Sample records for analysis type cu

  1. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  2. Quantitative texture analysis of free-standing electrodeposited Cu- and Ni-line patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantleon, Karen [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet Building 204, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: pantleon@ipl.dtu.dk; Somers, Marcel A.J. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet Building 204, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by applying photo-lithography and subsequent electrodeposition on glass wafers covered with either a polycrystalline Au-layer or an X-ray amorphous Ni-P layer. Several pattern geometries varying in line width, line separation and line length were studied by X-ray diffraction. Quantitative texture analysis revealed that crystallographic texture depends on the type of substrate-layer: while substrate unbiased growth was observed for Cu-lines on amorphous Ni-P, the highly-textured and fine-grained Au-layer strongly favored nucleation of Cu-crystallites of a preferred orientation. For particular pattern geometries, experimental evidence for an epitaxial orientation relation between Cu and Au was found and discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxial growth. While crystallographic texture of Ni-electrodeposits was independent on the pattern geometry, for Cu-electrodeposits a pronounced pattern dependence of both type and strength of crystallographic texture as well as differences between Cu-lines and non-patterned Cu-films were observed.

  3. Ab-initio study of donor-acceptor codoping for n-type CuO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Yuan; Wang, Junling, E-mail: jlwang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zheng, Jianwei [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Wu, Ping [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 20 Dover Drive, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Single n-type dopant in CuO has either a deep donor level or limited solubility, inefficient in generating free electrons. We have performed ab-initio study of the donor-acceptor codoping to obtain n-type CuO. Our results show that N codoping can slightly improve the donor level of Zr and In by forming shallower n-type complexes (Zr{sub Cu}-N{sub O} and 2In{sub Cu}-N{sub O}), but their formation energies are too high to be realized in experiments. However, Li codoping with Al and Ga is found to be relatively easy to achieve. 2Al{sub Cu}-Li{sub Cu} and 2Ga{sub Cu}-Li{sub Cu} have shallower donor levels than single Al and Ga by 0.14?eV and 0.08?eV, respectively, and their formation energies are reasonably low to act as efficient codopants. Moreover, Li codoping with both Al and Ga produce an empty impurity band just below the host conduction band minimum, which may reduce the donor ionization energy at high codoping concentrations.

  4. Synthesis and crystal structure of CuZrTiO{sub 5}-A new crystal structure type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troitzsch, Ulrike [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Christy, Andrew G., E-mail: Andrew.Christy@anu.edu.a [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Willis, Anthony C. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Ellis, David J. [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new compound, CuZrTiO{sub 5}, was synthesized as strongly pleochroic green crystals from the oxides between 995 and 1010 deg. C, 1 atm. Its crystal structure was determined by single crystal XRD, resulting in R (F{sup 2}>2sigma(F{sup 2}))=0.032 and wR (all data)=0.079). CuZrTiO{sub 5} is orthorhombic, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a=3.5871(3) A, b=6.6968(4) A, c=14.6679(9) A, V=352.35(4) A{sup 3}, Z=4. The structure is topologically similar to In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} but differs in space group and cation coordination. CuZrTiO{sub 5} has relatively regular TiO{sub 6} polyhedra, but coordination is 7+1 for Zr, and 4+2 for Cu due to the Jahn-Teller effect. Ordering of the long Cu-O bonds causes reduction in symmetry relative to In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}. Layers of Cu alternate with Ti+Zr on (001), giving rise to a distinct cleavage. Bond valence sums on Ti and Zr are far from ideal, which appears due to the limited ability of this structural topology to avoid close next-nearest neighbour distances. - Graphical abstract: The new compound CuZrTiO{sub 5} is orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}), with a=3.5871(3) A, b=6.6968(4) A, c=14.6679(9) A. The structure, determined with single crystal XRD, represents a new crystal structure type that is a slight distortion of that of In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} but differs in space group and cation coordination.

  5. Optical and quantum efficiency analysis of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, Jonathan; Hanket, Gregory; Shafarman, William

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 thin films have been deposited by elemental co-evaporation over a wide range of compositions and their optical properties characterized by transmission and reflection measurements and by relative shift analysis of quantum efficiency device measurements. The optical bandgaps were determined by performing linear fits of (?h?)2 vs. h?, and the quantum efficiency bandgaps were determined by relative shift analysis of device curves with fixed Ga/(In+Ga) composition, but varying Ag/(Cu+Ag) composition. The determined experimental optical bandgap ranges of the Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.31, 0.52, and 0.82 groups, with Ag/(Cu+Ag) ranging from 0 to 1, were 1.19-1.45 eV, 1.32-1.56 eV, and 1.52-1.76 eV, respectively. The optical bowing parameter of the different Ga/(In+Ga) groups was also determined.

  6. Three-dimensional local structure of photoexcited Cu diimine complex refined by quantitative XANES analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolentsev, G.; Soldatov, A. V.; Chen, L. X.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Southern Federal Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural details of [Cu(dmp){sub 2}]{sup +} (dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) at its metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited-state in acetonitrile were extracted using quantitative analysis of Cu K-edge X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). The study combines two techniques: fitting experimental XANES spectra with a multidimensional interpolation approximation, and calculating theoretical XANES spectra with molecular potentials beyond the muffin-tin approximation. The results of the study show that the best fit of the experimental XANES data must include a solvent molecule binding to the Cu with a short Cu-N distance of 2.00 {angstrom}. This confirms that the formation of an exciplex is responsible for the excited-state quenching in coordinating solvents, such as acetonitrile. Moreover, the calculations suggest that the formation of this exciplex state is accompanied by significant rocking distortions of the dmp ligands resulting in a 108{sup o} angle between the N(solvent)-Cu bond and the C{sub 2} symmetry axis of the dmp ligand. This combined approach allows us to extract molecular configurations that would otherwise be missed in a conventional qualitative XANES analysis.

  7. Band offsets of n-type electron-selective contacts on cuprous oxide (Cu[subscript 2]O) for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Riley E.

    The development of cuprous oxide (Cu [subscript 2]O) photovoltaics (PVs) is limited by low device open-circuit voltages. A strong contributing factor to this underperformance is the conduction-band offset between Cu ...

  8. Measurement of the $?$-asymmetry parameter of $^{67}$Cu in search for tensor type currents in the weak interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Soti; F. Wauters; M. Breitenfeldt; P. Finlay; P. Herzog; A. Knecht; U. Köster; I. S. Kraev; T. Porobic; P. N. Prashanth; I. S. Towner; C. Tramm; D. Zákoucký; N. Severijns

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision measurements at low energy search for physics beyond the Standard Model in a way complementary to searches for new particles at colliders. In the weak sector the most general $\\beta$ decay Hamiltonian contains, besides vector and axial-vector terms, also scalar, tensor and pseudoscalar terms. Current limits on the scalar and tensor coupling constants from neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay are on the level of several percent. The goal of this paper is extracting new information on tensor coupling constants by measuring the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of $^{67}$Cu, thereby testing the V-A structure of the weak interaction. An iron sample foil into which the radioactive nuclei were implanted was cooled down to milliKelvin temperatures in a $^3$He-$^4$He dilution refrigerator. An external magnetic field of 0.1 T, in combination with the internal hyperfine magnetic field, oriented the nuclei. The anisotropic $\\beta$ radiation was observed with planar high purity germanium detectors operating at a temperature of about 10\\,K. An on-line measurement of the $\\beta$ asymmetry of $^{68}$Cu was performed as well for normalization purposes. Systematic effects were investigated using Geant4 simulations. The experimental value, $\\tilde{A}$ = 0.587(14), is in agreement with the Standard Model value of 0.5991(2) and is interpreted in terms of physics beyond the Standard Model. The limits obtained on possible tensor type charged currents in the weak interaction hamiltonian are -0.045 $< (C_T+C'_T)/C_A <$ 0.159 (90\\% C.L.). The obtained limits are comparable to limits from other correlation measurements in nuclear $\\beta$ decay and contribute to further constraining tensor coupling constants.

  9. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis in Type Erasure Semantics # Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trifonov, Valery

    Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis in Type Erasure Semantics # Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao Department of Computer Science Yale University {saha,trifonov,shao}@cs.yale.edu Abstract

  10. Genomic analysis of control of cell type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frampton, Garrett M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In mammalian development, a single fertilized egg grows into a complex organism, comprised of organs and tissues made up of hundreds of different specialized cell types. All of these cells contain the same genome, but ...

  11. Semiconductor electrodes - 37. Photoelectrochemical behavior of p-type Cu/sub 2/O in acetonitrile solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Gioda, A.S.; Bard, A.J.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photoelectrochemical behavior of polycrystalline p-Cu/sub 2/O in acetonitrile solutions containing a number of redox couples (e.g., phthalonitrile (0/-1), nitrobenzene (0/-1), methyl viologen (+2/+1)) was investigated. The p-Cu/sub 2/O, grown by oxidation of Cu metal by thermal methods or anodization, showed stable behavior under optical irradiation in these solutions. The bandgap, estimated from photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and the photocurrent action spectrum in solution, was approximately 2.0 ev and the flatband potential was approximately +0.16V v vs. SCE. Scanning electron micrographs of the thermally grown samples reveal well-developed crystallites with distinct boundaries. 31 refs.

  12. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostaed, A., E-mail: alimostaed@yahoo.com [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 16765-3381 Pardis Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhfar, A. [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 16765-3381 Pardis Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, H.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ? HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ? TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ? SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM.

  13. Analysis, manufacture and characterization of Ni/Cu functionally graded structures Wilfredo Montealegre Rubio a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    ­Cu FGSs are manufactured by using spark plasma sintering technique. Hardness and Young's modulus are found plasma sintering A. Nickel/copper gradation a b s t r a c t In this work, an experimental and numerical Accepted 20 April 2012 Available online 26 April 2012 Keywords: A. Functionally graded structures C. Spark

  14. Surface and grain boundary scattering in nanometric Cu thin films: A quantitative analysis including twin boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmak, Katayun [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Darbal, Amith [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Ganesh, Kameswaran J.; Ferreira, Paulo J. [Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Sun, Tik; Yao, Bo; Warren, Andrew P.; Coffey, Kevin R., E-mail: kb2612@columbia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative contributions of various defects to the measured resistivity in nanocrystalline Cu were investigated, including a quantitative account of twin-boundary scattering. It has been difficult to quantitatively assess the impact twin boundary scattering has on the classical size effect of electrical resistivity, due to limitations in characterizing twin boundaries in nanocrystalline Cu. In this study, crystal orientation maps of nanocrystalline Cu films were obtained via precession-assisted electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope. These orientation images were used to characterize grain boundaries and to measure the average grain size of a microstructure, with and without considering twin boundaries. The results of these studies indicate that the contribution from grain-boundary scattering is the dominant factor (as compared to surface scattering) leading to enhanced resistivity. The resistivity data can be well-described by the combined Fuchs–Sondheimer surface scattering model and Mayadas–Shatzkes grain-boundary scattering model using Matthiessen's rule with a surface specularity coefficient of p?=?0.48 and a grain-boundary reflection coefficient of R?=?0.26.

  15. Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system Module in samples collected after 12/1/01 have been determined by XRF analysis using a Cu-anode tube as the source/1/05 will be reported with an added indicator of the Cu- anode XRF system used in analysis, the first (1) or the second

  16. STATIC ANALYSIS FOR RUBY IN THE PRESENCE OF GRADUAL TYPING MICHAEL JOSEPH EDGAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATIC ANALYSIS FOR RUBY IN THE PRESENCE OF GRADUAL TYPING MICHAEL JOSEPH EDGAR Department Advisor i #12;STATIC ANALYSIS FOR RUBY IN THE PRESENCE OF GRADUAL TYPING by MICHAEL JOSEPH EDGAR THESIS

  17. X-ray ?-Laue diffraction analysis of Cu through-silicon vias: A two-dimensional and three-dimensional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Dario Ferreira; Weleguela, Monica Larissa Djomeni; Audoit, Guillaume; Grenier, Adeline; Gergaud, Patrice; Bleuet, Pierre [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA/LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Laloum, David [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA/LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); ST Microelectronics, 850 Rue Jean Monnet, F-38920 Crolles (France); Ulrich, Olivier; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Robach, Odile [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA/INAC and CNRS, SPrAM, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Lorut, Frédéric [ST Microelectronics, 850 Rue Jean Monnet, F-38920 Crolles (France)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, white X-ray ?-beam Laue diffraction is developed and applied to investigate elastic strain distributions in three-dimensional (3D) materials, more specifically, for the study of strain in Cu 10??m diameter–80??m deep through-silicon vias (TSVs). Two different approaches have been applied: (i) two-dimensional ?-Laue scanning and (ii) ?-beam Laue tomography. 2D ?-Laue scans provided the maps of the deviatoric strain tensor integrated along the via length over an array of TSVs in a 100??m thick sample prepared by Focused Ion Beam. The ?-beam Laue tomography analysis enabled to obtain the 3D grain and elemental distribution of both Cu and Si. The position, size (about 3??m), shape, and orientation of Cu grains were obtained. Radial profiles of the equivalent deviatoric strain around the TSVs have been derived through both approaches. The results from both methods are compared and discussed.

  18. FEM Analysis of Nb-Sn Rutherford-type Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Gallo, Giuseppe; Neri, Paolo; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important part of superconducting accelerator magnet work is the conductor. To produce magnetic fields larger than 10 T, brittle conductors are typically used. For instance, for Nb{sub 3}Sn the original round wire, in the form of a composite of Copper, Niobium and Tin, is assembled into a so-called Rutherford-type cable, which is used to wind the magnet. The magnet is then subjected to a high temperature heat treatment to produce the chemical reactions that make the material superconducting. At this stage the superconductor is brittle and its superconducting properties sensitive to strain. This work is based on the development of a 2D finite element model, which simulates the mechanical behavior of Rutherford-type cable before heat treatment. The model was applied to a number of different cable architectures. To validate a critical criterion adopted into the single Nb-Sn wire analysis, the results of the model were compared with those measured experimentally on cable cross sections.

  19. Doping Cu{sub 2}O in Electrolyte Solution: Dopant Incorporation, Atomic Structures and Electrical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Meng; Zhang, Qiming

    2013-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have pursued a number of research activities between April 2010 and April 2011: ? A detailed study on n-type doping in Cu2O by Br; ? An analysis of natural resource limitations to terawatt-scale solar cells; ? Attempt to achieve a 1.4-eV direct band gap in Ni sulfides (NiSx); ? First-principles studies of doping in Cu2O and electronic structures of NiSx.

  20. New orthorhombic derivative of CaCu{sub 5}-type structure: RNi{sub 4}Si compounds (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho), crystal structure and some magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@general.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Nirmala, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystal structure of new YNi{sub 4}Si-type RNi{sub 4}Si (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction. The YNi{sub 4}Si structure is a new structure type, which is orthorhombic derivative of CaCu{sub 5}-type structure (space group Cmmm N 65, oC12). GdNi{sub 4}Si and DyNi{sub 4}Si compounds order ferromagnetically at 25 and 19 K, respectively whereas YNi{sub 4}Si shows antiferromagnetic nature. At 15 K, DyNi{sub 4}Si shows second antiferromagnetic-like transition. The magnetic moment of GdNi{sub 4}Si at 5 K in 50 kOe field is ?7.2 ?{sub B}/f.u. suggesting a completely ordered ferromagnetic state. The magnetocaloric effect of GdNi{sub 4}Si is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches the maximum value of ?12.8 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near T{sub C} ?25 K. - Graphical abstract: The RNi{sub 4}Si (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho) compounds crystallize in new YNi{sub 4}Si-type structure which is orthorhombic derivative of the basic CaCu{sub 5}-type structure. GdNi{sub 4}Si and DyNi{sub 4}Si compounds show the ferromagnetic-like ordering, whereas.YNi{sub 4}Si has the antiferromagnetic nature. The GdNi{sub 4}Si demonstrates the big magnetocaloric effect near temperature of ferromagnetic ordering. The relationship between initial CaCu{sub 5}-type DyNi{sub 5} and YNi{sub 4}Si-type DyNi{sub 4}Si lattices.

  1. Bi-antimony capped Keggin polyoxometalate modified with Cu-ligand fragment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jiao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhang, Heng; Yu, Haitao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhai, Xueliang, E-mail: xlzhai253@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three polyoxometalates consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters: [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}] (2) and {l_brace}Cu(mbpy)[Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}[VMo{sub 8}V{sub 4}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (3) (mbpy=4,4 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime - dipyridyl in 1 and 2; 5,5 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime -dipyridyl in 3) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. Single-crystal analysis revealed that all of three compounds are built upon bi-antimony capped Keggin-type polyoxoanions and Cu-mbpy cations. In 1-3, two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt fundamentally tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Both compounds 1 and 2 consist of P-centered Keggin structure, while compound 3 presents a V-centered Keggin anion. The Keggin-type anions present different structural features: isolated cluster in 1 and Cu-ligand-supported cluster in 2 and 3. - Graphical abstract: Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters modified with Cu-ligand cations have been synthesized and characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anions present different structural features: isolated and Cu-ligand-supported cluster.

  2. Type curve analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs (infinite-acting reservoir case): a new approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angel Restrepo, Juan Alejandro

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The objectives of this work are as follows: First, we generated new type curves for the analysis of pressure drawdown and buildup tests performed in naturally fractured reservoirs. Next, we develop a systematic approach for the analysis and interpretation...

  3. A COMPARISON OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR TYPING BIOMETRICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A COMPARISON OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR TYPING BIOMETRICS biometrics, artificial neural networks, cluster analysis, Multi Layer Perceptrons, K- means clustering are clustering techniques and Artificial Neural Networks , in conjunction with data processing to improve

  4. Film Deposition, Cryogenic RF Testing and Materials Analysis of a Nb/Cu Single Cell SRF Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Geng, Rongli [JLAB; Palczerski, Ari [JLAB; Li, Yongming [Peking

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we present preliminary results on using a cathodic-arc-discharge Nb plasma ion source to establish a Nb film-coated single-cell Cu cavity for SRF research. The polycrystalline Cu cavity was fabricated and mirror-surface-finished by a centrifugal barrel polishing (CBP) process at Jefferson Lab. Special pre-coating processes were conducted, in order to create a template-layer for follow-on Nb grain thickening. A sequence of cryogenic RF testing demonstrated that the Nb film does show superconductivity. But the quality factor of this Nb/Cu cavity is low as a result of high residual surface resistance. We are conducting a thorough materials characterization to explore if some microstructural defects or hydrogen impurities, led to such a low quality factor.

  5. Direct Analysis of Spectra of Type Ic Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Branch

    1999-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic spectra generated with the parameterized supernova synthetic-spectrum code SYNOW are compared with observed photospheric-phase optical spectra of the normal Type Ic SN 1994I and the peculiar Type Ic SNe 1997ef and 1998bw. The observed spectra can be matched fairly well with synthetic spectra that are based on spherical symmetry and that include lines of just a few ions that are expected to appear on the basis of LTE calculations. Spectroscopic estimates of the mass and kinetic energy of the line-forming layers of the ejected matter give conventional values for SN 1994I but high kinetic energy ($\\sim 30 \\times 10^{51}$ erg) for SN 1997ef and even higher ($\\sim 60 \\times 10^{51}$ erg) for SN 1998bw. It is likely that even if SNe 1997ef and 1998bw were non-spherical, they also were hyper-energetic.

  6. Relation of park types and visitors' expenditure patterns: an analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Currie, Russell Roger

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their contribution to operating expenses in relation to other park types based on the average expenditures of visitors. To sustain or increase, based on present operating costs, the number of visitors to a Historic Sites/Structures, funding to maintain the park... duration than light spenders over an elongated period, thereby increasing the return on the attraction in a shorter period of time with less energy expended. Strauss and Lord (1990) evaluated the Pennsylvania state park users on an expenditure per trip...

  7. XPS and AES Studies of Cu/CdTe(111)-B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeter, G.; Gessert, T. A.; Asher, S. E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper is frequently used as a p-type dopant to improve the performance of back contacts in CdTe thin-film solar cells. In this study, surface-analysis techniques are used to probe fundamental interactions between Cu and the CdTe(111)-B surface. The results presented here were facilitated by the newly constructed surface-analysis cluster tool in the Measurements and Characterization Division at NREL; they reveal a host of fundamental phenomena that occur in the Cu/CdTe system.

  8. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis # Valery Trifonov Bratin Saha Zhong Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis # Valery Trifonov Bratin Saha Zhong Shao Department of Computer Science Yale University New Haven, CT 06520­8285 {trifonov, saha, shao}@cs.yale.edu ABSTRACT

  9. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis # Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis # Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao Department of Computer Science Yale University New Haven, CT 06520­8285 {saha,trifonov,shao}@cs.yale.edu Technical Report

  10. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao Department of Computer Science Yale University New Haven, CT 06520-8285 {saha,trifonov,shao}@cs.yale.edu Technical Report

  11. Analysis and experimental study of a plate-type hydraulic vibration damper for cryogenic rotating machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olan, Emmanuel Angustia

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A PLATE-TYPE HYDRAULIC VIBRATION DAMPER FOR CRYOGENIC ROTATING MACHINERY A Thesis by EMMANUEL ANGUSTIA OLAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A PLATE-TYPE HYDRAULIC VIBRATION DAMPER FOR CRYOGENIC ROTATING MACHINERY A Thesis by EMMANUEL ANGUSTIA OLAN Approved...

  12. Direct Analysis of Spectra of Type Ib Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Branch

    2001-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic spectra generated with the parameterized supernova synthetic-spectrum code SYNOW are compared to photospheric-phase spectra of Type Ib supernovae (SNe Ib). Although the synthetic spectra are based on many simplifying approximations, including spherical symmetry, they account well for the observed spectra. Our sample of SNe Ib obeys a tight relation between the velocity at the photosphere, as determined from the Fe II features, and the time relative to that of maximum light. From this we infer that the masses and the kinetic energies of the events in this sample were similar. After maximum light the minimum velocity at which the He I features form usually is higher than the velocity at the photosphere, but the minimum velocity of the ejected helium is at least as low as 7000 kms. Previously unpublished spectra of SN 2000H reveal the presence of hydrogen absorption features, and we conclude that hydrogen lines also were present in SNe 1999di and 1954A. Hydrogen appears to be present in SNe Ib in general, although in most events it becomes too weak to identify soon after maximum light. The hydrogen-line optical depths that we use to fit the spectra of SNe 2000H, 1999di, and 1954A are not high, so only a mild reduction in the hydrogen optical depths would be required to make these events look like typical SNe Ib. Similarly, the He I line optical depths are not very high, so a moderate reduction would make SNe Ib look like SNe Ic.

  13. Extracting the spectral function of the cuprates by a full two-dimensional analysis: Angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Bi2Sr2CuO6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meevasana, W.

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has revealed a dispersion anomaly at high binding energy near 0.3-0.5 eV in various families of the high-temperature superconductors. For further studies of this anomaly we present a new two-dimensional fitting-scheme and apply it to high-statistics ARPES data of the strongly-overdoped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} cuprate superconductor. The procedure allows us to extract the self-energy in an extended energy and momentum range. It is found that the spectral function of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} can be parameterized using a small set of tight-binding parameters and a weakly-momentum-dependent self-energy up to 0.7 eV in binding energy and over the entire first Brillouin zone. Moreover the analysis gives an estimate of the momentum dependence of the matrix element, a quantity, which is often neglected in ARPES analyses.

  14. Relationship between morphologies and orientations of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints on different Cu pads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yanhong, E-mail: tianyh@hit.edu.cn; Zhang, Rui; Hang, Chunjin; Niu, Lina; Wang, Chunqing

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The morphologies and orientations of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds in the Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints both on polycrystalline and single crystal Cu pads under different peak reflow temperatures and times above liquids were investigated. The relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grain orientations and morphologies was clarified. At the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/polycrystalline Cu pad, scalloped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds formed at 250 °C and roof shape Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} formed at 300 °C. Both scalloped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and roof shape Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} had a preferred orientation of (0001) plane being parallel to polycrystalline Cu pad surface. Besides, the percentage of large angle grain boundaries increased as the peak reflow temperature rose. At the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/(111) single crystal Cu pad, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds were mainly scallop-type at 250 °C and were prism type at 300 °C. The prismatic Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains grew along the three preferred directions with the inter-angles of 60° on (111) single crystal Cu pad while along two perpendicular directions on (100) single crystal Cu pad. The orientation relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains and the single crystal Cu pads was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction technology. In addition, two types of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds were found inside the joints of polycrystalline Cu pads. The long hexagonal Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips were observed in the joints reflowing at 250 °C while the hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips with the ‘?’ shape cross-sections appeared at 300 °C, which was attributed to the different grain growth rates of different Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} crystal faces. - Highlights: • The orientation of interfacial Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains was obtained by EBSD technology. • Two types of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips were found at different temperatures. • The formation mechanism of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} was elaborated based on Bravais law. • The relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grain orientations and morphologies was clarified.

  15. Analysis of error in using fractured gas well type curves for constant pressure production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schkade, David Wayne

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of normalized time and normalized cumulative production is a large improvement over using a constant evaluation pressure. 0 imens ion less cumulative production type curves are particularly useful in modeling production for economic projections, such as re... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ANALYSIS OF ERROR IN USING FRACTURED GAS WELL TYPE CURVES FOR CONSTANT PRESSURE PRDDUCTION A Thesis by DAVID WAYNE SCHKADE Approved as to style and content by: S. A. Ho lditch...

  16. Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types BRATIN SAHA, VALERY TRIFONOV, and ZHONG SHAO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types BRATIN SAHA, VALERY TRIFONOV, and ZHONG SHAO Yale, CT 06520 USA; email: {saha, trifonov, shao}@cs.yale.edu. Permission to make digital/hard copy of all, Pages 1--51. #12; 2 · Bratin Saha et al. 1995; Crary et al. 1998] and makes several important new

  17. Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types BRATIN SAHA, VALERY TRIFONOV, and ZHONG SHAO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types BRATIN SAHA, VALERY TRIFONOV, and ZHONG SHAO Yale, CT 06520 USA; email: {saha, trifonov, shao}@cs.yale.edu. Permission to make digital/hard copy of all, Pages 1­51. #12;2 · Bratin Saha et al. 1995; Crary et al. 1998] and makes several important new

  18. Mounting a thermocouple of type E onto a Cu single crystal for use in a magnetically sensitive environment below 77?K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potzuweit, Alexander; Schaffner, Anuschka; Jänsch, Heinz Julius, E-mail: heinz.jaensch@physik.uni-marburg.de [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type E thermocouples show magnetic effects at liquid nitrogen temperature and below. This may cause trouble in experiments that are sensitive to magnetic stray fields like nuclear magnetic resonance, photoemission or high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Here, a solution for the temperature measurement of a single crystal is presented. The authors weld a copper rod onto the back side of the single crystal, thereby relocating the sensitive sample from the thermocouple attachment position. They show that it is possible to measure the crystal temperature at the end of the rod while significantly reducing the ferromagnetic influence due to the increased distance.

  19. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubal, Deepak P., E-mail: deepak.dubal@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004 (M.S) (India)] [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004 (M.S) (India); Holze, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.holze@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)] [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ? Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ? Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ? CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ? CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg{sup ?1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  20. Formation of self-organized quantum dot structures and quasi-perfect CuPt-type ordering by gas-source MBE growth of (GaP){sub n}(InP){sub n} superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.J.; Asahi, H.; Takemoto, M.; Asami, K.; Takeuchi, M.; Gonda, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    (GaP){sub n}(InP){sub n} short period superlattices (SLs) are grown on GaAs(N11) substrates by gas-source MBE. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that the SLs grown on GaAs(311)A and (411)A have dot structures with a size of about 10--20nm. Photoluminescence (PL) peak energies are greatly dependent on substrate orientation and monolayer number n. On the other hand, the (GaP){sub 1}(InP){sub 1} SLs grown on (111) have no composition modulation and have quasi-perfect CuPt-type ordering along the [111] growth direction. The PL peak energy is 321 meV lower than that of disordered InGaP alloy. Self-organized (GaP){sub n}(InP){sub m} SL(dot/barrier)/In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P(barrier) quantum dot structures exhibit strong 77K PL with a full width at half maximum of about 70 meV.

  1. Unexpected crystal and magnetic structures in MnCu4In and MnCu4Sn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provino, A.; Paudyal, D.; Fornasini, ML; Dhiman, I.; Dhar, SK.; Das, A.; Mudryk, Y.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, VK

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We discovered a new compound MnCu4In with its own hexagonal structure type (hP12-P63mc, ternary ordered derivative of the hexagonal MgZn2-type) that becomes ferromagnetic at TC = 540 K. This transition temperature is higher than that found in the MnCu2In and MnCu2Sn alloys. In contrast, the homologous compound MnCu4Sn, which crystallizes in the cubic MgCu4Sn-type, orders antiferromagnetically with TN = 110 K. The neutron diffraction studies show ferromagnetic spin orientation in the {1 0 1} plane in MnCu4In with a magnetic moment of 4.5 ?B/Mn at 22 K, and a corresponding value of 4.7 ?B/Mn in the antiferromagnetic MnCu4Sn with propagation vector View the MathML source. The first-principles electronic structure calculations show that the unexpected difference in both magnetic and crystal structures of MnCu4In and MnCu4Sn is due to the difference in the Mn-3d bands and exchange interactions relating to different crystal anisotropy, coordination numbers, and interatomic distances.

  2. Measurement of Omega_m, Omega_Lambda from a blind analysis of Type Ia supernovae with CMAGIC: Using color information to verify the acceleration of the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of Type Ia supernovae with CMAGIC: Using colorof 21 high redshift supernovae using a new technique (lightcurves of Type Ia supernovae, ?rst introduced in Wang

  3. Thermochemical process for recovering Cu from CuO or CuO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, deceased, Donald M. (late of Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing hydrogen comprises the step of reacting metallic Cu with Ba(OH).sub.2 in the presence of steam to produce hydrogen and BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2. The BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to form Cu.sub.2 O and a Ba(OH).sub.2 product for recycle to the initial reaction step. Cu can be obtained from the Cu.sub.2 O product by several methods. In one embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with HF solution to provide CuF.sub.2 and Cu. The CuF.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to provide CuO and HF. CuO is decomposed to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The HF, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with aqueous H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 solution to provide CuSO.sub.4 solution and Cu. The CuSO.sub.4 is decomposed to CuO and SO.sub.3. The CuO is decomposed to form Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The SO.sub.3 is dissolved to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4. H.sub.2 SO.sub.4, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment Cu.sub.2 O is decomposed electrolytically to Cu and O.sub.2. In another aspect of the invention, Cu is recovered from CuO by the steps of decomposing CuO to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2, reacting the Cu.sub.2 O with aqueous HF solution to produce Cu and CuF.sub.2, reacting the CuF.sub.2 with H.sub.2 O to form CuO and HF, and recycling the CuO and HF to previous reaction steps.

  4. Sampling the Probability Distribution of Type Ia Supernova Lightcurve Parameters in Cosmological Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Mi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to obtain robust cosmological constraints from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, we have applied Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to SN Ia lightcurve fitting. We develop a method for sampling the resultant probability density distributions (pdf) of the SN Ia lightcuve parameters in the MCMC likelihood analysis to constrain cosmological parameters. Applying this method to the Joint Lightcurve Analysis (JLA) data set of SNe Ia, we find that sampling the SN Ia lightcurve parameter pdf's leads to cosmological parameters closer to that of a flat Universe with a cosmological constant, compared to the usual practice of using only the best fit values of the SN Ia lightcurve parameters. Our method will be useful in the use of SN Ia data for precision cosmology.

  5. A UNIFORM ASTEROSEISMIC ANALYSIS OF 22 SOLAR-TYPE STARS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, S.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Dogan, G. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Woitaszek, M. [Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Bruntt, H.; Karoff, C.; Campante, T. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Verner, G. A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Creevey, O. L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Basu, S.; Deheuvels, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Stello, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Universite Paris XI, Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bonanno, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); and others

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Asteroseismology with the Kepler space telescope is providing not only an improved characterization of exoplanets and their host stars, but also a new window on stellar structure and evolution for the large sample of solar-type stars in the field. We perform a uniform analysis of 22 of the brightest asteroseismic targets with the highest signal-to-noise ratio observed for 1 month each during the first year of the mission, and we quantify the precision and relative accuracy of asteroseismic determinations of the stellar radius, mass, and age that are possible using various methods. We present the properties of each star in the sample derived from an automated analysis of the individual oscillation frequencies and other observational constraints using the Asteroseismic Modeling Portal (AMP), and we compare them to the results of model-grid-based methods that fit the global oscillation properties. We find that fitting the individual frequencies typically yields asteroseismic radii and masses to {approx}1% precision, and ages to {approx}2.5% precision (respectively, 2, 5, and 8 times better than fitting the global oscillation properties). The absolute level of agreement between the results from different approaches is also encouraging, with model-grid-based methods yielding slightly smaller estimates of the radius and mass and slightly older values for the stellar age relative to AMP, which computes a large number of dedicated models for each star. The sample of targets for which this type of analysis is possible will grow as longer data sets are obtained during the remainder of the mission.

  6. Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. W. [Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engr, Dongguk Univ., Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-Do, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G. C. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

  7. The LTS timing analysis program : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual and description of the methods of analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Schwarz, Jens

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LTS Timing Analysis program described in this report uses signals from the Tempest Lasers, Pulse Forming Lines, and Laser Spark Detectors to carry out calculations to quantify and monitor the performance of the the Z-Accelerator's laser triggered SF6 switches. The program analyzes Z-shots beginning with Z2457, when Laser Spark Detector data became available for all lines.

  8. Photoelectrochemistry, Electronic Structure, and Bandgap Sizes of Semiconducting Cu(I)-Niobates and Cu(I)-Tantalates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggard, Paul A.

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconducting metal-oxides have remained of intense research interest owing to their potential for achieving efficient solar-driven photocatalytic reactions in aqueous solutions that occur as a result of their bandgap excitation. The photocatalytic reduction of water or carbon dioxide to generate hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels, respectively, can be driven on p-type (photocathodic) electrodes with suitable band energies. However, metal-oxide semiconductors are typically difficult to dope as p-type with a high mobility of carriers. The supported research led to the discovery of new p-type Cu(I)-niobate and Cu(I)-tantalate film electrodes that can be prepared on FTO glass. New high-purity flux syntheses and the full structural determination of several Cu(I)-containing niobates and tantalates have been completed, as well as new investigations of their optical and photoelectrochemical properties and electronic structures via density-functional theory calculations. For example, CuNbO3, Cu5Ta11O30 and CuNb3O8 were prepared in high purity and their structures were characterized by both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. These two classes of Cu(I)-containing compounds exhibit optical bandgap sizes ranging from ~1.3 eV to ~2.6 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements of these compounds show strong photon-driven cathodic currents that confirm the p-type semiconductor behavior of CuNbO3, CuNb3O8, and Cu5Ta11O30. Incident-photon-to-current efficiencies are measured that approach greater than ~1%. Electronic-structure calculations based on density functional theory reveal the visible-light absorption stems from a nearly-direct bandgap transition involving a copper-to-niobium or tantalum (d10 to d0) charge-transfer excitations.

  9. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  10. Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dash, Paban Kumar, E-mail: pabandash@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a unique clade in South Asia.

  11. Safety analysis report vitrified high level waste type B shipping cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Safety Analysis Report describes the design, analyses, and principle features of the Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) Cask. In preparing this report a detailed evaluation of the design has been performed to ensure that all safety, licensing, and operational goals for the cask and its associated Department of Energy program can be met. The functions of this report are: (1) to fully document that all functional and regulatory requirements of 10CFR71 can be met by the package; and (2) to document the design and analyses of the cask for review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The VHLW Cask is the reusable shipping package designed by GNSI under Department of Energy contract DE-AC04-89AL53-689 for transportation of Vitrified High Level Waste, and to meet the requirements for certification under 10CFR71 for a Type B(U) package. The VHLW cask has been designed as packaging for transport of canisters of Vitrified High Level Waste solidified at Department of Energy facilities.

  12. Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Unusual Type Ia SN1999ac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garavini, G.; Aldering, G.; Amadon, A.; Amanullah, R.; Astier,P.; Balland, C.; Blanc, G.; Conley, A.; Dahlen, T.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis,R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Fan, X.; Folatelli, G.; Frye, B.; Gates,E.L.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goldman, B.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Howell, D.A.; Kent, S.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B.C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez,J.; Miller, G.J.; Moniez, M.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Newberg, H.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Perdereau, O.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Richards, G.T.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.E.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev,V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present optical spectra of the peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 1999ac. The data extend from -15 to +42 days with respect to B-band maximum and reveal an event that is unusual in several respects. prior to B-band maximum, the spectra resemble those of SN 1999aa, a slowly declining event, but possess stronger Si II and Ca II signatures (more characteristic of a spectroscopically normal SN). Spectra after B-band maximum appear more normal. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from Si II are among the slowest ever observed, though SN 1999ac is not particularly dim. The analysis of the parameters v{sub 10}(Si II), R(Si II), v, and {Delta}m{sub 15} further underlines the unique characteristics of SN 1999ac. They find convincing evidence of C II {lambda}6580 in the day -15 spectrum with ejection velocity v > 16,000 km s{sup -1}, but this signature disappears by day -9. This rapid evolution at early times highlights the importance of extremely early-time spectroscopy.

  13. Microcomputer Energy Analysis Studies of Selected Building Types in a Hot, Humid Climatic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQueen, T. M.; Leaver, J. F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program has been used in both the design and analysis of new or retrofitted buildings. The combination of ease of use, economy, and the capability of producing a comprehensive thermal analysis has made...

  14. Grazing-incidence x-ray fluorescence analysis for non-destructive determination of In and Ga depth profiles in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streeck, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr.2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Brunken, S.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Weber, A.; Schock, H.-W.; Mainz, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Gerlach, M.; Hönicke, P.; Lubeck, J.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr.2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr.2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Herzog, C.; Kanngießer, B. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)] [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of highly efficient thin film solar cells involves band gap engineering by tuning their elemental composition with depth. Here we show that grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and well-characterized instrumentation is suitable for a non-destructive and reference-free analysis of compositional depth profiles in thin films. Variation of the incidence angle provides quantitative access to the in-depth distribution of the elements, which are retrieved from measured fluorescence intensities by modeling parameterized gradients and fitting calculated to measured fluorescence intensities. Our results show that double Ga gradients in Cu(In{sub 1?x},Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} can be resolved by GIXRF.

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 045427 (2013) Stability and electronic structure of Cu2ZnSnS4 surfaces: First-principles study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the atomic and electronic structure of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) surfaces, although the efficiency of kesterite). In stoichiometric single-phase CZTS samples, Cu-enriched defects are favored on (112) surfaces and Cu on the surfaces of the synthesized CZTS thin films. The electronic structure analysis shows that Cu

  16. Power Series Power series are one of the most useful type of series in analysis. For example,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, John K.

    Chapter 6 Power Series Power series are one of the most useful type of series in analysis functions (and many other less familiar functions). 6.1. Introduction A power series (centered at 0 coefficients. If all but finitely many of the an are zero, then the power series is a polynomial function

  17. Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries i g h l i g h t s battery model parameters are optimized. 2012 Accepted 1 June 2012 Available online 9 June 2012 Keywords: Battery management systems SOC

  18. Probabilistic Analysis of a Monod-type equation by use of a single chamber Microbial Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Probabilistic Analysis of a Monod-type equation by use of a single chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Eric for our society. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a new form of renewable energy by converting of a single chamber Microbial Fuel Cell affect the power density produced in the Microbial Fuel Cell

  19. Hysteresis analysis of CoTi substituted M-type BaSr hexagonal ferrite Charanjeet Singh a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Hysteresis analysis of Co­Ti substituted M-type Ba­Sr hexagonal ferrite Charanjeet Singh a, , S.5Sr0.5CoxTixFe(12 - 2x)O19 ferrite have been investigated by XRD, SEM and VSM. XRD and SEM confirm M ferrites are known for their strong uniaxial magne- tocrystalline anisotropy with ease of magnetization

  20. Analysis of the Spectral Function of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4, Obtained by Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, F.

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, an electron-doped high temperature superconducting cuprate (HTSC), near optimal doping at x = 0.155 were measured via angle resolved photoemission (ARPES). We report a renormalization feature in the self energy ('kink') in the band dispersion at {approx} 50-60 meV present in nodal and antinodal cuts across the Fermi surface. Specifically, while the kink had been seen in the antinodal region, it is now observed also in the nodal region, reminiscent of what has been observed in hole-doped cuprates.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solutions to Huff-type competitive ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    facilities and the distances to them, through a gravitational or logit type model. Both the ..... This generalizes the 'law of retail gravitation' of Reilly [33], who.

  2. Type curve analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs (infinite-acting reservoir case): a new approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angel Restrepo, Juan Alejandro

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work introduces new type curve solutions for an unfractured well in an infinite-acting naturally fractured reservoir, including wellbore storage and skin effects. Both pseudosteady-stateą and transient˛?ł interporosity flow models are studied...

  3. Analysis of MODIS 250 m NDVI Using Different Time-Series Data for Crop Type Separability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eunmok

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objectives of this research were to: (1) investigate the use of different compositing periods of NDVI values of time-series MODIS 250 m data for distinguishing major crop types on the central Great Plains of ...

  4. Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Xiang; Shen Ruiqi; Ye Yinghua; Zhu Peng; Hu Yan; Wu Lizhi [School of Chemical Engineeering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation on the influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) additives on exploding foil initiator was performed in this paper. Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs were produced by using standard microsystem technology and RF magnetron sputtering technology, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed the distinct layer structure of the as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to ascertain the amount of heat released in the thermite reaction between Al films and CuO films, which was found to be 2024 J/g. Electrical explosion tests showed that 600 V was the most matching voltage for our set of apparatus. The explosion process of two types of films was observed by high speed camera and revealed that compared with Cu film, an extra distinct combustion phenomenon was detected with large numbers of product particles fiercely ejected to a distance of about six millimeters for Cu/Al/CuO RMFs. By using the atomic emission spectroscopy double line technique, the reaction temperature was determined to be about 6000-7000 K and 8000-9000 K for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively. The piezoelectricity of polyvinylidene fluoride film was employed to measure the average velocity of the slapper accelerated by the explosion of the films. The average velocities of the slappers were calculated to be 381 m/s and 326 m/s for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively, and some probable reasons were discussed with a few suggestions put forward for further work.

  5. Effect of CNTs dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhsan, Ali Samer, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Puteri Sri Melor Megat Bt, E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) (Malaysia); Mohamed, Norani M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia); Raza, M. Rafi, E-mail: rafirazamalik@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Modified technique of metal injection molding (MIM) was used to fabricate multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Cu nanocomposites. The effect of adding different amount of CNTs (0-10 vol.%) on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fabricated nanocomposites is presented. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed homogenous dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrices at different CNTs contents. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites showed extraordinary increase (76% higher than pure sintered Cu) with addition of 10 vol.% CNTs. As compared to the pure sintered Cu, increase in modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites sintered at 1050°C for 2.5 h was measured to be 48%. However, in case of 7.5 vol.% CNTs, Young's modulus was increased significantly about 51% compared to that of pure sintered Cu.

  6. Reconciliation of local and long range tilt correlations in underdoped La??xBaxCuO? (0 ? x ? 0.155)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bozin, Emil S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhong, Ruidan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Knox, Kevin R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, Genda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, John P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tranquada, John M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Billinge, Simon J. L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long standing puzzle regarding the disparity of local and long range CuO? octahedral tilt correlations in the underdoped regime of La??xBaxCuO? is addressed by utilizing complementary neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO? tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO? planes in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase is succeeded on warming through the low-temperature transition by one with orthogonally equivalent bonds in the low temperature orthorhombic (LTO) phase. In contrast, the signatures of LTT-type tilts in the instantaneous local atomic structure persist on heating throughout the LTO crystallographic phase on the nanoscale, although becoming weaker as temperature increases. Analysis of the INS spectra for the x = 1/8 composition reveals the dynamic nature of the LTT-like tilt fluctuations within the LTO phase and their 3D character. The doping dependence of relevant structural parameters indicates that the magnitude of the Cu-O bond anisotropy has a maximum at x = 1/8 doping where bulk superconductivity is most strongly suppressed, suggesting that the structural anisotropy might be influenced by electron-phonon coupling and the particular stability of the stripe-ordered phase at this composition. The bond-length modulation that pins stripe order is found to be remarkably subtle, with no anomalous bond length disorder at low temperature, placing an upper limit on any in-plane Cu-O bondlength anisotropy. The results further reveal that although appreciable octahedral tilts persist through the high-temperature transition and into the high temperature tetragonal (HTT) phase, there is no significant preference between different tilt directions in the HTT regime. This study also exemplifies the importance of a systematic approach using complementary techniques when investigating systems exhibiting a large degree of complexity and subtle structural responses.

  7. Reconciliation of local and long range tilt correlations in underdoped La??xBaxCuO? (0 ? x ? 0.155)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bozin, Emil S.; Zhong, Ruidan; Knox, Kevin R.; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long standing puzzle regarding the disparity of local and long range CuO? octahedral tilt correlations in the underdoped regime of La??xBaxCuO? is addressed by utilizing complementary neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO? tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO? planes in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase is succeeded on warming through the low-temperature transition by one with orthogonally equivalent bonds in the low temperature orthorhombic (LTO) phase. In contrast, the signatures of LTT-type tilts in the instantaneous local atomic structure persist on heating throughout the LTO crystallographic phasemore »on the nanoscale, although becoming weaker as temperature increases. Analysis of the INS spectra for the x = 1/8 composition reveals the dynamic nature of the LTT-like tilt fluctuations within the LTO phase and their 3D character. The doping dependence of relevant structural parameters indicates that the magnitude of the Cu-O bond anisotropy has a maximum at x = 1/8 doping where bulk superconductivity is most strongly suppressed, suggesting that the structural anisotropy might be influenced by electron-phonon coupling and the particular stability of the stripe-ordered phase at this composition. The bond-length modulation that pins stripe order is found to be remarkably subtle, with no anomalous bond length disorder at low temperature, placing an upper limit on any in-plane Cu-O bondlength anisotropy. The results further reveal that although appreciable octahedral tilts persist through the high-temperature transition and into the high temperature tetragonal (HTT) phase, there is no significant preference between different tilt directions in the HTT regime. This study also exemplifies the importance of a systematic approach using complementary techniques when investigating systems exhibiting a large degree of complexity and subtle structural responses.« less

  8. Mass of Cu-57

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagliardi, Carl A.; Semon, D. R.; Tribble, Robert E.; Vanausdeln, L. A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the experimental and theoretical Coulomb displacement energies for similar cases in A =17 and 41 has been attributed~ to ground state correlations in the nuclear wave functions. It is in- teresting to examine the mass 57 mirror nuclei to investi- gate... indicated. Reference 9. 'Reference 7. Reference 6. 'This work. 34 MASS OF Cu 1665 the 3=57 Coulomb displacement energy, using radial wave functions obtained in a spherical Hartree-Fock cal- culation, assuming a closed Ni core, and including...

  9. Low Temperature 65 Cu NMR Spectroscopy of the Cu+ Site in Azurin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature 65 Cu NMR Spectroscopy of the Cu+ Site in Azurin. Low Temperature 65 Cu NMR Spectroscopy of the Cu+ Site in Azurin. Abstract: Copper is a ubiquitous component of living...

  10. Pion interferometry in Au plus Au and Cu plus Cu collisions at s(NN)=62.4 and 200 GeV 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R. F.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L. C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C. L.; Jones, P. G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C. -H; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu A.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, Saskia; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Ng, M. J.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S. Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, X. -H; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T. J. M.; de Toledo, A. Szanto; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Tram, V. N.; Trattner, A. L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, Robert E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A. M.; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wada, M.; Waggoner, W. T.; Walker, M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic analysis of two-pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at s(NN)=62.4 GeV and Cu+Cu collisions at s(NN)=62.4 and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The multiplicity and transverse...

  11. Synthesis of Cu Nanowires with Polycarbonate Template

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naderi, N.; Hashim, M. R. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper nanowires were fabricated into arrays of pores on ion-track etched polycarbonate membrane, using electrodeposition technique. We coated Au thin film layer on one side of membrane in order to have electrical contact. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Au layer has a strong (111) texture. The pores which have cylindrical shape with 6 micron length and 30 nm diameter were filled by copper atoms, fabricating Cu nanowires. Energy Disperse Spectrometry (EDS) indicated the picks of copper which filled the pores of substrate. The morphology and structure of Cu nanowires were characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD, respectively. The results show that although all the nanowires do not have uniform diameter, but all of them are continuous along the length.

  12. U.S. Crude Oil Production Forecast-Analysis of Crude Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A)20,798 18,578 17,508Forecast-

  13. CU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy InformationSeries JumpCRESTCSP: PerspectivesCU

  14. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  15. Direct Analysis of Spectra of the Type Ic Supernova 1994I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Millard; D. Branch; E. Baron; K. Hatano; A. Fisher; A. Filippenko; R. Kirshner; P. Challis; C. Fransson; N. Panagia; M. Phillips; G. Sonneborn; N. Suntzeff; R. Wagoner; J. Wheeler

    1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic spectra generated with the parameterized supernova synthetic-spectrum code SYNOW are compared to observed photospheric-phase spectra of the Type Ic supernova 1994I. The observed optical spectra can be well matched by synthetic spectra that are based on the assumption of spherical symmetry. We consider the identification of the infrared absorption feature observed near 10,250 \\AA, which previously has been attributed to He I $\\lambda10830$ and regarded as strong evidence that SN 1994I ejected some helium. We have difficulty accounting for the infrared absorption with He I alone. It could be a blend of He I and C I lines. Alternatively, we find that it can be fit by Si I lines without compromising the fit in the optical region. In synthetic spectra that match the observed spectra, from 4 days before to 26 days after the time of maximum brightness, the adopted velocity at the photosphere decreases from 17,500 to 7000 \\kms. Simple estimates of the kinetic energy carried by the ejected mass give values that are near the canonical supernova energy of $10^{51}$ ergs. The velocities and kinetic energies that we find for SN 1994I in this way are much lower than those that we find elsewhere for the peculiar Type Ic SNe 1997ef and 1998bw, which therefore appear to have been hyper-energetic.

  16. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  17. Study on a two-piston type Stirling engine MELSE II -- Analysis of engine performance --

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azotsu, A.; Tanaka, A.; Yamada, Y.; Yamashita, I.; Yanagihara, S.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of performance test data of the two-piston type laboratory research Stirling engine MELSE II. On the basis of the experimental data, the effects of the working gas species and the phase difference between the two pistons on engine performance are discussed and made clear. As working gases, helium, neon and argon were used. Phase difference was changed from 60 to 150 degrees. These effects appear mainly as the distinctions of the pressure drop loss and the mean working gas temperature in the expansion cylinder, and depend significantly on the engine speed. In addition, the pressure difference between the two cylinders and the temperature distribution of the expansion cylinder wall have been measured, and their behaviors are clarified in relation to the effects mentioned just above.

  18. Fluctuation analysis of mechanochemical coupling depending on the type of bio-molecular motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masatoshi Nishikawa; Hiroaki Takagi; Atsuko H. Iwane; Toshio Yanagida

    2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanochemical coupling was studied for two different types of myosin motors in cells: myosin V, which carries cargo over long distances by as a single molecule; and myosin II, which generates a contracting force in cooperation with other myosin II molecules. Both mean and variance of myosin V velocity at various [ATP] obeyed Michaelis-Menten mechanics, consistent with tight mechanochemical coupling. Myosin II, working in an ensemble, however, was explained by a loose coupling mechanism, generating variable step sizes depending on the ATP concentration and realizing a much larger step (200 nm) per ATP hydrolysis than myosin V through its cooperative nature at zero load. These different mechanics are ideal for the respective myosin's physiological functions.

  19. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  20. Crystallization of Zr2PdxCu(1-x) and Zr2NixCu(1-x) Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Xu

    2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One interesting aspect of rretallic glasses is the numerous instances of the deviation of the phase selection from the amorphous state to thermodynamically stable phases during the crystallization process. Their devitrification pathways allow us to study the relationship between the original amorphous structure and their crystalline counter parts. Among the various factors of phase selections, size and electronic effects have been most extensively studied. Elucidating the phase selection process of a glassy alloy will be helpful to fill in the puzzle of the changes from disordered to ordered structures. In this thesis, Two model Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} and Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) glassy systems were investigated since: (1) All of the samples can be made into a homogenous metallic glass; (2) The atomic radii differ from Pd to Cu is by 11%, while Ni has nearly the identical atomic size compare to Cu. Moreover, Pd and Ni differ by only one valence electron from Cu. Thus, these systems are ideal to test the idea of the effects of electronic structure and size factors; (3) The small number of components in these pseudo binary systems readily lend themselves to theoretical modeling. Using high temperature X-ray diffraction {HTXRD) and thermal analysis, topological, size, electronic, bond and chemical distribution factors on crystallization selections in Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} and Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} metallic glass have been explored. All Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} compositions share the same Cu11b phase with different pathways of meta-stable, icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase), and C16 phase formations. The quasicrystal phase formation is topologically related to the increasing icosahedral short range order (SRO) with Pd content in Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1·x)} system. Meta-stable C16 phase is competitive with C11b phase at x = 0.5, which is dominated by electronic structure rather than size effects. Cu-rich and Ni-rich compositions in Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} trend to divitrify to C11b or C16 phases respectively. In the proposed pseudo binary phase diagram, the domain of C16, C11b and co-existence phases are mainly related with the topology in the amorphous structure and formation enthalpies of crystalline phases.

  1. Tunneling study of epitaxial YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x superconducting films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boguslavsky, Y.M.; Rudenko, E.M.; Mukhortov, V.M. (Inst. of Metal Physics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 36 Vernadsky str. 252142, Kiev-142 (SU))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents planar and edge-type tunnel junctions YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}-metal (Pb,Pt,In) based on epitaxial Y-Ba-Cu-O films. Features of conductance characteristics of these junctions, mainly conductance zero bias anomalies, have been considered. We have observed the difference between the R{sub d}(V) dependences for two types of the contacts at low bias voltages V {approx lt}5 mV. This difference probably linked with an anisotropy of the states density N ({epsilon}) in near-contact region of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}. Existence of the correlation in the temperature dependences of the states density of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} along the Cu-O planes and perpendicularly to them have been observed.

  2. Statistical analysis of the dynamics of secondary electrons in the flare of a high-voltage beam-type discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, results of investigations into the dynamics of secondary electrons with helium atoms in the presence of the reverse electric field arising in the flare of a high-voltage pulsed beam-type discharge and leading to degradation of the primary electron beam are presented. The electric field in the discharge of this type at moderate pressures can reach several hundred V/cm and leads to considerable changes in the kinetics of secondary electrons created in the process of propagation of the electron beam generated in the accelerating gap with a grid anode. Moving in the accelerating electric field toward the anode, secondary electrons create the so-called compensating current to the anode. The character of electron motion and the compensating current itself are determined by the ratio of the field strength to the concentration of atoms (E/n). The energy and angular spectra of secondary electrons are calculated by the Monte Carlo method for different ratios E/n of the electric field strength to the helium atom concentration. The motion of secondary electrons with threshold energy is studied for inelastic collisions of helium atoms and differential analysis is carried out of the collisional processes causing energy losses of electrons in helium for different E/n values. The mechanism of creation and accumulation of slow electrons as a result of inelastic collisions of secondary electrons with helium atoms and selective population of metastable states of helium atoms is considered. It is demonstrated that in a wide range of E/n values the motion of secondary electrons in the beam-type discharge flare has the character of drift. At E/n values characteristic for the discharge of the given type, the drift velocity of these electrons is calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory TRA Type 1 Shipping Container and TRA Type 2 Shipping Capsule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havlovick, B.J.

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRA Type I Shipping Container and TRA Type II Shipping Capsule were designed and fabricated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as special form containers for the transport of non-fissile radioisotopes and fissile radioisotopes in exempt quantities. The Type I container measures 0.75 in. outside diameter and 3.000 in long. The Type II capsule is 0.495 in. outside diameter 2.000 in. long. The container and capsule were tested and evaluated to determine their compliance with Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 173, which governs packages for special form radioactive material. This report is based upon those tests and evaluations. The results of those tests and evaluations demonstrate the container and capsule are in full compliance with the special form shipping container regulations of 49 CFR 173.

  4. Electrodeposited NiCo/Cu Superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safak, M.; Alper, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Literature, University of Uludag, Goeruekle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    NiCo/Cu superlattices were electrodeposited on polycrystalline Cu substrates from a single electrolyte under potentiostatic control. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that NiCo/Cu superlattices have the same crystal structure and texture as in their substrates. The films exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), depending on the Cu layer thicknesses.

  5. Crystallization and glass formation in electron and laser beam irradiated Cu-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.S.; Kaufmann, E.N.; Wall, M.A.; Olsen, B.L.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four Cu-Zr alloys, Cu/sub 56/Zr/sub 44/, Cu/sub 50/Zr/sub 50/, Cu/sub 47/Zr/sub 53/, and Cu/sub 33/Zr/sub 67/, were surface melted with electron and pulsed laser beams to compare their kinetics of nucleation, growth and glass formation. It was observed that the ease of glass formation increased in the order: Cu/sub 33/Zr/sub 67/, Cu/sub 47/Zr/sub 53/, Cu/sub 56/Zr/sub 44/, and Cu/sub 50/Zr/sub 50/. The nucleation and regrowth produced different metastable phases. At the equiatomic composition, the preferred phase is a CsCl-type (B2) BCC structure. As the composition deviates from this, the preferred phase is either orthorhombic or tetragonal with a much larger unit cell not previously reported in the literature. The maximum growth velocity of these metastable phases was found to be about 0.025 m/s. The slow kinetics are responsible for the ease of glass formation in these systems. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

  7. Criticality Analysis for Proposed Maximum Fuel Loading in a Standardized SNF Canister with Type 1a Baskets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Pope; Larry L. Taylor; Soon Sam Kim

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document represents a summary version of the criticality analysis done to support loading SNF in a Type 1a basket/standard canister combination. Specifically, this engineering design file (EDF) captures the information pertinent to the intact condition of four fuel types with different fissile loads and their calculated reactivities. These fuels are then degraded into various configurations inside a canister without the presence of significant moderation. The important aspect of this study is the portrayal of the fuel degradation and its effect on the reactivity of a single canister given the supposition there will be continued moderation exclusion from the canister. Subsequent analyses also investigate the most reactive ‘dry’ canister in a nine canister array inside a hypothetical transport cask, both dry and partial to complete flooding inside the transport cask. The analyses also includes a comparison of the most reactive configuration to other benchmarked fuels using a software package called TSUNAMI, which is part of the SCALE 5.0 suite of software.

  8. An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Christopher James

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are produced. The hourly precipitation-type climatologist present the probabilities for particular precipitation types (frozen, freezing, rain, and mixed) for 2F? temperature intervals from 8F? to 44F?. The synoptic precipitation-type climatologist provide...

  9. Structural, optical and ethanol sensing properties of Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johari, Anima, E-mail: animajohari@gmail.com; Sharma, Manish [Center for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE), IIT Delhi, Hauz khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Johari, Anoopshi [THDC Institute of Hydropower Institute of Engineering and Technology, Tehri-249124 (India); Bhatnagar, M. C. [Physics Department, IIT Delhi, Hauz khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In present work, one-dimensional nanostructure of Cu-doped Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by using thermal evaporation method in a tubular furnace under Nitrogen (N{sub 2}) ambience. The growth was carried out at atmospheric pressure. SEM and TEM images reveal the growth of wire-like nanostructures of Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} on Si substrate. The XRD analysis confirms that the synthesized SnO{sub 2} nanowires have tetragonal rutile structure with polycrystalline nature and X-ray diffraction pattern also showed that Cu gets incorporated into the SnO{sub 2} lattice. EDX spectra confirm the doping of Cu into SnO{sub 2} nanowires and atomic fraction of Cu in nanowires is ? 0.5 at%. The Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth mechanism for Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires was also confirmed by EDX spectra. The optical properties of as grown Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires were studied by using UV-vis spectra which concludes the band gap of about 3.7 eV. As synthesized single Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowire based gas sensor exhibit relatively good performance to ethanol gas. This sensing behaviour offers a suitable application of the Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowire sensor for detection of ethanol gas.

  10. Submillimeter and microwave residual losses in epitaxial films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Richards, P.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Garrison, S.M.; Newman, N. [Conductus, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Eom, C.B.; Geballe, T.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T. [Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (United States); Martens, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, W.Y. [International Business Machines Corp., San Jose, CA (United States); Bourne, L.C. [Superconductor Technologies, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used a novel bolometric technique and a resonant technique to obtain accurate submillimeter and microwave residual loss data for epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} and Tl{sub 2}CaBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. For all films we obtain good agreement between the submillimeter and microwave data, with the residual losses in both the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films scaling approximately as frequency squared below {approximately} 1 THz. We are able to fit the losses in the Y-Ba-Cu-O films to a weakly coupled grain model for the a-b plane conductivity, in good agreement with results from a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the loss data. We observe strong phonon structure in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films for frequencies between 2 and 21 THz, and are unable to fit these losses to the simple weakly coupled grain model. This is in strong contrast to the case for other high {Tc} superconductors such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, where phonon structure observed in ceramic samples is absent in epitaxial oriented films and crystals because of the electronic screening due to the high conductivity of the a-b planes.

  11. Route Type Determination Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Stone

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the 2009 National Household Travel Survey 44.4 percent of all miles travelled by Americans in 2009 (including airplanes, trains, boats, golf carts, subways, bikes, etc.) were travelled in cars. If vans, SUV's and pickup trucks are included, that level increases to 86 percent. We do a lot of travelling on the road in personal vehicles - it's important to be able to understand how we get there and how to rate the fuel economy of our trips. An essential part of this is knowing how to decide if a trip is a city or highway trip.

  12. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

    2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) < Cu(111) < Pd/Cu(111) < Rh/Cu(111) < Pt/Cu(111) < Ni/Cu(111). On Au/Cu(111) and Cu(111), the formate pathway dominates the methanol production. Doping Au does not help the methanol synthesis on Cu(111). Pd, Rh, Pt, and Ni are able to promote the methanol production on Cu(111), where the conversion via the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

  13. Oxidation and diffusion of Cu in SrS: Cu grown by MBE for blue phosphors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Oxidation and diffusion of Cu in SrS: Cu grown by MBE for blue phosphors Y.B. Xina,b,*, W. Tonga, ON M9W 5AS, Canada Abstract Systematic studies of MBE grown SrS:Cu thin film blue phosphors Thin film SrS:Cu is a potential candidate for blue electro- luminescent (EL) phosphors. Although recent

  14. Modeling non-isothermal intermetallic layer growth in the 63Sn-37Pb/Cu system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vianco, P.T.; Hopkins, P.L.; Erickson, K.L.; Frear, D.R.; Davidson, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A model describing diffusion-controlled growth of multiple intermetallic layers and the displacement of the interfaces between layers was developed and implemented in a 1-D computer code based on method-of-lines. The code was applied to analysis of intermetallic layer growth in isothermal solder aging experiments performed with 100 Sn/Cu and 63Sn-37Pb/Cu solder-substrate systems. Analyses indicated that intermetallic layer growth was consistent with a bulk diffusion mechanism involving Cu and/or Sn. In this work, nonisothermal solder-aging experiments were done with the 63Sn- 37Pb/Cu system using two temperature histories (4 cycles/day between 223-443 K, and 72 cycles/day between 223-443 K). Isothermal experiments were also done at 443 K. Thickness of Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic layers were determined vs time for each temperature history. An updated version of the model and code were used to predict the intermetallic layer growth. Arrhenius expressions for diffusion coefficients in both Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 layers were determined. Agreement between prediction and experiment was generally good. In some cases, predicted layer growth was less than experiment, but within error. This paper describes the nonisothermal experiments and a comparison of predicted and observed layer growth vs time.

  15. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  16. Search for a silver-sheathed 1212-type superconductor with a grain colony microstructure : M{sub 1}Sr{sub 2}Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub z} with M = (Bi,Pb), (Cd,Pb), and (Fe,Pb).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maroni, V. A.; Murphy, N. N.; Mika, M.; Luo, Z. P.; Tang, Y.; Claus, H.; Miller, D. J.; Park, J. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Riley, G. N., Jr.; Fleshler, S.; Williams, R. K.; American Superconductor; ORNL

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the possibility of forming a silver-sheathed 1212-type high-critical-temperature superconductor (HTS) with the same type of grain colony microstructure (GCM) that develops in the silver-sheathed Bi-2223 (Ag/Bi-2223) composite conductor. The basis for this study is that a silver-sheathed 1212-type superconductor having a GCM should exhibit (1) good long-length transport critical current properties, (2) better in-field performance than Ag/Bi-2223 due to the significantly shorter blocking layer distance in 1212-type as opposed to 2223-type HTS phases, and (3) long-length transport current capacity equaling or exceeding that of Ag/Bi-2223 in present-day applications. Three series of M{sub 1}Sr{sub 2}Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub z} (M-1212) compositions with M = (Bi,Pb), (Cd,Pb), and (Fe,Pb) were prepared in silver-sheathed/flat wire form by the powder-in-tube method. For M = (Bi,Pb), we were able to obtain over 80% conversion to a 1212-phase in a relatively short time (6 h) for oxygen partial pressures in the range from 0.08 to 0.21 atm and temperatures from 900{sup o}C to 940{sup o}C. The (Bi,Pb)-1212 phase grew with a GCM that had the same type of fiber texture found in Ag/Bi-2223 composites. However, within the range of processing conditions tolerated by a silver sheath, no transport critical current was achieved in any of the Ag/(Bi,Pb)-1212 specimens, including ones that showed the presence of an HTS phase. Various oxygen doping treatments performed at very high (ca. 88 atm O2), intermediate (1 atm O{sub 2}), and low oxygen partial pressures (0.01 atm O{sub 2}) failed to induce a global HTS phase that carried a transport current. The preponderance of evidence from these studies indicated that any superconductivity detected in Ag/(Bi,Pb)-1212 specimens was most likely due to trace amounts of either Bi-2201 or Bi-2212. For M = (Cd,Pb) and (Fe,Pb), M-1212 phases in appreciable quantity did form in the silver-sheathed composites after heat treatment, but those M-1212 phases had granular microstructures. In the case of Ag/(Cd,Pb)-1212, the superconductivity that was detected in several specimens appeared to originate from a 2212-like phase. In the case of Ag/(Fe,Pb)-1212, there was clear evidence for the formation of a superconducting 1212 phase, but neither the Ag/(Cd,Pb)-1212 nor the Ag/(Fe,Pb)-1212 specimens exhibited a measurable transport critical current, presumably (in the latter case at least) because of the absence of a GCM.

  17. The Roles of Cu Impurity States in CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , to a better p-type, to insulating, and then to n-type -- is all due to different levels of Cu involvement treatment temperature. #12;2 I. Introduction CdTe based solar panels have emerged in recent years1 The Roles of Cu Impurity States in CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1 , T.A. Gessert2

  18. Effect of thermally stable Cu- and Mg-rich aluminides on the high temperature strength of an AlSi12CuMgNi alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asghar, Z., E-mail: zhdasghar@yahoo.com [Materials Division, Directorate of Technology, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Requena, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Zahid, G.H.; Rafi-ud-Din [Materials Division, Directorate of Technology, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The internal architecture of an AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy, revealed by synchrotron tomography, consists of three dimensional interconnected hybrid networks of Cu-rich aluminides, Mg-rich aluminides and eutectic/primary Si embedded in an ?-Al matrix. The strength at room temperature and at 300°C is studied as a function of solution treatment time at 490°C and compared with results previously reported for an AlSi12Ni alloy. The addition of 1 wt% Cu and 1 wt% Mg to AlSi12CuMgNi increases the room temperature strength by precipitation hardening while the strength at 300°C is similar for both alloys in as-cast condition. The strength of AlSi12CuMgNi decreases with solution treatment time and stabilizes at 4 h solution treatment. The effect of solution treatment time on the strength of the AlSi12CuMgNi alloy is less pronounced than for the AlSi12Ni alloy both at room temperature and at 300°C. - Highlights: • The 3D microstructure of AlSi12CuMgNi is revealed by synchrotron tomography. • An imaging analysis procedure to segment phases with similar contrasts is presented. • 1 wt% Cu and Mg results in the formation of 3D networks of rigid phases. • AlSi12CuMgNi is stronger than AlSi12Ni owing to the stability of the 3D networks.

  19. Well-studied Cu-BTC still serves surprises: evidence for facile...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well-studied Cu-BTC still serves surprises: evidence for facile Cu2+Cu+ interchange. Well-studied Cu-BTC still serves surprises: evidence for facile Cu2+Cu+ interchange....

  20. Synthesis and catalytic application of nanofibrous La{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Cu, Ag) with macroscopic shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwu@shiep.edu.cn; Zhao, Li; Wu, Jiang; Yao, Weifeng

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Fabrication of nanofibrous La{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Cu, Ag) perovskite-type oxides with macroscopic shapes was successfully obtained using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as templates. Furthermore, their application for the combustion of carbon black (CB), which is a model of particulate matter exhausted from diesel engines, was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Nanofibrous La{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} with macroscopic shapes was successfully obtained. • CNFs template method used here is facile, effective and reproducible. • The obtained materials show superior catalytic activity in soot combustion. • The catalytic order is La{sub 0.9}Ag{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} > La{sub 0.9}Cu{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} > La{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Fabrication of nanofibrous La{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Cu, Ag) perovskite-type oxides with macroscopic shapes can be successfully obtained by using CNFs as templates. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the template effect and formation of nanofibrous perovskite-type oxides on macroscopic silica fiber. It turned out that it is reliable to control the desired single-phase La{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Cu, Ag) perovskite-type oxides formation by tuning the corresponding metal ratio during preparation process. Furthermore, it showed that the as-prepared nanofibrous La{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Cu, Ag) perovskite-type oxides can greatly decrease the combustion temperature of nanosized carbon black particles, and follows the order of La{sub 0.9}Ag{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} > La{sub 0.9}Cu{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} > La{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}, indicating their high potential application prospects in diesel soot particles treatment.

  1. Temperature dependent effects during Ag deposition on Cu(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, T.N.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Hoffbauer, M.A.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; van der Veen, J.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); FOM-Instituut voor Atoom-en Molecuulfysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The composition, structure, and morphology of ultrathin films grown by Ag deposition on Cu(110) were monitored as a function of temperature using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Aligned backscattering measurements with 150 keV He ions indicate that the Ag resides on top of the Cu and there is no significant surface compound formation. Measurements with LEED show that the Ag is initially confined to the substrate troughs. Further deposition forces the Ag out of the troughs and results in a split c(2 {times} 4) LEED pattern, which is characteristic of a distorted Ag(111) monolayer template. As verified by both AES and MEIS measurements, postmonolayer deposition of Ag on Cu(110) at 300K leads to a pronounced 3-dimensional clustering. Ion blocking analysis of the Ag clusters show that the crystallites have a (110)-like growth orientation, implying that the Ag monolayer template undergoes a rearrangement. These data are confirmed by low temperature LEED results in the absence of clusters, which indicate that Ag multilayers grow from a Ag--Cu interface where the Ag is captured in the troughs. Changes observed in the film structure and morphology are consistent with a film growth mechanism that is driven by overlayer strain response to the substrate corrugation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Local structure order in Pd??Cu?Si?? liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, G. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, B.; Dong, F.; Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, S. Y.; et al

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The short-range order (SRO) in Pd??Cu?Si?? liquid was studied by high energy x-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The calculated pair correlation functions at different temperatures agree well with the experimental results. The partial pair correlation functions from ab intio MD simulations indicate that Si atoms prefer to be uniformly distributed while Cu atoms tend to aggregate. By performing structure analysis using Honeycutt-Andersen index, Voronoi tessellation, and atomic cluster alignment method, we show that the icosahedron and face-centered cubic SRO increase upon cooling. The dominant SRO is the Pd-centered Pd?Si? motif, namely the structure of which motifmore »is similar to the structure of Pd-centered clusters in the Pd?Si? crystal. The study further confirms the existence of trigonal prism capped with three half-octahedra that is reported as a structural unit in Pd-based amorphous alloys. The majority of Cu-centered clusters are icosahedra, suggesting that the presence of Cu is benefit to promote the glass forming ability.« less

  3. Gluconeogenesis as a system : development of in vivo flux analysis of hepatic glucose production in Type 2 Diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alemán, José O. (José Orlando)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metabolic diseases are an increasing health concern in the developed world. Type 2 Diabetes, (T2D) affects over 100 million people worldwide and significantly contributes to chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and ...

  4. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Model Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Cu-SSZ-13 (SiAl 2 12), Cu-ZSM-5 (SiAl 2 30) Cu-beta (SiAl 2 38), Cu-Y(SiAl 2 5.2) * Hydrothermal Aging 10% H 2 O in air, 800 o C,...

  5. $J/?$ Production in $p+p$, $d+Au$, and $Cu+Cu$ Collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vince Cianciolo; for the PHENIX Collaboration

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    PHENIX results for $J/\\psi$ production in $p+p$, $d+Au$, and $Cu+Cu$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV are presented.

  6. Origin of transverse magnetization in epitaxial Cu/Ni/Cu nanowire arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciria, M.

    The patterning-induced changes in the magnetic anisotropy and hysteresis of epitaxial (100)-oriented Cu/Ni(9, 10, 15 nm)/Cu planar nanowires have been quantified. When the Ni films are patterned into lines, strain relaxation ...

  7. A comparative study on shock compression of nanocrystalline Al and Cu: Shock profiles and microscopic views of plasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Wen; Hou, Yong [Department of Physics, College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [Department of Physics, College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-111, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-111, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock compressions of nanocrystalline (nc) metals Al and Cu with the same grain size and texture are studied by using molecular dynamics simulations. Results have revealed that the shock front of both Al and Cu can be divided into three stages: elastic, grain-boundary-mediated, and dislocation-mediated plastic deformation. The transition planes among these three stages are proven to be non-planar by two-dimensional shock response analysis, including local stress, shear, temperature, and atom configuration. The difference between shocked Al and Cu is that the rise rate of the elastic stage of Cu is slightly higher than that of Al, and that the shock-front width of Al is wider than Cu at the same loading conditions. For the plastic stage, the dislocation density of shocked Al is lower than Cu, and the contribution of grain-boundary-mediated plasticity to shock front and strain for nc Al is more pronounced than for nc Cu. These results are explained through intrinsic material properties and atomistic analysis of the plastic process. In the case of the shocked Al sample, partial dislocations, perfect dislocations, and twins are observed, but few evidence of perfect dislocations and twins are observed in the shocked Cu.

  8. Science DMZ Implemented at CU Boulder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    @ CU Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Case Studies OSCARS Case Studies Science DMZ Case Studies Science DMZ @ UF Science DMZ @...

  9. Investigation of solar cells based on Cu/sub 2/O. Progress report, June 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress was made in three areas: microstructure of Cu/sub 2/O substrates; correlation of Cu/sub 2/O microstructure with Cu/Cu/sub 2/O cell properties; and in fabrication of Tl/Cu/sub 2/O Schottky barriers. Characterization of Cu/sub 2/O substrates with IMMA indicates that Cl is uniformly distributed through grains, Mg precipitates at grain boundaries and Na and Fe precipitates occur throughout the material. It is clear that the presence of Cl results in lower p-type resistivities. Previous photoresponse scans established that grain boundaries are not significantly active concerning minority carrier recombination. I-V analyses of Cu/Cu/sub 2/O cells indicate that leakage current components are a result of distributed effects, and not a grain boundary mechanism. It is not yet clear whether the distributed effects are strictly a surface effect, or a result of bulk defects such as Na and Fe precipitates. Tl/Cu/sub 2/O Schottky barrier studies are progressing well. This device structure is being used as a means of determining if a significant built-in voltage can be achieved with a Cu/sub 2/O cell. Problems were encountered concerning deposition of thin Tl films. The films tend to agglomerate. Substrates will be cooled to counter the apparent lateral diffusion. V/sub oc/ values greater than 0.6 volts were obtained with thick film Tl/Cu/sub 2/O cells, however. These results suggest an improved built-in potential was achieved.

  10. Optogalvanic isotope enrichment of Cu ions in Cu-Ne positive column discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Optogalvanic isotope enrichment of Cu ions in Cu-Ne positive column discharges M. J. Kushner The isotopic enrichment of copper ions in a positive column Cu-Ne discharge using optogalvanic excitation the 63-amu isotope of copper is enriched relative to the neutral abundance. Enrichment as large as 10

  11. Spark Plasma Sintering of Nanocrystalline Cu and Cu-10 Wt Pct Pb Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    Spark Plasma Sintering of Nanocrystalline Cu and Cu-10 Wt Pct Pb Alloy AMIT S. SHARMA, KRISHANU temperature of 623 K (350 °C) using spark plasma sintering (SPS) in argon atmosphere at a pressure of 100 MPa to synthesize the bulk nanostructured Cu-10 wt pct Pb hypo-monotectic alloy by a novel technique, spark plasma

  12. A New Type Curve Analysis for Shale Gas/Oil Reservoir Production Performance with Dual Porosity Linear System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdulal, Haider Jaffar

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With increase of interest in exploiting shale gas/oil reservoirs with multiple stage fractured horizontal wells, complexity of production analysis and reservoir description have also increased. Different methods and models were used throughout...

  13. Scanned pulsed laser annealing of Cu thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Harsh Anand, 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the microelectronics industry has moved to Cu as the conductor material, there has been much research into microstructure control in Cu thin films, primarily because grain sizes affect resistivity. Also with Cu-based ...

  14. Room-temperature Formation of Hollow Cu2O Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hung, Ling-I; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Yang, Peidong

    2010-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Monodisperse Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized using tetradecylphosphonic acid as a capping agent. Dispersing the NPs in chloroform and hexane at room temperature results in the formation of hollow Cu2O NPs and Cu@Cu2O core/shell NPs, respectively. The monodisperse Cu2O NPs are used to fabricate hybrid solar cells with efficiency of 0.14percent under AM 1.5 and 1 Sun illumination.

  15. Proton micro-probe analysis of framboidal pyrite and associated maceral types in a Devonian black shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, U.M.; Robl, T.L. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Robertson, J.D. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Framboids are spherical, raspberry-like aggregates of pyrite which are typically associated with organic matter in black shales. Because framboids are often intimately intergrown with macerals of the kerogen in black shales the objectives of this study were to: (1) Select tramboidal pyrite with close spatial relationship to distinct maceral types; (2) Determine the trace-element variations within different maceral types and that of framboidal pyrite occurring adjacent to those macerals and; (3) Examine whether the S/Fe ratios of the tramboids vary based on different maceral-type association. This study investigates a Devonian-Mississippian black shale from East-Central Kentucky. The organic-rich matrix consists predominantly of bituminite, alginite and to lesser extent of vitrinite. Most framboids range between < 1[mu]m and 27 [mu]m in size and typically occur as clusters which are engulfed by lamellar flowing vitrinite, indicating that the framboids were already present before compaction. 161 PIXE-analyses were performed in both macerals and framboids. To understand the likelihood of framboid precursors in macerals the authors checked the constancy of the S, Fe and trace-element content in the immediate vicinity of the framboid particle. Moreover, the authors analyzed traverses through framboids associated with the three different maceral types. The S/Fe ratio of the framboids is always that of stoichiometric pyrite. The combined results suggest that the framboids may have formed independent of the sulfur and trace-element concentration among the macerals. Globular, partly translucent grains were observed to have great resemblances in size and trace-element contents compared to those of framboids. The S/Fe ratio of these grains was typically well in excess of 2.0 suggesting that the transparent matrix may have been a sulfur-rich phase that possibly serves as precursor for the framboids.

  16. An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Christopher James

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1's accuracy in forecasting frozen precipitation. . . . 60 23 25 Same as FIG. 22 except for model 2 . . . . Same as FIG. 22 except for model 3 . . . . Same as FIG. 22 except for model 4 . . . . 61 62 26 Histogram of responses for snow cases... to the logistic regression analysis of snow cases versus rain cases for model 1. 64 FIGURE Page 27 Histogram of responses for rain cases to the logistic regression analysis of snow cases versus rain cases for model 1 28 Histogram of responses for snow cases...

  17. Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide Earth Materials: A Connection between Bond Length, Bond Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide...

  18. Adsorption of Cu21 Ions with Poly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adsorption of Cu21 Ions with Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) Micro. It was shown that particle size played a very important role in the adsorption process. The nano-scale particles showed much improved Cu ion adsorption efficiency, compared with the micro hydro- gels. The amount

  19. Structure and dielectric properties of Ba{sub 5}NdCu{sub 1.5}Nb{sub 8.5}O{sub 30??} tungsten bronze ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Yan-Qing; Yu, Yuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19(A) Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Hao, Yong-Mei, E-mail: ymhao@ucas.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19(A) Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Su-Ying; Yang, Yi-Wen [Beijing National Day School, 66 Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Tetragonal tungsten bronze ceramic Ba{sub 5}NdCu{sub 1.5}Nb{sub 8.5}O{sub 30??} was prepared. ? Titanium was replaced by copper in M{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} for the first time. ? Detailed structural information was retrieved by Rietveld refinement. ? An obvious relaxor-like dielectric behavior was observed in this ceramic, ion disorders in A1 and B sites contribute to this behavior. - Abstract: A new type of tungsten bronze ceramic Ba{sub 5}NdCu{sub 1.5}Nb{sub 8.5}O{sub 30??} has been prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction technique. Its structural, dielectric properties were investigated. Rietveld analysis shows that Ba{sub 5}NdCu{sub 1.5}Nb{sub 8.5}O{sub 30??} has a single-phase tetragonal (space group P4bm and lattice constants a = b = 12.4961(4) ?, c = 3.9426(8) ?, V = 615.66(4) ?{sup 3}) tungsten bronze structure. The occupations of sites A and B are quite interesting. A1 sites are fully disordered occupied by Ba ions and Nd ions and A2 sites for Ba ions only, while B-sites are equal for both Cu and Nb ions to occupy. This material exhibits an obvious relaxation behavior in the 213–573 K temperature range. The dielectric constants have been fitted by the modified Curie–Weiss law and all the estimated ? values are close to 2, confirming the typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior. The disorders of Ba{sup 2+} or Nd{sup 3+} in A1 sites and Nb{sup 5+}, Cu{sup 2+} in B sites induced by the oxygen vacancies may contribute to this dielectric behavior.

  20. Cu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department of WeeklyCrystalnamed

  1. The optimization of the production of ??Cu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauny, Ronnie Dean

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the short half- life of Cu and Zn, at the time of chemical separation the only contaminants expected were Ga from Zn, 1. 2 0 0 2( 4 M T W Th F S Su M T W Th F S Days of the Week Fig. 1. Nuclear Reactor Time Optimization. 14 Zn from Cu and Ni... in the production of s~Cu. To be selected a reaction had to have a stable target, an obtain- able g-value, a carrier free reaction, and a low level of activity due to contaminating products. Based on the above criteria, 6 Zn(n, p) 'Cu, 'Zn(n, d)' Cu, and Ni(o, p...

  2. An experimental analysis of the effects of group size and type of public good on free riding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nallapati, Indira

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Contributions towards Public Goods. . 8 Contributions to the Public Good based on Gender 48 4 Contributions towards Public Goods and Reasons for Investing in them. . 50 5 Effects of Gender and Type of Public Good on Contributions towards Public Goods. 51... and vagueness; 5. there is uncertainty and disequilibrium; 6. there is insufficient economic motivation; 7. it is a small group; 8. the resources given to the subject in the experiment are treated as a transitory income, a one-time increment (so...

  3. Nanostructural considerations in giant magnetoresistive Co-Cu-based symmetric spin valves Harsh Deep Chopra*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chopra, Harsh Deep

    , for example, magnetic-field sensors and read-heads in data- storage devices.11 A key impedimentNanostructural considerations in giant magnetoresistive Co-Cu-based symmetric spin valves Harsh, on the nanostructure and resulting giant magnetoresistive properties of symmetric spin valves of the type Ni

  4. Carrier Density and Compensation in Semiconductors with Multi Dopants and Multi Transition Energy Levels: The Case of Cu Impurity in CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, S. H.; Ma, J.; Gessert, T. A.; Chin, K. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Doping is one of the most important issues in semiconductor physics. The charge carrier generated by doping can profoundly change the properties of semiconductors and their performance in optoelectronic device applications, such as solar cells. Using detailed balance theory and first-principles calculated defect formation energies and transition energy levels, we derive general formulae to calculate carrier density for semiconductors with multi dopants and multi transition energy levels. As an example, we studied CdTe doped with Cu, in which V{sub Cd}, Cu{sub Cd}, and Cu{sub i} are the dominant defects/impurities. We show that in this system, when Cu concentration increases, the doping properties of the system can change from a poor p-type, to a poorer p-type, to a better p-type, and then to a poor p-type again, in good agreement with experimental observation of CdTe-based solar cells.

  5. Pion Interferometry in Au+Au and Cu+Cu Collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, B.I.

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic analysis of two-pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at {radical}sNN = 62.4 GeV and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at RHIC. The multiplicity and transverse momentum dependences of the extracted correlation lengths (radii) are studied. The scaling with charged particle multiplicity of the apparent system volume at final interaction is studied for the RHIC energy domain. The multiplicity scaling of the measured correlation radii is found to be independent of colliding system and collision energy.

  6. Fundamental Studies of Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on Cu(111), Cu Clusters, and Cu/ZnO(000?)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.; Yang, Y.; Evans, J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; White, M.G.

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of experimental and theoretical methods were employed to investigate the synthesis of methanolvia CO{sub 2}hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on Cu(111) and Cunanoparticle surfaces. High pressure reactivity studies show that Cunanoparticles supported on a ZnO(000{bar 1}) single crystal exhibit a higher catalytic activity than the Cu(111) planar surface. Complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations of methanol synthesis were also performed for a Cu(111) surface and unsupported Cu{sub 29} nanoparticles, and the results support a higher activity for Cu nanoparticles. The DFT calculations show that methanol synthesis on Cu surfaces proceeds through a formate intermediate and the overall reaction rate is limited by both formate and dioxomethylene hydrogenation. Moreover, the superior activity of the nanoparticle is associated with its fluxionality and the presence of low-coordinated Cu sites, which stabilize the key intermediates, e.g. formate and dioxomethylene, and lower the barrier for the rate-limiting hydrogenation process. The reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) reaction (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2} {yields} CO + H{sub 2}O) was experimentally observed to compete with methanol synthesis and was also considered in our DFT calculations. In agreement with experiment, the rate of the RWGS reaction on Cu nanoparticles is estimated to be 2 orders of magnitude faster than methanol synthesis at T = 573 K. The experiments and calculations also indicate that CO produced by the fast RWGS reaction does not undergo subsequent hydrogenation to methanol, but instead simply accumulates as a product. Methanol production from CO hydrogenation via the RWGS pathway is hindered by the first hydrogenation of CO to formyl, which is not stable and prefers to dissociate into CO and H atoms on Cu. Our calculated results suggest that the methanol yield over Cu-based catalysts could be improved by adding dopants or promoters which are able to stabilize formyl species or facilitate the hydrogenation of formate and dioxomethylene. the RWGS pathway is hindered by the first hydrogenation of CO to formyl, which is not stable and prefers to dissociate into CO and H atoms on Cu. Our calculated results suggest that the methanol yield over Cu-based catalysts could be improved by adding dopants or promoters which are able to stabilize formyl species or facilitate the hydrogenation of formate and dioxomethylene.

  7. Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

  8. beta-decay study of Cu-77

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Patronis; H. De Witte; M. Gorska; M. Huyse; K. Kruglov; D. Pauwels; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; J. Van Roosbroeck; J. -C. Thomas; S. Franchoo; J. Cederkall; V. N. Fedoseyev; H. Fynbo; U. Georg; O. Jonsson; U. Köster; T. Materna; L. Mathieu; O. Serot; L. Weissman; W. F. Mueller; V. I. Mishin; D. Fedorov

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

  9. Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

  10. Viscous hydrodynamics description of $?$ meson production in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Israel-Stewart's theory of 2nd order dissipative hydrodynamics, we have simulated $\\phi$ production in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV. Evolution of QGP fluid with viscosity over the entropy ratio $\\eta/s$=0.25, thermalised at $\\tau_i$=0.2 fm, with initial energy density $\\epsilon_i$=5.1 $GeV/fm^3$ explains the experimental data on $\\phi$ multiplicity, integrated $v_2$, mean $p_T$, $p_T$ spectra and elliptic flow in central and mid-central Au+Au collisions. $\\eta/s$=0.25 is also consistent with centrality dependence of $\\phi$ $p_T$ spectra in Cu+Cu collisions. The central energy density in Cu+Cu collisions is $\\epsilon_i$=3.48 $GeV/fm^3$.

  11. Electroslag surfacing of steel shafting with Ni alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devletian, J.H.; Gao, Y.P.; Wood, W.E. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study of electroslag surfacing (ESS) of steel with Ni Alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip electrodes was conducted to establish the feasibility of replacing forged bearing sleeves on propulsion shafting with integral weld surfacing. The base material was MIL-S-23284, Class 1 steel in the form of 41--66 cm (16--26 in.) diameter shafting and 76 mm (3 in.) thick flat plate. All ESS was carried out at a heat input level of approximately 5.9kJ/mm (150 kJ/in.) using 30 x 0.5 mm (1.2 x 0.02 in.) strip electrodes. Assessments of mechanical properties and microstructure of Ni Alloy 625 surfacing and 70Cu-30Ni surfacing were conducted to establish the structure-property relationships in these complex alloy systems. In addition, a solidification cracking test was developed to determine the relative cracking susceptibilities of these strip surfacing alloys. Although the Ni Alloy 625 surfacing contained small islands of interdendritic MC type carbides and Laves phase, the mechanical properties of this surfacing were satisfactory. The 70Cu-30Ni surfacing required a buttering layer of 30Cu-70Ni or pure Ni to prevent solidification cracking. The inherent ductility-dip sensitivity of 70Cu-30Ni surfacing was overcome by the development of a suitable ESS procedure.

  12. Electrodeposition, characterization and morphological investigations of NiFe/Cu multilayers prepared by pulsed galvanostatic, dual bath technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esmaili, S., E-mail: esmaili@shiraz.ac.ir [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrololoom, M.E. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kavanagh, K.L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Colombia (Canada)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    NiFe/Cu multilayers were grown sequentially by pulsed electrodeposition on copper (Cu) substrates. The layers were prepared in galvanostatic mode using a dual bath technique. The morphology, thickness, roughness and composition of the layers were studied using scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Analysis showed that the resulting multilayers were continuous layers with a root mean square roughness of 30 nm and a grain size of 20-60 nm. The Cu substrate and the electrodeposited Cu layer were preferentially (200) oriented while the NiFe layers were polycrystalline but with a preferred (200) texture. The thinnest multilayers produced were 20/40, NiFe/Cu, respectively. - Research Highlights: {yields} Thin MLs of Cu and Py can be ED utilizing a pulsed-galvanostatic, DBT. {yields} The resulting multilayers were continuous layers with an rms of 30 nm. {yields} The smallest average thickness achieved by DBT was 40 nm/20 nm for Cu/NiFe.

  13. Electronic band structure imaging of three layer twisted graphene on single crystal Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marquez Velasco, J. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece) [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Kelaidis, N.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Tsoutsou, D.; Tsipas, P.; Speliotis, Th.; Pilatos, G.; Likodimos, V.; Falaras, P.; Dimoulas, A., E-mail: dimoulas@ims.demokritos.gr [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Raptis, Y. S. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Few layer graphene (FLG) is grown on single crystal Cu(111) by Chemical Vapor Deposition, and the electronic valence band structure is imaged by Angle-Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy. It is found that graphene essentially grows polycrystalline. Three nearly ideal Dirac cones are observed along the Cu ?{sup Ż}K{sup Ż} direction in k-space, attributed to the presence of ?4° twisted three layer graphene with negligible interlayer coupling. The number of layers and the stacking order are compatible with Raman data analysis demonstrating the complementarity of the two techniques for a more accurate characterization of FLG.

  14. Structure and magnetic properties of RE{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyvanchuk, Yuriy B. [Faculty of Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla and Mephodiya Street 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)], E-mail: yutyv@franko.lviv.ua; Szytula, Andrzej; Zarzycki, Arkadiusz [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Rodewald, Ute Ch. [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Kalychak, Yaroslav M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla and Mephodiya Street 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: pottgen@uni-muenster.de

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ternary copper indides RE{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3}{identical_to}RECu{sub 0.5}In{sub 1.5} (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd) were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in an induction furnace. They crystallize with the CaIn{sub 2}-type structure, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, with a statistical occupancy of copper and indium on the tetrahedral substructure. These indides show homogeneity ranges RECu{sub x}In{sub 2-x}. Single crystal structure refinements were performed for five crystals: CeCu{sub 0.66}In{sub 1.34} (a=479.90(7) pm, c=768.12(15) pm), PrCu{sub 0.52}In{sub 1.48} (a=480.23(7) pm, c=759.23(15) pm), NdCu{sub 0.53}In{sub 1.47} (a=477.51(7) pm, c=756.37(15) pm), SmCu{sub 0.46}In{sub 1.54} (a=475.31(7) pm, c=744.77(15) pm), and GdCu{sub 0.33}In{sub 1.67} (a=474.19(7), c=737.67(15) pm). Temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements show antiferromagnetic ordering at T{sub N}=4.7 K for Pr{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} and 15 K for Sm{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3}. Fitting of the susceptibility data of the samarium compound revealed an energy gap {delta}E=39.7(7) K between the ground and the first excited levels. - Graphical abstract: The CaIn{sub 2}-type structure of Sm{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3}.

  15. CuAl{sub 2} revisited: Composition, crystal structure, chemical bonding, compressibility and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, Yuri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: grin@cpfs.mpg.de; Wagner, Frank R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Armbruester, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Kohout, Miroslav [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Leithe-Jasper, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Schwarz, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wedig, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Georg von Schnering, Hans [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of CuAl{sub 2} is usually described as a framework of base condensed tetragonal antiprisms [CuAl{sub 8/4}]. The appropriate symmetry governed periodic nodal surface (PNS) divides the space of the structure into two labyrinths. All atoms are located in one labyrinth, whereas the second labyrinth seems to be 'empty'. The bonding of the CuAl{sub 2} structure was analyzed by the electron localization function (ELF), crystal orbital Hamiltonian population (COHP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. From the ELF representation it is seen, that the 'empty' labyrinth is in fact the place of important covalent interactions. ELF, COHP in combination with high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the CuAl{sub 2} structure is described best as a network built of interpenetrating graphite-like nets of three-bonded aluminum atoms with the copper atoms inside the tetragonal-antiprismatic cavities. - Graphical abstract: Atomic interactions in the crystal structure of the intermetallic compound CuAl{sub 2}: Three-bonded aluminum atoms form interpenetrating graphite-like nets. The copper atoms are located in the channels of aluminum network by means of three-center bonds. The bonding model is in agreement with the result of polarized Raman spectroscopy and high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction.

  16. Modification of carbon nanotubes by CuO-doped NiO nanocomposite for use as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustansar Abbas, Syed, E-mail: qau_abbas@yahoo.com [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Tajammul Hussain, Syed [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ali, Saqib [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Nisar [Department of Chemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra (Pakistan); Ali, Nisar [Department of Physics, University of Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Abbas, Saghir [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Zulfiqar [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CuO-doped NiO (CuNiO) with porous hexagonal morphology is fabricated via a modified in-situ co-precipitation method and its nanocomposite is prepared with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electrochemical properties of CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Since Cu can both act as conductor and a catalyst, the CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite exhibits higher initial coulombic efficiency (82.7% of the 2nd cycle) and better capacity retention (78.6% on 50th cycle) than bare CuNiO (78.9% of the 2nd cycle), CuO/CNT (76.8% of the 2nd cycle) and NiO/CNT (77.7% of the 2nd cycle) at the current density of 100 mA /g. This high capacity and good cycling ability is attributed to the partial substitution of Cu{sup +2} for Ni{sup +2}, resulting in an increase of holes concentration, and therefore improved p-type conductivity along with an intimate interaction with CNTs providing large surface area, excellent conduction, mechanical strength and chemical stability. - Graphical abstract: The porous CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite synthesized via a modified co-precipitation method in combination with subsequent calcination was applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • CuO doped NiO/CNTs nano composite is achieved via a simple co-precipitation method. • Monodispersity, shape and sizes of sample particles is specifically controlled. • Good quality adhesion between CNTs and CuNiO is visible from TEM image. • High electrochemical performance is achieved. • Discharge capacity of 686 mA h/g after 50 cycles with coulombic efficiency (82.5%)

  17. Epitaxial Growth and Microstructure of Cu2O Nanoparticle/thin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The grown layer was dominated by Cu2O phase, possessing an epitaxial orientation with the substrate such that: Cu2O001STO001 and Cu2O(100)STO(100). Cu2O film...

  18. Study of carbon dioxide adsorption on a Cu-nitroprusside polymorph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roque-Malherbe, R., E-mail: RRoque@suagm.ed [Institute for Physical Chemical Applied Research, School of Science, University of Turabo, P.O. Box 3030, Gurabo, PR 00778-3030 (United States); Lozano, C.; Polanco, R.; Marquez, F.; Lugo, F. [Institute for Physical Chemical Applied Research, School of Science, University of Turabo, P.O. Box 3030, Gurabo, PR 00778-3030 (United States); Hernandez-Maldonado, A.; Primera-Pedrozo, J.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (United States)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A careful structural characterization was carried out to unequivocally determine the structure of the synthesized material. The TGA, DRIFTS and a Pawley fitting of the XRD powder profiles indicate that the hydrated and in situ dehydrated polymorph crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. Meanwhile, the CO{sub 2} isosteric heat of adsorption appears to be independent of loading with an average value of 30 kJ/mol. This translates to a physisorption type interaction, where the adsorption energy corresponding to wall and lateral interactions are mutually compensated to produce, an apparently, homogeneous adsorption energy. The somewhat high adsorption energy is probably due to the confinement of the CO{sub 2} molecules in the nitroprusside pores. Statistical Physics and the Dubinin theory for pore volume filling allowed model the CO{sub 2} equilibrium adsorption process in Cu-nitroprusside. A DRIFTS test for the adsorbed CO{sub 2} displayed a peak at about 2338 cm{sup -1} that was assigned to a contribution due to physical adsorption of the molecule. Another peak found at 2362 cm{sup -1} evidenced that this molecule interacts with the Cu{sup 2+}, which appears to act as an electron accepting Lewis acid site. The aim of the present paper is to report a Pnma stable Cu-nitroprusside polymorph obtained by the precipitation method that can adsorb carbon dioxide. -- Graphical abstract: The adsorption space of a very well characterized Cu-nitroprusside polymorph, applying carbon dioxide as probe molecule, was studied. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Accurate information about the geometry of the adsorption space was provided. {yields} Truthful data about the interactions within the adsorption space was presented. {yields} The structure of the tested Cu-NP polymorph was established. {yields} Was evidenced adsorbed CO{sub 2} molecules in the form of weakly bonded adducts. {yields} Is proposed that adsorbed molecules could change the Cu-NP magnetic properties.

  19. Crystal and electronic structures of CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type rare-earth copper zinc phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Peter E.R.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Cavell, Ronald G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quaternary rare-earth phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 900 {sup o}C, completing this versatile series which forms for nearly all RE metals. They adopt the trigonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure (Pearson symbol hP5, space group P3-bar m1, Z=1), as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis on ErCuZnP{sub 2} and powder X-ray diffraction analysis on the remaining members. The Cu and Zn atoms are assumed to be disordered over the single transition-metal site. Band structure calculations on a hypothetically ordered YCuZnP{sub 2} model suggest a semimetal, with a zero band gap between the valence and conduction bands. This electronic structure is supported by XPS valence band spectra for RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Gd-Er), in which the intensity drops off smoothly at the Fermi edge. The absence of a band gap permits the electron count to deviate from the precise value of 16 e{sup -} per formula unit, as demonstrated by the formation of a solid solution in GdCu{sub x}Zn{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} (1.0{<=}x{<=}1.3), while still retaining the CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. Because the Cu 2p XPS spectra indicate that the Cu atoms are always monovalent, the substitution of Cu for Zn leads to a decrease in electron count and a lowering of the Fermi level in the valence band. The magnetic susceptibility of RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Gd-Er), which obeys the Curie-Weiss law, confirms the presence of trivalent RE atoms. -- Graphical abstract: The absence of a band gap in the semimetallic quaternary rare-earth phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} permits the formation of a solid solution such as GdCu{sub x}Zn{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} through hole-doping of the valence band. Display Omitted

  20. Carrier Density and Compensation in Semiconductors with Multi Dopants and Multi Transition Energy Levels: The Case of Cu Impurity in CdTe: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, S. H.; Ma, J.; Gessert, T. A.; Chin, K. K.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Doping is one of the most important issues in semiconductor physics. The charge carrier generated by doping can profoundly change the properties of semiconductors and their performance in optoelectronic device applications, such as solar cells. Using detailed balance theory and first-principles calculated defect formation energies and transition energy levels, we derive general formulae to calculate carrier density for semiconductors with multi dopants and multi transition energy levels. As an example, we studied CdTe doped with Cu, in which VCd, CuCd, and Cui are the dominant defects/impurities. We show that in this system, when Cu concentration increases, the doping properties of the system can change from a poor p-type, to a poorer p-type, to a better p-type, and then to a poor p-type again, in good agreement with experimental observation of CdTe-based solar cells.

  1. Femtosecond dynamics of Cu,,CD3OD... Jack Barbera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineberger, W. Carl

    Femtosecond dynamics of Cu,,CD3OD... Jack Barbera JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado online 27 February 2007 We report the femtosecond nuclear dynamics of Cu CD3OD van der Waals clusters, investigated using photodetachment-photoionization spectroscopy. Photodetachment of an electron from Cu- CD3OD

  2. Phase relationships in the pseudo-binary 2(ZnTe)-CuInTe{sub 2} system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussak, Liudmila [University of Leipzig, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Linnestrasse 3-5 (TA), D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: roussak@rz.uni-leipzig.de; Wagner, Gerald [University of Leipzig, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Linnestrasse 3-5 (TA), D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Schorr, Susan [University of Leipzig, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Linnestrasse 3-5 (TA), D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Bente, Klaus [University of Leipzig, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Linnestrasse 3-5 (TA), D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsolidus phase relationships in the 2(ZnTe){sub x}(CuInTe{sub 2}){sub 1-x} system were investigated by TEM experiments combined with EDX analysis. The samples were prepared by the solid-state reaction of the elements during long annealing times, followed by either quenching in ice-cold water, or by controlled cooling at different rates. Using the chemical compositions of single and coexisting phases at various temperatures, the boundaries of the two-phase region have been determined. At room temperature, the two-phase region extends from x=0.10 to 0.31. For x<0.10 only mixed crystals with tetragonal structure exist. Between x=0.31 and 1 alloys with the cubic structure are stable. The morphology of the tetragonal domains and their orientation relationship to the cubic matrix were determined by SAD, TEM and HRTEM experiments. The tetragonal phase embedded within the cubic matrix has a flat ellipsoidal shape, whose short axis coincides with the tetragonal c-axis. The three topotaxial orientation relationships between the tetragonal domains and the surrounding cubic matrix were found to be: [001]{sub tetr.}-bar [100]{sub cub.}, [001]{sub tetr.}-bar [010]{sub cub.} and [001]{sub tetr.}-bar [001]{sub cub.}. There is an indication that the nucleation starts from small regions displaying cation ordering according to the CuPt-type structure. Reaching the two-phase equilibrium, the tetragonal domains as well as the surrounding cubic phase are free of this cation ordering.

  3. Electrolyte Composition for Cu Electrochemical Mechanical Planarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    abrasives are included within the ECMP electrolyte. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results measurements of the Cu removal rate, with and without surface abrasion. These results predict a 500 m indicate that the interfacial impedance is increased by the presence of silica, suggesting that silica

  4. Di-jet correlation in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions from PHENIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiangyong Jia

    2006-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    PHENIX has measured the two particle azimuth correlation in Au + Au at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. Jet shape and yield at the away side are found to be strongly modified at intermediate and low $p_T$. The modifications vary dramatically with $p_T$ and centrality. At high $p_T$, away side jet peak reappears but the yield is suppressed. Similar jet strength is found for Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions with similar number of participant nucleons.

  5. Identified high-pT spectra in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report new results on identified (anti)proton and charged pion spectra at large transverse momenta (3 < p{sub T} < 10 GeV/c) from Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This study explores the system size dependence of two novel features observed at RHIC with heavy ions: the hadron suppression at high-p{sub T} and the anomalous baryon to meson enhancement at intermediate transverse momenta. Both phenomena could be attributed to the creation of a new form of QCD matter. The results presented here bridge the system size gap between the available pp and Au+Au data, and allow the detailed exploration for the on-set of the novel features. Comparative analysis of all available 200 GeV data indicates that the system size is a major factor determining both the magnitude of the hadron spectra suppression at large transverse momenta and the relative baryon to meson enhancement.

  6. Microstructure of electrodeposited Cu-Ni binary alloy films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizushima, Io; Chikazawa, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Tohru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The codeposition of Cu and Ni in the electrodeposition method without a complexing agent is difficult, since the standard electrode potentials of Cu and Ni differ by approximately 600 mV. In this study, the electrodeposited Cu-Ni alloy films with various compositions were obtained using glycine as the complexing agent. Consequently, composition of the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films can be controlled by bath composition and pH, and the crystallographic structure of all the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films consists of a single solid solution and is not influenced by pH.

  7. Enhanced Flux-Pinning Properties in Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-? Thin Films with Nanoengineering Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chen-Fong

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    field. This work received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2003. 1.1.6 Discovery of the first cuprate BaxLa5-xCu5O3-y in 19867 In 1986, Georg Bednorz and Alex M?ller at IBM laboratory in Zurich Switzerland were exploring the perovskite materials... layers separated by dopant layers, and supercurrent flows through the copper oxide layers. In 1987, Paul C. W. Chu and M. K. Wu substituted Yttrium for Lanthanum to produce a new perovskite ceramic type-II superconductor- YBa2Cu3O7 7 and raised...

  8. Mechanism of Methanol Synthesis on Cu through CO2 and CO Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabow, Lars C.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive mean-field microkinetic model for the methanol synthesis and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions that includes novel reaction intermediates, such as formic acid (HCOOH) and hydroxymethoxy (CH?O?) and allows for the formation of formic acid (HCOOH), formaldehyde (CH?O), and methyl formate (HCOOCH?) as byproducts. All input model parameters were initially derived from periodic, self-consistent, GGA-PW91 density functional theory calculations on the Cu(111) surface and subsequently fitted to published experimentalmethanol synthesis rate data, which were collected under realistic conditions on a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al?O? catalyst. We find that the WGS reaction follows the carboxyl (COOH)-mediated path and that both CO and CO? hydrogenation pathways are active for methanol synthesis. Under typical industrial methanol synthesis conditions, CO? hydrogenation is responsible for ?2/3 of the methanol produced. The intermediates of the CO? pathway for methanol synthesis include HCOO*, HCOOH*, CH?O?*, CH?O*, and CH?O*. The formation of formate (HCOO*) from CO?* and H* on Cu(111) does not involve an intermediate carbonate (CO?*) species, and hydrogenation of HCOO* leads to HCOOH* instead of dioxymethylene (H?CO?*). The effect of CO is not only promotional; CO* is also hydrogenated in significant amounts to HCO*, CH?O *, CH?O*, and CH?OH*. We considered two possibilities for CO promotion: (a) removal of OH* via COOH* to form CO? and hydrogen (WGS), and (b) CO-assisted hydrogenation of various surface intermediates, with HCO* being the H-donor. Only the former mechanism contributes to methanol formation, but its effect is small compared with that of direct CO hydrogenation to methanol. Overall, methanol synthesis rates are limited by methoxy (CH?O*) formation at low CO?/(CO+CO?) ratios and by CH?O* hydrogenation in CO?-rich feeds. CH?O* hydrogenation is the common slow step for both the CO and the CO? methanol synthesis routes; the relative contribution of each route is determined by their respective slow steps HCO*+H*?CH?O*+* and HCOOH*+H*?CH?O?*+* as well as by feed composition and reaction conditions. An analysis of the fitted parameters for a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al?O? catalyst suggests that a more open Cu surface, for example, Cu(110), Cu(100), and Cu(211) partially covered by oxygen, may provide a better model for the active site of methanol synthesis, but our studies cannot exclude a synergistic effect with the ZnO support.

  9. Award Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugust AugustInstruments on theAward Types Types of

  10. Effects of charge inhomogeneities on elementary excitations in La2-xSrxCuO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, S. R.; Hamann, A.; Pintschovius, L.; Lamago, D.; Khaliullin, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Reznik, D.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purely local experimental probes of many copper oxide superconductors show that their electronic states are inhomogeneous in real space. For example, scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging shows strong variations in real space, and according to nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies, the charge distribution in the bulk varies on the nanoscale. However, the analysis of the experimental results utilizing spatially averaged probes often ignores this fact. We have performed a detailed investigation of the doping dependence of the energy and linewidth of the zone-boundary Cu-O bond-stretching vibration in La2-xSrxCuO? by inelastic neutron scattering. Both our results as well as previously reported angle-dependentmore »momentum widths of the electronic spectral function detected by angle-resolved photoemission can be reproduced by including the same distribution of local environments extracted from the NQR analysis.« less

  11. Effects of charge inhomogeneities on elementary excitations in La2-xSrxCuO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, S. R.; Hamann, A.; Pintschovius, L.; Lamago, D.; Khaliullin, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Reznik, D.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purely local experimental probes of many copper oxide superconductors show that their electronic states are inhomogeneous in real space. For example, scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging shows strong variations in real space, and according to nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies, the charge distribution in the bulk varies on the nanoscale. However, the analysis of the experimental results utilizing spatially averaged probes often ignores this fact. We have performed a detailed investigation of the doping dependence of the energy and linewidth of the zone-boundary Cu-O bond-stretching vibration in La2-xSrxCuO? by inelastic neutron scattering. Both our results as well as previously reported angle-dependent momentum widths of the electronic spectral function detected by angle-resolved photoemission can be reproduced by including the same distribution of local environments extracted from the NQR analysis.

  12. Method of producing .sup.67 Cu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A. (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bentley, Glenn E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing carrier-free .sup.67 Cu by proton spallation combined with subsequent chemical separation and purification is disclosed. A target consisting essentially of pressed zinc oxide is irradiated with a high energy, high current proton beam to produce a variety of spallogenic nuclides, including .sup.67 Cu and other copper isotopes. The irradiated target is dissolved in a concentrated acid solution to which a palladium salt is added. In accordance with the preferred method, the spallogenic copper is twice coprecipitated with palladium, once with metallic zinc as the precipitating agent and once with hydrogen sulfide as the precipitating agent. The palladium/copper precipitate is then dissolved in an acid solution and the copper is separated from the palladium by liquid chromatography on an anion exchange resin.

  13. A new Cu–cysteamine complex: structure and optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Schatte, Gabriele; Wang, Wei; Joly, Alan G.; Huang, Yining; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Hossu, Marius

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we report the structure and optical properties of a new Cu–cysteamine complex (Cu–Cy) with a formula of Cu3Cl(SR)2 (R Ľ CH2CH2NH2). This Cu–Cy has a different structure from a previous Cu–Cy complex, in which both thio and amine groups from cysteamine bond with copper ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance results show that the oxidation state of copper in Cu3Cl(SR)2 is +1 rather than +2. Further, Cu3Cl(SR)2 has been observed to show intense photoluminescence and X-ray excited luminescence. More interesting is that Cu3Cl(SR)2 particles can produce singlet oxygen under irradiation by light or X-ray. This indicates that Cu3Cl(SR)2 is a new photosensitizer that can be used for deep cancer treatment as X-ray can penetrate soft tissues. All these findings mean that Cu3Cl(SR)2 is a new material with potential applications for lighting, radiation detection and cancer treatment.

  14. The effect of Cu/Zn molar ratio on CO{sub 2} hydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaharun, Salina, E-mail: salinashaharun@gmail.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S., E-mail: salinashaharun@gmail.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Taha, Mohd F., E-mail: faisalt@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohamad, Dasmawati, E-mail: dasmawati@kck.usm.my [School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to methanol is an attractive way to recycle and utilize CO{sub 2}. A series of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts (CZAZ) containing different molar ratios of Cu/Zn were prepared by the co-precipitation method and investigated in a stirred slurry autoclave system. The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (FESEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. Higher surface area, SA{sub BET} values (42.6–59.9 m{sup 2}/g) are recorded at low (1) and high (5) Cu/Zn ratios with the minimum value of 35.71 m{sup 2}/g found for a Cu/Zn of 3. The reducibility of the metal oxides formed after calcination of catalyst samples was also affected due to change in metal-support interaction. At a low reaction temperature of 443 K, total gas pressure of 3.0 MPa and 0.1 g/mL of the CZAZ catalyst, the selectivity to methanol decreased as the Cu/Zn molar ratio increased, and the maximum selectivity of 67.73 was achieved at Cu/Zn molar ratio of 1. With a reaction time of 3h, the best performing catalyst was CZAZ75 with Cu/Zn molar ratio of 5 giving methanol yield of 79.30%.

  15. Some evidence on determinants of fuel economy as a function of driving cycle and test type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical methods are used with 107 vehicles whose fuel economy was presented and reported for five test types in a single publication by Consumers Union (CU) for 1986--1988 vehicles. Standard loglinear statistical formulations (i.e., multiplicative models of interactions) are used with data from this and supplementary sources to develop coefficients estimating the percent fuel economy gain per percent change in engine/vehicle design characteristic. The coefficients are developed for the five different test conditions evaluated by CU and are compared with each other on the basis of attributes of the tests. The insights of engineering models are used to develop expectations regarding the shift in size of coefficients as driving cycles change. In both the engineering models and the statistical model, the effect of weight is estimated to be higher in urban driving than in highway driving. For two test categories -- field tests and dynamometer tests -- the benefits of weight reduction are statistically estimated to be greatest in urban driving conditions. The effect on idle fuel flow rate of designing vehicles to hold performance roughly constant by maintaining power per kilogram and/or displacement per kilogram is examined, and its implication for the size of the weight effect is simply approximated from Sovran`s 1983 engineering model results. The fuel-economy-decreasing effect of the desire for performance is estimated to be somewhat larger in the statistical analysis than in the NAS study, when engine technology is held constant.

  16. Composition and grain size effects on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr nanoglasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adibi, Sara [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); Branicio, Paulo S., E-mail: branicio@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Joshi, Shailendra P., E-mail: Shailendra@nus.edu.sg [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoglasses (NGs), metallic glasses (MGs) with a nanoscale grain structure, have the potential to considerably increase the ductility of traditional MGs while retaining their outstanding mechanical properties. We investigated the effects of composition on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr NG films with grain sizes between 3 to 15?nm using molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate a transition from localized shear banding to homogeneous superplastic flow with decreasing grain size, although the critical average grain size depends on composition: 5?nm for Cu{sub 36}Zr{sub 64} and 3?nm for Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36}. The flow stress of the superplastic NG at different compositions follows the trend of the yield stress of the parent MG, i.e., Cu{sub 36}Zr{sub 64} yield/flow stress: 2.54?GPa/1.29?GPa and Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} yield/flow stress: 3.57?GPa /1.58?GPa. Structural analysis indicates that the differences in mechanical behavior as a function of composition are rooted at the distinct statistics of prominent atomic Voronoi polyhedra. The mechanical behavior of NGs is also affected by the grain boundary thickness and the fraction of atoms at interfaces for a given average grain size. The results suggest that the composition dependence of the mechanical behavior of NGs follows that of their parent MGs, e.g., a stronger MG will generate a stronger NG, while the intrinsic tendency for homogeneous deformation occurring at small grain size is not affected by composition.

  17. Crystal structure, oxidation state and magnetism of Sr{sub x}La{sub 2?x}Cu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (x=1, 1.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lü, Minfeng, E-mail: m.f.lv@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Deng, Xiaolong [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Waerenborgh, Joăo C. [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Univ Técnica de Lisboa, CFMC-UL, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Wu, Xiaojie [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Meng, Jian, E-mail: jmeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sr{sub x}La{sub 2?x}Cu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (x=1, 1.5) oxides with K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, magnetic and electrical resistivity measurements. The SrLaCu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} phase was obtained for the first time with a negligible amount of impurities. The octahedral Cu/RuO{sub 6} units are more elongated in SrLaCu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} than in Sr{sub 1.5}La{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} indicating a greater extent of static Jahn–Teller distortion. XPS suggests that mixed ion pairs Ru{sup 5+}/Ru{sup 4+}?Cu{sup +}/Cu{sup 2+} are present in SrLaCu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4}, while Ru remains as Ru{sup 5+} and Cu as Cu{sup 2+} in Sr{sub 1.5}La{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4}. Both samples show spin-glass behavior, which can be explained by competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions. The negative Weiss temperature estimated for SrLaCu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4}, ?318 K, is significantly lower than ?11.5 K deduced for Sr{sub 1.5}La{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} which may be related to the higher static Jahn–Teller distortion in the former oxide. -- Graphical abstract: SrLaCu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} with K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure show a larger static Jahn–Teller distortion than Sr{sub 1.5}La{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4}, which may be related to stronger antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions. Highlights: • SrLaCu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (I) larger Jahn–Teller (J–T) distortion than Sr{sub 1.5}La{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (II). • Octahedral Cu/RuO{sub 6} units are more elongated in I than in II. • Mixed ion pairs Ru{sup 5+}/Ru{sup 4+}?Cu{sup +}/Cu{sup 2+} are present in I, while Ru remains as Ru{sup 5+} and Cu as Cu{sup 2+} in II. • Negative Weiss temperature of I significantly lower, consistent with higher J–T distortion.

  18. Determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer quantum dots via spectral analysis of optical signature of the Aharanov-Bohm excitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Haojie; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Roy, Bidisha; Kuskovsky, Igor L. [Department of Physics, Queens College of CUNY, Queens, New York 11367 (United States); The Graduate Center of CUNY, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Shuvayev, Vladimir [Department of Physics, Queens College of CUNY, Queens, New York 11367 (United States); Deligiannakis, Vasilios; Tamargo, Maria C. [The Graduate Center of CUNY, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Department of Chemistry, City College of CUNY, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Ludwig, Jonathan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Smirnov, Dmitry [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Wang, Alice [Evans Analytical Group, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    For submonolayer quantum dot (QD) based photonic devices, size and density of QDs are critical parameters, the probing of which requires indirect methods. We report the determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer QDs, based on spectral analysis of the optical signature of Aharanov-Bohm (AB) excitons, complemented by photoluminescence studies, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and numerical calculations. Numerical calculations are employed to determine the AB transition magnetic field as a function of the type-II QD radius. The study of four samples grown with different tellurium fluxes shows that the lateral size of QDs increases by just 50%, even though tellurium concentration increases 25-fold. Detailed spectral analysis of the emission of the AB exciton shows that the QD radii take on only certain values due to vertical correlation and the stacked nature of the QDs.

  19. Charged Particle Multiplicities in Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and Cu+Cu Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5 to 179.5 deg. corresponding to |eta|<5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

  20. Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Chen, William T.; Du Yong [Advanced Semiconductor Engineering Inc., 1255 E Arques Ave, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 Degree-Sign C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c= 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2}, which can minimize lattice mismatch for {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} to grow on Cu.

  1. Template-directed FeCo nanoshells on AuCu. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on AuCu. Abstract: A synthetic route is reported to achieve a precise control of FeCo shell growth on AuCu cores, leading to AuCuFeCo core-shell nanoparticles, which could...

  2. CU-Boulder Faculty Awards Campus, School/College, and System Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corporation Faculty Community Service Award CU System, Office of Academic Affairs https://www.cu.edu/content/chase-corporation/teaching.html February All Faculty Eaton Faculty Awards for Outstanding Achievement CU-Boulder, Center for Humanities

  3. New Resolved Resonance Region Evaluation for 63Cu and 65Cu for Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobes, Vladimir [ORNL] [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL] [ORNL; Guber, Klaus H [ORNL] [ORNL; Forget, Benoit [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kopecky, S. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium] [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium; Schillebeeckx, P. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium] [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium; Siegler, P. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium] [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new resolved resonance region evaluation of 63Cu and 65Cu was done in the energy region from 10-5 eV to 99.5 keV. The R-Matrix SAMMY method using the Reich-Moore approximation was used to create a new set of consistent resonance parameters. The new evaluation was based on three experimental transmission data sets; two measured at ORELA and one from MITR, and two radiative capture experimental data sets from GELINA. A total of 141 new resonances were identied for 63Cu and 117 for 65Cu. The corresponding set of external resonances for each isotope was based on the identied resonances above 99.5 keV from the ORELA transmission data. The negative external levels (bound levels) were determined to match the dierential thermal cross section measured at the MITR. Double dierential elastic scattering cross sections were calculated from the new set of resonance parameters. Benchmarking calculations were carried out on a set of ICSBEP benchmarks. This work is in support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  4. Science DMZ Implemented at CU Boulder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, Office of ScienceActivities in202-000CU

  5. Devitrification kinetics and phase selection mechanisms in Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalay, Ilkay

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic glasses have been a promising class of materials since their discovery in the 1960s. Indeed, remarkable chemical, mechanical and physical properties have attracted considerable attention, and several excellent reviews are available. Moreover, the special group of glass forming alloys known as the bulk metallic glasses (BMG) become amorphous solids even at relatively low cooling rates, allowing them to be cast in large cross sections, opening the scope of potential applications to include bulk forms and net shape structural applications. Recent studies have been reported for new bulk metallic glasses produced with lower cooling rates, from 0.1 to several hundred K/s. Some of the application products of BMGs include sporting goods, high performance springs and medical devices. Several rapid solidification techniques, including melt-spinning, atomization and surface melting have been developed to produce amorphous alloys. The aim of all these methods is to solidify the liquid phase rapidly enough to suppress the nucleation and growth of crystalline phases. Furthermore, the production of amorphous/crystalline composite (ACC) materials by partial crystallization of amorphous precursor has recently given rise to materials that provide better mechanical and magnetic properties than the monolithic amorphous or crystalline alloys. In addition, these advances illustrate the broad untapped potential of using the glassy state as an intermediate stage in the processing of new materials and nanostructures. These advances underlie the necessity of investigations on prediction and control of phase stability and microstructural dynamics during both solidification and devitrification processes. This research presented in this dissertation is mainly focused on Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al alloy systems. The Cu-Zr binary system has high glass forming ability in a wide compositional range (35-70 at.% Cu). Thereby, Cu-Zr based alloys have attracted much attention according to fundamental research on the behaviors of glass forming alloys. Further motivation arising from the application of this system as a basis for many BMGs and ACC materials; the Cu-Zr system warrants this attention and offers great potential for the development of new materials. However, the prediction and control of microstructural evolution during devitrification remains challenging because of the complex devitrification behavior of the Cu-Zr binary alloy which is arising from the competition of metastable and stable phases and diversity of crystal structures. This dissertation details a systematic fundamental investigation into the mechanisms and kinetics of the various crystallization transformation processes involved in the overall devitrification response of Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al glasses. Various isothermal and nonisothermal treatments are employed, and the structural response is characterized using bulk X-ray and thermal analysis methods as well as nanoscale microscopic analysis methods, revealing structural and chemical details down to the atomic-scale. By carefully combining techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in-situ synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to quantify the characterization transformations, this research has uncovered numerous details concerning the atomistic mechanisms of crystallization and has provided much new understanding related to the dominant phases, the overall reaction sequences, and the rate-controlling mechanisms. As such this work represents a substantial step forward in understanding these transformations and provides a clear framework for further progress toward ultimate application of controlled devitrification processing for the production of new materials with remarkable properties.

  6. Electrodeposition of hierarchical ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O nanorod films for highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, S. T.; Fan, G. H.; Liang, M. L.; Wang, Q. [Department of Optoelectronic Science, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Zhao, G. L., E-mail: zhaoguoliang@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high-performance visible-light-responsive photocatalytic materials has attracted widespread interest due to their potential applications in the environmental and energy industries. In this work, hierarchical ZnO nanorods films were successfully prepared on the stainless steel mesh substrates via a simple two-step seed-assisted electrodeposition route. Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles were then electrodeposited on the surface of ZnO nanorods to form the core-shell heterostructure. The synthesized ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectrophotometer. Due to the branched hierarchical morphologies and core-shell structure, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O nanomaterials show a prominent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance under the low-intensity light irradiation (40?mW/cm{sup 2}). The influence of some experimental parameters, such as Cu{sub 2}O loading amount, ZnO morphologies, the substrate type, and the PH of the Cu{sub 2}O precursor solution on ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O photocatalytic performance was evaluated.

  7. Effect of the Keggin anions on assembly of Cu{sup I}-bis(tetrazole) thioether complexes containing multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Xiuli, E-mail: wangxiuli@bhu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Liaoning Province Silicon Materials Engineering Technology Research Centre, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Gao Qiang; Tian Aixiang; Hu Hailiang; Liu Guocheng [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Liaoning Province Silicon Materials Engineering Technology Research Centre, Jinzhou 121000 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate the effect of polyoxometalate (POM) on the assembly of transition metal-bis(tetrazole) thioether complexes, three new complexes based on different Keggin anions and multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster [Cu{sup I}{sub 12}(bmtr){sub 9}(HSiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 4}] (1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 3}(bmtr){sub 3}(PM{sub 12}O{sub 40})] (M=W for 2; Mo for 3) (bmtr=1,3-bis(1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole)propane), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by routine physical methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, two kinds of nanometer-scale tetranuclear subunits linked by [SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} polyanions assemble a (3, 4)-connected three-dimensional (3D) self-penetrating framework. Compounds 2 and 3 are isostructural, exhibiting a 1D chain with [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-}/[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-} polyanions and trinuclear clusters arranging alternately. The distinct structural differences between these POM-based Cu{sup I}-bmtr complexes of 1 and 2/3 maybe rest on the contrast of Keggin-type polyoxometalate with different central heteroatoms, which have been discussed in detail. In addition, the electrochemical properties of the title complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new complexes based on different Keggin anions and multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The Keggin polyanions with different central heteroatoms play a key role. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The flexible bis(tetrazole)-based thioether ligand with some advantages have been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Keggin anions with different central heteroatoms has been discussed in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical behaviors and electrocatalysis property have been investigated.

  8. An analysis of area type and the availability of alternative transportation services on subjective well-being : are people happiest in cities?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Janet (Janet I.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of how rural, suburban, and urban areas compare in terms of the subjective well-being (SWB) of their residents and how the availability of transportation services affects SWB. Because ...

  9. Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Investigates operating...

  10. In situ visualization of metallurgical reactions in nanoscale Cu/Sn diffusion couples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yin, Qiyue; Stach, Eric A.; Gao, Fan; Zhou, Guangwen; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cu–Sn metallurgical soldering reaction in two-segmented Cu–Sn nanowires is visualized by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. By varying the relative lengths of Cu and Sn segments, we show that the metallurgical reaction starts at ~ 200 ° with the formation of a Cu–Sn solid solution for the Sn/Cu length ratio smaller than 1:5 while the formation of Cu–Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) for larger Sn/Cu length ratios. Upon heating the nanowires up to ~ 500 °C, two phase transformation pathways occur, ?-Cu?Sn? ? ?-Cu?Sn ? ?-Cu??Sn?? for nanowires with a long Cu segment and ?-Cu?Sn? ? ?-Cu?Sn ? ?-Cu?Sn with amore »short Cu segment. The dynamic in situ TEM visualization of the evolution of Kirkendall voids demonstrates that Cu diffuses faster both in Sn and IMCs than that of Sn in Cu? and IMCs, which is the underlying cause of the dependence of the IMC formation and associated phase evolution on the relative lengths of the Cu and Sn segments.« less

  11. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS A.A. Volinsky* , J. Vella size, thin film microstructure and mechanical properties have become critical parameters-K dielectric materials and novel interconnects (Cu). For most reliability tests, knowledge of the thin film

  12. Enhanced Radiation Tolerance in Sputtered Cu/V Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Engang

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and mechanical properties of as-deposited Cu/V multilayer films are systemically investigated, providing the basis for studying radiation damage mechanisms. Sputter-deposited Cu/V multilayers are subjected to helium (He) ion irradiation at room temperature with a...

  13. Introduction THE YERINGTON DISTRICT, Nevada, contains porphyry Cu(Mo),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Mark D.

    55 Introduction THE YERINGTON DISTRICT, Nevada, contains porphyry Cu(Mo), Cu skarn, Fe oxide with the Jurassic Yerington batholith, which serves as either host rock or as source for heat and ma- terials of the Yerington Porphyry Copper District: Magmatic to Nonmagmatic Sources of Hydrothermal Fluids, Their Flow Paths

  14. Cu-doping effect on dielectric properties of organic gel synthesized Ba{sub 4}YMn{sub 3?x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 11.5±?}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, Tristan, E-mail: tristan.barbier@gmail.com [Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, ENIVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, 37200 Tours (France); Autret-Lambert, Cécile [Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, ENIVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, 37200 Tours (France); Andreazza, Pascal [Centre de Recherche sur la matičre divisée (CRMD), Université d'Orléans, CNRS, FRE3520, 1B rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans (France); Ruyter, Antoine; Honstettre, Christophe [Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, ENIVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, 37200 Tours (France); Lambert, Sébastien [CEA—DAM, Le Ripault, 37260 Monts (France); Gervais, François; Lethiecq, Marc [Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, ENIVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, 37200 Tours (France)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper doped-Ba{sub 4}YMn{sub 3?x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 11.5±?} samples were synthesized by an organic gel assisted citrate process. X-ray diffraction of compositions with x=0.002, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 does not reveal any change of hexagonal perovskite structure on doping. The effects of Cu-doping on the microstructure and dielectric properties were investigated. Cu doping modifies the electrical properties at the level of the impedance characteristics of both grain and grain boundary and to understand these different behaviours, we have carried out high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. Among the Ba{sub 4}YMn{sub 3?x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 11.5±?} specimens studied, the composition x=0.002 shows a permittivity (??{sub r}) higher than the undoped compound and a lower loss tangent (tan?) over several orders of magnitude of frequency. - Graphical abstract: Highlighting of many stacking faults (intergrowths) in substituted compounds with x>0.01 (right picture), which could explain the different dielectric properties observed in these compounds. However compounds with x>0.01 remain with a better stacking sequence as we can see on the left picture. Display Omitted - Highlights: • High permittivity of the Ba{sub 4}YMn{sub 3?x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 11.5±?}. • Substitution leads to a mixed oxidation state for manganese: Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+}. • Creation of oxygen vacancies which are responsible for stacking faults. • Highlighting relationship between Cu substitution and dielectric properties.

  15. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity and kidney function in people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, V. Y. W.; Brage, S.; Ekelund, U.; Griffin, S. J.; Simmons, R. K.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the day, which might lead to misclassification of sleep time as sedentary time and vice versa. Also, participants may mis-report sleep duration. A more precise measure of sleep duration, such as polysomnography recording biophysiological changes... physical activity and kidney function over four-years in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Individuals (120 women and 206 men) participating in the ADDITION-Plus trial underwent assessment of sedentary time (SED-time), time spent in moderate...

  16. Longueur de diffusion des porteurs minoritaires et structure de jonction des diodes Cu/Cu2O (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    short circuit current and with the shift from cell to cell of the peak in the photovoltaic spectral cells are not sui- table for an efficient photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Revue Phys. Appl. 15, the photovoltaic spectrum and the electron beam induced current (EBIC) methods. In the two last cases, Cu/Cu2O

  17. Application of cluster-plus-glue-atom model to barrierless Cu–Ni–Ti and Cu–Ni–Ta films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaona, E-mail: lixiaona@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Jianxin; Wang, Miao; Dong, Chuang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Chu, Jinn P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the thermal stability of copper and avoid its diffusion into surrounding dielectrics or interfacial reactions with them, the authors applied the cluster-plus-glue-atom model to investigate barrierless Cu–Ni–M (M?=?Ti or Ta) seed layers. The dissolution of the third element (Ti or Ta) in the Cu lattice with the aid of Ni significantly improved the thermal stability of the Cu seed layer. The appropriate M/Ni (M?=?Ti or Ta) ratio was selected to obtain a low resistivity: the resistivity was as low as 2.5??? cm for the (Ti{sub 1.5/13.5}Ni{sub 12/13.5}){sub 0.3}Cu{sub 99.7} film and 2.8??? cm for the (Ta{sub 1.1/13.1}Ni{sub 12/13.1}){sub 0.4}Cu{sub 99.6} film after annealing at 500?°C for 1?h. After annealing at 500?°C for 40?h, the two films remained stable without forming a Cu{sub 3}Si compound. The authors confirmed that the range of applications of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model could be extended. Therefore, a third element M with negative enthalpies of mixing with both Cu and Ni could be selected, under the premise that the mixing enthalpy of M–Ni is more negative than that of M–Cu.

  18. Analysis of Third- and Fifth-Grade Spelling Errors on the Test of Written Spelling-4: Do Error Types Indicate Levels of Linguistic Knowledge?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conway, Barbara Tenney

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    .............................................................................. x NOMENCLATURE ............................................................................. xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ............................................................ 1 Theories of Spelling Development... levels in school. Stage theory of spelling development has provided a solid structure upon which spelling curricula can be designed, and spelling error analysis serves as the foundational screening component for planning of instruction (Bear...

  19. Proximity-induced superconductivity in crystalline Cu and Co nanowires and nanogranular Co structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kompaniiets, M., E-mail: Kompaniiets@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Begun, E.; Porrati, F.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dobrovolskiy, O. V. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Physics Department, V. Karazin National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Neetzel, C.; Ensinger, W. [Department of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an experimental study of proximity effect-induced superconductivity in crystalline Cu and Co nanowires and a nanogranular Co nanowire structure in contact with a superconducting W-based floating electrode (inducer). For electrical resistance measurements up to three pairs of Pt-based voltage leads were attached at different distances beside the inner inducer electrode, thus allowing us to probe the proximity effect over a length of 2–12??m. Up to 30% resistance drops with respect to the normal-state value have been observed for the crystalline Co and Cu nanowires when sweeping the temperature below T{sub c} of the inducer (5.2?K). By contrast, relative R(T) drops were found to be an order of magnitude smaller for the nanogranular Co nanowire structure. Our analysis of the resistance data shows that the superconducting proximity length in crystalline Cu and Co is about 1??m at 2.4?K, attesting to a long-range proximity effect in the Co nanowire. Moreover, this long-range proximity effect is insusceptible to magnetic fields up to 11?T, which is indicative of spin-triplet pairing. At the same time, proximity-induced superconductivity in the nanogranular Co nanowire is strongly suppressed due to the dominating Cooper pair scattering caused by its intrinsic microstructure.

  20. High-Temperature Order/Disorder Transition in the Thermoelectric Cu3SbSe3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Majsztrik, Paul W [ORNL; Skoug, Eric [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Morelli, Donald [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results from an investigation into the structural evolution of a potential new thermoelectric material, Cu3SbSe3, as a function of temperature from 25 to 390 C. From high-temperature X-ray diffraction data, the refined lattice parameters were seen to change non-linearly, but continuously, with temperature, with an increased rate of thermal expansion in the a and b lattice parameters from around 125 C until around 175 C and negative thermal expansion in the c axis from around 100 C until around 175 C. Crystallographic charge flipping analysis indicated an increase in the disorder of the copper cations with temperature. This reversible order/disorder phase transition in Cu3SbSe3 affects the transport properties, as evidenced by thermal diffusivity measurements, which change from negative to positive slope at the transition temperature. This structural change in Cu3SbSe3 has implications for its potential use in thermoelectric generators.

  1. Lattice and electronic contributions to the refractive index of CuWO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Fuertes, J., E-mail: ruiz-fuertes@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de [Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Malta-Consolider Team, Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universitat de Valčncia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Pellicer-Porres, J.; Segura, A. [Malta-Consolider Team, Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universitat de Valčncia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muńoz, A. [Malta-Consolider Team Departamento de Física Fundamental II, Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, 38205 Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an investigation of the refractive index dispersion and anisotropy in CuWO{sub 4} by means of interference measurements in two extinction directions from mid infrared to the visible region of the energy spectrum. The analysis of the refractive index dispersion yields ?(?)?=?4.5(1) for light polarization parallel to the c-axis and ?(?)?=?5.3(1) with respect to the other extinction axis. In addition, we report reflectance measurements carried out from the far infrared to the near ultraviolet to study the lattice and electronic contributions to the refractive index of CuWO{sub 4}. We have determined the wavenumbers of nine infrared active lattice modes and compared them with previous ab initio calculations. The value of the Penn gap, 7?eV, as well as the origin of a structure observed at 4.4?eV in the reflectance spectrum, is discussed in the context of the CuWO{sub 4} electronic structure.

  2. Novel concepts of superconductive optoelectronic devices: Resonances of photoconductivity in the Cu{sub 2}O gate region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masumi, Taizo; Isobe, Masakatsu [Gunma Univ., Kiryu, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Electronic Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of the discoveries of anomalous photoconductivity of insulators correlated with high-{Tc} superconductivity, the authors introduce novel concepts of superconductive optoelectronic devices. They have proposed that one must be able to fabricate a new type of device by combining these photoconductors for the gate region and relevant superconductors for the source and drain regions, both effective below their Tc`s. They have been continuing a series of further experimental studies seeking actual possibilities by utilizing the basic substance Cu{sub 2}O for the gate material and superconductive LBCO, LSCO and YBCO for the source and drain materials, e.g., YBCO/Cu{sub 2}O/YBCO. Here, they report an observation of resonant and hybrid emergences of photoconductivity of Cu{sub 2}O in the gate region peculiarly in conjugation with the high-Tc superconductivity utilized in the source and drain regions in superconductive optoelectronic devices. Microwave photosignals at 35 GHz guarantee a high-speed operation of the device in the n-sec region. They feed these results in a Nano-engineering back to basic Physics of Oxide Superconductor in order to shed a new light on substantial natures of the Cu-O based high-{Tc} superconductivity.

  3. Influence of grain boundary modification on limited performance of wide bandgap Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghuwanshi, M., E-mail: mohit.raghuwanshi@etu.univ-rouen.fr; Cadel, E.; Pareige, P.; Duguay, S. [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux (GPM), UMR 6634 CNRS, Université et INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l'Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Couzinie-Devy, F.; Arzel, L.; Barreau, N. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502 CNRS, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The reason why so-called wide-bandgap CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGSe with x?>?0.4) based solar cells show hindered performance compared with theoretical expectations is still a matter of debate. In the present Letter, atom probe tomography studies of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} polycrystalline thin films with x varying from 0 to 1 are reported. These investigations confirm that the grain boundaries (GBs) of low gallium containing (x?Cu-depleted compared with grains interior (GI). In contrast, it is observed that the GBs of widest band gap CIGSe films (x?>?0.8) are Cu-enriched compared with GI. For intermediate gallium contents (0.4?types of GBs are detected. This threshold value of 0.4 surprisingly coincides with solar cells output voltage deviation from theoretical expectations, which suggests modifications of GBs properties could participate in the loss of photovoltaic performance.

  4. First analysis of eight Algol-type systems: V537 And, GS Boo, AM CrB, V1298 Her, EL Lyn, FW Per, RU Tri, and WW Tri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zasche, P

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyzing available photometry from the Super WASP and other databases, we performed the very first light curve analysis of eight eclipsing binary systems V537 And, GS Boo, AM CrB, V1298 Her, EL Lyn, FW Per, RU Tri, and WW Tri. All of these systems were found to be detached ones of Algol-type, having the orbital periods of the order of days. 722 new times of minima for these binaries were derived and presented, trying to identify the period variations caused by the third bodies in these systems.

  5. Pulse Electrodeposition of Cu-ZnO and Mn-Cu-ZnO Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Mayank; Pinisetty, D.; Flake, John C.; Spivey, James J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu–ZnO and Mn–Cu–ZnO nanowires are attractive catalysts for alcohol synthesis from CO hydrogenation reactions. Nanowire alloys are pulse electrodeposited into track etched polycarbonate membranes using aqueous electrolytes including Mn(NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} , Cu(NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} , Zn(NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} , and NH{sub 4} NO{sub 3} . Pulse waveforms with a cathodic current density of 50.7mAcm{sup ?2} for 50 ms (on-time), with varying off-times (400, 500, and 600 ms), are used to fabricate nanowire arrays (400 nm diameter, 25?m long, and pore density of 1.5×10{sup 8} pores cm{sup ?2} ). Pulse waveforms allow significantly higher copper concentrations and better control of zinc and manganese concentrations within nanowires. X-ray diffraction results show preferential growth in the (111) direction and crystallite size increases with an increase in off-time. Waveforms with longer off-times (500 and 600 ms) resulted in nanowires with relatively higher copper concentrations due to improved copper transport in nanopores. The nanowire surface has no manganese; however, the core shows manganese, which increases with the decrease in off-time. The effect of deposition conditions and electrolyte composition on nanowire properties are explained and discussed.

  6. A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Adwani, Hamad Abdulwahab

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This controversy is hindering the development and optimization of methanol synthesis industrial processes, (Lee et al. , 1989). Schack et al. (1989) studied methanol synthesis over a CuO/ZnO/AI203 catalyst supplied by BASF in a Betty reactor with a H2/CO/CO2... and a catalyst with particle size of 106 microns as slurry. The pressure was set at 6. 5 Mpa while the temperature was varied between 478 and 523 K. Two types of catalysts where used, the first catalyst investigated was a BASF CuO/Zn0/A1203 catalyst...

  7. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems, sensors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics andsystem. ) Research on Cu 2 S nanocrystal photovoltaics may

  8. Coupled skyrmion sublattices in Cu2OSeO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, M.C.; Roy,, S.; Mishra, S. K.; Lee, J. C. T.; Shi,, X. W.; Hossain, M. A.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Seki, S.; Tokura, Y.; Kevan, S. D.; Schoenlein, R. W.

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of a skyrmion lattice in the chiral multiferroic insulator Cu2OSeO3 using Cu L3-edge resonant soft x-ray diffraction. We observe the unexpected existence of two distinct skyrmion sub-lattices that arise from inequivalent Cu sites with chemically identical coordination numbers but different magnetically active orbitals . The skyrmion sublattices are rotated with respect to each other implying a long wavelength modulation of the lattice. The modulation vector is controlled with an applied magnetic field, associating this Moir'e-like phase with a continuous phase transition. Our findings will open a new class of science involving manipulation of quantum topological states.

  9. Fuzzy Typing for Document Management Alison HUETTNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dekai

    Fuzzy Typing for Document Management Alison HUETTNER Clairvoyance Corporation 5301 Fifth Avenue method of document analysis and management, based on a combination of techniques from NLP and fuzzy logic typing for document management. The fuzzy typing approach is general in scope and can be applied to many

  10. Shape memory properties and microstructural evolution of rapidly solidified CuAlBe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ergen, Semra, E-mail: semraergengop@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat 60240 (Turkey); Uzun, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.uzun@beun.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak 67100 (Turkey); Yilmaz, Fikret, E-mail: fikretyilmaz79@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat 60240 (Turkey); Kiliçaslan, M. Fatih, E-mail: fatihkilicaslan@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu 66100 (Turkey)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the effects of Be addition on the microstructure and phase transformation temperatures of Cu–12Al–xBe (x = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 wt.%) shape memory alloys fabricated by using the arc-melting and melt-spinning techniques have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the arc-melted alloys consisted of austenitic ?{sub 1}, martensitic ?{sub 1}? and ?{sub 2} precipitate phases, whereas melt-spun ribbons were composed of a fully martensitic phase. The average grain size of martensitic phases in melt-spun ribbons was determined by electron microscopy images, showing a decrease with increasing Beryllium (Be) amount. Moreover, it was found that the Be addition in the arc-melted alloys had a distinct effect on the morphology of the ?{sub 2} precipitate phase. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the thickness of martensitic plates in the melt-spun ribbons reduced with increasing Be addition. In a differential scanning calorimeter analysis, no martensitic transformation (M{sub s}) peak was observed in arc-melted alloys, but it was clearly detected in melt-spun ribbons, in which M{sub s} decreased dramatically with increasing Be addition. The improvement in the shape memory ability of melt-spun ribbons was explained in terms of the refinement in grain size and martensitic plates. - Highlights: • The CuAlBe SMAs were produced by means of arc-melter and melt-spinner techniques. • MT was directly obtained in melt-spuns without any intermediate process. • The transformation temperatures decreased with increasing Be amount. • The thickness of martensitic plates in the ribbons reduced with increasing Be. • SMP of CuAl was improved by the addition of Be together with rapid solidification.

  11. Effects of alternating seawater flow and stagnant layup conditions on the general and localized corrosion resistance of CuNi and NiCu alloys in marine service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kain, R.M. [LaQue Corrosion Services, Wrightsville Beach, NC (United States); Weber, B.E. [NAWC-Aircraft Div., Patuxent River, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From time-to-time seawater handling systems are subjected to lay-up which can produce chemical and biological changes, and conceivably alter the corrosion resistance of metals used in piping and other equipment. In the case of reverse osmosis/membrane technology type desalination equipment, sanitizing agents may be introduced after draining. Simulation tests were conducted to determine any effect of a bisulfite sanitizing treatment when used between periods of normal seawater flow. Corresponding tests were conducted with lay-up comprising non-refreshed seawater which ultimately stagnated. Test results for CuNi alloy C71500 indicted that repeated cycling between seawater exposure and bisulfite treatments was detrimental in reducing that alloy`s resistance to general corrosion, and to a lesser degree its crevice corrosion resistance. The typical pitting and crevice corrosion behavior of NiCu alloy N04400, found upon exposure to slowly moving, aerated seawater was neither diminished or accelerated by cyclic lay-up with either stagnant seawater or the candidate bisulfite-containing solution. However, some increase in general corrosion was observed.

  12. Polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure: Charge dynamics, charge distribution, and anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frank, S.; Huecker, M.; Huber, A.; Ammerahl, U.; Kuntscher, C. A.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of the spin-ladder compound Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure. The optical response is strongly anisotropic, with the highest reflectivity along the ladders/chains (E?c) revealing a metallic character. For the polarization direction perpendicular to the ladder plane, an insulating behavior is observed. With increasing pressure the optical conductivity for E?c shows a strong increase, which is most pronounced below 2000cm?ą. According to the spectral weight analysis of the E?c optical conductivity the hole concentration in the ladders increases with increasing pressure and tends to saturate at high pressure. At ~7.5 GPa the number of holes permore »Cu atom in the ladders has increased by ??=0.09(±0.01), and the Cu valence in the ladders has reached the value +2.33. The optical data suggest that Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? remains electronically highly anisotropic up to high pressure, also at low temperatures.« less

  13. Adsorption and Deactivation Characteristics of Cu/ZnO-Based Catalysts for Methanol Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Ohodnicki, Paul R., Jr.; Howard, Bret H.; Lekse, Jonathan W.; Baltrus, John P.; Matranga, Christopher

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adsorption and deactivation characteristics of coprecipitated Cu/ZnO-based catalysts were examined and correlated to their performance in methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. The addition of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} promoters is shown to increase the Cu surface area and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} adsorption capacities of the catalysts and enhance methanol synthesis activity. Infrared studies showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs spontaneously on these catalysts at room temperature as both monoand bi-dentate carbonate species. These weakly bound species desorb completely from the catalyst surface by 200 °C while other carbonate species persist up to 500 °C. Characterization using N{sub 2}O decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis clearly indicated that Cu sintering is the main cause of catalyst deactivation. Ga and Y promotion improves the catalyst stability by suppressing the agglomeration of Cu and ZnO particles under pretreatment and reaction conditions.

  14. Polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure: Charge dynamics, charge distribution, and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S. [Univ. Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Huecker, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huber, A. [Univ. Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Ammerahl, U. [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Kuntscher, C. A. [Univ. Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of the spin-ladder compound Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure. The optical response is strongly anisotropic, with the highest reflectivity along the ladders/chains (E?c) revealing a metallic character. For the polarization direction perpendicular to the ladder plane, an insulating behavior is observed. With increasing pressure the optical conductivity for E?c shows a strong increase, which is most pronounced below 2000cm?ą. According to the spectral weight analysis of the E?c optical conductivity the hole concentration in the ladders increases with increasing pressure and tends to saturate at high pressure. At ~7.5 GPa the number of holes per Cu atom in the ladders has increased by ??=0.09(±0.01), and the Cu valence in the ladders has reached the value +2.33. The optical data suggest that Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? remains electronically highly anisotropic up to high pressure, also at low temperatures.

  15. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction studies of Ba(Nd{sub x}Y{sub 2-x})CuO{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, G. [Ceramics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Huang, Q. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Naperville, IL 60563 (United States); Kaduk, J.A. [INEOS Technologies, Naperville, IL 60563 (United States); Yang, Z. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Lucas, C. [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wong-Ng, W. [Ceramics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail: Winnie.wong-ng@nist.gov

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ba(R,R'){sub 2}CuO{sub 5} (R,R'=lanthanides and Y) plays an important role as a flux-pinning agent in enhancing the superconducting properties of the Ba{sub 2}(R,R')Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (R,R'=lanthanides and Y) coated conductors. Using X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction, we found that the Ba(Nd{sub x}Y{sub 2-x})CuO{sub 5} solid solution adopts two structure types. In the Nd-rich region (1.8{<=}x{<=}2.0), the materials are of brown color (commonly referred to as the 'brown phase'), and the structure is tetragonal with space group I4/mbm (no. 127). In the Y-rich region (0.0{<=}x{<=}1.4), the materials are green (commonly referred to as the 'green phase') and the structure is orthorhombic with space group Pnma (no. 62). A two-phase region (1.4CuO{sub 5} (isostructural to BaY{sub 2}CuO{sub 5}), are discussed in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Perspective view of the 'green phase' Ba(Nd{sub x}Y{sub 2-x})CuO{sub 5} structure along the b-axis, showing the isolated square pyramids of [CuO{sub 5}] and the trigonal prisms, RO{sub 7}, around the lanthanide sites.

  16. Induced magnetism in Cu nanoparticles embedded in Co P. Swaminathan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, John H.

    the effects of changing the nature of confinement to three dimensions by embedding Cu nanoparticles in a Co.1063/1.2806236 Nonmagnetic spacer layers grown between layers of magnetic materials exhibit an induced magnetic moment.1

  17. Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY February 2013 Academic Writing Guide Part 2 ­ Assignment Types: This section outlines the basic types of written assignments, providing structural elements and examples. #12;2 II. Assignment Types 1. Essay Writing

  18. A New Empirical Model for the Structural Analysis of Early-type Galaxies and a Critical Review of the Nuker Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alister W. Graham; Peter Erwin; Ignacio Trujillo; Andres Asensio Ramos

    2003-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuker law was designed to match the inner few (~3-10) arcseconds of predominantly nearby (< 30 Mpc) early-type galaxy light-profiles; it was never intended to describe an entire profile. The Sersic model, on the other hand, was developed to fit the entire profile; however, due to the presence of partially depleted galaxy cores, the Sersic model cannot always describe the very inner region. We have therefore developed a new empirical model consisting of an inner power-law, a transition region, and an outer Sersic model to connect the inner and outer structure of elliptical galaxies. Moreover, the stability of the Nuker model parameters are investigated. Surprisingly, none are found to be stable quantities; all are shown to vary systematically with a profile's fitted radial extent, and often by more than 100%. Considering elliptical galaxies spanning a range of 7.5 magnitudes, the central stellar density of the underlying host galaxy is observed to increase with galaxy luminosity until the onset of core formation, detected only in the brightest elliptical galaxies. We suggest that the so-called ``power-law'' galaxies may actually be described by the Sersic model over their entire radial range.

  19. Reaction kinetics of a-CuInSe2 formation from an In2Se3/CuSe bilayer precursor film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    with Ga or S are proven absorber materials for high efficiency thin film solar cells. Interestingly CIGS system using the stacked elemental film precursors (e.g. glass/Cu/In/Se, glass/Cu/Se, glass

  20. Methanol conversion to light olefins over nanostructured CeAPSO-34 catalyst: Thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions and effect of template type on catalytic properties and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghamohammadi, Sogand [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, Mohammad, E-mail: haghighi@sut.ac.ir [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Charghand, Mojtaba [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: In this research nanostructured CeAPSO-34 was synthesized to explore the effect of TEAOH and morpholine on its physiochemical properties and MTO performance. Prepared catalysts were characterized with XRD, FESEM, BET, FTIR and NH3-TPD techniques. The results indicated that the nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. The catalyst obtained by using morpholine showed longer life time as well as sustaining light olefins selectivity at higher values. Furthermore, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions network was carried out to address the major channels of methanol to olefins conversion. - Highlights: • Introduction of Ce into SAPO-34 framework. • Comparison of CeAPSO-34 synthesized using morpholine and TEAOH. • The nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34. • Morpholine enhances catalyst lifetime in MTO process. • Presenting a complete reaction network for MTO process. - Abstract: TEAOH and morpholine were employed in synthesis of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 molecular sieve and used in methanol to olefins conversion. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET, FTIR and NH{sub 3}-TPD techniques. XRD patterns reflected the higher crystallinity of the catalyst synthesized with morpholine. The FESEM results indicated that the nature of the template determines the morphology of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. There was a meaningful difference in the strength of both strong and weak acid sites for CeAPSO-34 catalysts synthesized with TEAOH and morpholine templates. The catalyst synthesized with morpholine showed higher desorption temperature of both weak and strong acid sites evidenced by NH{sub 3}-TPD characterization. The catalyst obtained using morpholine template had the longer lifetime and sustained desired light olefins at higher values. A comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions network was carried out to address the major channels of methanol to olefins conversion.

  1. The Microstructure-Processing-Property Relationships in an Al Matrix Composite System Reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe Alloy Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei Tang

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal matrix composites (MMC), especially Al matrix composites, received a lot of attention during many years of research because of their promise for the development of automotive and aerospace materials with improved properties and performance, such as lighter weight and better structural properties, improved thermal conductivity and wear resistance. In order to make the MMC materials more viable in various applications, current research efforts on the MMCs should continue to focus on two important aspects, including improving the properties of MMCs and finding more economical techniques to produce MMCs. Solid state vacuum sintering was studied in tap densified Al powder and in hot quasi-isostatically forged samples composed of commercial inert gas atomized or high purity Al powder, generated by a gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) technique. The GARS process results in spherical Al powder with a far thinner surface oxide. The overall results indicated the enhanced ability of GARS-processed Al and Al alloy powders for solid state sintering, which may lead to simplification of current Al powder consolidation processing methods. Elemental Al-based composites reinforced with spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders were produced by quasi-isostatic forging and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) consolidation methods. Microstructures and tensile properties of AYAl-Cu-Fe composites were characterized. It was proved that spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders can serve as an effective reinforcement particulate for elemental Al-based composites, because of their high hardness and a preferred type of matrix/reinforcement interfacial bonding, with reduced strain concentration around the particles. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the composites were increased over the corresponding Al matrix values, far beyond typical observations. This remarkable strengthening was achieved without precipitation hardening and without severe strain hardening during consolidation because of the matrix choice (elemental Al) and the ''low shear'' consolidation methods utilized. This reinforcement effectiveness is further evidenced by elastic modulus measurements of the composites that are very close to the upper bound predictions of the rule of mixtures. The load partitioning measurements by neutron diffraction showed that composite samples made from GARS powders present significantly higher load transfer efficiency than the composites made from commercially atomized powders. Also, the composite samples made from GARS powders show a higher strengthening effect and ductility than the samples made from commercial purity powders. The higher load transfer efficiency and higher strength and ductility may result from an enhanced inter-particle bonding strength, promoted by the ''clean'' interfaces between particles. Further analysis of the load sharing measurements and the calculated values of the mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) effects suggest that these strengthening mechanisms can be combined to predict accurately the strength of the composites.

  2. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Properties of the Rhomboheral Modification of the Thiospinel CuZr1.86(1)S4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yongkwan [Cornell University; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Hoseop, Yun [Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea; DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell University

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rhombohedral modification of the thiospinel, CuZr{sub 1.86(1)}S{sub 4}, has been synthesized by the reaction of the constituent elements in an alkali metal halide flux and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the rhombohedral space group D{sub 3d}{sup 5}-R{bar 3}m (166, a=7.3552(2) {angstrom}, c=35.832(2) {angstrom}, V=1678.76(13) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z=12, and R/wR=0.0239/0.0624). The structure is composed of close packed S layers, with a stacking order of ABCBCABABCACAB along the c axis. The Zr and Cu atoms occupy the octahedral and tetrahedral holes between S layers, respectively. Three different kinds of S-M-S layers exist in the structure: layer I has fully occupied Zr and Cu sites, layer II has fully occupied Zr sites but no Cu, and layer III has partially occupied Zr and fully occupied Cu sites. Transport and optical properties indicate that the title compound is a small band gap (1.26 eV) n-type semiconductor.

  3. 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Global Solar Energy, we examined the life-cycle Cd-FILM SOLAR CELLS: COMPARATIVE LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BUFFER LAYERS Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Hyung Chul Kim

  4. Lattice Thermal conductivity of the Cu3SbSe4-Cu3SbS4 Solid Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoug, Eric [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Cain, Jeffrey D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Morelli, Donald [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Majsztrik, Paul W [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compositional dependence of the crystal structure and lattice thermal conductivity in the Cu3SbSe4-Cu3SbS4 system has been studied. The lattice parameters of the Cu3SbSe4-xSx compounds decrease linearly with x, and the tetragonal structure (space group no. 121) of the end compounds is maintained at all compositions. The thermal conductivity is much lower than that predicted by a simple rule of mixtures, which is typical for a solid solution. The Debye model produces a very reasonable fit to the experimental lattice thermal conductivity data when phonon scattering due to atomic mass and size differences between Se and S is taken into account. Compounds in this series are likely to improve upon the thermoelectric performance of Cu3SbSe4, which has shown ZT=0.72 when optimized.

  5. Strangeness Enhancement in Cu+Cu and Au+Au Collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STAR Collaboration; H. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; B. D. Anderson; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; L. S. Barnby; D. R. Beavis; N. K. Behera; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; B. Biritz; L. C. Bland; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; E. Braidot; A. V. Brandin; A. Bridgeman; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bueltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; Z. Chajecki; P. Chaloupka; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; K. E. Choi; W. Christie; P. Chung; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; S. Dash; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; L. Didenko; P. Djawotho; S. M. Dogra; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; M. Estienne; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; V. Fine; Y. Fisyak; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; A. Geromitsos; F. Geurts; P. Ghosh; Y. N. Gorbunov; A. Gordon; O. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; S. M. Guertin; A. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; M. Heinz; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; E. Hjort; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; T. J. Humanic; L. Huo; G. Igo; P. Jacobs; W. W. Jacobs; P. G. Jones; C. Jena; F. Jin; J. Joseph; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; D. Kettler; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; A. G. Knospe; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; V. Kouchpil; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; M. Krus; L. Kumar; P. Kurnadi; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; L. Li; N. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; H. Liu; J. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; W. A. Love; Y. Lu; E. V. Lukashov; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; O. I. Mall; L. K. Mangotra; R. Manweiler; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; Yu. A. Matulenko; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; A. Meschanin; R. Milner; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; A. Mischke; M. K. Mitrovski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; P. K. Netrakanti; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; H. Pei; T. Peitzmann; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; S. C. Phatak; P. Pile; M. Planinic; M. A. Ploskon; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; A. M. Poskanzer; B. V. K. S. Potukuchi; C. B. Powell; D. Prindle; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; R. Redwine; R. Reed; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; A. Rose; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; S. Sakai; I. Sakrejda; T. Sakuma; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; I. Selyuzhenkov; P. Seyboth; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; F. Simon; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; N. Smirnov; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; D. Staszak; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; N. L. Subba; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; D. Thein; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; V. N. Tram; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; F. Videbćk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; W. Witzke; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zhan; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; W. M. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; W. Zhou; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; R. Zoulkarneev; Y. Zoulkarneeva

    2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report new STAR measurements of mid-rapidity yields for the $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $K^{0}_{S}$, $\\Xi^{-}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$, $\\Omega^{-}$, $\\bar{\\Omega}^{+}$ particles in Cu+Cu collisions at \\sNN{200}, and mid-rapidity yields for the $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $K^{0}_{S}$ particles in Au+Au at \\sNN{200}. We show that at a given number of participating nucleons, the production of strange hadrons is higher in Cu+Cu collisions than in Au+Au collisions at the same center-of-mass energy. We find that aspects of the enhancement factors for all particles can be described by a parameterization based on the fraction of participants that undergo multiple collisions.

  6. Thermopower of Yba2cu3o7-X, Erba2cu3o7-X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BHATNAGAR, AK; PAN, R.; Naugle, Donald G.; GILBERT, GR; PANDEY, RK.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - mocouple. The thermal emf was measured with a Keith- ley model 148 nanovoltmeter with its analog output con- nected to a digital volmeter for higher resolution. For each measurement, 5T and 5V were averaged over 100 readings taken at an interval of 0... that the Hubbard model pro- vides an explanation for transport in RBa2Cu307 ?al- loys. In the high temperature, strong correlation limit (ke T much greater than the band width &but much less than the on-site Coulomb repulsion U },the thermopower is dominated...

  7. Modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential for the Fe-Cu alloy system and cascade simulations on pure Fe and Fe-Cu alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Byeong-Joo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Wirth, Brian D. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1730 (United States); Shim, Jae-Hyeok [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1730 (United States); Nano-Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Junhyun; Kwon, Sang Chul; Hong, Jun-Hwa [Nuclear Materials Technology R and D Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) interatomic potential for the Fe-Cu binary system has been developed using previously developed MEAM potentials of Fe and Cu. The Fe-Cu potential was determined by fitting to data on the mixing enthalpy and the composition dependencies of the lattice parameters in terminal solid solutions. The potential gives a value of 0.65 eV for the dilute heat of solution and reproduces the increase of lattice parameter of Fe with addition of Cu in good agreement with experiments. The potential was used to investigate the primary irradiation defect formation in pure Fe and Fe-0.5 at. % Cu alloy by a molecular dynamics cascade simulation study with a PKA energy of 2 keV at 573 K. A tendency for self-interstitial atom-Cu binding, the formation of mixed (Fe-Cu) dumbbells and even Cu-Cu dumbbells was observed. Given a positive binding energy between Cu atoms and self-interstitials, Cu transport by an interstitial diffusion mechanism could be proposed to contribute to the formation of Cu-rich precipitates and irradiation-induced embrittlement in nuclear structural steels.

  8. Charged and strange hadron elliptic flow in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an elliptic flow, v{sub 2}, analysis of Cu+Cu collisions recorded with the STAR detector at RHIC at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV. Elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum, v{sub 2}(p{sub T}), is reported for different collision centralities for charged hadrons h{sup {+-}}, and strangeness containing hadrons K{sub S}{sup 0}, {Lambda}, {Xi}, {phi} in the midrapidity region |{eta}| < 1.0. Significant reduction in systematic uncertainty of the measurement due to non-flow effects has been achieved by correlating particles at midrapidity, |{eta}| < 1.0, with those at forward rapidity, 2.5 < |{eta}| < 4.0. We also present azimuthal correlations in p+p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV to help estimating non-flow effects. To study the system-size dependence of elliptic flow, we present a detailed comparison with previously published results from Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We observe that v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) of strange hadrons has similar scaling properties as were first observed in Au+Au collisions, i.e.: (i) at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c, v{sub 2} scales with transverse kinetic energy, m{sub T} - m, and (ii) at intermediate p{sub T}, 2 < p{sub T} < 4 GeV/c, it scales with the number of constituent quarks, n{sub q}. We have found that ideal hydrodynamic calculations fail to reproduce the centrality dependence of v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) for K{sub S}{sup 0} and {Lambda}. Eccentricity scaled v{sub 2} values, v{sub 2}/{var_epsilon}, are larger in more central collisions, suggesting stronger collective flow develops in more central collisions. The comparison with Au+Au collisions which go further in density shows v{sub 2}/{var_epsilon} depend on the system size, number of participants N{sub part}. This indicates that the ideal hydrodynamic limit is not reached in Cu+Cu collisions, presumably because the assumption of thermalization is not attained.

  9. Cu--Pd--M hydrogen separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Do{hacek over (g)}an, Omer N; Gao, Michael C; Young, Rongxiang Hu; Tafen, De Nyago

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides an H2 separation membrane comprised of an allow having the composition Cu.Sub.(100-x-y)Pd.sub.xM.sub.y, where x is from about 35 to about 50 atomic percent and where y is from greater than 0 to about 20 atomic percent, and where M consists of magnesium, yttrium, aluminum, titanium, lanthanum, or combinations thereof. The M elements act as strong stabilizers for the B2 phase of the allow, and extend the critical temperature of the alloy for a given hydrogen concentration and pressure. Due to the phase stabilization and the greater temperature range over which a B2 phase can be maintained, the allow is well suited for service as a H2 separation membrane, particularly when applicable conditions are established or cycled above about 600.degree. C. over the course of expected operations. In certain embodiments, the B2 phase comprises at least 60 estimated volume percent of the allow at a steady-state temperature of 400.degree. C. The B2 phase stability is experimentally validated through HT-XRD.

  10. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  11. Cu{sup II} coordination polymers based on 5-methoxyisophthalate and flexible N-donor ligands: Structures and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Xin-Hong; Qin, Jian-Hua [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Ma, Lu-Fang, E-mail: mazhuxp@126.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Wang, Li-Ya, E-mail: wlya@lynu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Cu{sup II} coordination polymers, ([Cu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O-ip){sub 2}(bmib)]){sub n} (1), ([Cu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O-ip){sub 2}(bmib){sub 2}]){sub n} (2) and ([Cu(CH{sub 3}O-ip)(bbip)]?2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) (CH{sub 3}O-H{sub 2}ip is 5-methoxyisophthalic acid, bmib is 1,4-bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)butane and bbip is 1,3-bis(1H-benzimidazolyl)propane), have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. Complexes 1–3 were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectra and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Complex 1 shows a 3D six-connected self-penetrating network based on paddlewheel secondary building units. Complex 2 has a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D diamond framework. Complex 3 possesses a 1D tube-like chain. Thermo-gravimetric and magnetic properties of 1–3 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Structures and magnetic properties of copper(II) coordination polymers constructed from 5-methoxyisophthalate linker and two flexible N-donor ancillary ligands. Three copper(II) coordination polymers with 5-methoxyisophthalate and two related flexible N-donor ancillary ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Moreover, thermal behaviors and magnetic properties of these complexes have also been investigated. - Highlights: • Three Cu(II) coordination polymers were synthesized. • The conformations of N-donor ligands and pH value have an effect on the final structures. • The magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated.

  12. Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors Module/Species A@crocker.ucdavis.edu Supporting information A molybdenum-anode XRF instrument is used to analyze the heavier elements (Ni, Cu, Zn with lighter deposits were acquired and used in the Mo-anode XRF system. The new calibration foils resulted

  13. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1990--31 March 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, J.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  14. Formation and diffusion of S-decorated clusters on Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FEIBELMAN,PETER J.

    2000-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their strong internal bonding, S-decorated Cu trimers are a likely agent of S-enhanced Cu transport between islands on Cu(111). According to ab-initio calculations, excellent healing of dangling Cu valence results in an ad-Cu{sub 3}S{sub 3} formation energy of only {approximately}0.28 eV, compared to 0.79 eV for a self-adsorbed Cu atom, and a diffusion barrier {le}0.35 eV.

  15. Duct Leakage Modeling in EnergyPlus and Analysis of Energy Savings from Implementing SAV with InCITeTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type of Analysis CrossFlow; ! - Heat ExchangerType of Analysis CrossFlow; ! - Heat Exchanger ConfigurationType of Analysis CrossFlow; ! - Heat Exchanger Configuration

  16. Ultramicroscopy 52(1993)404-414 ultramicr0sc0pyNorth-Holland The defocus contrast of a 0' precipitate in A1-4wt%Cu: Fresnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' precipitate in A1-4wt%Cu: Fresnel fringe analysis applied to an atomically abrupt interface R.E. Dunin of the work presented here is to establish whether Fresnel contrast analysis can be used to characterise with matching experiment and theory are discussed. I. Introduction The Fresnel method appears to be a powerful

  17. The influence of Se pressure on the electronic properties of CuInSe{sub 2} grown under Cu-excess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deprédurand, Valérie; Bertram, Tobias; Regesch, David; Henx, Benjamin; Siebentritt, Susanne [Laboratory for Photovoltaics, Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, University of Luxembourg, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Cu-poor Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell absorbers are usually prepared under high Se excess since the electronic properties of the absorbers are better if prepared under high Se pressure. However, in CuInSe{sub 2}, grown under Cu-excess, it was found that solar cell properties improve with lowering the Se pressure, mostly because of reduced tunnel contribution to the recombination path. Lower Se pressure during Cu-rich growth leads to increased (112) texture of the absorber films, to better optical film quality, as seen by increased excitonic luminescence and to lower net doping levels, which explains the reduced tunnelling effect. These findings show an opposite trend from the one observed in Cu-poor Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}.

  18. Microstructural evolution of Fe grown on a (001) Cu film and its implication to the elastic anomaly in metallic superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koike, J.; Nastasi, M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large softening of the shear modulus has been reported in metallic superlattices composed of insoluble bcc/fcc metals. In an attempt to understand this elastic anomaly, we have studied the microstructure of Fe/Cu bilayers as a function of the Fe thickness with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of the moire fringes observed in plan-view TEM images revealed that the fcc Fe structure epitaxially grows on the (001) Cu up to a thickness of 2.0 nm. At 2.3 nm. At 2.3 nm, the bcc Fe structure nucleates, accompanying lattice rotation around the growth direction with respect to the underlying fcc structure. As the Fe thickness further increases, the submicron polycrystalline grains formed. Based on these results, the microstructure of the metallic superlattices and its relation to the softening of the shear modulus will be discussed. 22 refs., 2 figs

  19. Magnetic properties of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nanocrystalline magnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia del Muro, M.; Batlle, X.; Zquiak, R.; Tejada, J. [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Fonamental] [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Fonamental; Polak, C.; Groessinger, R. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimental Physik] [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimental Physik

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several ribbons of composition Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 16.5}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} were prepared by annealing the as-quenched samples between 525 C and 700 C, which induced nucleation of nanocrystallites of Fe bcc-type composition. Mean grain sizes were obtained from X-ray diffraction. Static magnetic properties were measured with both a Magnet Physik Hysteresis-Graph (up to 200 Oe) and a SHE S.Q.U.I.D. Magnetometer (up to 50 kOe). Soft magnetic parameters (coercive field and initial permeability) were very sensitive to grain size. The ZFC magnetization at low field showed a broad peak at a temperature T{sub M}, thus signaling a certain distribution of nanocrystalline sizes, and T{sub M} strongly decreased when the mean grain size decreased. Isothermal magnetization curves at low temperature showed the expected asymptotic behavior of a random magnet material at low and high fields.

  20. Thermal Processing Effects on Microstructure and Composition of Cu3SbSe3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majsztrik, Paul W [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Garcia Negron, Valerie [Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Skoug, Eric [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Morelli, Donald [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the effects of thermal processing on the microstructure and composition of a system with overall stoichiometry of 3Cu:1Sb:3Se with the aim of producing single-phase Cu3SbSe3. It was found that slowly cooling from the melt produced a multiphase material consisting of Cu2Se and CuSbSe2, but devoid of Cu3SbSe3. Cooling rapidly from the melt resulted in three-phase microstructures consisting of Cu2Se, CuSbSe2, and Cu3SbSe3. Subsequent annealing of the three-phase material between 325 C and 400 C shifted composition towards nearly pure Cu3SbSe3, the target compound of this work. The kinetics of the transformation into Cu3SbSe3 is successfully described using a modified Avrami model, which suggests that diffusion is the rate-controlling step. Values of Young s modulus and hardness, obtained by nanoindentation, are reported for Cu2Se, CuSbSe2, and Cu3SbSe3.

  1. Types of Commissioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several commissioning types exist to address the specific needs of equipment and systems across both new and existing buildings. The following commissioning types provide a good overview.

  2. Data report for elemental analysis of IMPROVE samples collected during OCTOBER, NOVEMBER, DECEMBER 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    (XRF) with a Cu-anode system, most elements from 27 to 40 (Ni-Zr) and 82 (Pb) by XRF with a Mo introduced in the XRF analysis of October - December 2005 samples. One was the placing into operation (considered qualitative only) and Al to Fe are reported from an XRF system with a Cu-anode grounded X-ray tube

  3. Novel route to synthesize CuO nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarate, R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)], E-mail: rzarate@ucn.cl; Hevia, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Fuentes, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Fuenzalida, V.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Zuniga, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new synthesis route to obtain high-purity cupric oxide, CuO, using the hydrothermal reaction of copper sulfide and a NaOH solution in an oxygen atmosphere has been developed. The synthesized products showed nanoplatelet-like morphologies with rectangular cross-sections and dimensions at the nanometric scale. Variations in the oxygen partial pressure and synthesis temperature produced changes in size and shape, being found that the proliferation of nanoplatelet structures occurred at 200 deg. C and 30 bar. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron microscopy image of a CuO nanoplatelet. The inset is an electron diffraction pattern of this twined CuO nanoplatelet exhibiting a monoclinic crystal structure.

  4. Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbone, Ian Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu 2 S,routes to more efficient photovoltaics using conformal Cu 2on grid-parity. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  5. NO Chemisorption on Cu/SSZ-13: a Comparative Study from Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemisorption on CuSSZ-13: a Comparative Study from Infrared Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations. NO Chemisorption on CuSSZ-13: a Comparative Study from Infrared Spectroscopy and...

  6. Following the movement of Cu ions in a SSZ-13 zeolite during...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the movement of Cu ions in a SSZ-13 zeolite during dehydration, reduction and adsorption: a combined in situ TP-XRD, Following the movement of Cu ions in a SSZ-13 zeolite during...

  7. Characterization of Cu-SSZ-13 NH3 SCR Catalysts: an in situ FTIR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Cu-SSZ-13 NH3 SCR Catalysts: an in situ FTIR Study. Abstract: The adsorption of CO and NO over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts, highly active in the selective...

  8. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O...

  9. Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film Shape Memory Alloy Using Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film...

  10. Bulk Glass Formation in Eutectic of La-Cu-Ni-Al Metallic Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yong

    A eutectic in La-rich La-Cu?.?Ni?.?-Al alloys was determined by studying the melting behaviors and the microstructure observations. The microstructures of the La-Cu-Ni-Al alloys prepared by ...

  11. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Abstract: Multiple catalytic functions...

  12. Elucidating efficiency losses in cuprous oxide (Cu?O) photovoltaics and identifying strategies for efficiency improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Riley Eric

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I fabricated and characterized a series of thin-film cuprous oxide (Cu?O) photovoltaic devices. I constructed several different device designs, using sputtered and electrochemically deposited Cu?O. ...

  13. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

  14. Specification of CuCrZr Alloy Properties after Various Thermo-Mechanical Treatments and Design Allowables including Neutron Irradiation Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, Vladimir [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France] [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Kalinin, G. M. [RDIPE, P.O. Box 788, 101000 Moscow, Russia] [RDIPE, P.O. Box 788, 101000 Moscow, Russia; Fabritsiev, Sergei A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia] [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia; Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy is a promising heat sink and functional material for various applica- tions in ITER, for example the first wall, blanket electrical attachment, divertor, and heating systems. Three types of thermo-mechanical treatment were identified as most promising for the various applica- tions in ITER: solution annealing, cold working and ageing; solution annealing and ageing; solution annealing and ageing at non-optimal condition due to specific manufacturing processes for engineer- ing-scale components. The available data for these three types of treatments were assessed and mini- mum tensile properties were determined based on recommendation of Structural Design Criteria for the ITER In-vessel Components. The available data for these heat treatments were analyzed for assess- ment of neutron irradiation effect. Using the definitions of the ITER Structural Design Criteria the design allowable stress intensity values are proposed for CuCrZr alloy after various heat treatments.

  15. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  16. Project Name Project Number Tagging Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Project Name Project Number Primary Tagging Type Secondary Tagging Type Fish Species Tagging/ Secondary Legal Driver (BiOp, MOA, Accord, etc.) Tagging Purpose Funded Entity Tagging Location Retrieval CWT Recovery Project 2010-036-00 CWT PIT Chinook, coho retrieval, analysis, address PSMFC sampling

  17. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  18. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  19. Hands-on Learning CU architectural engineering students learn their trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    science to increase comfort and energy efficiency. CU is home to state- of-the-art heating, ventilating

  20. Suppression of activation energy and superconductivity by the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Qasim, Irfan; Mumtaz, M.; Zubair, M.; Nadeem, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, FBAS, International Islamic University (IIU) Islamabad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Khurram, A. A. [Experimental Physics Labs, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Low anisotropic (Cu{sub 0.5}Tl{sub 0.5})Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10??} (CuTl-1223) high T{sub c} superconducting matrix was synthesized by solid-state reaction and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared separately by co-precipitation method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were added with different concentrations during the final sintering cycle of CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix to get the required (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub y}/CuTl-1223, y?=?0.0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5?wt.?%, composites. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and dc-resistivity (?) measurements. The activation energy and superconductivity were suppressed with increasing concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in (CuTl-1223) matrix. The XRD analysis showed that the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles did not affect the crystal structure of the parent CuTl-1223 superconducting phase. The suppression of activation energy and superconducting properties is most probably due to weak flux pinning in the samples. The possible reason of weak flux pinning is reduction of weak links and enhanced inter-grain coupling due to the presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles at the grain boundaries. The presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles at the grain boundaries possibly reduced the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. The increase in the values of inter-grain coupling (?) deduced from the fluctuation induced conductivity analysis with the increased concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles is a theoretical evidence of improved inter-grain coupling.

  1. Distinct oxygen hole doping in different layers of Sr?CuO4-?/La?CuO? superlattices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smadici, S.; Lee, J. C. T.; Rusydi, A.; Logvenov, G.; Bozovic, I.; Abbamonte, P.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption in Sr?CuO4-?/La?CuO? (SCO/LCO) superlattices shows a variable occupation with doping of a hole state different from holes doped for x?xoptimal in bulk La2-xSrxCuO? and suggests that this hole state is on apical oxygen atoms and polarized in the a-b plane. Considering the surface reflectivity gives a good qualitative description of the line shapes of resonant soft x-ray scattering. The interference between superlattice and surface reflections was used to distinguish between scatterers in the SCO and the LCO layers, with the two hole states maximized in different layers of the superlattice.

  2. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Din, Israf Ud, E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S., E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Naeem, A., E-mail: naeeem64@yahoo.com [National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu?ZrO{sub 2}/CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The CNF activated with 5% HNO{sub 3} produced higher surface area which is 155 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO{sub 3} concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of bis(aqua)[?-(terepthalato-?o,?o´)]copper(II)monohydrate [Cu(C?O?)(OH?)?]·H?O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nfor, Emmanuel N., E-mail: nforemman@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Buea, PO Box 63, Buea, SWR (Cameroon); Majoumo-Mbe, Felicite [Department of Chemistry, University of Buea, PO Box 63, Buea, SWR (Cameroon); Ndifon, Peter T. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Coordination Chemistry Laboratory, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Duke, Emmanuel O. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, CRS (Nigeria); Mainsah, Evans N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Buea, PO Box 63, Buea, SWR (Cameroon); Offiong, Offiong E.; Eno, Ededet A. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, CRS (Nigeria)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel one dimensional Cu(II) coordination polymer [Cu(C?O?)(OH?)?] ·H?O 1 has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystal diffraction and magnetic measurements. Single-crystal structural analysis shows that complex 1 consist of 1D Cu(II) chain containing threefold bridging ligands, one (syn–syn) carboxylate and two water molecules. The magnetic study of 1 has been investigated, indicating an overall antiferromagnetic interaction in the complex. - Graphical abstract: The complex [Cu(C?O?)(OH?)?] ·H?O was prepared by the reaction of solid copper(II)basic carbonate with an aqueous solution of sodium terephthalate under heating at 50–60 {sup o}C after which it was allowed to crystallize at room temperature. The structure of the complex is distorted octahedral. Magnetic study of the complex reveals antiferromagnetic behaviour. Highlights: • A novel copper(II) coordination polymer with terepthalate dianion was grown in an aqueous solution. • The single crystal growth temperature was 25 °C for period of two weeks. • The magnetic property of the complex was studied using SQUID. • The complex showed antiferromagnetic properties.

  4. Normal-state transport in electron-doped La2-xCexCuO4 thin films in magnetic fields up to 40 Tesla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    Normal-state transport in electron-doped La2-xCexCuO4 thin films in magnetic fields up to 40 Tesla.17 are studied in magnetic fields up to 40 Tesla. For the whole doping region investigated, the negative, the upper critical mag- netic field Bc2 order of 100 Tesla 8 is too high to be achieved. The n-type HTSCs

  5. Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/AlCu composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites Dong H. Nam a , Yun K June 2012 A B S T R A C T The precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites was investigated accelerated the precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites due to the generation of excess

  6. Enantiospecific Desorption of R-and S-Propylene Oxide from a Chiral Cu(643) Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    Enantiospecific Desorption of R- and S-Propylene Oxide from a Chiral Cu(643) Surface Joshua D kinetics of R- and S-propylene oxide from Cu(643)R and Cu(643)S using temperature-programmed desorption described in this communication have made use of a simpler chiral molecule, propylene oxide, with a single

  7. Cu(In,Ga)Se2based Photovoltaics: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    % Different companies, processes, substrates Substrate Mo Cu(InGa)Se2 buffer TCO Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells #12-evaporation using 3-stage process (ZSW, NREL) Reaction of sputtered precursors (Solar Frontier) From pilot; High optical absorption Unique properties for solar cells Compositional tolerance Cu(InGa)Se2 Thin

  8. DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Markus Gloeckler PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells have the potential to be an important

  9. Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental investigation of the effect of microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental investigation of the effect of microstructure A thesis Author Joost J. Vlassak Yong Xiang Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental investigation is constructed. The elastic-plastic behavior of Cu films is studied with emphasis on the effects

  10. Study of triangular flow $v_3$ in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions with a multiphase transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Xiao; Na Li; Shusu Shi; Feng Liu

    2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the relation between the initial geometry anisotropy and the anisotropic flow in a multiphase transport model (AMPT) for both Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. It is found that unlike the elliptic flow $v_2$, little centrality dependence of the triangular flow $v_3$ is observed. After removing the initial geometry effect, $v_3/\\epsilon_3$ increases with the transverse particle density, which is similar to $v_2/\\epsilon_2$. The transverse momentum ($p_T$) dependence of $v_3$ from identified particles is qualitatively similar to the $p_T$ dependence of $v_2$.

  11. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. II. THE SURVEY AND A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF KINEMATIC ANOMALIES AND ASYMMETRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Peletier, R. F. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d'Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ry?, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Paudel, S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Emsellem, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Janz, J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gorgas, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica y Física de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, PO Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Niemi, S.-M., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the Virgo cluster in the absolute magnitude range –19.0 < M{sub r} < –16.0 and of all morphological subclasses found in this galaxy population. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best-fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). Our sample includes two dEs with kinematically decoupled cores that have been previously reported. We find that 62 ± 8% (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. We measure age-sensitive (H{sub ?} and H{sub ?A}) and metallicity sensitive (Fe4668 and Mgb) Lick spectral indices in the LIS-5 Ĺ system. This population of galaxies exhibits a wide range of ages and metallicities; we also find that 4 dEs show clear evidence of emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. Finally, we estimate the total masses and dark matter fractions of the dEs and plot them in the mass-size, the mass-velocity dispersion, and the fundamental plane scaling relations. The dEs seem to be the bridge between massive early-type galaxies and dSphs, and have a median total mass within the R{sub e} of log M{sub e} = 9.1 ± 0.2 and a median dark matter fraction within the R{sub e} of f {sub DM} = 46 ± 18%. Any formation model for the dE galaxy class must account for this diversity of kinematic and photometric anomalies and stellar populations.

  12. Kinetic Controls on Cu and Pb Sorption by Ferrihydrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    time. To determine key factors controlling the kinetics, we measured Cu and Pb uptake as a function that the surfaces of primary particles with diameters of only a few nanometers are accessible even after aggregation ferrihydrite aggregates or the branched structure of primary ferrihydrite particles. Consequently, they fitted

  13. Peter C. Chu Mail Code: OC/Cu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Journal of Oceanography, 2008 - present · Editorial Board, the Open Ocean Engineering Journal, 2007Peter C. Chu Professor Mail Code: OC/Cu Department of Oceanography Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Sciences & Wayne E. Meyer Institute of Systems Engineering Monterey, CA 93943 Phone: 831

  14. CU-LASP Test Facilities ! and Instrument Calibration Capabilities"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    CU-LASP Test Facilities ! and Instrument Calibration Capabilities" Ginger Drake Calibration Group of LASP's vacuum chambers · Ideal for performing top-level instrument tests ­ Thermal Vacuum tests ­ In-band light testing (EUV-IR) · Independently temperature- controlled shroud and platen · Optional 4-axis

  15. Fall 2010 http://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccbsg/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    and Scholars Office 2 2. Department 2 3. Registrar & ID card 3 4. Social Security Card Application 3 5://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccbsg/ 1. ISSOInternational Students and Scholars Office ISSO ISSO I-94 I-20 J-1 Form DS-2019://banking.about.com/od/checkingaccounts/ig/How-to-Write-a- Checkchecking account ATM debit card checking

  16. Electric Fields and Chiral Magnetic Effect in Cu + Au Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-Tian Deng; Xu-Guang Huang

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-central Cu + Au collisions can create strong out-of-plane magnetic fields and in-plane electric fields. By using the HIJING model, we study the general properties of the electromagnetic fields in Cu + Au collisions at 200 GeV and their impacts on the charge-dependent two-particle correlator $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}=$ (see main text for definition) which was used for the detection of the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Compared with Au + Au collisions, we find that the in-plane electric fields in Cu + Au collisions can strongly suppress the two-particle correlator or even reverse its sign if the lifetime of the electric fields is long. Combining with the expectation that if $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}$ is induced by elliptic-flow driven effects we would not see such strong suppression or reversion, our results suggest to use Cu + Au collisions to test CME and understand the mechanisms that underlie $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}$.

  17. Cardiologists from CU testing revolutionary heart-attack treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Cardiologists from CU testing revolutionary heart-attack treatment Compiled 4.12.2013 23 of the biologically degradable stent in the treatment of myocardial infarctions (heart-attacks). The results with a metal stent in their heart for the rest of their life; instead, the stent does its work then disappears

  18. $J/?$ production in Au+Au/Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV and the threshold model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the QGP motivated threshold model, where all the $J/\\psi$'s are suppressed above a threshold density, we have analyzed the preliminary PHENIX data on the centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor for $J/\\psi$'s in Cu+Cu and in Au+Au collisions, at RHIC energy, $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV. Centrality dependence of $J/\\psi$ suppression in Au+Au collisions are well explained in the model for threshold densities in ranges of 3.6-3.7 $fm^{-2}$. $J/\\psi$ suppression in Cu+Cu collisions on the other hand are not explained in the model.

  19. Type Ia Supernova Intrinsic Magnitude Dispersion and the Fitting of Cosmological Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Alex G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applied to Type Ia supernovae, my strategy provides adata sets. Subject headings: Supernovae: Data Analysis andhomogeneous nature of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) makes them

  20. Simple Template-Free Solution Route for the Controlled Synthesis of Cu(OH)2 and CuO Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    , People's Republic of China ReceiVed: July 21, 2004; In Final Form: August 29, 2004 The controlled attracted considerable attention due to their fundamental importance and potential wide-ranging applications Orthorhombic Cu2(OH)3- Cl was recently found in living organisms as the first identified copper

  1. Energy and system size dependence of phi meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Coll

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the beam-energy and system-size dependence of {phi} meson production (using the hadronic decay mode {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) by comparing the new results from Cu + Cu collisions and previously reported Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Data presented are from midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) for 0.4 < p{sub T} < 5 GeV/c. At a given beam energy, the transverse momentum distributions for {phi} mesons are observed to be similar in yield and shape for Cu + Cu and Au + Au colliding systems with similar average numbers of participating nucleons. The {phi} meson yields in nucleus-nucleus collisions, normalized by the average number of participating nucleons, are found to be enhanced relative to those from p + p collisions with a different trend compared to strange baryons. The enhancement for {phi} mesons is observed to be higher at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV compared to 62.4 GeV. These observations for the produced {phi}(s{bar s}) mesons clearly suggest that, at these collision energies, the source of enhancement of strange hadrons is related to the formation of a dense partonic medium in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions and cannot be alone due to canonical suppression of their production in smaller systems.

  2. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  3. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, A. G.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band lightsuch an analysis on the supernovae of the Nearby Supernovaheadings: distance scale, supernovae: general 1 Physics

  4. Aspects of the SrO-CuO-TiO2 Ternary System Related to the Deposition of SrTiO3 and Copper-Doped SrTiO3 Thin-Film Buffer Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Ayala

    2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductors are promising materials for large-scale superconductivity applications. One version of a YBCO coated conductor is based on ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of magnesium oxide (MgO) onto polycrystalline metal substrates. SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) is often deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods as a buffer layer between the YBCO and IBAD MgO due to its chemical stability and lattice mismatch of only {approx}1.5% with YBCO. In this work, some aspects of the stability of STO with respect to copper (Cu) and chemical solution deposition of STO on IBAD MgO templates were examined. Solubility limits of Cu in STO were established by processing Cu-doped STO powders by conventional bulk preparation techniques. The maximum solubility of Cu in STO was {approx}1% as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. XRD analysis, performed in collaboration with NIST, on powder compositions on the STO/SrCuO{sub 2} tie line did not identify any ternary phases. SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and CSD on IBAD MgO flexible metallic textured tapes. TEM analysis of a {approx}100 nm thick SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layer deposited by PLD showed a smooth Cu-doped STO/MgO interface. A {approx}600 nm thick YBCO film, deposited onto the SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer by PLD, exhibited a T{sub c} of 87 K and critical current density (J{sub c}) of {approx}1 MA/cm{sup 2}. STO and Cu-doped STO thin films by CSD were {approx}30 nm thick. The in plane alignment (FWHM) after deposition of the STO improved by {approx}1{sup o} while it degraded by {approx}2{sup o} with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer. YBCO was deposited by PLD on the STO and SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffers. The in plane alignment (FWHM) of the YBCO with the STO buffer layer slightly improved while that of the YBCO with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer layer remained constant. A goal of the CSD approach to fabrication of coated conductors is process simplicity. In this study, single layer textured films were obtained without a nucleating seed layer that has been deemed necessary by several investigators. These results indicate that Cu-doped STO buffer layers deposited by PLD or CSD are compatible with IBAD MgO and YBCO and that CSD is a viable approach to coated conductor fabrication.

  5. Morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by solvo-thermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majeed Khan, M.A., E-mail: majeed_phys@yahoo.co.in [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, Sushil [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055 (India); Alsalhi, M.S. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamed, Maqusood [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alhoshan, Mansour [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alrokayan, Salman A. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamad, Tansir [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystals of copper indium disulphide (CuInS{sub 2}) were synthesized by a solvo-thermal method. The structure, morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior of samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. Non-isothermal measurements at different heating rates were carried out and the crystallization kinetics of samples were analyzed using the most reliable non-isothermal kinetic methods. The kinetic parameters such as glass transition temperature, thermal stability, activation energy, Avrami exponent etc. were evaluated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals have scientific and technological importance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples have been prepared by solvo-thermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesized samples exhibit excellent morphology and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of solar cell devices.

  6. On the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons over Cu-ZSM-5 via X-ray absorption spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.J. [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Robota, H.J. [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of the catalytic mechanism of NO{sub x} reduction is critical for the development of next-generation high-fuel efficiency, low-emission vehicles. This paper compiles the investigations in recent years on the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbon over Cu-ZSM-5. The studies were focused on the oxidation state and coordination chemistry of the exchanged Cu as the active site during the catalytic reaction using X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) techniques, mainly XANES and EXAFS. Their experiment demonstrated the existence of a redox mechanism which involves cyclic switching of the oxidation states between Cu(II) and Cu(I) in an oxygen-rich gas mixture under elevated temperature. The authors also observed the coordination structural change of copper ion in ZSM-5 accompanying the change of oxidation state. A correlation between cuprous ion concentration and catalytic activity was found in NO SCR by propene. The impact of another two hydrocarbons, propane and methane, on the copper redox behavior also appears to correlate to catalytic activities in the respective mixtures. Discussions on the nature of the active sites and the mechanism of SCR are presented based on the XAS data analysis. The similarity and difference of the physical properties of copper ion between NO catalytic decomposition and NO SCR are also discussed.

  7. Origin of giant permittivity and high-temperature dielectric anomaly behavior in Na{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Pengfei; Li, Yanyan; Wei, Lingling; Yang, Zupei [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi (China)] [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Zhao, Yuqing [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Na{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method under various sintering conditions were found to exhibit a giant dielectric constant over 10 000 around room temperature. Two electrical responses were observed in the combined modulus and impedance plots, indicating the presence of Maxwell-Wagner relaxation. The contributions of semiconducting grains and insulating grain boundaries (corresponding to high-frequency and low-frequency electrical response, respectively) played important roles in the dielectric properties of Na{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics. The correlations between grain boundaries resistance and low frequency dielectric loss, grains resistance and the position of dielectric loss peak were addressed. Mixed-valent structures of Cu{sup 2+}/Cu{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} had been determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electron hopping between Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 3+} and electron transport in Ti{sup 3+}-O-Ti{sup 4+} paths were proposed as the origin of the semiconducting nature of Na{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics. In particular, high-temperature dielectric anomaly behavior was investigated in detail. A dielectric peak exhibiting relaxor-like behavior was observed around 200 Degree-Sign C, which was linked with the formation of oxygen vacancies. Based on the electric modulus results, this behavior was explored in the light of the defect formation and explained in terms of a competition process depending on the combinational contribution to polarization between n- and p-type carriers rather than a relaxation process.

  8. J/psi production at high transverse momenta in p plus p and Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R. F.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L. C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Gaillard, L.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C. L.; Jones, P. G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C. -H; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, N.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, Saskia; Mischke, A.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Ng, M. J.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, X. -H; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T. J. M.; de Toledo, A. Szanto; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Tram, V. N.; Trattner, A. L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, Robert E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Molen, A. M. Vander; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider presents measurements of J/psi e(+) e(-) at midrapidity and high transverse momentum (pT > 5 GeV/c) in p + p and central Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The inclusive J...

  9. Infrared vibrational studies of CO adsorption on Cu/Pt(lll) and CuPt(111) Jo& A. Rodriguez,@ Charles M. Truong, and D. Wayne Goodmanb)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Infrared vibrational studies of CO adsorption on Cu/Pt(lll) and CuPt(111) surfaces Jo& A. Rodriguez supported on Pt ( 111) has been studied using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Our results indicate that the infrared intensities of adsorbed CO are not representative of the relative

  10. Novel approaches to low temperature transient liquid phase bonding in the In-Sn/Cu and In-Sn-Bi/Cu systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, David S., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluxless low temperature transient liquid phase (LTTLP) bonding process was studied as a method of producing Cu/Cu joints below 125°C and 75°C using interlayer alloys from the In-Sn and In-Sn-Bi systems. Using thermodynamic ...

  11. Surface photovoltage analyses of Cu(In,Ga)S2/CdS and Cu(In,Ga)S2/In2S3 photovoltaic junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    film photovoltaics. While the highest efficiency was achieved for low band-gap absorbers,1 wide bandSurface photovoltage analyses of Cu(In,Ga)S2/CdS and Cu(In,Ga)S2/In2S3 photovoltaic junctions S-Film and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Schwarzschildstr. 3, D12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany

  12. Magnetic structure of the low-dimensional magnet NaCu{sub 2}O{sub 2}: {sup 63,65}Cu and {sup 23}Na NMR studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadykov, A. F., E-mail: sadykov@imp.uran.ru; Gerashchenko, A. P.; Piskunov, Yu. V.; Ogloblichev, V. V.; Smol’nikov, A. G.; Verkhovskii, S. V.; Buzlukov, A. L.; Arapova, I. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Furukawa, Y. [Iowa State University, Ames Laboratory (United States); Yakubovskii, A. Yu. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Bush, A. A. [Moscow State Technical University of Radio Engineering, Electronics, and Automation (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic structure of a quasi-one-dimensional frustrated NaCu{sub 2}O{sub 2} magnet single crystal is studied by NMR. The spatial orientation of the planar spin spirals in the copper-oxygen Cu{sup 2+}-O chains is determined, and its evolution as a function of the applied magnetic field direction is analyzed.

  13. CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai (Chicago, IL); Liu, Renxuan (Chicago, IL)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

  14. Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hults, William L. (Los Alamos, NM); Kubat-Martin, Kimberly A. (Espanola, NM); Salazar, Kenneth V. (Espanola, NM); Phillips, David S. (Los Alamos, NM); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and a precursor composition for preparing a lead-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductor of the formula Bi.sub.a Pb.sub.b Sr.sub.c Ca.sub.d Cu.sub.e O.sub.f wherein a is from about 1.7 to about 1.9, b is from about 0.3 to about 0.45, c is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, d is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, e is from about 2.97 to about 3.2 and f is 10.+-.z by reacting a mixture of Bi.sub.4 Sr.sub.3 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.16.+-.z, an alkaline earth metal cuprate, e.g., Sr.sub.9 Ca.sub.5 Cu.sub.24 O.sub.41, and an alkaline earth metal plumbate, e.g., Ca.sub.2-x Sr.sub.x PbO.sub.4 wherein x is about 0.5, is disclosed.

  15. Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hults, W.L.; Kubat-Martin, K.A.; Salazar, K.V.; Phillips, D.S.; Peterson, D.E.

    1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and a precursor composition for preparing a lead-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductor of the formula Bi[sub a]Pb[sub b]Sr[sub c]Ca[sub d]Cu[sub e]O[sub f] wherein a is from about 1.7 to about 1.9, b is from about 0.3 to about 0.45, c is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, d is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, e is from about 2.97 to about 3.2 and f is 10[+-]z by reacting a mixture of Bi[sub 4]Sr[sub 3]Ca[sub 3]Cu[sub 4]O[sub 16[+-]z], an alkaline earth metal cuprate, e.g., Sr[sub 9]Ca[sub 5]Cu[sub 24]O[sub 41], and an alkaline earth metal plumbate, e.g., Ca[sub 2[minus]x]Sr[sub x]PbO[sub 4] wherein x is about 0.5, is disclosed.

  16. Association between As and Cu renal cortex accumulation and physiological and histological alterations after chronic arsenic intake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubatto Birri, Paolo N. [Instituto de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (FCM), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba (Argentina)] [Instituto de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (FCM), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba (Argentina); Perez, Roberto D. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF-UNC), Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba (Argentina) [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF-UNC), Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cremonezzi, David [Catedra Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Nacional de Clinicas (FCM-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina)] [Catedra Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Nacional de Clinicas (FCM-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Perez, Carlos A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Linha D09B-XRF, Campinas SP (Brazil)] [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Linha D09B-XRF, Campinas SP (Brazil); Rubio, Marcelo [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF-UNC), Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba (Argentina) [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF-UNC), Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bongiovanni, Guillermina A., E-mail: gbongiovanni@conicet.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratorio de Investigaciones Bioquimicas, Quimicas y de Medio Ambiente (LIBIQUIMA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, CP 8300 Neuquen (Argentina)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most abundant hazards in the environment and it is a human carcinogen. Related to excretory functions, the kidneys in humans, animal models or naturally exposed fauna, are target organs for As accumulation and deleterious effects. Previous studies carried out using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry by synchrotron radiation (SR-{mu}XRF) showed a high concentration of As in the renal cortex of chronically exposed rats, suggesting that this is a suitable model for studies on renal As accumulation. This accumulation was accompanied by a significant increase in copper (Cu) concentration. The present study focused on the localization of these elements in the renal cortex and their correlation with physiological and histological As-related renal effects. Experiments were performed on nine male Wistar rats, divided into three experimental groups. Two groups received 100 {mu}g/ml sodium arsenite in drinking water for 60 and 120 consecutive days, respectively. The control group received water without sodium arsenite (<50 ppb As). For histological analysis, 5-{mu}m-thick sections of kidneys were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Biochemical analyses were used to determine concentrations of plasma urea and creatinine. The As and Cu mapping were carried out by SR-{mu}XRF using a collimated white synchrotron spectrum (300 {mu}mx300 {mu}m) on kidney slices (2 mm thick) showing As and Cu co-distribution in the renal cortex. Then, renal cortical slices (100 {mu}m thick) were scanned with a focused white synchrotron spectrum (30 {mu}mx30 {mu}m). Peri-glomerular accumulation of As and Cu at 60 and 120 days was found. The effects of 60 days of arsenic consumption were seen in a decreased Bowman's space as well as a decreased plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio. Major deleterious effects; however, were seen on tubules at 120 days of exposition. This study supports the hypothesis that tubular accumulation of As-Cu may have some bearing on the arsenic-associated nephrotoxicological process.

  17. Systematic Study of Azimuthal Anisotropy in Cu$+$Cu and Au$+$Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 62.4$ and 200~GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Adare; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; H. Al-Bataineh; A. Al-Jamel; J. Alexander; K. Aoki; L. Aphecetche; R. Armendariz; S. H. Aronson; J. Asai; E. T. Atomssa; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; B. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; A. Baldisseri; K. N. Barish; P. D. Barnes; B. Bassalleck; S. Bathe; S. Batsouli; V. Baublis; F. Bauer; A. Bazilevsky; S. Belikov; R. Bennett; Y. Berdnikov; A. A. Bickley; M. T. Bjorndal; J. G. Boissevain; H. Borel; K. Boyle; M. L. Brooks; D. S. Brown; D. Bucher; H. Buesching; V. Bumazhnov; G. Bunce; J. M. Burward-Hoy; S. Butsyk; S. Campbell; J. -S. Chai; B. S. Chang; J. -L. Charvet; S. Chernichenko; C. Y. Chi; J. Chiba; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; T. Chujo; P. Chung; A. Churyn; V. Cianciolo; C. R. Cleven; Y. Cobigo; B. A. Cole; M. P. Comets; P. Constantin; M. Csanád; T. Csörg?; T. Dahms; K. Das; G. David; M. B. Deaton; K. Dehmelt; H. Delagrange; A. Denisov; D. d'Enterria; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; O. Dietzsch; A. Dion; M. Donadelli; J. L. Drachenberg; O. Drapier; A. Drees; A. K. Dubey; A. Durum; V. Dzhordzhadze; Y. V. Efremenko; J. Egdemir; F. Ellinghaus; W. S. Emam; A. Enokizono; H. En'yo; B. Espagnon; S. Esumi; K. O. Eyser; D. E. Fields; M. Finger; M. Finger; \\, Jr.; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; B. Forestier; Z. Fraenkel; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; K. Fujiwara; Y. Fukao; S. -Y. Fung; T. Fusayasu; S. Gadrat; I. Garishvili; F. Gastineau; M. Germain; A. Glenn; H. Gong; M. Gonin; J. Gosset; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; M. Grosse Perdekamp; T. Gunji; H. -Ĺ. Gustafsson; T. Hachiya; A. Hadj Henni; C. Haegemann; J. S. Haggerty; M. N. Hagiwara; H. Hamagaki; R. Han; H. Harada; E. P. Hartouni; K. Haruna; M. Harvey; E. Haslum; K. Hasuko; R. Hayano; X. He; M. Heffner; T. K. Hemmick; T. Hester; J. M. Heuser; H. Hiejima; J. C. Hill; R. Hobbs; M. Hohlmann; M. Holmes; W. Holzmann; K. Homma; B. Hong; T. Horaguchi; D. Hornback; S. Huang; M. G. Hur; T. Ichihara; H. Iinuma; K. Imai; M. Inaba; Y. Inoue; D. Isenhower; L. Isenhower; M. Ishihara; T. Isobe; M. Issah; A. Isupov; B. V. Jacak; J. Jia; J. Jin; O. Jinnouchi; B. M. Johnson; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; F. Kajihara; S. Kametani; N. Kamihara; J. Kamin; M. Kaneta; J. H. Kang; H. Kanou; T. Kawagishi; D. Kawall; A. V. Kazantsev; S. Kelly; A. Khanzadeev; J. Kikuchi; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; E. Kim; Y. -S. Kim; E. Kinney; Á. Kiss; E. Kistenev; A. Kiyomichi; J. Klay; C. Klein-Boesing; L. Kochenda; V. Kochetkov; B. Komkov; M. Konno; D. Kotchetkov; A. Kozlov; A. Král; A. Kravitz; P. J. Kroon; J. Kubart; G. J. Kunde; N. Kurihara; K. Kurita; M. J. Kweon; Y. Kwon; G. S. Kyle; R. Lacey; Y. S. Lai; J. G. Lajoie; A. Lebedev; Y. Le Bornec; S. Leckey; D. M. Lee; M. K. Lee; T. Lee; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; B. Lenzi; X. Li; X. H. Li; H. Lim; T. Liška; A. Litvinenko; M. X. Liu; B. Love; D. Lynch; C. F. Maguire; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malakhov; M. D. Malik; V. I. Manko; Y. Mao; L. Mašek; H. Masui; F. Matathias; M. C. McCain; M. McCumber; P. L. McGaughey; Y. Miake; P. Mikeš; K. Miki; T. E. Miller; A. Milov; S. Mioduszewski; G. C. Mishra; M. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; M. Mitrovski; A. Morreale; D. P. Morrison; J. M. Moss; T. V. Moukhanova; D. Mukhopadhyay; J. Murata; S. Nagamiya; Y. Nagata; J. L. Nagle; M. Naglis; I. Nakagawa; Y. Nakamiya; T. Nakamura; K. Nakano; J. Newby; M. Nguyen; B. E. Norman; R. Nouicer; A. S. Nyanin; J. Nystrand; E. O'Brien; S. X. Oda; C. A. Ogilvie; H. Ohnishi; I. D. Ojha; M. Oka; K. Okada; O. O. Omiwade; A. Oskarsson; I. Otterlund; M. Ouchida; K. Ozawa; R. Pak; D. Pal; A. P. T. Palounek; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; J. Park; W. J. Park; S. F. Pate; H. Pei; J. -C. Peng; H. Pereira; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; C. Pinkenburg; R. P. Pisani; M. L. Purschke; A. K. Purwar; H. Qu; J. Rak; A. Rakotozafindrabe; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; S. Rembeczki; M. Reuter; K. Reygers; V. Riabov; Y. Riabov; G. Roche; A. Romana; M. Rosati; S. S. E. Rosendahl; P. Rosnet; P. Rukoyatkin; V. L. Rykov; S. S. Ryu; B. Sahlmueller; N. Saito; T. Sakaguchi; S. Sakai; H. Sakata; V. Samsonov; H. D. Sato; S. Sato; S. Sawada; J. Seele; R. Seidl; V. Semenov; R. Seto; D. Sharma; T. K. Shea; I. Shein; A. Shevel; T. -A. Shibata; K. Shigaki; M. Shimomura; T. Shohjoh; K. Shoji; A. Sickles; C. L. Silva; D. Silvermyr; C. Silvestre; K. S. Sim; C. P. Singh; V. Singh; S. Skutnik; M. Slune?ka; W. C. Smith; A. Soldatov; R. A. Soltz; W. E. Sondheim; S. P. Sorensen; I. V. Sourikova; F. Staley; P. W. Stankus; E. Stenlund; M. Stepanov; A. Ster; S. P. Stoll; T. Sugitate; C. Suire; J. P. Sullivan; J. Sziklai; T. Tabaru; S. Takagi; E. M. Takagui; A. Taketani; K. H. Tanaka; Y. Tanaka; K. Tanida; M. J. Tannenbaum; A. Taranenko; P. Tarján; T. L. Thomas; T. Todoroki; M. Togawa; A. Toia; J. Tojo; L. Tomášek; H. Torii; R. S. Towell; V-N. Tram; I. Tserruya; Y. Tsuchimoto; S. K. Tuli; H. Tydesjö; N. Tyurin; C. Vale; H. Valle

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the dependence of azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ for inclusive and identified charged hadrons in Au$+$Au and Cu$+$Cu collisions on collision energy, species, and centrality. The values of $v_2$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ and centrality in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200~GeV and 62.4~GeV are the same within uncertainties. However, in Cu$+$Cu collisions we observe a decrease in $v_2$ values as the collision energy is reduced from 200 to 62.4~GeV. The decrease is larger in the more peripheral collisions. By examining both Au$+$Au and Cu$+$Cu collisions we find that $v_2$ depends both on eccentricity and the number of participants, $N_{\\rm part}$. We observe that $v_2$ divided by eccentricity ($\\varepsilon$) monotonically increases with $N_{\\rm part}$ and scales as ${N_{\\rm part}^{1/3}}$. The Cu$+$Cu data at 62.4 GeV falls below the other scaled $v_{2}$ data. For identified hadrons, $v_2$ divided by the number of constituent quarks $n_q$ is independent of hadron species as a function of transverse kinetic energy $KE_T=m_T-m$ between $0.1Cu$+$Cu data at 62.4 GeV, of $v_2/(n_q\\cdot\\varepsilon\\cdot N^{1/3}_{\\rm part})$ vs $KE_T/n_q$ for all measured particles.

  18. Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

    2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

  19. Detection of interlayer communication using type curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenthal, Sven A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the adjacent formation through type curve analysis. The response caused by the essentially infinite acting producing zone alone can be filtered out using desuperposition. The remaining response is the "deviation function" caused by the leaking fault. Type.... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIST OF TABLES . V1 . viii LIST OF FIGURES. . . . . IX INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND THEORY Infinite Acting Reservoir. Linear Discontinuities. Fault Parameterization. . . . 8 9...

  20. Magnetic properties and interlayer coupling of epitaxial Co/Cu films on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansell, R.; Petit, D. C. M. C.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.; Lavrijsen, R.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of Co and Co/Cu/Co trilayers with wedged Cu interlayers were grown epitaxially on Cu buffer layers on hydrogen passivated Si(001) wafers. We find that single Co layers have a well-defined four-fold anisotropy but with smaller in-plane anisotropies than observed in Co grown on Cu crystals. Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) interlayer coupling is observed in one Co/Cu/Co sample which is the smoothest of the films as measured by atomic force microscopy. Some of the films also form a dot-like structure on the surface. Intermixing at elevated temperatures between the Cu buffer and Si limits the ability to form flat surfaces to promote RKKY coupling.

  1. Typed Self-Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    type T y[O]. The operator IsIs is self-applicative, in thatargument t is any of Is[O] or IsIs, and otherwise behavesproof constant introduced by IsIs proves that the type of t

  2. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film solar cells: The electronic effects of point defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(Se,S){sub 4} devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varley, J. B.; Lordi, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate point defects in the buffer layers CdS and ZnS that may arise from intermixing with Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGS) or Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTS) absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaics. Using hybrid functional calculations, we characterize the electrical and optical behavior of Cu, In, Ga, Se, Sn, Zn, Na, and K impurities in the buffer. We find that In and Ga substituted on the cation site act as shallow donors in CdS and tend to enhance the prevailing n-type conductivity at the interface facilitated by Cd incorporation in CIGS, whereas they are deep donors in ZnS and will be less effective dopants. Substitutional In and Ga can favorably form complexes with cation vacancies (A-centers) which may contribute to the “red kink” effect observed in some CIGS-based devices. For CZTS absorbers, we find that Zn and Sn defects substituting on the buffer cation site are electrically inactive in n-type buffers and will not supplement the donor doping at the interface as in CIGS/CdS or ZnS devices. Sn may also preferentially incorporate on the S site as a deep acceptor in n-type ZnS, which suggests possible concerns with absorber-related interfacial compensation in CZTS devices with ZnS-derived buffers. Cu, Na, and K impurities are found to all have the same qualitative behavior, most favorably acting as compensating acceptors when substituting on the cation site. Our results suggest one beneficial role of K and Na incorporation in CIGS or CZTS devices is the partial passivation of vacancy-related centers in CdS and ZnS buffers, rendering them less effective interfacial hole traps and recombination centers.

  3. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

  4. Reflection type of terahertz imaging system using a high-T{sub c} superconducting oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, T.; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Markovi?, B.; Mirkovi?, J. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, George Washington Str., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Wide Bandgap Materials Group, Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflection type of imaging system is shown at sub-terahertz frequencies generated from high-T{sub c} superconducting intrinsic Josephson junction mesa structures fabricated by single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?} to demonstrate how the sub-terahertz imaging technique using monochromatic radiation is powerful and unique for the variety of practical applications. Several examples are discussed in detail and are compared to other terahertz imaging systems.

  5. Adsorbate-driven morphological changes on Cu(111) nano-pits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mudiyanselage, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; BMCC-CUNY, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Science; Xu, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Hoffmann, F. M. [BMCC-CUNY, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Science; Hrbek, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Waluyo, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Boscoboinik, J. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Stacchiola, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorbate-driven morphological changes of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces have been investigated following the adsorption and desorption of CO and H. The morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surfaces, prepared by Ar+ sputtering, exposed a few atomic layers deep nested hexagonal pits of diameters from 8 to 38 nm with steep step bundles. The roughness of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces can be healed by heating to 450-500 K in vacuum. Adsorption of CO on the pitted-Cu(111) surface leads to two infrared peaks at 2089-2090 and 2101-2105 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites in addition to the peak at 2071 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on atop sites of the close-packed Cu(111) surface. CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites is thermally more stable than that of atop Cu(111) sites. Annealing of the CO-covered surface from 100 to 300 K leads to minor changes of the surface morphology. In contrast, annealing of a H covered surface to 300 K creates a smooth Cu(111) surface as deduced from infrared data of adsorbed CO and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging. The observation of significant adsorbate-driven morphological changes with H is attributed to its stronger modification of the Cu(111) surface by the formation of a sub-surface hydride with a hexagonal structure, which relaxes into the healed Cu(111) surface upon hydrogen desorption. These morphological changes occur ~150 K below the temperature required for healing of the pitted-Cu(111) surface by annealing in vacuum. In contrast, the adsorption of CO, which only interacts with the top-most Cu layer and desorbs by 160 K, does not significantly change the morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surface.

  6. Adsorbate-driven morphological changes on Cu(111) nano-pits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mudiyanselage, K.; Xu, F.; Hoffmann, F. M.; Hrbek, J.; Waluyo, I.; Boscoboinik, J. A.; Stacchiola, D. J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorbate-driven morphological changes of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces have been investigated following the adsorption and desorption of CO and H. The morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surfaces, prepared by Ar+ sputtering, exposed a few atomic layers deep nested hexagonal pits of diameters from 8 to 38 nm with steep step bundles. The roughness of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces can be healed by heating to 450-500 K in vacuum. Adsorption of CO on the pitted-Cu(111) surface leads to two infrared peaks at 2089-2090 and 2101-2105 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites in addition to the peak at 2071 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on atop sitesmore »of the close-packed Cu(111) surface. CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites is thermally more stable than that of atop Cu(111) sites. Annealing of the CO-covered surface from 100 to 300 K leads to minor changes of the surface morphology. In contrast, annealing of a H covered surface to 300 K creates a smooth Cu(111) surface as deduced from infrared data of adsorbed CO and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging. The observation of significant adsorbate-driven morphological changes with H is attributed to its stronger modification of the Cu(111) surface by the formation of a sub-surface hydride with a hexagonal structure, which relaxes into the healed Cu(111) surface upon hydrogen desorption. These morphological changes occur ~150 K below the temperature required for healing of the pitted-Cu(111) surface by annealing in vacuum. In contrast, the adsorption of CO, which only interacts with the top-most Cu layer and desorbs by 160 K, does not significantly change the morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surface.« less

  7. Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 #12;#12;Contents Learn about Diabetes ............................................................ 1 What is diabetes? .............................................................. 2 What

  8. Recrystallization method to selenization of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albin, David S. (Denver, CO); Carapella, Jeffrey J. (Evergreen, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Gabor, Andrew M. (Boulder, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the solid mixture toward a recrystallization temperature (about 550.degree. C.) at which Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 is solid and Cu.sub.x Se is liquid. The (In,Ga) flux is terminated while the Se overpressure flux and the recrystallization temperature are maintained to recrystallize the Cu.sub.x Se with the (In, Ga) that was deposited during the temperature transition and with the Se vapor to form the thin-film of slightly Cu-poor Cu.sub.x (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. The initial Cu-rich, phase separated large grain mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se can be made by sequentially depositing or co-depositing the metal precursors, Cu and (In, Ga), on the substrate at room temperature, ramping up the thin-film temperature in the presence of Se overpressure to a moderate anneal temperature (about 450.degree. C.) and holding that temperature and the Se overpressure for an annealing period. A nonselenizing, low temperature anneal at about 100.degree. C. can also be used to homogenize the precursors on the substrates before the selenizing, moderate temperature anneal.

  9. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni{sub 26}Zr{sub 74}. In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys.

  10. Rings sliding on a honeycomb network: Adsorption contours, interactions, and assembly of benzene on Cu(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einstein, Theodore L.

    by anthraquinone AQ on Cu 111 .3 The pore diameter is unprecedentally large, over 5 nm, and each cell encloses over

  11. Carbon dioxide reduction to alcohols using perovskite-type electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M.; Cook, R.L.; Kehoe, V.M.; MacDuff, R.C.; Patel, J.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical reduction of CO[sub 2] under ambient conditions to methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol is reported at perovskite-type A[sub 1.8]A[prime][sub 0.2]CuO[sub 4] (A = La, Pr, and Gd; A[prime] = Sr and Th) electrocatalysts when incorporated into gas diffusion electrodes. In the absence of copper at the perovskite B lattice site, no activity was found. This investigation resulted in the identification of electrochemical conditions whereby perovskite-type electrocatalysts could achieve cumulative Faradaic efficiencies for CO[sub 2] reduction to methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol up to [congruent] 40% at current densities of 180 mA/cm[sup 2].

  12. Fejer-type inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitroi, F C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to present some new Fejer-type results for convex functions. Improvements of Young's inequality (the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality) and other applications to special means are pointed as well.

  13. Document Type: Subject Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    Title: Authors: Source: Document Type: Subject Terms: Abstract: Full Text Word Count: ISSN at creating team results. In fact, it's priceless. Managers in Western corporations have received a lifetime

  14. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  15. The Parameter Space of Graphene CVD on Polycrystalline Cu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidambi, Piran Ravichandran; Ducati, Caterina; Dlubak, Bruno; Gardiner, Damian; Weatherup, Robert S.; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Seneor, Pierre; Coles, Harry; Hofmann, Stephan

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    growth mechanisms have yet to be fully understood6–8 and the often narrow empirical process optimizations allow little generalization due to the vast CVD parameter space.4,5,9–13 Most current literature focuses on exposing polycrystalline Cu4,5 foils... at temperature of 600oC or below, as recently reported for toluene18(~ 600 oC, ID/IG~0.35) and ill-defined C6H6 exposures in hot-wall furnaces.35 We note in this context that these previous efforts have focused on lowering the temperature, but clearly...

  16. Autocatalytic water dissociation on Cu(110) at near ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulleregan, Alice; Andersson, Klas; Ketteler, Guido; Bluhm, Hendrik; Yamamoto, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Salmeron, Miquel; Nilsson, Anders

    2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Autocatalytic dissociation of water on the Cu(110) metal surface is demonstrated based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies carried out in-situ under near ambient conditions of water vapor pressure (1 Torr) and temperature (275-520 K). The autocatalytic reaction is explained as the result of the strong hydrogen-bond in the H{sub 2}O-OH complex of the dissociated final state, which lowers the water dissociation barrier according to the Broensted-Evans-Polanyi relations. A simple chemical bonding picture is presented which predicts autocatalytic water dissociation to be a general phenomenon on metal surfaces.

  17. La??xSrxCuO? superconductor nanowire devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Litombe, N. E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bollinger, A. T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hoffman, J. E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Bozovic, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    La??xSrxCuO? nanowire devices have been fabricated and characterized using electrical transport measurements. Nanowires with widths down to 80 nm are patterned using high-resolution electron beam lithography. However, the narrowest nanowires show incomplete superconducting transitions with some residual resistance at T = 4 K. Here, we report on refinement of the fabrication process to achieve narrower nanowire devices with complete superconducting transitions, opening the path to the study of novel physics arising from dimension-limited superconductivity on the nanoscale.

  18. Property:NEPA CU Document | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid JumpEligSysSize JumpTechDsc Jump to:"PropertyCU

  19. Cupric Siliconiobate. Synthesis and Solid-State Studies of a Pseudosandwich-Type Heteropolyanion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Alam, Todd M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Bixler, Joel N.; Xu, Wenqian; Parise, John B.; Nyman, May (SBU)

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Na{sup +} and [Cu(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (en = ethylenediamine) salt of a pseudosandwich-type heteropolyniobate forms upon prolonged heating of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and hydrated Na{sub 14}[(SiOH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}Nb{sub 16}O{sub 54}] in a mixed water-en solution. The structure [a = 14.992(2) {angstrom}, b = 25.426(4) {angstrom}, c = 30.046(4) {angstrom}, orthorhombic, Pnn2, R1 = 6.04%, based on 25869 unique reflections] consists of two [Na(SiOH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}Nb{sub 16}O{sub 54}]{sup 13-} units linked by six sodium cations, and this sandwich is charge-balanced by five [Cu(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2+} complexes, seven protons, and three additional sodium atoms (all per a sandwich-type cluster). Diffuse-reflectance UV-vis indicates that there is a {lambda}{sub max} at 383 nm for the Cu{sup II} d-d transition and the {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectrum has two peaks at -78.2 ppm (151 Hz) and -75.5 ppm (257 Hz) for the two pairs of symmetry-equivalent internal [SiO{sub 4}]{sup 4-} and external [SiO{sub 3}(OH)]{sup 3-} tetrahedra, respectively. Unlike tungsten-based sandwich-type complexes, the [Na(SiOH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}Nb{sub 16}O{sub 54}]{sup 13-} units are linked exclusively by Na{sup +} instead of one or more d-electron metals.

  20. Half-lives and branchings for {\\beta}-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosmer, P; Aprahamian, A; Arndt, O; Clement, R R C; Estrade, A; Farouqi, K; Kratz, K -L; Liddick, S N; Lisetskiy, A F; Mantica, P F; Möller, P; Mueller, W F; Montes, F; Morton, A C; Ouellette, M; Pellegrini, E; Pereira, J; Pfeiffer, B; Reeder, P; Santi, P; Steiner, M; Stolz, A; Tomlin, B E; Walters, W B; Wöhr, A; 10.1103/PhysRevC.82.025806

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The {\\beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {\\beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {\\beta}-delayed neutron emission (Pn values) for 74Co (18 +/- 15%) and 75-77Ni (10 +/- 2.8%, 14 +/- 3.6%, and 30 +/- 24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the Pn values of 77-79Cu, 79,81Zn, and 82Ga. For 77-79Cu and for 81Zn we obtain significantly larger Pn values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of 75Co (30 +/- 11 ms) and 80Cu (170+110 -50 ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is bet...

  1. Characterization of Cu-ZSM-5 Prepared by Solid-State Ion Exchange of H-ZSM-5 with CuCl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Cl occlusion in the zeolite pores. After SSIE, the resulting Cu-ZSM-5 was characterized by XRD, 27 Al MAS NMR and nitriles,15 the desulfurization of diesel fuel,16 and the oxidative carbony- lation of methanol to dimethyl

  2. J/psi production at high transverse momenta in p+p and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, B. I.

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The STAR collaboration at RHIC presents measurements of J/{psi} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} at mid-rapidity and high transverse momentum (p{sub T} > 5 GeV/c) in p+p and central Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}sNN = 200 GeV. The inclusive J/{psi} production cross section for Cu+Cu collisions is found to be consistent at high p{sub T} with the binary collision-scaled cross section for p+p collisions, in contrast to previous measurements at lower p{sub T}, where a suppression of J/{psi} production is observed relative to the expectation from binary scaling. Azimuthal correlations of J/{psi} with charged hadrons in p+p collisions provide an estimate of the contribution of B-meson decays to J/{psi} production of 13% {+-} 5%.

  3. $J/?$ production at low $p_T$ in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STAR Collaboration; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; A. Aparin; D. Arkhipkin; E. C. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; A. Banerjee; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; P. Bhattarai; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; S. Bültmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; B. di Ruzza; L. Didenko; C. Dilks; F. Ding; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; J. Engelage; K. S. Engle; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; C. E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; M. Girard; S. Gliske; D. Grosnick; Y. Guo; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; R. Haque; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; H. Jang; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; D. Kalinkin; K. Kang; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; Z. H. Khan; D. P. Kikola; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; R. A. Kycia; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. M. M. D. Madagodagettige Don; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; S. Y. Noh; J. Novak; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; P. R. Pujahari; H. Qiu; A. Quintero; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; A. Roy; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; A. Sandacz; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; W. B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; P. V. Shanmuganathan; M. Shao; B. Sharma; W. Q. Shen; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. Sumbera; X. Sun; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; R. Vertesi; F. Videbćk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; A. Vossen; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; W. Yan; C. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; Z. Ye; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; Y. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zha; Zhang; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The $\\jpsi$ $\\pt$ spectrum and nuclear modification factor ($\\raa$) are reported for $\\pt < 5 \\ \\gevc$ and $|y|<1$ from 0\\% to 60\\% central Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\snn = 200 \\ \\gev$ at STAR. A significant suppression of $\\pt$-integrated $\\jpsi$ production is observed in central Au+Au events. The Cu+Cu data are consistent with no suppression, although the precision is limited by the available statistics. $\\raa$ in Au+Au collisions exhibits a strong suppression at low transverse momentum and gradually increases with $\\pt$. The data are compared to high-$\\pt$ STAR results and previously published BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider results. Comparing with model calculations, it is found that the invariant yields at low $\\pt$ are significantly above hydrodynamic flow predictions but are consistent with models that include color screening and regeneration.

  4. Energy dependence of pi-zero production in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 22.4, 62.4, and 200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHENIX Collaboration; A. Adare

    2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral pion transverse momentum (pT) spectra at mid-rapidity (|y| zero yields in p+p collisions scaled by the number of inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll) at the respective energies, the pi-zero yields for pT \\ge 2 GeV/c in central Cu+Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV are suppressed, whereas an enhancement is observed at 22.4 GeV. A comparison with a jet quenching model suggests that final state parton energy loss dominates in central Cu+Cu collisions at 62.4 GeV and 200 GeV, while the enhancement at 22.4 GeV is consistent with nuclear modifications in the initial state alone.

  5. Muon-spin spectroscopy of the organometallic spin-1/2 kagome-lattice compound Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcipar, Lital

    Using muon-spin resonance, we examine the organometallic hybrid compound Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate) [Cu(1,3-bdc)], which has structurally perfect spin-1/2 copper kagome planes separated by pure organic linkers. This ...

  6. A MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD l)13 C RECORD FROM THE GAURA CU MUSCA CAVE, SW ROMANIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forray, Ferenc

    A MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD l)13 C RECORD FROM THE GAURA CU MUSCA CAVE, SW ROMANIA Bogdan P. ONAC1 · 2, Romania (2) School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107, Tampa, FL and Romania. B. Geological map of the region {modified fromlancu et al., 1995). The mapof the Gaura cu Musca

  7. Effect of doping in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ertekin, Abdullah

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to analyze the solid solubility limit of dopants in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors. We have studied the effect of Mn doping Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. The electrical resistivity and critical temperature were measured for samples...

  8. Phase relations and precipitation in AlMgSi alloys with Cu additions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Conference in Aluminum Alloys 8, University of Cambridge, UK, July, 2002. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1Phase relations and precipitation in Al­Mg­Si alloys with Cu additions§ D.J. Chakrabartia , David E led to extensive studies on 6xxx alloys in recent years. These alloys often contain Cu in varying

  9. Adsorption of Benzene, Fluorobenzene and Meta-di-Fluorobenzene on Cu(110): A Computational Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Adsorption of Benzene, Fluorobenzene and Meta-di-Fluorobenzene on Cu(110): A Computational Study L.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: We modelled the adsorption of benzene, fluorobenzene and meta-di-fluorobenzene on Cu(110) by Den- sity Functional Theory. We found that the adsorption configuration depends on the coverage. At high

  10. Unexpected magnetization enhancement in hydrogen plasma treated ferromagnetic (Zn,Cu)O film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Liang; Zhu, Liping, E-mail: zlp1@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: hphe@zju.edu.cn; He, Haiping, E-mail: zlp1@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: hphe@zju.edu.cn; Ye, Zhizhen [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China and Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of H{sup +} incorporation on oxygen vacancies (H{sub O}{sup +}) on the giant ferromagnetic behavior (moment up to 3.26??{sub B}/Cu) in ZnO:Cu polycrystalline films have been closely examined using different microstructural and magnetic characterization tools. Fine thermal stability (up to 450?°C) and low resistivity demonstrate a significant correlation between Cu 3d-states and H{sub O}{sup +} donor defects in H plasma treated ZnO:Cu films, analogous to dual-donor (V{sub O} and Zn{sub i}) defects mediated case. These H{sub O}{sup +} donors can delocalize their electrons to the orbits of Cu atoms and contribute to a stronger spin-orbit coupling interaction. Suitable H{sub O}{sup +} defect concentration and matched proportion between Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} species ensure that orbital momentum shall not be quenched. Hence, unexpected moment enhancement, less than spin-orbit coupling upper limit (3.55??{sub B}/Cu), can be also expected in this scenario. The manipulation from spin-only to spin-orbit coupling mode, using a facile thermally-mediated H plasma exposure way, will allow achieving spin transport based diluted magnetic semiconductor device.

  11. DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    i DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT Submitted ENTITLED `ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT' BE ACCEPTED(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT The demand for alternative sources of energy is rapidly

  12. Insertion of Zn atoms into Cu3N lattice: Structural distortion and modification of electronic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zexian, Cao

    Cu and nitrogen. Consequently it can be used in the fabrication of microscopic copper lines are positioned at the middle of the edges and the nitrogen atoms are situated at the corners of a cube inserted to the cell centers in bulk Cu3N; on the other hand, the effect of copper [12], titanium [13

  13. Atomic Substitutions in Yba2cu3o7 - Modification of the Electronic-Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RICHERT, BA; Allen, Roland E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of states for both spins is calculated from p.(E)-??Tr imG&(E),2 1988 The American Physical Society 37 ATOMIC SUBSTITUTIONS IN YBa2Cu307. MODIFICATION. . . TABLE I. "Atomic energies" in eV. culated from A1 Fe Ni Cu' Zn Y Tl Pb Bi 0 F ?10...

  14. Industrial Cu-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tape. A Girard1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Industrial Cu-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tape. A Girard1,2,3 , C E Bruzek4 , J L Jorda1 , L efficient substrates for coated conductor wires. The study is focused on two industrial compositions: Cu55Ni-textured substrate is one of the critical steps for the HTS coated conductor development. The RABiTS (Rolling

  15. Photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of Cu (H2O)1,2 anion complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineberger, W. Carl

    structure calculations for the neutral, the adiabatic electron affinity is derived. Ó 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Recent experiments [1] and calculations [2,3] of the structure and rearrangement dynamics of CuH2O fol- lowing electron photodetachment from CuŔ H2O have afforded considerable

  16. Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ERTEN ESER

    2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

  17. Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 TheLow Temperature TransientLiquidPhase Diffusion Bonding (LTTLP) process has) ) M. M. Hou Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu and Cu been bonded to copper heatsink.s at temperatures less than 160"C, using /n-Sn eutectic solders. After

  18. AuCu II, STRUCTURE MODULE IRRATIONNELLE, PROTOTYPE DES ANTIPHASES PRIODIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    de AuCu II ŕ la composition 50 at. % Au la structure Johansson et Linde exacte (demi-période d Johansson-Linde structure is observed by electron diffraction from 50 at. % AuCu II bulk samples (antiphase diffraction des rayons X sur poudre par Johansson et Linde [1]. Ceci constituait la premiere structure

  19. Size-dependent catalytic performance of CuO on ?-Al2O3...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of NH3 on CuO?-Al2O3 catalysts during NH3 SCR reactions were investigated under oxygen-rich conditions. On 10% CuO?-Al2O3, NH3 reacted with oxygen to produce NOx. In...

  20. CU scientists amongst recipients of awards and grants bestowed by Neuron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    CU scientists amongst recipients of awards and grants bestowed by Neuron Compiled 4.12.2013 23:35:59 by Document Globe ® 1 CU scientists amongst recipients of awards and grants bestowed by Neuron Foundation Neuron Award for Lifelong Achievement. During their presentation at Malostranská beseda on 5 November

  1. Chemisorption of benzene and STM dehydrogenation products on Cu,,100... N. Lorente*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Mats

    Chemisorption of benzene and STM dehydrogenation products on Cu,,100... N. Lorente* Laboratoire of individual chemisorbed benzene molecules on Cu 100 has recently been performed in atomic manipulation experiments J. Phys. Chem. A. 104, 2463 2000 ; Surf. Sci 451, 219 2000 . Benzene dissociates under controlled

  2. Low-lying levels in Cu-57 and the rp process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, XG; Dejbakhsh, H.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Jiang, J.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In particular, a comparison of the low-lying levels of 57Cu with the well-determined excited states of its mirror nucleus 57Ni is important for studying the charge symmetry of the nucleus. The structure of 57Cu also plays a key role in the nucleo- synthesis...

  3. Measurement of K0S and K*0 in p+p, d+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt SNN = 200 GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed a systematic study of K0S and K*0 meson production at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt SNN = 200 GeV. The K0S and K*0 mesons are reconstructed via their K0S and ?0(???)?0 (???) and K*0 ? K ±#25;?± decay modes, respectively. The measured transverse-momentum spectra are used to determine the nuclear modification factor of K0S and K*0 mesons in d+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at different centralities. In the d+Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor of K0S and K*0 mesons is almost constant as a function ofmore »transverse momentum and is consistent with unity showing that cold-nuclear-matter effects do not play a significant role in the measured kinematic range. In Cu+Cu collisions, within the uncertainties no nuclear modification is registered in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, both mesons show suppression relative to the expectations from the p+p yield scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in the Cu+Cu system. In the pT range 2–5 GeV/c, the strange mesons ( K0S, K*0) similarly to the #30;? meson with hidden strangeness, show an intermediate suppression between the more suppressed light quark mesons (?0) and the nonsuppressed baryons (p, p-bar). At higher transverse momentum, pT > 5 GeV/c, production of all particles is similarly suppressed by a factor of ?2. (auth)« less

  4. Measurement of K0S and K*0 in p+p, d+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt SNN = 200 GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adare, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Aidala, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). et al.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed a systematic study of K0S and K*0 meson production at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt SNN = 200 GeV. The K0S and K*0 mesons are reconstructed via their K0S and ?0(???)?0 (???) and K*0 ? K ±#25;?± decay modes, respectively. The measured transverse-momentum spectra are used to determine the nuclear modification factor of K0S and K*0 mesons in d+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at different centralities. In the d+Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor of K0S and K*0 mesons is almost constant as a function of transverse momentum and is consistent with unity showing that cold-nuclear-matter effects do not play a significant role in the measured kinematic range. In Cu+Cu collisions, within the uncertainties no nuclear modification is registered in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, both mesons show suppression relative to the expectations from the p+p yield scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in the Cu+Cu system. In the pT range 2–5 GeV/c, the strange mesons ( K0S, K*0) similarly to the #30;? meson with hidden strangeness, show an intermediate suppression between the more suppressed light quark mesons (?0) and the nonsuppressed baryons (p, p-bar). At higher transverse momentum, pT > 5 GeV/c, production of all particles is similarly suppressed by a factor of ?2. (auth)

  5. The Synthesis, Structure and Physical Properties of the Layered Ruthenocuprates RuSr2GdCu2O8 and Pb2Sr2Cu2RuO8Cl 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLaughlin, A C; Attfield, J. Paul

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the structure and physical properties of the layered rutheno- cuprates RuSr2GdCu2O8 and Pb2Sr2Cu2RuO8Cl are reviewed. RuSr2GdCu2O8 is a weak ferromagnetic superconductor and doping studies have shown that it is possible to tune...

  6. First results about hydrogen loading by means of pulsed electrolysis of Y$_{1}$Ba$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7}$ pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celani, F; Di Gioacchino, D; Spallone, A; Tripodi, P; Pace, S; Polichetti, M; Marini, P

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First results about hydrogen loading by means of pulsed electrolysis of Y$_{1}$Ba$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7}$ pellets

  7. Optical and phonon properties of ZnO:CuO mixed nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udayabhaskar, R.; Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: bkarthik@nitt.edu [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical and phonon properties of ZnO:CuO nanocrystals which are prepared through sol-gel method are reported here. From X-ray diffraction studies, observed that Cu doping replaces the Zn and also forms secondary phase. Optical absorption spectral studies shows that the exciton and plasmon related bands of ZnO and CuO phase, respectively. Fluorescence studies of the prepared samples shows that green emission from ZnO is completely depleted and the same is attributed to CuO Plasmon. Raman spectral studies reveal that secondary phase (impurity) induced profile changes in 1LO and E{sub 2High} modes. Asymmetry in peak shape is analyzed using Fano profile with the combination of Lorentzian profile. Moreover, the monotonic increase of Fano factor and full width at half maxima is hopefully attributed to the continuum arises by the plasmons of Cu-O phase in ZnO nanosystem.

  8. Magnetic order tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1–zCuzTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Lumsden, M. D.; Valdivia, P. N.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Gu, Genda; Lee, Dung-Hai; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe?.?Te, the nonsuperconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe??yTe??xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at ~60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.5–?, 0, 0.5) with ? being the incommensurability of 0.02, and correlation length of 12 Ĺ along the a axis and 9 Ĺ along the c axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first-order transition to a long-range almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has a large effect on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.

  9. Directed and elliptic flow of charged particles in Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{\\bm {s_{NN}}} =$ 22.4 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; B. D. Anderson; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; D. R. Beavis; N. K. Behera; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; E. Braidot; A. V. Brandin; A. Bridgeman; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bueltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; K. E. Choi; W. Christie; P. Chung; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; Cui; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; L. Didenko; P. Djawotho; S. M. Dogra; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; M. Estienne; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; V. Fine; Y. Fisyak; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; F. Geurts; P. Ghosh; Y. N. Gorbunov; A. Gordon; O. G. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; M. Heinz; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; E. Hjort; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; T. J. Humanic; L. Huo; G. Igo; P. Jacobs; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; F. Jin; J. Joseph; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; D. Kettler; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; S. R. Klein; A. G. Knospe; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; V. Kouchpil; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; M. Krus; L. Kumar; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; L. Li; N. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; 1 L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; H. Liu; J. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; Y. Lu; E. V. Lukashov; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; O. I. Mall; R. Manweiler; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; A. Meschanin; R. Milner; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; M. K. Mitrovski; Y. Mohammed; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; L. V. Nogach; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; H. Pei; T. Peitzmann; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; M. A. Ploskon; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; B. V. K. S. Potukuchi; C. B. Powell; D. Prindle; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; R. Redwine; R. Reed; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; J. Schaub; A. M. Schmah; N. Schmitz; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; I. Selyuzhenkov; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; F. Simon; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; N. L. Subba; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; D. Thein; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; F. Videbćk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; S. A. Voloshin; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; W. Witzke; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zhan; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; W. M. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva

    2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports results for directed flow $v_{1}$ and elliptic flow $v_{2}$ of charged particles in Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 22.4 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The measurements are for the 0-60% most central collisions, using charged particles observed in the STAR detector. Our measurements extend to 22.4 GeV Cu+Cu collisions the prior observation that $v_1$ is independent of the system size at 62.4 and 200 GeV, and also extend the scaling of $v_1$ with $\\eta/y_{\\rm beam}$ to this system. The measured $v_2(p_T)$ in Cu+Cu collisions is similar for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 22.4-200$ GeV. We also report a comparison with results from transport model (UrQMD and AMPT) calculations. The model results do not agree quantitatively with the measured $v_1(\\eta), v_2(p_T)$ and $v_2(\\eta)$.

  10. High-strength high-conductivity Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet fabricated via multiple roll bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, S.C.; Delagi, R.G.; Forster, J.A. (Texas Instruments Materials and Control Group, Attleboro, MA (United States)); Krotz, P.D. (Rockwell International Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper-niobium microcomposites are a new class of high-strength high-conductivity materials that have attractive properties for room- and elevated-temperature applications. Since Nb has little solid solubility in Cu, addition of Nb to Cu does not affect its conductivity. Copper-niobium microcomposites are melted and cast so that the microstructure of cast Cu-Nb ingots consists of 1- to 10 [mu]m Nb dendrites uniformly distributed within the copper matrix. Extensive wire drawing with a true processing strain ([eta][gt] 12) of Cu-Nb alloy leads to refinement and elongation of Nb dendrites into 1- to 10 nm-thick filaments. The presence of such fine Nb filaments causes a significant increase in the strength of Cu-Nb wires. The tensile strength of heavily drawn Cu-Nb wires was determined to be significantly higher than the values predicted by the rule of mixtures. This article reports the fabrication of high-strength Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet by multiple roll bonding. It is difficult and impractical to attain high processing strains ([eta][gt]3) by simple cold rolling. In most practical cold-rolling operation, the thickness reduction does not exceed 90 pct ([eta] [approx equal]2). Therefore, innovative processing is required to generate high strength in Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet. Multiple roll bonding of Cu-Nb has been utilized to store high processing strain ( [eta][gt]10) in the material and refine the Nb particle size within the copper matrix. This article describes the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of roll-bonded Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet.

  11. Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study at 25 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study oxide (NO) on a Cu(100) surface at 25 K has been studied using infrared reflection absorption to the Cu(100) surface. Heating to 55 K leads to reorientation of the dimer molecules in the multilayer

  12. Influence of nanoscale Cu precipitates in -Fe on dislocation core structure and strengthening Zhengzheng Chen and Nicholas Kioussis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    and the bowing out of the dislocation line. The calculated bow-out angle and resolved shear stress required at low temperatures, Cu-rich precipitates can easily nucleate and grow under thermal aging. Although Cu- tion of small Cu-rich precipitate diameter d 4 nm from the bcc to the 9R phase in a thermally aged

  13. Effect of Y-211 particle size on the growth of single grain Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thoma, Max; Shi, Yunhua; Dennis, Tony; Durrell, John; Cardwell, David

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering of fine Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (Y-211) inclusions of average particle size 1?2 ?m within the continuous, superconducting YBa2Cu3O7?? (Y-123) phase matrix of single-grain, bulk high temperature Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) superconductors is fundamental...

  14. Influence of the interface structure on the thermo-mechanical properties of Cu-X (X = Cr or B)/carbon fiber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veillere, A., E-mail: veillere@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Heintz, J.-M. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France)] [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Chandra, N. [Engineering Mechanics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0642 (United States)] [Engineering Mechanics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0642 (United States); Douin, J. [CNRS, CEMES, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)] [CNRS, CEMES, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Lahaye, M.; Lalet, G.; Vincent, C.; Silvain, J.-F. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France)] [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two copper alloys/carbon fibers composites have been produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation of the thermo-mechanical properties with the microstructure and the chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A composite with CTE 25% lower than a classic Cu/CF composite has been obtained. -- Abstract: This study focuses on the fabrication, for power electronics applications, of adaptive heat sink material using copper alloys/carbon fibers (CF) composites. In order to obtain composite material with good thermal conductivity and a coefficient of thermal expansion close to the ceramic substrate, it is necessary to have a strong matrix/reinforcement bond. Since there is no reaction between copper and carbon, a carbide element (chromium or boron) is added to the copper matrix to create a strong chemical bond. Composite materials (Cu-B/CF and Cu-Cr/CF) have been produced by a powder metallurgy process followed by an annealing treatment in order to create the carbide at the interphase. Chemical (Electron Probe Micro-Analysis, Auger Electron Spectroscopy) and microstructural (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopies) techniques were used to study the location of the alloying element and the carbide formation before and after diffusion. Finally, the thermo-mechanical properties have been measured and a promising composite material with a coefficient of thermal expansion 25% lower than a classic copper/carbon heat sink has been obtained.

  15. Tunable electronic properties and low thermal conductivity in synthetic colusites Cu{sub 26?x}Zn{sub x}V{sub 2}M{sub 6}S{sub 32} (x ? 4, M = Ge, Sn)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suekuni, K., E-mail: ksuekuni@jaist.ac.jp; Kim, F. S. [Department of Quantum Matter, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Takabatake, T. [Department of Quantum Matter, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have first synthesized Cu{sub 26?x}Zn{sub x}V{sub 2}M{sub 6}S{sub 32} (x???4, M?=?Ge, Sn) with the cubic colusite structure and measured the thermoelectric properties. For both M?=?Ge and Sn, the samples with x?=?0 show moderately large thermopower of +27 ?V/K at 300?K. The metallic conduction of p-type carriers and Pauli-paramagnetic behavior are consistent with the electron-deficient character expected from the formal charge Cu{sub 26}{sup 1+}V{sub 2}{sup 5+}M{sub 6}{sup 4+}S{sub 32}{sup 2?}. The substitution of Zn for Cu results in significant increases in both the electrical resistivity and thermopower. The resistivity of the samples with x?=?4 displays a three-dimensional variable-range hopping behavior at low temperatures. These facts indicate that the doped electrons fill the unoccupied states in the valence band and thereby the Fermi level moves to the localized electronic states at the top of the band. The lattice thermal conductivity is as low as ?1?W/Km at 300?K for all samples. The structural and thermoelectric properties of the colusites are discussed in comparison with those of doped tetrahedrite Cu{sub 12?x}Zn{sub x}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13}.

  16. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust around Type Ia supernovae Lifan Wang 1,2 LawrenceIa. Subject headings: Supernovae: General, Dust, Extinctionline) bands for Type Ia supernovae. (a), upper panel, shows

  17. Characterization and device performance of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanket, Gregory; Boyle, Jonathan H.; Shafarman, William N.

    2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers is of interest in that Ag-chalcopyrites exhibit both wider bandgaps and lower melting points than their Cu counterparts. (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers were deposited over the composition range 0 < Ag/(Ag+Cu) < 1 and 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) < 1.0 using a variety of elemental co-evaporation processes. Films were found to be singlephase over the entire composition range, in contrast to prior studies. Devices with Ga content 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) <0.5 tolerated Ag incorporation up to Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.5 without appreciable performance loss. Ag-containing films with Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 showed improved device characteristics over Cu-only control samples, in particular a 30-40% increase in short-circuit current. An absorber layer with composition Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.75 and Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 yielded a device with VOC = 890 mV, JSC = 20.5mA/cm2, fill factor = 71.3%, and ? = 13.0%.

  18. [Purification of Cu-67 and Macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy]. DOE annual report, 1993--94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    {sup 67}Cu produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) is purified from zinc target material and coproduced radioisotopes of cobalt, chromium, nickel, and gallium by a multi-step extraction process. This procedure introduces applicable amounts of cold copper into the sample, lowering the specific activity of the {sup 67}Cu. Because of this, the {sup 67}Cu produced at BLIP is not of high enough activity for use in radioimmunotherapy procedures. It is their goal to develop a procedure with which to purify {sup 67}Cu from the other radioisotopes produced, while at the same time minimize the amount of cold copper introduced into the system. There are two different approaches that they devised for the purification of {sup 67}Cu. They are an extraction method similar to what is used at Brookhaven already, and a copper affinity column. Bifunctional macrocyclic chelates have been developed to conjugate metals to antibodies, and metal chelated antibodies have been shown to have slower clearance from the tumor than iodinated antibodies. This provides a mechanism for increasing tumor radiation dose and the therapeutic index. Conditions for {sup 67}Cu radiolabeling of TETA immunoconjugates have been optimized, leading to rapid, quantitative complexation of metal binding sites, further contributing to high radioactive yield and to the routine production of {sup 67}Cu radiolabed immunoconjugates of therapeutic quality.

  19. Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup ®} copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the C–N bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

  20. Effect of prior cold work on age hardening of Cu-3Ti-1Cr alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markandeya, R. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 072 (India); Nagarjuna, S. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad-500 058 (India)]. E-mail: snagarjuna1@rediffmail.com; Sarma, D.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (India)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of 50%, 75% and 90% cold work on the age hardening behavior of Cu-3Ti-1Cr alloy has been investigated by hardness and tensile tests, and light optical and transmission electron microscopy. Hardness increased from 118 Hv in the solution-treated condition to 373 Hv after 90% cold work and peak aging. Cold deformation reduced the peak aging time and temperature of the alloy. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength reached a maximum of 1090 and 1110 MPa, respectively, following 90% deformation and peak aging. The microstructure of the deformed alloy exhibited elongated grains and deformation twins. The maximum strength on peak aging was obtained due to precipitation of the ordered, metastable and coherent {beta}'-Cu{sub 4}Ti phase, in addition to high dislocation density and deformation twins. Over-aging resulted in decreases in hardness and strength due to the formation of incoherent and equilibrium {beta}-Cu{sub 3}Ti phase in the form of a cellular structure. However, the morphology of the discontinuous precipitation changed to a globular form on high deformation. The mechanical properties of Cu-3Ti-1Cr alloy are superior to those of Cu-2.7Ti, Cu-3Ti-1Cd and the commercial Cu-0.5Be-2.5Co alloys in the cold-worked and peak-aged condition.

  1. Uniform Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin, E-mail: xiejm391@sohu.com; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail.

  2. Wolter type i LAMAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catura, R.C.; Joki, E.G.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observational objectives for the LAMAR and their influence on the instrument design are discussed. It is concluded that the most important design parameter is the angular resolution of the LAMAR modules since it so strongly influences sensitivity, optical identifications, source confusion, spectral resolution for objective gratings and the ability to resolve small extended sources. A high resolution Wolter Type I LAMAR module is described, its hardware status discussed, and the performance of a LAMAR observatory presented. A promising technique for enhancing the reflectivity of Wolter Type I X-ray optics in a selected bandpass at high energy has been investigated and the performance of the LAMAR module, utilizing this method, has been calculated.

  3. Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de donnes (Abstract Data Type)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, Sylvie

    Rappels: 4) Piles #12;Types abstraits de données (Abstract Data Type) IFT2015, A2009, Sylvie Hamel Université de Montréal 1Piles Type de données Un ensemble de valeurs Un ensemble d'opérations Structure de Université de Montréal 2Piles #12;Type abstrait de données PILE (§4.2) Garde en mémoire des objets

  4. Superconducting, metallic, and insulating phases in a model of CuO sub 2 layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, J.; Sachdev, S. (Center for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 6666, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (USA))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a three-band model of the CuO{sub 2} layers in cuprate superconductors in a systematic large-{ital N} expansion obtained by generalizing the SU(2) spins of the model to symplectic Sp({ital N}) symmetry. We find superconducting and metallic ground states connected by a zero-temperature, superconductor-metal transition (SMT) at finite doping. Qualitative features of the temperature-doping phase diagram are consistent with experiments. The critical properties of the SMT are shown to be described by a continuum model of spin-1/2, charge-{ital e} fermions, and a charge-({minus}{ital e}) scalar. A renormalization-group analysis of this model finds either a second-order SMT or runaway renormalization-group flows, usually interpreted as a fluctuation-induced first-order transition. The flux quantum of this model remains at {ital hc}/2{ital e}, although {ital hc}/{ital e} vortices should become stable near the SMT unless the SMT is strongly first order.

  5. Local structure of Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 2?x}TiO{sub 4} inverse spinel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Fuertes, J., E-mail: ruiz-fuertes@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de; Bernert, T.; He, M.; Winkler, B. [Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vinograd, V. L. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Milman, V. [Dassault Systčmes BIOVIA, 334 Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WN (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural and vibrational changes due to the incorporation of Cu in the Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 2?x}TiO{sub 4} inverse spinel solid solution have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations. Both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the structure remains cubic while the unit-cell volume decreases on Cu{sup 2+} incorporation. The compositional dependencies of the Raman frequencies and linewidths indicate the incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} into tetrahedral sites. The A{sub 1g} tetrahedral mode frequency becomes independent on composition for x?>?0.6. This is attributed to the limited incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites at Cu-rich compositions. Ab initio calculations with quasi-random structures reveal only a slight energetic preference of Cu{sup 2+} for octahedral over tetrahedral sites.

  6. Phase relationships in the BaO-Y?O?-Cu-O system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hegg, Turi

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Os ? CuO showing the solid solution region for "the other perovskite" after Roth et al. 107 59. I'he BaO ? YsOs ? Cu ? 0 base plane of the polyhedra The quaternary BaO ? YsOs ? Cu ? 0 system with the suggested primary phase fields . 61. Pseudo... become insulating svhen z::. 7. 1, this means that the 213 compound goes from an insulating to a semiconducting to a superconducting to an insulating state as oxygen is added. The 213 compound has an oxygen-deficient perovskite structure . Its unit...

  7. Investigations of CuInSe sub 2 thin films and contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolet, M.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CuInSe{sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Phosphorescence quenching by mechanical stimulus in CaZnOS:Cu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, Dong; Kamimura, Sunao [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xu, Chao-Nan, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fujio, Yuki; Sakata, Yoshitaro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Ueno, Naohiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have found that phosphorescence intensity of CaZnOS:Cu decreased visibly under an applied load. This mechanical quenching (MQ) of phosphorescence in CaZnOS:Cu corresponded to the mechanical stimuli. We have thus demonstrated that the MQ of CaZnOS:Cu could be used for visualizing stress distributions in practical applications. We propose that MQ arises from non-radiative recombination due to electron-transfer from trap levels to non-radiative centers as a result of the mechanical load.

  9. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin Tengteng [Key Laboratory of Transparent Opto-Functional Inorganic Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Rd. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu Wei [Institute of Science and Engineering of Materials, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Chen Shuang; Prots, Yurii; Schnelle, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Zhao Jingtai [Key Laboratory of Transparent Opto-Functional Inorganic Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Rd. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China); Kniep, Ruediger [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hoffmann, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.hoffmann@cpfs.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data show that the title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c (No. 14), with lattice parameters a=8.392(2) A, b=6.3960(10) A, c=16.670(2) A, {beta}=109.470(10) Degree-Sign , V=843.6(3) A{sup 3}, Z=4. The crystal structure is characterized by a complex chain of copper-centered polyhedra running along [0 1 0] which are connected by phosphate tetrahedra. The resulting three-dimensional polyhedra framework exhibits channels filled by additional copper and sodium atoms. Field and temperature dependent measurements of the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility reveal low-dimensional magnetic behavior. The compound starts to decompose at 700 K under release of oxygen and evaporation of Cu{sup I}Cl as shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of the new copper(II) phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], exhibits linear chains of copper tetrahedra which show low-dimensional magnetic behavior proven by specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure comprises chains of Cu{sub 4}O tetrahedra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dimensional behavior has been proven by magnetic and specific heat measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On heating, Cu{sup I}Cl and oxygen are released shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry.

  10. Postdoc Appointment Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office Press ReleasesPost-Closure BenefitsAppointment Types

  11. Electronic properties and morphology of Cu-phthalocyanine—C{sub 60} composite mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, Friedrich [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lupulescu, Cosmin [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Arion, Tiberiu [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestraße 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Phthalocyanines in combination with C{sub 60} are benchmark materials for organic solar cells. Here, we have studied the morphology and electronic properties of co-deposited mixtures (blends) of these materials forming a bulk heterojunction as a function of the concentration of the two constituents. For a concentration of 1:1 of Cu-Phthalocyanine (CuPc):C{sub 60}, a phase separation into about 100?nm size domains is observed, which results in electronic properties similar to layered systems. For low C{sub 60} concentrations (10:1 CuPc:C{sub 60}), the morphology, as indicated by Low-Energy Electron Microscopy images, suggests a growth mode characterized by (amorphous) domains of CuPC, whereby the domain boundaries are decorated with C{sub 60}. Despite of these markedly different growth modes, the electronic properties of the heterojunction films are essentially unchanged.

  12. Effects of mechanical properties on the reliability of Cu/low-k metallization systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Frank L. (Frank Lili), 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu and low-dielectric-constant (k) metallization schemes are critical for improved performance of integrated circuits. However, low elastic moduli, a characteristic of the low-k materials, lead to significant reliability ...

  13. GaN/Cu[subscript 2]O Heterojunctions for Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hering, K.P.

    Several growth methods were employed to investigate the photovoltaic behavior of GaN/Cu[subscript 2]O heterojunctions by depositing cuprous oxide thin films on top of gallium nitride templates. The templates consist of a ...

  14. DISSERTATION Role of the Cu-O Defect in CdTe Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION Role of the Cu-O Defect in CdTe Solar Cells Submitted by Caroline R. Corwine Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Summer 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION ROLE

  15. The adsorption of water on Cu2O and Al2O3 thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xingyi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    since in equilibrium adsorption and desorption rates are theexp(-E a /RT), while the gas adsorption rate depends on theThe adsorption of water on Cu 2 O and Al 2 O 3 thin films

  16. Evaluation of Quasicrystal Al-Cu-Fe Alloys for Tribological Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabelsi, Nezar

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigated the tribological performance of a composite material, formed from an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) matrix and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders. An evaluation was conducted for the microstructure...

  17. Simulations of Collision Cascades in Cu–Nb Layered Composites Using an EAM Interatomic Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demkowicz, Michael J.

    The embedded atom method (EAM) is used to construct an interatomic potential for modelling interfaces in Cu–Nb nanocomposites. Implementation of the Ziegler–Biersack–Littmark (ZBL) model for short-range interatomic ...

  18. Theoretical investigation of the magnetic structure in YBa_2Cu_3O_6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    As experimentally well established, YBa_2Cu_3O_6 is an antiferromagnet with the magnetic moments lying on the Cu sites. Starting from this experimental result and the assumption, that nearest-neighbor Cu atoms within a layer have exactly antiparallel magnetic moments, the orientation of the magnetic moments has been determined within a nonadiabatic extension of the Heisenberg model of magnetism, called nonadiabatic Heisenberg model. Within this group-theoretical model there exist four stable magnetic structures in YBa_2Cu_3O_6, two of them are obviously identical with the high- and low-temperature structure established experimentally. However, not all the magnetic moments which appear to be antiparallel in neutron-scattering experiments are exactly antiparallel within this group-theoretical model. Furthermore, within this model the magnetic moments are not exactly perpendicular to the orthorhombic c axis.

  19. Characterization of Zr-Fe-Cu Alloys for an Inert Matrix Fuel for Nuclear Energy Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnhart, Brian A.

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    distinct phase morphologies. The top half of the sample was Zr rich and contained Zr precipitates dispersed in a matrix of intermetallic compounds while the bottom half consisted solely of intermetallic compounds. The third alloy, Zr-12Fe-15Cu...

  20. Preparation, magnetic and optical properties of layered oxychalcogenides SmCuOCh (Ch = S or Se)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llanos, Jaime [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avda. Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)]. E-mail: jllanos@ucn.cl; Cortes, Rodrigo [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avda. Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Guizouarn, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, UMR 6511-CNRS, Universite de Rennes 1-Institut de Chimie de Rennes, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pena, Octavio [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, UMR 6511-CNRS, Universite de Rennes 1-Institut de Chimie de Rennes, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the synthesis and the electrical, magnetic and optical properties of SmCuOS and SmCuOSe. The magnetic properties reveal that Sm is in its 3+ oxidation state ({mu} {sup theo} = g{radical}J(J + 1) = 0.85 {mu}{sub B}; g = 2/7) with a large Van Vleck contribution, and exclude the possibility of a divalent oxidation state for samarium (Sm{sup 2+}; {sup 7}F{sub 0} state, g = J = 0, {mu} {sub eff} = 0). Optical properties were studied by means of diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectra in the UV-vis range. The electrical measurements show that the two samarium copper oxychalcogenides, SmCuOSe and SmCuOS are semiconductors with optical band gap (E {sub g}) values of 2.60 and 2.90 eV, respectively.

  1. Shape memory and superelasticity in polycrystalline Cu-Al-Ni microwires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ying

    We report a strategy to significantly improve the ductility and achieve large superelastic and shape memory strains in polycrystalline Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys that are normally brittle. We use a liquid-phase (Taylor) ...

  2. Evaluation of Quasicrystal Al-Cu-Fe Alloys for Tribological Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabelsi, Nezar

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigated the tribological performance of a composite material, formed from an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) matrix and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders. An evaluation was conducted for the microstructure...

  3. Age hardening and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy modified by praseodymium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Zhihao; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yingying; Jiang, Qichuan, E-mail: jqc@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of praseodymium on age hardening behavior and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy were investigated. The results indicated that praseodymium facilitated the formation of the ?? precipitates during the age process and improved the hardness of the Al–Cu alloy. Besides, praseodymium resulted in the formation of the Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase in the grain boundaries and among the dendrites of the modified alloy. Because of the good thermal stability of Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase, it inhibits grain boundary migration and dislocation movement during the creep process, which contributes to the improvement in the creep resistance of the modified alloy at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: • Pr addition enhances the hardness and creep resistance of the Al–Cu alloy. • Pr addition facilitates the formation of the ?? precipitates. • Pr addition results in the formation of the Al11Pr3 phase in the Al–Cu alloy.

  4. Structure, Magnetism, and Transport of CuCr2Se4 Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure, Magnetism, and Transport of CuCr 2 Se 4 Thindichroism shows that the magnetism persists to the surfacesuch as the nature of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces.

  5. Morphological stability of Cu-Nb nanocomposites under high-energy collision cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liang

    We use molecular dynamics and phase field simulations to demonstrate that Cu-Nb multilayered nanocomposites with individual layer thicknesses above 2–4?nm remain morphologically stable when subjected to 100?keV collision ...

  6. Rapid synthesis and size control of CuInS2 semi-conductor nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

  7. Rapid Synthesis and Size Control of CuInS2 Semi-Conductor Nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

  8. Sources and distribution of CuO-derived benzene carboxylic acids in soils and sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    Sources and distribution of CuO-derived benzene carboxylic acids in soils and sediments Angela F vas- cular plant-derived OC, through the environment. The method produces a suite of benzene

  9. Electronic structure and conductivity of nanocomposite metal (Au,Ag,Cu,Mo)-containing amorphous carbon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endrino, Jose L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dual-cathode arc deposition (PDC-FCVA) source containingand metal cathodes [2]. The PDC-FCVA system in combinationCu,Mo) incorporation in a-C by PDC-FCVA. The modification of

  10. Effects of Hydrothermal Aging on NH3-SCR reaction over Cu/zeolites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperatures, while that of Cu-SSZ-13 was not affected. When the zeolite framework aluminum species were probed using solid state 27Al-NMR, significant reduction in the...

  11. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj, E-mail: ruangdt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Yotkaew, Thanyaporn, E-mail: thanyy@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Krataitong, Rungtip, E-mail: rungtipk@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wila, Pongsak, E-mail: pongsakw@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Sir-on, Autcharaporn, E-mail: autchars@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa, E-mail: pennapm@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Tosangthum, Nattaya, E-mail: nattayt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ?-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (?-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid ? ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ?-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  12. In situ atomic force microscope study of high-temperature untwinning surface relief in Mn-Fe-Cu antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.; Cui, Y. G.; Wan, J. F.; Rong, Y. H.; Zhang, J. H.; Jin, X.; Cai, M. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The N-type untwinning surface relief associated with the fcc {r_reversible} fct martensitic transformation (MT) was observed in the Mn{sub 81.5}Fe{sub 14.0}Cu{sub 4.5} antiferromagnetic high-temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) by in situ atomic force microscopy. The measured untwinning relief angles ({theta}{sub {alpha}} Double-Vertical-Line {theta}{sub {beta}}) at the ridge and at the valley were different, and both angles were less than the conventional values. The surface relief exhibited good reversibility during heating and cooling because of the crystallographic reversibility of thermal-elastic SMAs. Untwinning shear was proposed as the main mechanism of the N-type surface relief. The order of the reverse MT was discussed based on the experimental measurements.

  13. Thin-film polycrystalline n-ZnO/p-CuO heterojunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisitski, O. L.; Kumekov, M. E.; Kumekov, S. E. [Satpaev Kazakh National Technical University (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: skumekov@mail.ru; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of X-ray diffraction and spectral-optical studies of n-ZnO and p-CuO films deposited by gas-discharge sputtering with subsequent annealing are presented. It is shown that, despite the difference in the crystal systems, the polycrystallinity of n-ZnO and p-CuO films enables fabrication of a heterojunction from this pair of materials.

  14. A comparison of visual cuing methods in large displays during performance of a secondary task

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, John Edgar

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CO?PARISON OF VISUAL CUING KETHODS IN IARGE DISPLAYS DURING PERFORNANCE OF A SECONDARY TASK A Thesis by JOHN EDGAR RANKIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of WiASTER OF SCIENCE December 1971 Major Subjects Industrial Engineering A COMPARISON OF VISUAL CUING METHODS IN LARGE DISPLAYS DURING PERFORMANCE OF A SECONDARY TASK A Thesis by JOHN EDGAR RANKIN Approved as to style and content by& Chairman...

  15. Magnetic order tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1–zCuzTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Lumsden, M. D.; Valdivia, P. N.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Gu, Genda; Lee, Dung-Hai; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe?.?Te, the nonsuperconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe??yTe??xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at ~60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.5–?, 0, 0.5) with ? being the incommensurability of 0.02, and correlation length of 12 Ĺ along the a axis and 9 Ĺ along the c axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first-order transition to a long-range almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has a large effect on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.

  16. Cyclotron production of {sup 61}Cu using natural Zn and enriched {sup 64}Zn targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asad, A. H.; Smith, S. V.; Chan, S.; Jeffery, C. M.; Morandeau, L.; Price, R. I. [RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia, Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Australia, and Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Can (Australia); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States) and Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, and Chemistry, University of Western Australia, Pe (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia and Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper-61 ({sup 61}Cu) shares with {sup 64}Cu certain advantages for PET diagnostic imaging, but has a shorter half-life (3.4hr vs. 12.7hr) and a greater probability of positron production per disintegration (61% vs. 17.9%). One important application is for in vivo imaging of hypoxic tissue. In this study {sup 61}Cu was produced using the {sup 64}Zn(p,{alpha}){sup 61}Cu reaction on natural Zn or enriched {sup 64}Zn targets. The enriched {sup 64}Zn (99.82%) was electroplated onto high purity gold or silver foils or onto thin Al discs. A typical target bombardment used 30{mu}A; at 11.7, 14.5 or 17.6MeV over 30-60min. The {sup 61}Cu (radiochemical purity of >95%) was separated using a combination of cation and anion exchange columns. The {sup 64}Zn target material was recovered after each run, for re-use. In a direct comparison with enriched {sup 64}Zn-target results, {sup 61}Cu production using the cheaper {sup nat}Zn target proved to be an effective alternative.

  17. The Different Impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Cho, Sung June; Peden, Charles HF

    2010-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The different impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts were investigated by SCR performance tests and multiple characterization techniques including temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results indicate that a larger amount of highly dispersed CuSO4 formed in the zeolite catalysts (Z-CuSO4) upon SO3 poisoning, explaining the much more significant deactivation of the Cu/zeolite catalysts that were exposed to SO3 compared to poisoning by SO2. This paper provides the first demonstration that active sites of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts involved in the storage and removal of sulfur can react with SO2 and SO3 in very different ways. In particular, the significant differences in the extent of sulfur uptake account for the considerably different impacts of SO2 and SO3 poisoning on the performance of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts.

  18. The Different Impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/zeolite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Y.; Lambert, C; Kim, D; Kwak, J; Cho, S; Peden, C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The different impacts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} on Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts were investigated by SCR performance tests and multiple characterization techniques including temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results indicate that a larger amount of highly dispersed CuSO{sub 4} formed in the zeolite catalysts (Z-CuSO{sub 4}) upon SO{sub 3} poisoning, explaining the much more significant deactivation of the Cu/zeolite catalysts that were exposed to SO{sub 3} compared to poisoning by SO{sub 2}. This paper provides the first demonstration that active sites of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts involved in the storage and removal of sulfur can react with SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} in very different ways. In particular, the significant differences in the extent of sulfur uptake account for the considerably different impacts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} poisoning on the performance of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts.

  19. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2} compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, N. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, R. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Bai, S. [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shi, X., E-mail: xshi@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chen, L. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    CuIn{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te{sub 2} materials (x?=?0, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1) are prepared using melting-annealing method and the highly densified bulk samples are obtained through Spark Plasma Sintering. The X-ray diffraction data confirm that nearly pure chalcopyrite structures are obtained in all the samples. Due to the substitution of Cd at In sites, the carrier concentration is greatly increased, leading to much enhanced electrical conductivity and power factor. The single parabolic band model is used to describe the electrical transport properties of CuInTe{sub 2} and the low temperature Hall mobility is also modeled. By combing theoretical model and experiment data, the optimum carrier concentration in CuInTe{sub 2} is proposed to explain the greatly enhanced power factors in the Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2}. In addition, the thermal conductivity is reduced by extra phonon scattering due to the atomic mass and radius fluctuations between Cd and In atoms. The maximum zTs are observed in CuIn{sub 0.98}Cd{sub 0.02}Te{sub 2} and CuIn{sub 0.9}Cd{sub 0.1}Te{sub 2} samples, which are improved by over 100% at room temperature and around 20% at 600?K.

  20. Magnetic order tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1–zCuzTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Lumsden, M. D.; Valdivia, P. N.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Gu, Genda; Lee, Dung-Hai; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe?.?Te, the nonsuperconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe??yTe??xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at ~60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.5–?, 0, 0.5) with ? being the incommensurability of 0.02, and correlation length of 12 Ĺ along the a axis and 9 Ĺ along the cmore »axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first-order transition to a long-range almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has a large effect on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.« less

  1. Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de donnes (Abstract Data Type)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, Sylvie

    Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de données (Abstract Data Type) IFT2015, A2009, Sylvie Hamel Université de Montréal 1Piles Type de données Un ensemble de valeurs Un ensemble d'opérations Structure de Université de Montréal 2Piles Type abstrait de données PILE (§4.2) Garde en mémoire des objets arbitraires

  2. Novel Approaches to Wide Bandgap CuInSe2 Based Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William N. Shafarman

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project targeted the development of high performance wide bandgap solar cells based on thin film alloys of CuInSe2 to relax constraints on module design and enable tandem solar cell structures. This addressed goals of the Solar Energy Technologies Program for Next Generation PV to develop technology needed for higher thin film module efficiency as a means to reduce costs. Specific objectives of the research project were: 1) to develop the processes and materials required to improve the performance of wide bandgap thin film solar cells based on alloys of CuInSe2, and 2) to provide the fundamental science and engineering basis for the material, electronic, and device properties required to effectively apply these processes and materials to commercial manufacture. CuInSe2-based photovoltaics have established the highest efficiencies of the thin film materials at both the cell and module scales and are actively being scaled up to commercialization. In the highest efficiency cells and modules, the optical bandgap, a function of the CuInSe2-based alloy composition, is relatively low compared to the optimum match to the solar spectrum. Wider bandgap alloys of CuInSe2 produce higher cell voltages which can improve module performance and enable the development of tandem solar cells to boost the overall efficiency. A focus for the project was alloying with silver to form (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 pentenary thin films deposited by elemental co-evaporation which gives the broadest range of control of composition and material properties. This alloy has a lower melting temperature than Ag-free, Cu-based chalcopyrite compounds, which may enable films to be formed with lower defect densities and the (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 films give improved material properties and better device performance with increasing bandgap. A comprehensive characterization of optical, structural, and electronic properties of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 was completed over the complete compositional range 0 ? Ga/(In+Ga) ? 1 and 0 ? Ag/(Ag+Cu) ? 1. Evidence of improved material quality includes reduced sub-bandgap optical absorption, sharper bandtails, and increased grain size with Ag addition. The Ag alloying was shown to increase the range of bandgaps over which solar cells can be fabricated without any drop-off in performance. With bandgap greater than 1.6 eV, in the range needed for tandem solar cells, (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 gave higher efficiency than other CuInSe2-based alloys. Using a simple single-stage co-evaporation process, a solar cell with 17.6% efficiency using a film with bandgap = 1.3 eV was achieved, demonstrating the viability of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 for high efficiency devices. With a three-stage co-evaporation process for (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 deposition a device with efficiency = 13.0 % and VOC = 890 mV with JSC = 20.5 mA/cm2, FF = 71.3% was achieved. This surpasses the performance of other wide bandgap CuInSe2-based solar cells. Detailed characterization of the electronic properties of the materials and devices including the application of advanced admittance-based easements was completed.

  3. Increasing the Jc of Tube-Type Nb3Sn Strands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Xuan Peng

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Phase I, we successfully made strands with better Cu/Sn ratio to reduce the coarse Nb3Sn grain region, thereby providing the potential of increasing the non-Cu Jc in the Phase II and scaling up to 2�¢��� billets with 331 subelements. In order to improve the strand�¢����s high field properties, we successfully doped low amount of Ti in the subelements and made a 217-subelement wire which has been drawn down to 0.7 mm without any breakage. This strand gave subelement size of 35 ���µm. We will scale up the Ti-doped billet to 271-subelement in 1.5�¢��� billet in this proposed Phase II. The hexagonal shaped subelements with round Nb-Sn have been developed for a 61-subelement restack. Thus the results indicated that for 217-subelement restack in a 2�¢��� billet we have the potential to draw down this type of construction without problems while maintaining a good array to react more Nb to get higher non-Cu Jc in the Phase II.

  4. Chip-Level Electromigration Reliability for Cu Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gall, M.; Oh, C.; Grinshpon, A.; Zolotov, V.; Panda, R.; Demircan, E.; Mueller, J.; Justison, P.; Ramakrishna, K.; Thrasher, S.; Hernandez, R.; Herrick, M.; Fox, R.; Boeck, B.; Kawasaki, H. [Technology Solutions Organization, Freescale Semiconductor (United States); Haznedar, H.; Ku, P. [Sector Quality, Freescale Semiconductor (United States)

    2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Even after the successful introduction of Cu-based metallization, the electromigration (EM) failure risk has remained one of the most important reliability concerns for most advanced process technologies. Ever increasing operating current densities and the introduction of low-k materials in the backend process scheme are some of the issues that threaten reliable, long-term operation at elevated temperatures. The traditional method of verifying EM reliability only through current density limit checks is proving to be inadequate in general, or quite expensive at the best. A Statistical EM Budgeting (SEB) methodology has been proposed to assess more realistic chip-level EM reliability from the complex statistical distribution of currents in a chip. To be valuable, this approach requires accurate estimation of currents for all interconnect segments in a chip. However, no efficient technique to manage the complexity of such a task for very large chip designs is known. We present an efficient method to estimate currents exhaustively for all interconnects in a chip. The proposed method uses pre-characterization of cells and macros, and steps to identify and filter out symmetrically bi-directional interconnects. We illustrate the strength of the proposed approach using a high-performance microprocessor design for embedded applications as a case study.

  5. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

  6. Mechanism design with approximate types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zeyuan Allen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In mechanism design, we replace the strong assumption that each player knows his own payoff type exactly with the more realistic assumption that he knows it only approximately: each player i only knows that his true type ...

  7. Types of Farming in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .......... .......-.----------------------. 8 Labor -..-.....-----...------------------------------------------------. 9 Land Tenure .--.----....---....--------------------------------- 9 Number and Size of Farms ....----...----.-._--------- 10 Capital... -------------...-------.---------------------------- 21 Hogs -......-....--------------------------------------------------- 22 Poultry .-.---.-.....--.-..------.---------------------------------- 22 Horses and Mules ---..-....---..--..------------------------ 23 Types of Farming and Type-of-farming...

  8. Cu-based shape memory microwires : towards complex structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gager, Mac (Brian McClure, Jr.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shape memory alloys are a distinctive type of material that exhibits the fascinating properties of the shape memory effect and superelasticity. Shape memory properties are characterized by the diffusionless phase transformation ...

  9. Short Circuit Current Contribution for Different Wind Turbine Generator Types: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Samaan, N.; Li, J.; Pasupulati, S.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents simulation results for short-circuit current contribution for different types of WTGs obtained through transient analysis using generic WTG models.

  10. Pressure dependence of the superconducting critical temperature of Tl 2Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 y and Tl 2Ba 2Ca 3Cu 4O12 y up to 21 GPa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    Pressure dependence of the superconducting critical temperature of Tl 2Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 y and Tl 2 of the superconducting transition temperature Tc of Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 y Tl-2223 and Tl2Ba2Ca3Cu4O12 y Tl-2234 has been it is determined by that of the inner CuO2 layers. S0163-1829 96 07134-2 I. INTRODUCTION Superconductivity in high

  11. arXiv:0904.0439v1[nucl-ex]2Apr2009 J/ production at high transverse momenta in p+p and Cu+Cu collisions at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    +Cu collisions at sNN = 200 GeV B. I. Abelev,8 M. M. Aggarwal,30 Z. Ahammed,47 B. D. Anderson,18 D. Arkhipkin,12

  12. Measurement of electrons from heavy-flavor decays from $p$+$p$, $d$+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions in the PHENIX experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanghoon Lim

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Charm and bottom quarks are formed predominantly by gluon fusion in the initial hard scatterings at RHIC, making them good probes of the full medium evolution. Previous measurements at RHIC have shown large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of open heavy-flavor hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200~{\\rm GeV}$. Explaining the simultaneously large suppression and flow of heavy quarks has been challenging. To further understand the heavy-flavor transport in the hot and dense medium, it is imperative to also measure cold nuclear matter effects which affect the initial distribution of heavy quarks as well as the system size dependence of the final state suppression. In this talk, new measurements by the PHENIX collaboration of electrons from heavy-flavor decays in $p$+$p$, $d$+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200~{\\rm GeV}$ are presented. In particular, a surprising enhancement of intermediate transverse momentum heavy-flavor decay leptons in $d$+Au at mid and backward rapidity are also seen in mid-central Cu+Cu collisions. This enhancement is much larger than the expectation from anti-shadowing of the parton distributions and is theoretically unexplained.

  13. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting (Ames, IA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  14. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL OPERATION Submitted by Alexei Impact of Secondary Barriers on CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar-Cell Operation Thin-film solar cells based on CuInSe2 layers in p-n junctions of CIGS solar cells often improve photodiode properties of the devices. Several

  15. Half-lives and branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosmer, P.; Estrade, A.; Montes, F.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Schatz, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Aprahamian, A. [Department of Physics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Arndt, O.; Pfeiffer, B. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); HGF Virtuelles Institut fuer Kernstruktur und Nukleare Astrophysik (Germany); Clement, R. R. C.; Mueller, W. F.; Morton, A. C.; Pereira, J.; Santi, P.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Farouqi, K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kratz, K.-L. [HGF Virtuelles Institut fuer Kernstruktur und Nukleare Astrophysik (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), J.-J.-Becherweg 27, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Liddick, S. N.; Mantica, P. F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The {beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission (P{sub n} values) for {sup 74}Co (18{+-}15%) and {sup 75-77}Ni (10{+-}2.8%, 14{+-}3.6%, and 30{+-}24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the P{sub n} values of {sup 77-79}Cu, {sup 79,81}Zn, and {sup 82}Ga. For {sup 77-79}Cu and for {sup 81}Zn we obtain significantly larger P{sub n} values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of {sup 75}Co (30{+-}11 ms) and {sup 80}Cu (170{sub -50}{sup +110} ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A=78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.

  16. A dependent nominal type theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nominal abstract syntax is an approach to representing names and binding pioneered by Gabbay and Pitts. So far nominal techniques have mostly been studied using classical logic or model theory, not type theory. Nominal extensions to simple, dependent and ML-like polymorphic languages have been studied, but decidability and normalization results have only been established for simple nominal type theories. We present a LF-style dependent type theory extended with name-abstraction types, prove soundness and decidability of beta-eta-equivalence checking, discuss adequacy and canonical forms via an example, and discuss extensions such as dependently-typed recursion and induction principles.

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the surface reactivity of the high T[c] material YBa?Cu?O?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hong-Xia

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extensive in the area of the high T, Y-Ba-Cu-0 system. 1. 1. Properties of the high T, Y-Ba-Cu-0 system The high T, Y-Ba-Cu-0 system is the single phase compound YBagCu309 8 with 5=2 (Cava et al 1987). It is an orthorhombically distorted perovskite.... The elimination of Cus+ satellite indicated the conversion to Cur+ or Cuo on the surface. As mentioned before, the sample is an orthorhombically distorted perovskite. The crystal structure facilitates reactive decomposition at high temperature (Gallagher et al...

  18. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

  19. Z .Applied Surface Science 142 1999 1822 z /Electronic properties of a pseudomorphic Cu-layer on Ni 111

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkenheuer, Uwe

    ARUPS measurements were recorded using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation from the TGM-1 monochromator at the German syn- chrotron facility BESSY in Berlin. Pseudomorphic Cu monolayers were produced

  20. Role of spin mixing conductance in spin pumping: Enhancement of spin pumping efficiency in Ta/Cu/Py structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deorani, Praveen; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    From spin pumping measurements in Ta/Py devices for different thicknesses of Ta, we determine the spin Hall angle to be 0.021–0.033 and spin diffusion length to be 8?nm in Ta. We have also studied the effect of changing the properties of non-magnet/ferromagnet interface by adding a Cu interlayer. The experimental results show that the effective spin mixing conductance increases in the presence of Cu interlayer for Ta/Cu/Py devices whereas it decreases in Pt/Cu/Py devices. Our findings allow the tunability of the spin pumping efficiency by adding a thin interlayer at the non-magnet/ferromagnet interface.

  1. Surface structures of Al-Pd-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Z.

    1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, the author reports on the surface structure of i-Al-Pd-Mn twofold, threefold, fivefold and i-Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surfaces. The LEED studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages in the regrowth of all four surfaces after Ar{sup +} sputtering. In the first stage, upon annealing at relatively low temperature: 500K--800K (depending on different surfaces), a cubic phase appears. The cubic LEED patterns transform irreversibly to unreconstructed quasicrystalline patterns upon annealing to higher temperatures, indicating that the cubic overlayers are metastable. Based upon the data for three chemically-identical, but symmetrically-inequivalent surfaces, a model is developed for the relation between the cubic overlayers and the quasicrystalline substrate. The model is based upon the related symmetries of cubic close-packed and icosahedral-packed materials. These results may be general among Al-rich, icosahedral materials. STM study of Al-Pd-Mn fivefold surface shows that terrace-step-kink structures start to form on the surface after annealing above 700K. Large, atomic ally-flat terraces were formed after annealing at 900K. Fine structures with fivefold icosahedral symmetry were found on those terraces. Data analysis and comparison of the STM images and structure model of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn suggest that the fine structures in the STM images may be the pseudo Mackay (PMI) clusters which are the structure units of the structure model. Based upon his results, he can conclude that quasicrystalline structures are the stable structures of quasicrystal surfaces. In other words, quasicrystalline structures extend from the bulk to the surface. As a result of the effort reported in this dissertation, he believes that he has increased his understanding of the surface structure of icosahedral quasicrystals to a new level.

  2. CuO nanoparticle filled vinyl-ester resin nanocomposites: Fabrication, characterization and property analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Angeles, CA 90095, USA Received 28 August 2006; received in revised form 4 November 2006; accepted 30 such as photovoltaic (solar) cells [11,12] and magnetic data storage. The func- tional groups of the polymer are normally steric interaction forces, van der Waals forces, or Lewis acid­base interactions. However, in situ

  3. Function Specific Analysis of the Thermal Durability of Cu-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Catalyst Characterization (Agreement ID:9130) Project ID:18519 Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology...

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Theoretical Analysis of AuCu Nanoparticles: Atomic Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    de Investigacio´n y Desarrollo de Ductos, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central La´zaro Ca´rdenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P.07730, Mexico D.F., Mexico 2 Instituto de Fi´sica, Universidad Auto´noma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570, Mexico 3 Instituto de Investigaciones

  5. Function Specific Analysis of the Thermal Durability of Cu-Zeolite SCR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies ProgramOutfitted withDepartment of Energy

  6. On the asymptotic homotopy type of inductive limit Type ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this note we exhibit large classes of (projeetionless) stable, nuclear C*- algebras whose asymptotic homotopy type is determined by K-theoretical data.

  7. Ab initio cluster studies of La sub 2 CuO sub 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we examine the properties of small cluster models of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. In Section 2, the Madelung/Pauli background potential used to imbed the primary cluster and the basis sets used to expand the cluster wavefunction are discussed. Section 3 presents the results of calculations on CuO{sub 6} in which the optical absorption and the photoemission spectrum are examined. The calculation on CuO{sub 6} and our earlier work on larger clusters suggest that a single-band Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model be developed. Therefore, in Section 4 the PPP model and extensions which relax the zero-differential-overlap (ZDO) approximation upon which it is based are reviewed. Calculations on the states of Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7} necessary to parameterize the PPP model are presented in Section 5 and compared with analogous calculations for Cu{sub 2}O{sub 11}. Section 6 discusses the problems associated with the direct ab initio determination of the anti-ferromagnetic exchange interaction, examines the magnitudes of the occupation-dependent hopping and direct exchange interactions which arise when the ZDO approximation is relaxed, and provides estimates of the uncertainties in the parameters due to electron correlation and polarization effects not recoverable with the present basis sets and finite clusters. A comparison of the parameters with those extracted from constrained LDF theory concludes Section 6. Finally, Section 7 summarizes the conclusions of this research.

  8. Trap and recombination centers study in sprayed Cu?ZnSnS? thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courel, Maykel, E-mail: maykelcourel@gmail.com; Vigil-Galán, O.; Jiménez-Olarte, D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), C.P. 07738, México DF (Mexico); Espíndola-Rodríguez, M. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), C.P. 07738, México DF (Mexico); Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adriŕ de Besňs, Barcelona (Spain); Saucedo, E. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adriŕ de Besňs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a study of trap and recombination center properties in polycrystalline Cu?ZnSnS? thin films is carried out in order to understand the poor performance in Cu?ZnSnS? thin film solar cells. Thermally stimulated current has been studied in Cu?ZnSnS? deposited by pneumatic spray pyrolysis method using various heating rates, in order to gain information about trap centers and/or deep levels present within the band-gap of this material. A set of temperature-dependent current curves revealed three levels with activation energy of 126±10, 476±25, and 1100±100 meV. The possible nature of the three levels found is presented, in which the first one is likely to be related to Cu{sub Zn} antisites, while second and third to Sn vacancies and Sn{sub Cu} antisites, respectively. The values of frequency factor, capture cross section, and trap concentration have been determined for each center.

  9. Scintillation characteristics of undoped and Cu+-doped Li2B4O7 single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Senguttuvan, Nachimuthu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scintillation characteristics of undoped and Cu+-doped lithium tetraborate Li2B4O7 (LTB) were studied including optical transmittance, photoluminescence, radioluminescence for X- and gamma-rays, alpha/gamma ratio, and decay kinetics. The total time-integrated LYs in undoped and Cu+-doped LTB for X-rays are ~600 and ~760 ph/MeV (photons/MeV), respectively. The decay kinetics in undoped and Cu+-doped LTB are similar to each other. Typical decay spectra for pulsed X-rays can be fitted with four exponentials: for fast (t1~0.8 ns, t2~25-50 ns), medium (t3~300-400 ns), and slow (t4~20-30 ms) components. The slow component occupies about 60% of the total LY, while the fast ones less than 10%. The 10-90% rise time was 163 ps. The alpha/gamma ratio was 0.18 for external 241Am alpha-rays. The obtained increase in LY due to Cu+ doping remains modest. The Cu+-induced emission contains both fast and slow components, requiring further studies of the emission mechanism to explain the fast component.

  10. Scintillation characteristics of undoped and Cu+-doped Li2B4O7 single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masaaki Kobayashi; Mitsuru Ishii; Nachimuthu Senguttuvan

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Scintillation characteristics of undoped and Cu+-doped lithium tetraborate Li2B4O7 (LTB) were studied including optical transmittance, photoluminescence, radioluminescence for X- and gamma-rays, alpha/gamma ratio, and decay kinetics. The total time-integrated LYs in undoped and Cu+-doped LTB for X-rays are ~600 and ~760 ph/MeV (photons/MeV), respectively. The decay kinetics in undoped and Cu+-doped LTB are similar to each other. Typical decay spectra for pulsed X-rays can be fitted with four exponentials: for fast (t1~0.8 ns, t2~25-50 ns), medium (t3~300-400 ns), and slow (t4~20-30 ms) components. The slow component occupies about 60% of the total LY, while the fast ones less than 10%. The 10-90% rise time was 163 ps. The alpha/gamma ratio was 0.18 for external 241Am alpha-rays. The obtained increase in LY due to Cu+ doping remains modest. The Cu+-induced emission contains both fast and slow components, requiring further studies of the emission mechanism to explain the fast component.

  11. Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu [Process Technology Div., Renesas Electronics Corporation, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Masanori [The Ritsumeikan Trust, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8520 (Japan)

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

  12. accident analysis structural: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides a theoretical foundation for the introduction of unique new types of accident analysis, hazard analysis, accident prevention strategies including new approaches to...

  13. XPS Analysis of Nanostructured Materials and Biological Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Nanostructured Materials and Biological Surfaces. XPS Analysis of Nanostructured Materials and Biological Surfaces. Abstract: This paper examines the types of...

  14. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and defect structure analysis of B-site mixed perovskite-type oxide (La, Sr)(Cr, M)O{sub 3-{delta}} (M=Ti, Mn and Fe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oishi, Masatsugu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: oishi@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Yashiro, Keiji; Sato, Kazuhisa; Mizusaki, Junichiro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawada, Tatsuya [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The defect chemical relationships in various B-site mixed LaCrO{sub 3}-based ceramics were investigated by means of high-temperature gravimetry. The nonstoichiometric deviation, {delta}, in (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3})(Cr{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y})O{sub 3-{delta}} (y=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) (LSCT){sub ,} (La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25})(Cr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5})O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM) and (La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25})(Cr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) were measured as a function of oxygen partial pressure, P{sub O{sub 2}}, at temperatures between 973 and 1373 K. The effects of partial replacement of the donor on Cr-sites were examined in LSCT. In LSCM and LSCF, effects of the partial substitution of isovalent transition metals on Cr-sites are discussed. Oxygen nonstoichiometries of various B-site mixed LaCrO{sub 3}-based ceramics were compared with those of A-site substituted perovskite-type oxides, (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})MO{sub 3-{delta}} (where x=0-0.3, M=Cr, Mn and Fe). The partial substitution of the different elements on Cr-sites drastically changed the P{sub O{sub 2}} and temperature dependence of oxygen vacancy formation in LaCrO{sub 3}-based ceramics. The defect equilibrium relationships of the localized electron well explained the oxygen vacancy formation in B-site mixed LaCrO{sub 3}-based ceramics. Oxygen vacancy formation in (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3})(Cr{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y})O{sub 3-{delta}} (y=0.1 and 0.2) and (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3})(Cr{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3})O{sub 3-{delta}} was explained by redox reaction of Cr and Ti ions, respectively. The defect equilibrium relationships of LSCM and LSCF were interpreted by redox reaction of Mn ions and Fe ions, respectively. No significant change in valence state of Cr{sup 3+} ions in LSCM and LSCF was confirmed under the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: Oxygen nonstoichiometry of (La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25})(Cr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3-{delta}} was plotted as the functions of partial oxygen pressure and temperature. The results were well explained by the localized electron on the Fe-sites and the equilibrium constants of the defect chemical equation were determined. A hysteresis was observed under the reducing atmospheres above 1173 K due to decomposition of Fe ions.

  15. Cu2ZnSnS x O4 x and Cu2ZnSnS x Se4 x : First principles simulations of optimal alloy configurations and their energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    .1063/1.4819206 The role of secondary phase precipitation on grain boundary electrical activity in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS in thin film solar cells, multicomponent copper chalcogenide based com- pounds, namely, Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS sulphide CZTS device has reported an efficiency of 8.4%,5 whereas the best pure selenide CZTSe device has

  16. Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse # 1 Lu 430/Lu 400 24 White box style 2 Lu No bulbs 0 N/A Seed harvest room F32 T8/TL 841 90 bulbs VIGS Room F032 /741/ECO 60 bulbs Chamber Model Bulb

  17. Cluster studies of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}: Local geometric distortions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.L.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The techniques of ab initio electronic structure theory are used to study Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Cu{sub 2}O{sub 11} cluster models of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. Fair agreement is obtained with the experimentally determined spin exchange constant J (90 meV calculated vs. 125 meV measured) at the expense of quite large CI expansions. Results for various charge states of the cluster are well described by a {open_quotes}single-band{close_quotes} PPP model. As in earlier LDF based parameter determinations, the present work suggests these materials fall in the strong coupling regime. However, a significant intersite Coulomb repulsion is found in the present research. It is of sufficient strength, V {approximately} U/5, to indicate that charge fluctuations may be more important in these materials than generally believed.

  18. Determination of Na submonolayer adsorption site on Cu(111) by low-energy ion blocking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, R.; Makarenko, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Bahrim, B. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States); Rabalais, J. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Physics, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of a submonolayer coverage of sodium adsorbed on a Cu(111) surface at room temperature has been investigated using time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry. The effect of the adsorbed Na atoms on the angular distribution of scattered 2 keV H{sup +} ions is analyzed by molecular dynamics and scattering and recoiling imaging code simulations. It is shown that at a coverage {theta}=0.25 monolayer, Na atoms preferentially populate the fcc threefold surface sites with a height of 2.7{+-}0.1 A above the first-layer Cu atoms. At a lower coverage of {theta}=0.10 ML, there is no adsorption site preference for the Na atoms on the Cu(111) surface.

  19. Electrical resistivity, optical and magnetic properties of the layered oxyselenide SmCuOSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llanos, Jaime [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casa Central Antofagasta Pab. Avda. Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)]. E-mail: jllanos@ucn.cl; Pena, Octavio [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, UMR 6511-CNRS, Universite Rennes 1-Institut de Chimie de Rennes, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical and magnetic properties of the tetragonal phase SmCuOSe are reported as a function of the temperature. The optical properties were studied by means of diffuse reflectance spectrum in the UV-Vis range. The electrical resistivity measurements as well as diffuse reflectance spectrum show that SmCuOSe is a semiconductor with an optical band gap (E{sub g}) of 2.6eV. In this phase, Cu is at its monovalent oxidation state and, as such, it does not contribute to the total magnetic moment, whereas Sm is in its 3+ oxidation state, with a large VanVleck contribution due to the admixture of the fundamental state with higher energy levels.

  20. INTERFACE DISORDER CONTROLLED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY YBa2Cu3O7 / SrTiO3 SUPERLATTICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Sefrioui, Z. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Arias, D [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Leon, C. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Santamaria, J. [Universidad Complutense, Spain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the coherent growth of ultrathin YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) layers on SrTiO3 (STO) in YBCO/STO superlattices. The termination plane of the STO is TiO2 and the CuO chains are missing at the interface. Disorder (steps) at the STO interface cause alterations of the stacking sequence of the intra-cell YBCO atomic layers. Stacking faults give rise to antiphase boundaries which break the continuity of the CuO2 planes and depress superconductivity. We show that superconductivity is directly controlled by interface disorder outlining the importance of pair breaking and localization by disorder in ultrathin layers.

  1. Stable n-CuInSe/sub 2/iodide-iodine photoelectrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahen, D.; Chen, Y.W.

    1984-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In a photoelectrochemical solar cell, stable output and solar efficiency in excess of 10% are achieved with a photoanode of n-CuInSe/sub 2/ electrode material and an iodine/iodide redox couple used in a liquid electrolyte. The photoanode is prepared by treating the electrode material by chemical etching, for example in Br/sub 2//MeOH; heating the etched electrode material in air or oxygen; depositing a surface film coating of indium on the electrode material after the initial heating; and thereafter again heating the electrode material in air or oxygen to oxidize the indium. The electrolyte is treated by the addition of Cu/sup +/ or Cu/sup 2 +/ salts and in In/sup 3 +/ salts.

  2. Dual-bath electrodeposition of Cu/Ni compositionally modulated multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Celis, J.P.; Roos, J.R. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven de Croylaan (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of Cu/Ni compositionally modulated multilayers with sublayer thickness in the nanometer range has been carried out. The deposition was conducted under galvanostatic conditions using dual-bath technique. The structure of the multilayers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cu/Ni multilayers with distinct and continuous sublayers in the range of 100 to < 5 nm can be produced by dual-bath electrodeposition. Cu and Ni sublayers grow epitaxially on top of one another. The local variation in the growth rate of copper leads to a faceted morphology of the multilayers. The extent of this faceting is reduced as the sublayer thickness is decreased. A surface reaction like oxidation during transfer of the substrate does not adversely affect the crystallographic continuity at the interfaces between sublayers. The thin-film formation is discussed based on available growth models.

  3. Strong Enhancement of Flux Pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-? Multilayers with Columnar Defects Comprised of Self-Assembled BaZrO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Sukill [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multilayer structures comprising YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films with columns of self-assembled BaZrO{sub 3} (BZO) nanodots with interlayers of CeO{sub 2} or pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} were grown on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTSs) using pulsed laser deposition. A significant enhancement of the critical current density (J{sub c}) was observed for the multilayers compared with a single layer of YBCO + BZO. J{sub c} varies as J{sub c}{approx}H{sup -{alpha}} with a of 0.27 for single layer of YBCO + BZO and 0.34 for both multilayered films. Enhancement of pinning in the multilayers is attributed to the presence of columnar defects comprised of self-assembled nanodots of BZO as well as planar CuO-type stacking defects arising as a result of interfacial reactions in the multilayers.

  4. REVUE DE PHYSIQUE APPLIQUE Caractrisations structurale et optique de bicouches Cd1-yZnyS/CuPc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    O2 : F/Cd1-yZnyS/CuPc/Au) exhibit a photovoltaic effect with a weak energy conversion efficiencyZnyS/CuPc heterojunction which could be used in photovoltaic conversion. Scanning electron microscopy and X ray studies

  5. DOI: 10.1002/ente.201200009 Examining the CuMnO Spinel System as an Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    of CO2 in the atmosphere. Among these, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the most attractive to CuO­Cu2O and Mn2O3­Mn3O4 as potential CLOU materials. [a] Prof. A.-M. Azad Department of Chemical

  6. Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 1. Water Transport in PPy/CuPTS Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Juhyoun

    Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 1. Water Transport in PPy/CuPTS Films Haesik Yang and Juhyoun Kwak* Department of Chemistry, Korea AdVember 18, 1996X Water transport in poly(pyrrole/copper phthalocyaninetetrasulfonate) (PPy/CuPTS) films

  7. Journal of Crystal Growth 294 (2006) 231235 In situ investigation on selenization kinetics of CuIn precursor using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Keywords: A1. X-ray diffraction; B1. Copper indium diselenide; B3. Solar cells 1. Introduction Chalcopyrite film solar cells. The commonly used techniques for CuInSe2 layer formation are co, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics for the formation of Cu(InxGa1Ŕx)Se2 (CIGS) and its sub- ternaries (i

  8. Hole transport and doping states in epitaxial CuIn1 xGaxSe2 David J. Schroeder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    interest in renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic devices. CuIn1 xGaxSe2 CIGS /CdS hetero- junction there is no evidence of any degradation of performance in these devices.1­5 In light of the current belief in the Cu

  9. Magnetic properties of HITPERM ,,Fe,Co...88Zr7B4Cu1 magnets M. A. Willard,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    power applications requires new bulk soft magnetic materials that 1 are capable of operating at higher magnetization that persists to the phase transformation at 980 °C. Alternating current permeability experiments nanocrystalline Fe­Si­B­Nb­Cu alloys and nanocrystalline Fe­M­B­Cu M Zr, Nb, Hf, etc. alloys have been optimized

  10. Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered NiCuZn Ferrites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CuZn Ferrites Behzad Ahmadi,1, a) Karim Zehani,1 Martino LoBue,1 Vincent Loyau,1 and Frederic Mazaleyrat1 SATIE spark plasma sintering technique, a family of very fine grained, fully dense NiCuZn ferrites have been produced which show constant permeability up to several 10 MHz. These Ferrites can be used for filtering

  11. Correlation between corrosion performance and surface wettability in ZrTiCuNiBe bulk metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Correlation between corrosion performance and surface wettability in ZrTiCuNiBe bulk metallic June 2010 The corrosion properties of two Zr-based bulk metallic glass, Zr41Ti14Cu12Ni10Be23 LM1 and Zr potential, LM1b showed superior corrosion resistance to LM1. Under identical sample preparation and testing

  12. Effet de l'apport de phosphore, de carbonate de calcium et d'oligo-lments (Cu, Mn, Zn, B)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomie Effet de l'apport de phosphore, de carbonate de calcium et d'oligo-éléments (Cu, Mn, Zn apports de phosphore, de carbonate de calcium et d'oligo-éléments (Mn, Cu, Zn, B), en vue de mieux celles de B lorsqu'on élčve le pH par apport de carbonate de calcium; - l'accumulation préférentielle de

  13. Influence of oxygen on the interfacial stability of Cu on Co,,0001... thin films Hongmei Wen,1 Matthew Neurock,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Influence of oxygen on the interfacial stability of Cu on Co,,0001... thin films Hongmei Wen,1 of oxygen, which can impact the quality of film and its properties. Previously we found that oxygen to examine the effects of surface atomic oxygen on the stability of the Cu 111 /Co 0001 interface

  14. Cosponsored by CU's Renewable and Sustainable Energy Initiative and the CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    . monday, november 17 8:30 - 10:30 am cu-boulder, umc 235 free and open to the public This event opens a day-long Research Symposium sponsored by the CU Energy Initiative For more information see: http://ei

  15. Microwave characteristics of the high temperature superconductor YBa?Cu?O??[delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skrehot, Michael Kevin

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the new high temperature materials; Chapter III describes the resonant structure chosen for the surface resistance measurements; Chapter IV details the experimental procedure and gives the results; Chapter V explains why YBaCuO possesses nonlinearities... machined from a bulk sample, or made of thin fiilm coated surfaces. Zahopoulos, Kennedy, and Sridhar [18] reported results of measurements made on a structure machined of bulk YBaCuO. The cavity possessed a Q of 909 at room temperature, increasing to 10s...

  16. Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorris, S.E.; Poeppel, R.B.; Prorok, B.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Maroni, V.A.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor are disclosed. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. 5 figs.

  17. 1st-Principles Step- and Kink-Formation Energies on Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feibelman, Peter J.

    1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In rough agreement with experimental values derived from Cu island shapes vs. temperature, ab-initio calculations yield formation energies of 0.27 and 0.26 eV/ step-edge-atom for (100)- and (111)-micro facet steps on Cu(lll), and 0.09 and 0.12 eV per kink in those steps. Comparison to ab-initio results for Al and Pt shows that as a rule, the average formation energy of straight steps on a close-packed metal surface equals -7% of the metal's cohesive energy.

  18. Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorris, Stephen E. (La Grange Park, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Prorok, Barton C. (Harrisville, PA); Lanagan, Michael T. (Woodridge, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor.

  19. A study of magnetic anisotropy energy in CuMn spin glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Christine Adele

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY ENERGY IN CuMn SPIN GLASS A Thesis by CHRISTINE ADELE ALLEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986... Major Subject: Physics A STUDY OF MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY ENERGY IN CuMn SPIN GLASS A Thesis by CHRISTINE ADELE ALLEN Approved as to style and content by: Thomas W. Adair, III (Chai man of Committee) Robert A. enefick (Member) Donald L. Parker...

  20. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly summarize semiconductor bridge operation and review their ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite as a function of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) firing set capacitance, charge holder material and morphology of the CuO. Ignition thresholds were obtained using a brass charge holder and a non-conducting fiber-glass-epoxy composite material, G10. At - 18 C and a charge voltage of 50V, the capacitance thresholds were 30.1 {mu}F and 2.0 {mu}F respectively. They also present new data on electrostatic discharge (ESD) and radio frequency (RF) vulnerability tests.

  1. Characterization of spin pumping effect in Permalloy/Cu/Pt microfabricated lateral devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya, E-mail: tyamamoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Seki, Takeshi; Takanashi, Koki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ono, Shimpei [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for microfabricated lateral devices consisting of a Permalloy (Py) rectangular element and a Pt nano-element bridged by a Cu wire, which were located on a coplanar waveguide. A change in the resonance linewidth (?f) was observed in the FMR spectra when the distance between Py and Pt (d) was varied. For devices with d?Cu due to the spin absorption of the attached Pt.

  2. Knudsen number, ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow and QGP viscosity in $\\sqrt{s}$=62 and 200 GeV Cu+Cu/Au+Au collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Taking into account of entropy generation during evolution of a viscous fluid, we have estimated inverse Knudsen number, ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow and QGP viscosity to entropy ratio in $\\sqrt{s}$=62 and 200 GeV Cu+Cu/Au+Au collisions. Viscosity to entropy ratio is estimated as $\\eta/s=0.17\\pm 0.10\\pm 0.20$, the first error is statistical, the second one is systematic. In a central Au+Au collision, inverse Knudsen number is $\\approx 2.80\\pm 1.63$, which presumably small for complete equilibration. In peripheral collisions it is even less. Ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow is $\\sim$40% more than the experimental flow in a central collision.

  3. p-Type Zinc Oxide Spinels: Application to Transparent Conductors and Spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoica, Maria

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the electronic and optical properties of two theoretically predicted stable spinel compounds of the form ZnB2O4, where B = Ni or Cu; neither compound has been previously synthesized, so we compare them to the previously studied p-type ZnCo2O4 spinel. These new materials exhibit spin polarization that is ideal for spintronics applications, and broad conductivity maxima near the valence band edge that facilitate p-type dopability. We show that 3d electrons on the octahedrally coordinated Zn atom fall deep within the valence band and do not contribute significantly to the electronic structure of the material, while the O 2p and tetrahedrally coordinated B 3d electrons hybridize broadly in the shallow valence states, resulting in increasing curvature (i.e., decreased electron effective mass) of valence bands near the band edge. In particular, ZnCu2O4 exhibits high electrical conductivities near the valence band edge that, at sigma = 2 x 10^4 S/cm, are twice the maximum found for ZnCo2O4, a previously...

  4. IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board Daniel D. Huppert, Chair Lon L. Peters, Vice-Chair Joel R and Guidance for Economic Analysis in Subbasin Planning Independent Economic Analysis Board January 2003, document IEAB 2003-2 Summary Subbasin planning may need to consider two types of economic issues; 1

  5. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  6. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2.

  7. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    runaway in Type Ia supernovae: How to run away? oIgnition in Type Ia Supernovae. II. A Three- dimensionalnumber modeling of type Ia supernovae. I. hydrodynamics.

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic properties of the three-dimensional cubic phase Ba{sub 6}Cu{sub 12}Fe{sub 13}S{sub 27}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roig, A.; Molins, E.; Casan-Pastor, N.; Gomez-Romero, P. [CSIC, Bellaterra (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona] [CSIC, Bellaterra (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona; Mujica, C.; Llanos, J. [Univ. Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile)] [Univ. Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex sulfide Ba{sub 6}Cu{sub 12}Fe{sub 13}S{sub 27} constitutes a cubic phase that crystallizes in the djerfisherite structure type. It contains octahedral and tetrahedral sites occupied by transition metal ions and a central SBa{sub 6} octahedron. By means of Moessbauer spectroscopy, the oxidation state and distribution of iron atoms were determined. The results confirm the occupation of site 1b by Fe(III) and the presence of only Fe(II) ions in the tetrahedral sites (24m). The magnetic properties are consistent with the clustering of iron atoms and rule out the possibility of a spin-glass behavior.

  9. Composition dependence of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode in YBa2Cu3O6+x

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stercil, F. [University of Pennsylvania; Egami, T. [University of Pennsylvania; Mook Jr, Herbert A [ORNL; Yethiraj, Mohana [ORNL; Chung, J.-H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Arai, M. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, Japan; Frost, C. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Dogan, F. [University of Washington, Seattle

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inelastic pulsed neutron scattering study was performed on the dependence of the dispersion and spectral intensity of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode on doped charge density. The measurements were made in the time-of-flight mode with the multiangle position sensitive spectrometer of the ISIS facility on single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (x=0.15, 0.35, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.95). The focus of the study is the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode, which is known for strong electron-phonon coupling and unusual dependence on composition and temperature. It is shown that the dispersions for the samples with x=0.35, 0.6, and 0.7 are similar to the superposition of those for x=0.15 and 0.95 samples, and cannot be explained in terms of the structural anisotropy. It is suggested that the results are consistent with the model of nanoscale electronic phase separation, with the fraction of the phases being dependent on the doped charge density.

  10. CO-NO and CO-O2 Interactions on Cu(100) between 25 and 200 K Studied with Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    CO-NO and CO-O2 Interactions on Cu(100) between 25 and 200 K Studied with Infrared Reflection reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) has been used to study CO-NO and CO-O2 interactions on Cu(100) between 25 and 200 K. A strong repulsive interaction between CO and NO on Cu(100) at 25 K causes tilting

  11. FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films studied using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Y.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B 84, 064416 (2011) FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) ?lms studied usingmeasurements on FeMn/ Fe(8ML)/Co/vicinal Cu(001), in whichthe FeMn(10ML)/Fe(2ML)/Co(20ML)/Cu(1,1,10) sample growth. (

  12. Regular Type III and Type N Approximate Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Downes; Paul MacAllevey; Bogdan Nita; Ivor Robinson

    2001-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    New type III and type N approximate solutions which are regular in the linear approximation are shown to exist. For that, we use complex transformations on self-dual Robinson-Trautman metrics rather then the classical approach. The regularity criterion is the boundedness and vanishing at infinity of a scalar obtained by saturating the Bel-Robinson tensor of the first approximation by a time-like vector which is constant with respect to the zeroth approximation.

  13. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  14. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  15. Enhanced Cu2S/CdS Coaxial Nanowire Solar Cells by Piezo-Phototronic Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    light on the enhanced flexible solar cells for applications in self-powered technology, environmental monitoring, and even defensive technology. KEYWORDS: Cu2S/CdS coaxial nanowire, nanowire PV devices, piezo of the PV devices. This effect offers a new concept for increasing solar energy conversion efficiency

  16. Preparation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from oxide-glass precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinks, David G. (Lemont, IL); Capone, II, Donald W. (Northbridge, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductor and precursor therefor from oxide mixtures of Ca, Sr, Bi and Cu. Glass precursors quenched to elevated temperatures result in glass free of crystalline precipitates having enhanced mechanical properties. Superconductors are formed from the glass precursors by heating in the presence of oxygen to a temperature below the melting point of the glass.

  17. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics Xukai Xinab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics Jun Wang,a Xukai Xinab advances in the synthesis and utilization of CZTS nanocrystals and colloidal GQDs for photovoltaics emerged to achieve low cost, high perfor- mance photovoltaics, including organic solar cells,2­6 dye

  18. Combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate bioceramic powders A. Cu neyt Tas *,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate bioceramic powders A. CuČ neyt Tas *,1 Department)2; Combustion synthesis; Hydroxyapatite 1. Introduction Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), the major), instead of water, as the precipitation medium. Self-propagating combustion synthesis (SPCS

  19. Elemental separation in nanocrystalline Cu-Al alloys Y. B. Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuntian T.

    Elemental separation in nanocrystalline Cu-Al alloys Y. B. Wang,1 X. Z. Liao,1,a) Y. H. Zhao,2 J. C. Cooley,3 Z. Horita,4 and Y. T. Zhu5,a) 1 School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering-energy severe plastic deformation has been reported to increase the solubility of alloy systems and even to mix

  20. Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022 W and artificial aging response in aluminum alloy 6022 were investigated using transmission electron microscopy,are an important group of aluminum alloys that can be although its structure has been proposed

  1. In-situ observation of the energy dependence of defect production in Cu and Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W.E.; Merkel, K.L.; Baily, A.C.; Haga, K.; Meshii, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The damage function, the average number of Frenkel pairs created as a function of lattice atom recoil energy, was investigated in Cu and Ni using in-situ electrical-resistivity damage-rate measurements in the high-voltage electron micrscope (HVEM) at T < 10K. Electron and proton irradiations were performed in-situ on the same polycrystalline specimens using the Argonne National Laboratory HVEM-Ion Beam Interface. Both Ni and Cu exhibit a sharp rise in the damage function above the minimum threshold energy (approx. 18 eV for Cu and approx. 20 eV for Ni) as displacements in the low-threshold energy regions of the threshold energy surface become possible. A plateau is observed for both materials (0.54 Frenkel pairs for Cu and 0.46 Frenkel pairs for Ni) indicating that no further directions become productive until much higher recoil energies. These damage functions show strong deviations from simple theoretical models, such as the Modified Kinchin-Pease damage function. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of defect production that govern the single-displacement regime of the damage function and are compared with results from recent molecular-dynamics simulations.

  2. IAA-CU-13-11-06 Using independent combinations of CubeSat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    IAA-CU-13-11-06 Using independent combinations of CubeSat solar panels as sun sensors. Using solar panels on 5 of 6 sides of the NUTS CubeSat, we have a lot of atti- tude determinating information readily available during much of the periodical orbit. Using three or more solar panels

  3. Synthesis of YBa2CU3O7 using sub-atmospheric processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesmann, Harold; Solovyov, Vyacheslav

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of forming thick films of crystalline YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 that includes forming a precursor film comprising barium fluoride (BaF.sub.2), yttrium (Y) and copper (Cu). The precursor film is heat-treated at a temperature above 500.degree. C. in the presence of oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor at sub-atmospheric pressure to form a crystalline structure. The crystalline structure is then annealed at about 500.degree. C. in the presence of oxygen to form the crystalline YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 film. The YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 film formed by this method has a resistivity of from about 100 to about 600 .mu.Ohm-cm at room temperature and a critical current density measured at 77 K in a magnetic field of 1 Tesla of about 1.0.times.10.sup.5 Ampere per square centimeter (0.1 MA/cm.sup.2) or greater.

  4. Selected materials development for the 100 T magnet: Cu-Nb conductors with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Selected materials development for the 100 T magnet: Cu-Nb conductors with nanocomposite components (PBO) based composite for reinforcement Materials R&D for the 100-Tesla Pulsed Magnet Gregory S for this achievement was the long-term and painstaking research and development of high strength materials

  5. Theoretical description of the high-temperature phase of YbInCu4 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freericks, Jim

    ; doping with Y reduces TV and sharpens the transition. Data from C.D. Immer et al. PRB 56, 71 (1997 al PRB 56, 71 (1997). When comparing the magnetic field effects for a variety of materials. Data from C. D. Immer et al PRB 56, 71 (1997). #12;Optical conductivity in YbInCu4 · The optical

  6. Electrodeposition of CuGaSe2 from Thiocyanate-Containing Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    . Manuscript received September 8, 2010. Published December 2, 2010. CuInxGa1-xSe2 CIGS thin film solar cells- nation velocities.1 Thin film solar cells promise significant economic benefits, because the optical, electrochemical deposition methods may be significantly less expensive for scale-up of thin film solar cells,3

  7. Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    conversion efficiency of solar cells made from this material [1]. One of the special qualities of the CIGS improve the solar cell performance. In many of the different CIGS fabrication techniques, an in depthDiffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A

  8. Calculation of vibrational spectra of an icosahedral quasicrystal AlCuFe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, A. N., E-mail: ran@infoteck.ru; Mazurenko, V. G. [Ural State University (Russian Federation)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Vibrational spectra of an icosahedral quasicrystal AlCuFe have been calculated on the basis of a crystalline 1/1 approximant by the recurrence method. To describe the interaction of atoms in a quasicrystal, the semiempirical EAM model was used. It is shown that the calculated spectra are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental neutron inelastic scattering data.

  9. Electronic and structural properties at the interface between iron-phthalocyanine and Cu(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Fang [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fundamental Department, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Ningbo 315100 (China); Mao, Hongying [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China)] [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Zhang, Hanjie; Wu, Ke; Cai, Yiliang; He, Pimo, E-mail: phypmhe@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic structure and adsorption geometry of Iron-Phthalocyanine (FePc) adsorbed on Cu(110) were investigated by using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The emission features ?, ?, ?, and ? originating from the FePc molecules in UPS spectra are located at 3.42, 5.04, 7.36, and 10.28 eV below Fermi level. The feature ? is mostly deriving from Fe 3d orbital with some contributions from C 2p orbital. A considerable charge transfer from the Cu substrate to the Fe 3d orbital occurs upon the adsorption of FePc molecules. The angle-resolved UPS measurements indicate that FePc molecules adopt lying-down configurations with their molecular plane nearly parallel to the Cu(110) substrate at monolayer stage. In combination with the DFT calculations, the adsorption structure is determined to be that FePc molecule adsorbs on the top site of Cu(110) with an angle of 45° between the lobes of FePc and the [11{sup Ż}0] azimuth of the substrate.

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of CuSAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis."Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 162:501-514. doi:10.1016j.apcatb.2014.07.029 Authors:...

  11. Production of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys by Mechanical Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goegebakan, Musa; Soguksu, Ali Kemal; Uzun, Orhan; Dogan, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, 46000 (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, GaziOsmanpasa University, Tokat (Turkey)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical alloying technique has been used to produce shape memory Cu83Al13Ni4 alloy. The structure and thermal properties were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the surface suggests the presence of martensite.

  12. Cu-Catalyzed Arylation of Phenols: Synthesis of Sterically Hindered and Heteroaryl Diaryl Ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiti, Debabrata

    Cu-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols with aryl iodides and bromides can be performed under mild condition in DMSO/K3PO4 with use of picolinic acid as the ligand for copper. This method tolerates a variety of functional ...

  13. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

  14. Magnetotransport properties of doped RuSr2GdCu2O8 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrone, J E; Tallon, J L; Cooper, J R; MacLaughlin, A C; Attfield, J. Paul; Bernhard, C

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RuSr2GdCu2O8, in which magnetic order and superconductivity coexist with Tmag>Tc , is a complex material which poses new and important questions to our understanding of the interplay between magnetic and superconducting order. Resistivity, Hall...

  15. Polarized Luminescence of Defects in CuGaSe2 Susanne Siebentritt1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    ). But for the whole group of I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite semiconductors no reliable identification of native defects by ESR been found in CuInSe2. [14] In the effort of relating the energy positions of the defects to defect. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1012 © 2007 Materials Research Society 1012-Y13-01 #12;the experiment

  16. Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling Xuesong Li, Weiwei Cai, Luigi Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas 75243 Received August 3, 2009 ABSTRACT Large-area graphene growth) of hydrocarbons has shown some promise in growing large-area graphene or few-layer graphene films on metal

  17. Improvement of the physical properties of novel (1 ? y) Co{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} + (y) SrTiO{sub 3} nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: moala47@hotmail.com [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Mansour, S.F.; Abdo, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Egypt)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The ME coefficient as a function of magnetic field for the composites (1 ? y) Co{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} + (y) SrTiO{sub 3} (y = 40, 50, 60 and 80%). Highlights: ? T{sub C} and M{sub s} decrease with the increase of SrTiO{sub 3} concentration. ? The P–E hysteresis loops were observed for all compositions. ? The maximum ME coefficient was observed for the composite with 60% SrTiO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Magnetoelectric (ME) nanocomposites (1 ? y) Co{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} + (y) SrTiO{sub 3} (y = 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%) were prepared by standard ceramic method. Phase formation was checked using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and Curie temperature (T{sub C}) decrease with increasing SrTiO{sub 3} content. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two maxima, one about 550 K corresponds to non-stoichiometry and lattice distortions while the second around 900 K corresponds to the Curie temperature (T{sub C}). The large value of ME output is due to the strain induced by lattice distortion in the ferrite phase by Jahn–Teller ions like Cu. Hence, Jahn–Teller effect in the ferrite leads to polarization in the piezoelectric phase.

  18. Safety Analysis of Type 4 Tanks in CNG Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  19. Production data analysis type curves for the Devonian Shales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazlett, William Gregory

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0. 12510 0. 12187 0. 12008 0. 11880 0. 11781 0. 11699 0, 11629 0. 11566 0. 11511 0. 11460 0. 11413 0. 11370 0. 11329 0. 11291 0. 11254 0. 11220 0. 11187 0. 11156 0. 11126 0. 11097 0. 10664 0. 10367 0. 10132 0. 99362E-01 0...

  20. Property:EnvironmentalAnalysisType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergyInformationProjectAffiliatedProperty Edit

  1. Category:NEPA Environmental Analysis Types | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGo Back toFL" The

  2. Grain growth behavior of Pb-Cu-Te cable sheathing alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahay, S.S.; Guruswamy, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Goodwin, F. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead alloys are extensively used as sheathing material for power and telecommunication cables. Excellent extrusion properties, high ductility, extremely low recrystallization temperature, good fatigue and creep resistance, make these alloys ideal for cable sheathing application. Though the thickness of the lead sheath is only a few hundred {mu}m, it is a critical component of the cable. The lead layer in the cable is often the limiting factor both during the cable production and during its service phase. Up to several hundred miles of long single piece cables may be required for underground and underwater cables. Cracking in the lead sheath during the cable sheathing extrusion limits the production of such long cables while cracking of the lead sheath due to repeated vibration, creep and recrystallization limits the service life of these cables. The purpose of the present research is to increase the duration of cable extrusion time without compromising sheath integrity by minimizing deleterious precipitate formation and growth. Concentrations of Cu and Te in the commercial alloy are too small to contribute to precipitation strengthening. Therefore their positive influence on mechanical strength should mainly result from the influence of Cu and Te in solution on interdiffusivity and grain boundary mobility. The formation of large precipitates observed in Pb-Cu-Te alloys can be minimized and extrusion times increased without negatively affecting mechanical properties if the solute content is reduced to near solid solubility levels. In order to examine the effect of lowering solute content on microstructural stability and mechanical properties, compressive stress-strain behavior of a Pb-50 wt ppm Cu-100 wt ppm Te alloy with solute contents close to the solubility limits and a Pb-400 wt ppm Cu-400 wt ppm Te alloy was examined at room temperature. The grain growth kinetics in these alloys were studied in a temperature range of 100 to 225 C.

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 şC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 şC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830. The authors also thank Shari Li (PNNL) for surface area/pore volume measurements, and Bruce W. Arey (PNNL) for SEM measurements. Discussions with Drs. A. Yezerets, K. Kamasamudram, J.H. Li, N. Currier and J.Y. Luo from Cummins, Inc. and H.Y. Chen and H. Hess from Johnson-Matthey are greatly appreciated.

  4. Influence of Damp Heat on the Electrical, Optical, and Morphological Properties of Encapsulated CuInGaSe2 Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaramoorthy, R.; Pern, F. J.; Teeter, G.; Li, Jian V.; Young, M.; Kuciauskas, D.; Call, N.; Yan, F.; To, B.; Johnston, S.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) devices, encapsulated with different backsheets having different water vapor transmission rates (WVTR), were exposed to damp heat (DH) at 85 C and 85% relative humidity (RH) and characterized periodically to understand junction degradation induced by moisture ingress. Performance degradation of the devices was primarily driven by an increase in series resistance within first 50 h of exposure, resulting in a decrease in fill factor and, accompanied loss in carrier concentration and widening of depletion width. Surface analysis of the devices after 700-h DH exposure showed the formation of Zn(OH){sub 2} from hydrolysis of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer by the moisture, which was detrimental to the collection of minority carriers. Minority carrier lifetimes observed for the CIGS devices using time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) remained relatively long after DH exposure. By etching the DH-exposed devices and re-fabricating with new component layers, the performance of reworked devices improved significantly, further indicating that DH-induced degradation of the AZO layer and/or the CdS buffer was the primary performance-degrading factor.

  5. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO? nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [South-Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Si, Rui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnston-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Martinez-Arias, Arturo [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Hanson, Jonathan C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H?O ? CO?) was studied over CuO/CeO? catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO? (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO? (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO? (ns), such as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ceł? in CeO? (ns).

  6. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO? nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Si, Rui; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Martinez-Arias, Arturo; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H?O ? CO?) was studied over CuO/CeO? catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO? (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO? (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO? (ns), suchmore »as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ceł? in CeO? (ns).« less

  7. Studies on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of LaCrO{sub 3}, LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} and LaCr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nithya, V.D.; Jacob Immanuel, R.; Senthilkumar, S.T. [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India)] [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India)] [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Perelshtein, I.; Zitoun, D. [Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)] [Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Kalai Selvan, R., E-mail: selvankram@buc.edu.in [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? LaCr{sub 0.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (M = Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) was synthesized by simple sol–gel technique with subsequent heat treatment. ? The compound formation temperature was optimized through XRD analysis. ? The effects of Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} on the electrical properties of LaCrO{sub 3} were studied using impedance spectroscopy. ? The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity was discussed for LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. ? The magnetization was found to be enhanced in the LaCr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. -- Abstract: The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of LaCr{sub 0.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (M = Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) synthesized by a sol–gel technique were studied. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows the structure to be orthorhombic and the size of the particles is around 100 nm as seen from the TEM images. The effects of Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} on the electrical properties of LaCrO{sub 3} were studied using impedance spectroscopy at room temperature (RT). The properties of LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} were studied over a wide range of temperature from RT to 533 K. A maximum conductivity of 1.7 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} was observed for LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} at a measured temperature of 533 K. The impedance spectra indicate a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) and also imply the conduction is through bulk of the material. The magnetic studies performed using a SQUID magnetometer interpret the antiferromagnetically ordered LaCrO{sub 3} to behave ferromagnetically on the addition of Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, and the magnetization was found to be enhanced in the LaCr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}.

  8. Method for preparation of textured YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selvamanickam, Venkat (Guilderland, NY); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relate to textured YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (Y-123) superconductors and a process of preparing them by directional recrystallization of compacts fabricated from quenched YBCO powders at temperatures about 100.degree. C. below the peritectic temperature to provide a superconductor where more than 75% of the YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x phase is obtained without any Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 .

  9. Analysis of transcriptional regulatory circuitry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinaldi, Nicola J., 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research in this thesis has focused on the analysis of data from two types of microarray technologies with the goal of improving understanding of transcriptional regulatory circuitry in yeast. These microarray technologies, ...

  10. Magnetoresistance reversal in antiperovskite compound Mn{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Yuan, Q.; Han, J. C. [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Z. H. [Liaoning Key Materials Laboratory for Railway, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Jian, J. K. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhao, J. G., E-mail: zhaojinggeng@163.com, E-mail: songbo@hit.edu.cn; Song, B., E-mail: zhaojinggeng@163.com, E-mail: songbo@hit.edu.cn [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report detailed investigations of the structure, magnetic properties, electronic transport, and specific heat in Mn-based antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}N. Most strikingly, there are several fascinating features: (i) The magnetoresistance at 30?kOe (40?kOe) exceeds ?1% (?2%) over a temperature span of ?70?K (?25?K) from 5 to 140?K; (ii) magnetoresistance fluctuates at temperatures of 100–200?K, including an obvious sign reversal from negative to positive at ?140?K. Analysis of the specific heat reveals that the magnetoresistance reversal may originate from the reconstruction of the Fermi surface accompanying an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition.

  11. Reinforced fluropolymer nanocomposites with high-temperature superconducting Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayasree, T. K., E-mail: drjayasreetk@gmail.com [Laboratory for Molecular Photonics and Electronic (Lamp), Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala, India - 673601 and Department of Physics, Sree Ayyappa College, Eramallikkara, Chengannur, Kerala-689109 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y})/Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite was prepared and their thermal properties were analyzed. The composite consists of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as an insulating polymer matrix, and homogenously distributed Bismuth strontium calcium copperoxide (2212) nanoparticles. SEM data shows flaky grains of the superconductor coated and linked by polymer. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that the melting point was not affected significantly by the addition of BSCCO. However, the addition of superconducting ceramic resulted in an extra melting peak at a lower temperature (145°C). Thermogravimetric analysis of the samples shows that the onset decomposition temperature of the PVDF matrix was decreased by the addition of SC filler.

  12. Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Because calibrated light curves of Type Ia supernovae have become a major tool to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe and also its geometrical structure, considerable attention has been given to models of these events over the past couple of years. There are good reasons to believe that perhaps most Type Ia supernovae are the explosions of white dwarfs that have approached the Chandrasekhar mass, M_ch ~ 1.39 M_sun, and are disrupted by thermonuclear fusion of carbon and oxygen. However, the mechanism whereby such accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs explode continues to be uncertain. Recent progress in modeling Type Ia supernovae as well as several of the still open questions are addressed in this review. Although the main emphasis will be on studies of the explosion mechanism itself and on the related physical processes, including the physics of turbulent nuclear combustion in degenerate stars, we also discuss observational constraints.

  13. Pressure dependence of the superconducting critical temperature of HgBa 2Ca 2Cu 3O 8 y and HgBa 2Ca 3Cu 4O 10 y up to 30 GPa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    Pressure dependence of the superconducting critical temperature of HgBa 2Ca 2Cu 3O 8 y and HgBa 2Ca of the reported pressure- induced Tc values well above 150 K in the mercury-based high-Tc superconductors has been superconducting transition temperature Tc have been observed in HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8 y Hg-1223 samples under very high

  14. Nuclear matter effects on J/? production in asymmetric Cu+Au collisions at ?SNN=200 GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adare, A.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on J/? production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at ?sNN =200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J/? yields in Cu+Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au+Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J/? production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression in themore »larger Au nucleus. The relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.« less

  15. De novo design and spectroscopic characterization of Cu(II)-binding peptides based upon the blue copper protein plastocyanin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugherty, Roxanne Gail

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    those spectroscopic properties. Most blue copper proteins are similar to either plastocyanin or azurin, the best characterized of the blue copper proteins. All blue copper proteins contain a coordination site where Cu(II) is bound in a trigonal plane...

  16. A SchOlARShiPinvest in a brighter future cuRiOuS miNdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the darwin lNg plant to view operations and attended the 2009 enterprising women event ­ where i networked, western Australia's Browse Basin, and the Australia Pacific lNg Project in Queensland. 2_cuRTiN Sch

  17. Hardness variation and cyclic crystalline-amorphous phase transformation in CuZr alloy during ball milling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoen, David Taylor

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hardness and percent crystallinity of Cu33Zr67 powder samples are measured through several cycles of a cyclic phase transformation during ball milling. Each are found to cycle with a period of approximately 320 minutes. ...

  18. Systematic study of the Taylor method for production of cu-based shape memory alloy microwires : a master's thesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szablinski, Eric (Eric Allen)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Taylor method is a proven way to produce Cu-based shape memory microwires that aren't plagued by problems typical in polycrystalline copper SMAs produced by other methods. Here we set out to expand and refine this ...

  19. Millimeter size single crystals of superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damento, M.A.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of growing large, up to 1 mm size single crystals of superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x], wherein x equals from 6.5 to 7.2 is disclosed.

  20. Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbone, Ian Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation in CDS-Cu2S photovoltaic cells. Semiconductorcell with cuins2: A photovoltaic cell concept using an ex-and the the photovoltaic action in solar cell devices. The