibia and Botswana in exporting beef...

  5. Africa: It's good news, bad news - again

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents the outlook for African petroleum. Observations include: Nigerian oil revenues will be $6-7 billion this year, down 50% from '84; Egyptian drillers are still going strong in the Western Desert and Gulf of Suez; Algeria is looking for natural gas buyers, and they have plenty of gas to sell-cheap; Even with new petroleum legislation, Tunisian production and reserves are falling; Libya's bozo leader is feeling the effects of falling oil revenues and falling bombs; Angola continues as a hot spot of activity with 42 successful oil strikes last year; Crude production jumped 29% in Cameroun last year with three new fields onstream; Congo is another West African winner due to major commitments by Elf and Agip.

  6. AMMA 2005 Dakar International Conference to be Held November 28-December 2, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Peter

    2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the original proposal (dated April 14, 2005), the grant supported the participation in the above conference of a number of West African meteorologists, the majority of whom will be supporting the ARM Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey in various ways during 2006. The following seven individuals were fully funded (complete airfare, accommodation, registration, meals) to participate in the Conference –Yerima Ladan (Head, ASECNA Forecast Office, Niamey Airport); Dr. Ousmane Manga Adamou (University of Niamey); Abdou Adam Abdoul-Aziz Abebe (Forecasater, ASECNA Forecast Office, Niamey Airport); Hassane Abdou (Forecaster, ASECNA Forecast Office, Niamey Airport); Saley Diori (Forecaster, ASECNA Forecast Office, Niamey Airport); Alhassane Diallo (Meteorological Engineer, Burkina Faso Weather Service). The following three individuals were partly funded (for some of their airfare, accommodation, registration, meals) to participate in the Conference – Katiellou Lawan (International Relations, Niger Weather Service); Mamoutou Kouressy (Institute of Rural Economics, Niger Department of Agriculture); and Francis Dide (Benin Weather Service). I am confident that the participation of the above individuals in the Conference will facilitate both the smooth operation of the ARM Mobile Facility in Niamey during 2006 and the involvement of University of Niamey scientists in analysis of the data collected. We appreciate greatly this support from the ARM Program.

  7. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  8. Structural analysis of the 5 prime flanking region of the. beta. -globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: Further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chebloune, Y.; Pagnier, J.; Trabuchet, G.; Faure, C.; Verdier, G.; Labie, D.; Nigon, V. (Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon, Villeurbane (France))

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Haplotype analysis of the {beta}-globin gene cluster shows two regions of DNA characterized by nonrandom association of restriction site polymorphisms. These regions are separated by a variable segment containing the repeated sequences (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y}, which might be involved in recombinational events. Studies of haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in Africa provide strong argument for three origins of the mutation: Benin, Senegal, and the Central African Republic. The structure of the variable segment in the three African populations was studied by S1 nuclease mapping of genomic DNA, which allows a comparison of several samples. A 1080-base-pair DNA segment was sequenced for one sample from each population. S1 nuclease mapping confirmed the homogeneity of each population with regard to both (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y} repeats. The authors found three additional structures for (AT){sub x}T{sub y} correlating with the geographic origin of the patients. Ten other nucleotide positions, 5{prime} and 3{prime} to the (AT){sub x}T{sub y} copies, were found to be variable when compared to homologous sequences from human and monkey DNAs. These results allow us to propose an evolutionary scheme for the polymorphisms in the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-globin gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis of three origins for the sickle mutation in Africa.

  9. Nonblack patients with sickle cell disease have African. beta. sup s gene cluster haplotypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, Z.R.; Powars, D.R.; Williams, W.D. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA)); Kinney, T.R. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schroeder, W.A. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1989-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Of 18 nonblack patients with sickle cell disease, 14 had sickle cell anemia, 2 had hemoglobin SC disease, and 2 had hemoglobin S-{beta}{sup o}-thalassemia. The {beta}{sup s} gene cluster haplotypes that were determined in 7 patients were of African origin and were identified as Central African Republic, Central African Republic minor II, Benin, and Senegal. The haplotype Central African Republic minor II was present on the {beta}{sup o}-thalassemia chromosome in 2 patients. None of 10 patients whose {alpha}-gene status was determined had {alpha}-thalassemia-2. These data strongly support the concept that the {beta}{sup s} gene on chromosome 11 of these individuals is of African origin and that the {alpha}-gene locus on chromosome 16 is of white or native American origin. The clinical severity of the disease in these nonblack patients is appropriate to their haplotype without {alpha}-thalassemia-2 and is comparable with that of black patients. All persons with congenital hemolytic anemia should be examined for the presence of sickle cell disease regardless of physical appearance or ethnic background.

  10. Locus control region HS2 point mutations are generally not responsible for elevated fetal hemoglobin expression of sickle cell patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, J.G. [Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Brinson, E.C.; Milner, P.M. [Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The locus control region (LCR), composed of four hypersensitive sites (HS1-4) 5{prime} of the {epsilon} globin gene, confers strong, copy-number dependent expression on globin genes in transgenic mice. Several {beta}-globin gene cluster haplotypes carry the sickle cell gene, and show variable levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) expression in association with DNA sequence differences in HS2, {gamma} and {beta} globin promoters, and {gamma}IVSII: The Senegal (SEN or No. 3) haplotype generally has high (>10%) Hb F, Benin (BEN or No. 19) has intermediate Hb F (but some low and some high), and Banu (BAN or No. 20) generally has low Hb F. Huisman and colleagues have proposed that `factors produced under conditions of hematopoietic stress, together with genetic determinants on the haplotype-3 like LCR sequences, allow for high level expression of {gamma} globin genes`. We have now used slot blot to screen high Hb F (>9.5%) and low Hb F cases for two of the three HS2 point mutations described by Oener et al. Comparing eight high Hb F BEN/BEN with two low Hb F BEN/BEN, all ten had the BEN mutations considered by Oener et al. to be associated with low Hb F. Comparing three high Hb F BEN/BAN with two low Hb F BEN/BAN, all five were heterozygous at three positions; this is consistent with BEN having G and T and BAN having A at both positions. DNA sequencing of HS2 for BAN, which is generally associated with low HB F, showed that the point mutations at all three positions were those seen in SEN (generally high Hb F); only the AT repeat region showed major differences, confirming results of Huisman and colleagues. Hence, if there is any effect of HS2 of the Senegal sickle cell haplotype in causing elevated Hb F under hematopoietic stress, it must be due to specific variation in the AT repeat region, which Oener et al. have suggested may bind a silencer.