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Sample records for analysis short short

  1. Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2007-07-01

    This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

  2. Short-Pulse Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Short-Pulse Lasers NIF Petawatt Laser Is on Track to Completion The National Ignition Facility's Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), a petawatt-class laser with peak power exceeding a quadrillion (1015) watts, is moving rapidly along the path to completion and commissioning. ARC is designed to produce brighter, more penetrating, higher-energy x rays than can be obtained with conventional radiographic techniques. When complete, ARC will be the world's highest-energy short-pulse laser, capable

  3. Short wavelength laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  4. Short-wavelength,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -1...Countdown pressure cooker Short-wavelength, high-powered UV LEDs Hitting a bullet with a bullet A QUARTERLY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL VOLUME 5, NO. 4 WINTER * 2004 S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y Sandia Technology (ISSN: 1547-5190) is a quarterly journal published by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the Department of Energy. With main facilities in Albuquerque,

  5. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based...

  7. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  8. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  9. Gasoline prices increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  10. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  11. Numerical study of the effect of normalised window size, sampling frequency, and noise level on short time Fourier transform analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ota, T. A.

    2013-10-15

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry, is a widely used optical technique that requires the analysis of frequency modulated signals. This paper describes an investigation into the errors of short time Fourier transform analysis. The number of variables requiring investigation was reduced by means of an equivalence principle. Error predictions, as the number of cycles, samples per cycle, noise level, and window type were varied, are presented. The results were found to be in good agreement with analytical models.

  12. Analysis of the transverse SPS beam coupling impedance with short and long bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvant,B.; Calaga, R.; de Maria, R.; Arduini, G.; Burkhardt, H.; Damerau, H.; Hofle, W.; Metral, E.; Papotti, G.; Rumolo, G.; Tomas, R.; White, S.

    2009-05-04

    The upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would require a four- to five-fold increase of the single bunch intensity presently obtained in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Operating at such high single bunch intensities requires a detailed knowledge of the sources of SPS beam coupling impedance, so that longitudinal and transverse impedance reduction campaigns can be planned and performed effectively if needed. In this paper, the transverse impedance of the SPS is studied by injecting a single long bunch into the SPS, and observing its decay without RF. Longer bunches allow for higher frequency resolution of the longitudinal and transverse bunch spectra acquired with strip line couplers connected to a fast data acquisition. It also gives access to the frequency content of the transverse impedance. Results from measurements with short and long bunches in the SPS performed in 2008 are compared with simulations.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (83/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook iuarterly Projections August 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. 20585 t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- iort- nort- lort- '.ort- ort- Tt- .-m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term .-Term -Term xrm Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy -OJ.UUK Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Summer Fuels Outlook April 2015 1 April 2015 Short-Term Energy and Summer Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights * On April 2, Iran and the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council plus Germany (P5+1) reached a framework agreement that could result in the lifting of oil- related sanctions against Iran. Lifting sanctions could substantially change the STEO forecast for oil supply, demand, and prices by allowing a significantly increased volume of Iranian barrels to enter the

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2016.  December was the sixth consecutive month in which monthly average Brent prices decreased, falling $17/barrel (bbl) from November to a monthly average of $62/bbl, the lowest since May 2009. The December price decline reflects continued growth in U.S. tight oil production, strong global supply, and weakening outlooks for the global economy and oil demand growth.  EIA forecasts

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 1 October 2014 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas, heating oil, electricity, and propane will decrease this winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) compared with last winter, which was 11% colder than the previous 10-year average nationally. Projected average household expenditures for propane and heating oil are 27% and 15% lower, respectively, because of lower heating demand and prices.

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 October 2015 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas, heating oil, and propane during the upcoming winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) will be 10%, 25%, and 18% lower, respectively, than last winter, because of lower fuel prices and lower heating demand. Forecast lower heating demand and relatively unchanged prices contribute to electricity expenditures that are 3% lower than last winter

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Outlook September 2015 1 September 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights * North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $47/barrel (b) in August, a $10/b decrease from July. This third consecutive monthly decrease in prices likely reflects concerns about lower economic growth in emerging markets, expectations of higher oil exports from Iran, and continuing growth in global inventories. Crude oil price volatility increased significantly, with Brent prices showing daily changes of more

  19. SHORT NARRATIVE ABOUT PROMISING PRACTICES

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ATTACHMENT 2 SHORT NARRATIVE ABOUT PROMISING PRACTICES Briefly identify a policy, practice or procedure where your agency has been successful in the implementation of actions outlined in its Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan. Responses should be limited to the space provided below. Please note that the box below is limited to 4000 Characters. The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Human Capital Management participated on a limited basis with the Department of

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. Crude oil prices fell sharply at the onset of war in Iraq, but the initial declines probably overshot levels that we consider to be generally consistent with fundamental factors in the world oil market. Thus, while near-term price averages are likely to be below our previous projections, the baseline outlook for crude oil prices (while generally lower) is not drastically different and includes an average for spot West Texas

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 December 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil spot prices fell by more than 15% in November, declining from $85/barrel (bbl) on November 3 to $72/bbl on November 28. Monthly average Brent crude oil prices have declined 29% from their 2014 high of $112/bbl in June to an average of $79/bbl in November, the lowest monthly average since September 2010. The November price decline reflects continued growth in U.S. tight oil production along with weakening

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    June 2014 1 June 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil spot prices increased from a monthly average of $108/barrel (bbl) in April to $110/bbl in May. This was the 11 th consecutive month in which the average Brent crude oil spot price fell within a relatively narrow range of $107/bbl to $112/bbl. The discount of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to Brent crude oil, which averaged more than $13/bbl from November through January, fell below $4/bbl in

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    March 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $58/barrel (bbl) in February, an increase of $10/bbl from the January average, and the first monthly average price increase since June 2014. The price increase reflects news of falling U.S. crude oil rig counts and announced reductions in capital expenditures by major oil companies, along with lower-than-expected Iraqi crude oil exports.  EIA forecasts that Brent crude oil prices will average

  4. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  5. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 1 January 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2015. After falling to the...

  7. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  8. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  9. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Yin, Shuangye (Broad Institute)

    2013-02-11

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  10. Short-Rotation Woody Biomass Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Short-Rotation Woody Biomass Sustainability Natalie A. Griffiths, Oak Ridge National Laboratory C. Rhett Jackson, University of Georgia Kellie Vache, Oregon State University Jeffrey J. McDonnell, University of Saskatchewan Gregory Starr, University of Alabama John I. Blake, Ben M. Rau, USDA Forest Service This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information March 23, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability *2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S.

  11. Scientists teach short course on fuel cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists teach short course on fuel cells Scientists teach short course on fuel cells Los Alamos scientists gave presentations covering Hydrogen and Lab Safety, the Laboratory's Membrane-and-Electrode Process, Fuel Cell Materials Characterization, Modeling, Durability and Testing. October 8, 2015 Scientists teach short course on fuel cells Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices (MPA-11) scientists, Rangachary Mukundan (seated) and Tommy Rockward (left), during a demonstration in their fuel

  12. Reciprocal-Space Analysis of Compositional Modulation in Short-Period Superlattices Using Position-Sensitive X-Ray Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrenkiel, S.P.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Lee, S.R.; Millunchick, J.M.; Norman, A.G.; Reno, J.L.; Twesten, R.D.

    1998-11-10

    Epitaxial growth of AlAs-InAs short-period superlattices on (001) InP can lead to heterostructures exhibiting strong, quasi-periodic, lateral modulation of the alloy composition; transverse satellites arise in reciprocal space as a signature of the compositional modulation. Using an x-ray diffractometer equipped with a position-sensitive x-ray detector, we demonstrate reciprocal-space mapping of these satellites as an efficient, nondestructive means for detecting and characterizing the occurrence of compositional modulation. Systematic variations in the compositional modulation due to the structural design and the growth conditions of the short-period superlattice are characterized by routine mapping of the lateral satellites. Spontaneous compositional modulation occurs along the growth front during molecular-beam epitaxy of (AlAs) (InAs)n short-period superlattices. The modulation is quasi-periodic and forms a lateral superlattice superimposed on the intended SPS structure. Corresponding transverse satellites arise about each reciprocal lattice point, and x-ray diffraction can be routinely used to map their local reciprocal-space structure. The integrated intensity, spacing, orientation, and shape of these satellites provide a reliable means for nondestructively detecting and characterizing the compositional modulation in short-period superlattices. The analytical efficiency afforded by the use of a PSD has enabled detailed study of systematic vacations in compositional modulation as a function of the average composition, the period, and the growth rate of the short- period superlattice

  13. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial...

  14. Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Short Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the a brief overview of the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems. A full report of this case study is also available.

  15. Extracting Short Rise-Time Velocity Profiles with Digital Down-Shift Analysis of Optically Up-Converted PDV Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abel Diaz, Nathan Riley, Cenobio Gallegos, Matthew Teel, Michael Berninger, Thomas W. Tunnell

    2010-09-08

    This work describes the digital down-shift (DDS) technique, a new method of extracting short rise-time velocity profiles in the analysis of optically up-converted PDV data. The DDS technique manipulates the PDV data by subtracting a constant velocity (i.e., the DDS velocity ?DDS) from the velocity profile. DDS exploits the simple fact that the optically up-converted data ride on top of a base velocity (?0, the apparent velocity at no motion) with a rapid rise to a high velocity (?f) of a few km/s or more. Consequently, the frequency content of the signal must describe a velocity profile that increases from ?0 to ?0 + ?f. The DDS technique produces velocity reversals in the processed data before shock breakout when ?0 < ?DDS < ?0 + ?f. The DDS analysis process strategically selects specific DDS velocities (velocity at which the user down shifts the data) that produce anomalous reversals (maxima and/or minima), which are predictable and easy to identify in the mid-range of the data. Additional analysis determines when these maxima and minima occur. By successive application of the DDS technique and iterative analysis, velocity profiles are extracted as time as a function of velocity rather than as a function of time as it would be in a conventional velocity profile. Presented results include a description of DDS, velocity profiles extracted from laser-driven shock data with rise times of 200 ps or less, and a comparison with other techniques.

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project: A Short History and Status | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Project: A Short History and Status West Valley Demonstration Project: A Short History and Status Presentation made by Bryan C. Bower for the NTSF annual meeting held from May 14-16, 2013 in Buffalo, NY. PDF icon West Valley Demonstration Project: A Short History and Status More Documents & Publications EIS-0337-SA-01: Supplement Analysis EIS-0337: Record of Decision Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Mel

  17. DOE/EIA-0202(88/3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections July 1988 Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy . oi Lor L- . ; Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term :

  18. Property:ShortName | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the property "ShortName" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4-County Electric Power Assn (Mississippi) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 + 2008-04...

  19. Gasoline prices inch down slightly (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  20. Gasoline prices inch down (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  1. Gasoline prices inch down (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up nine tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  2. Gasoline prices fall slightly (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to 3.49 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  3. Are shorted pipeline casings a problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, W.F. )

    1994-11-01

    The pipeline industry has many road and railroad crossings with casings which have been in service for more than 50 years without exhibiting any major problems, regardless of whether the casing is shorted to or isolated from the carrier pipe. The use of smart pigging and continual visual inspection when retrieving a cased pipeline segment have shown that whether shorted or isolated, casings have no significant bearing on the presence or absence of corrosion on the carrier pipe.

  4. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  5. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  6. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  7. Natural Gas Consumption and Prices Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas Consumption and Prices Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Consumption and Prices - Short-Term Energy Outlook Model i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  8. Numerical Modelling of Geothermal Systems a Short Introduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling of Geothermal Systems a Short Introduction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Numerical Modelling of Geothermal Systems a Short...

  9. Electricity storage for short term power system service (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    storage for short term power system service (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity storage for short term power system service Country Denmark...

  10. Dechirper Wakefields for Short Bunches (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Dechirper Wakefields for Short Bunches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dechirper Wakefields for Short Bunches Authors: Bane, Karl ; Stupakov, Gennady ;...

  11. Dechirper Wakefields for Short Bunches (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Dechirper Wakefields for Short Bunches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dechirper Wakefields for Short Bunches You are accessing a document from the...

  12. Electricity and short wavelength radiation generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E.V.

    1985-08-26

    Methods and associated apparati for use of collisions of high energy atoms and ions of He, Ne, or Ar with themselves or with high energy neutrons to produce short wavelength radiation (lambda approx. = 840-1300 A) that may be utilized to produce cathode-anode currents or photovoltaic currents.

  13. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.3 cents from a week ago and up 25.4 cents from two weeks ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.75 a gallon on Monday. That's up almost 14 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  16. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.7 cents from a week ago and up almost 43 cents from 4 weeks ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  17. Gasoline price shows small increase (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    shows small increase (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.32 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  18. Gasoline price shows small increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. Gasoline price up this week (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 1/2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  1. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  2. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.50 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  4. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline decreased for the second week in a row to $3.71 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  7. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.52 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  8. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  11. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  13. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  14. Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to rise (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Jay P. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Gehrels, Neil [Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Scargle, Jeffrey D. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of {approx}2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts ({approx}6x10{sup -10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) is {approx}>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts ({approx}60,000 s) is {approx}30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  16. Advanced Mitigating Measures for the Cell Internal Short Risk (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darcy, E.; Smith, K.

    2010-04-01

    This presentation describes mitigation measures for internal short circuits in lithium-ion battery cells.

  17. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  18. combines high intensity and short pulse duration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combines high intensity and short pulse duration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  19. Source of coherent short wavelength radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco (Alameda, CA)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.

  20. Short Term Energy Outlook ,October 2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    October 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook October 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: Continued high oil prices are the result of declining OECD commercial oil inventories, worries over a potential clash with Iraq, and OPEC's decision to leave production quotas unchanged at its September meeting. Solid growth in world oil demand this winter (and for 2003 as a whole) is likely to tighten world oil markets and reduce commercial oil inventories. The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price

  1. Short Term Energy Outlook, February 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. World oil markets will likely remain tight through most of 2003, as petroleum inventories and global spare production capacity continue to dwindle amid blasts of cold weather and constrained output from Venezuela. OPEC efforts to increase output to make up for lower Venezuela output has reduced global spare production capacity to only 2 million barrels per day, leaving little room to make up for unexpected supply or demand

  2. Short Term Energy Outlook, March 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. February crude oil prices moved higher than expected pushed by fears of a war in Iraq, low inventories, slow recovery in Venezuelan exports, continued cold weather and sharply higher natural gas prices in the United States. West Texas Intermediate prices averaged close to $36 for the month (Figure 1), a level not seen since October 1990. Oil inventories continued lower through the month resulting in a cumulative reduction in

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 1 February 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  Temperatures east of the Rocky Mountains have been significantly colder this winter (October - January) compared with the same period both last winter and the previous 10- year average, putting upward pressure on consumption and prices of fuels used for space heating. U.S. average heating degree days were 12% higher than last winter (indicating colder weather) and 8% above the previous 10-year average. The Northeast was 11% colder

  4. Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (2417 Kilkare Rd., Sunol, CA 94586); Sweeney, Donald W. (5020 Canyon Crest Dr., San Ramon, CA 94583)

    1999-01-01

    A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

  5. DOE/EIA-0202(87/3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections July 1987 aergy i . Energy ' Energy Energy Energy i Energy i . Energy . Energy Energy Energy . Energy . Energy Energy Energy Energy i Energy . Energy . Energy Energy Energy Energy . Energy "nergy ; Short-Term : Short-Term . Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term ; Short-Term : Short-Term : Short-Term ; Short-Term ;

  6. Short Term Energy Outlook ,November 2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    November 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: During the past 3-4 months, OPEC 10 production has risen more quickly than projected, thus reducing upward pressure on prices. More specifically, while the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price averaged $28.84 in October, about $6.70 per barrel above the year-ago level (Figure 1), the WTI average price for fourth quarter 2002 is now projected to soften to $28.20, which is about $2 per barrel below

  7. Short Term Energy Outlook, December 2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    December 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook December 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: Average crude oil prices fell by about $2.50 per barrel between October and November in response to continued high production levels from OPEC 10 countries (Figure 1). However, by the end of November oil prices had risen to end-October levels as concerns over the situations in Iraq and Venezuela pushed prices up. Oil inventories, which are currently in the lower portion of the previous 5-year range, are poised to

  8. Short Term Energy Outlook, January 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. The oil market is vulnerable to a number of forces that could cause substantial price volatility over the coming months. The combination of a sustained loss of most of Venezuela's exports, risk of increased tensions in the Middle East and low oil inventories could cause oil prices to spike at least temporarily above our base case. The average West Texas Intermediate (WTI) price, which stood at $27.27 per barrel on December 2,

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2015.  After falling to the lowest monthly average of 2013 in November, U.S. regular gasoline retail prices increased slightly to reach an average of $3.28 per gallon (gal) during December. The annual average regular gasoline retail price, which was $3.51/gal in 2013, is expected to fall to $3.46/gal in 2014 and $3.39/gal in 2015.  The North Sea Brent crude oil spot price in December

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 July 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights  The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average $102 per barrel over the second half of 2013, and $100 per barrel in 2014. This forecast assumes there are no disruptions to energy markets arising from the recent unrest in Egypt. After increasing to $119 per barrel in early February 2013, the Brent crude oil spot price fell to a low of $97 per barrel in mid-April and then

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 June 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights * After increasing to $119 per barrel in early February 2013, the Brent crude oil spot price fell to a low of $97 per barrel in mid-April and then recovered to an average of $103 per barrel in May. EIA expects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average $102 per barrel over the second half of 2013, and $100 per barrel in 2014. * EIA expects the price of regular gasoline will average $3.53 per gallon over the summer driving season

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook- May 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. The April 24 meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised official quotas for members (excluding Iraq) by 0.9 million barrels per day from the previous (suspended) quota to 25.4 million barrels per day. OPEC members also sought tighter compliance with quotas, calling for production cuts of 2 million barrels per day from April levels. We expect these measures to result in an average total OPEC

  13. August 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2012 1 August 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook Highlights  EIA projects that the Brent crude oil spot price will average about $103 per barrel during the second half of 2012, about $3.50 per barrel higher than in last month's Outlook. The forecast Brent crude oil spot price falls to an average of $100 per barrel in 2013. The projected West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price discount to Brent crude oil narrows from about $14 in the third quarter of 2012 to $9 by late 2013.

  14. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  15. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  16. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loos, H.; ,

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

  17. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  18. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  1. Hopper compilers and DDT short outage next Wed, May 16

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compilers and DDT short outage next Wed, May 16 Hopper compilers and DDT short outage next Wed, May 16 May 10, 2012 Due to a scheduled maintenance for the License Servers, most of...

  2. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. Third quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the 1997 third quarter short term energy projections. Information is presented for fossil fuels and renewable energy.

  3. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

  4. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1994-08-02

    A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

  5. Short course review and the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2014-05-09

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what 'proliferation' means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both 'vertical' in numbers and 'horizontal' to additional countries, what way the 'vector' of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  6. Short-time variations of the solar neutrino luminosity (Fourier analysis of the argon-37 production rate data)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Gerth, E.

    1985-01-25

    We continue the Fourier analysis of the argon-37 production rate for runs 18--80 observed in Davis' well known solar neutrino experiment. The method of Fourier analysis with the unequally-spaced data of Davis and associates is described and the discovered periods we compare with our recently published results for the analysis of runs 18--69 (Haubold and Gerth, 1983). The harmonic analysis of the data of runs 18--80 shows time variations of the solar neutrino flux with periods ..pi.. = 8.33; 5.26; 2.13; 1.56; 0.83; 0.64; 0.54; and 0.50 years, respectively, which confirms our earlier computations.

  7. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. SHORT DYNAMIC FIBRILS IN SUNSPOT CHROMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De la Cruz Rodrguez, J.

    2013-10-10

    Sunspot chromospheres display vigorous oscillatory signatures when observed using chromospheric diagnostics such as the strong Ca II lines and H?. New high-resolution sunspot observations from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope show the ubiquitous presence of small-scale, periodic, jet-like features that move up and down. This phenomenon has not been described before. The typical width of these features is about 0.''3 and they display clear parabolic trajectories in space-time diagrams. The maximum extension of the top of the jets is lowest in the umbra, a few 100 km, and progressively longer further away from the umbra in the penumbra, with the longest extending more than 1000 km. These jets resemble the dynamic fibrils found in plage regions but at smaller extensions. Local thermodynamic equilibrium inversion of spectropolarimetric Ca II 8542 observations enabled a comparison of the magnetic field inclination and properties of these short jets. We find that the most extended of these jets also have longer periods and tend to be located in regions with more horizontal magnetic fields. These results are direct observational confirmation of the mechanism of long-period waves propagating along inclined magnetic fields into the solar chromosphere. This mechanism was identified earlier as the driver of dynamic fibrils in plage, part of the mottles in the quiet Sun, and the type I spicules at the limb. The sunspot dynamic fibrils that we report here represent a new class of manifestation of this mechanism, distinct from the transient penumbral and umbral micro-jets reported earlier.

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Uncertainties in the Short-Term Global Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply Forecast

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Uncertainties in the Short-Term Global Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply Forecast February 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Supplement: Uncertainties in the Global Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply Forecast i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data,

  10. Novel short antibacterial and antifungal peptides with low cytotoxicity:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficacy and action mechanisms (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Novel short antibacterial and antifungal peptides with low cytotoxicity: Efficacy and action mechanisms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel short antibacterial and antifungal peptides with low cytotoxicity: Efficacy and action mechanisms Research highlights: {yields} Short antimicrobial peptides with nine and eleven residues were developed. {yields} These peptides

  11. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Internal Short Circuit in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Cell | Department of Energy and Experimental Investigation of Internal Short Circuit in a Li-ion Cell Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Internal Short Circuit in a Li-ion Cell 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es109_kim_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing Implantation, Activation, Characterization and Prevention/Mitigation of Internal Short

  12. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - August 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2005 Short-Term Energy Outlook - Regional Enhancements Starting with this edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), EIA is introducing regional projections (the scope of which will vary by fuel) of energy prices, consumption, and production. The addition of regional data and forecasts will allow us to examine regional fuel demands and prices, regional fuel inventory trends, the interaction between regional electricity demand shifts, and regional

  13. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: Short-Term Lightweight Materials Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Advanced High-Strength Steel and Aluminum) | Department of Energy Short-Term Lightweight Materials Research (Advanced High-Strength Steel and Aluminum) Vehicle Technologies Office: Short-Term Lightweight Materials Research (Advanced High-Strength Steel and Aluminum) In the short term, replacing heavy steel components with materials such as high-strength steel, aluminum, or glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites can decrease component weight by 10-60 percent. Advanced High-Strength Steel

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: Short-Term Lightweight Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In the short term, replacing heavy steel components with materials such as high-strength steel, aluminum, or glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites can decrease component weight ...

  16. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  17. Experience from the Short Course on Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Short Course - Overview & Lessons Learned David Kosson, Vanderbilt & CRESP Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry and Fuel Cycle Separations December 16-18, 2008 Vanderbilt University...

  18. DSOPilot project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type...

  19. Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage ...

  20. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    change the pattern of annual demand shifts reported in earlier Outlooks. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, December 2002 History Projections Sep-02 Oct-02 Nov-02...

  1. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to increase because of accelerated economic growth and generally lower prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, October 2003 History Projections Jul-03 Aug-03 Sep-03...

  2. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to increase because of accelerated economic growth and generally lower prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, November 2003 History Projections Aug-03 Sep-03 Oct-03...

  3. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave Structures Citation ... Research Org: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) Sponsoring Org: US DOE Office of ...

  4. Fluctuations, Phase Transitions, and Latent Heat in Short Diblock...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase Transitions, and Latent Heat in Short Diblock Copolymers: Comparison of Experiment, Simulation, and Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluctuations, Phase...

  5. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Internal Short Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activation, Characterization and PreventionMitigation of Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA...

  6. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. ... The eligibility criteria included locally advanced andor metastatic pelvic cancer and ...

  7. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  8. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  9. Short-Circuit Modeling of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. The short-circuit behavior will be presented. Both the simplified models and detailed models are used in the simulations and both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are discussed.

  10. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  11. Propagation of ultra-short solitons in stochastic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt, Levent; Schfer, Tobias

    2014-01-15

    We study the propagation of ultra-short short solitons in a cubic nonlinear medium modeled by nonlinear Maxwell's equations with stochastic variations of media. We consider three cases: variations of (a) the dispersion, (b) the phase velocity, (c) the nonlinear coefficient. Using a modified multi-scale expansion for stochastic systems, we derive new stochastic generalizations of the short pulse equation that approximate the solutions of stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations. Numerical simulations show that soliton solutions of the short pulse equation propagate stably in stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations and that the generalized stochastic short pulse equations approximate the solutions to the stochastic Maxwell's equations over the distances under consideration. This holds for both a pathwise comparison of the stochastic equations as well as for a comparison of the resulting probability densities.

  12. INTERPLANETARY NETWORK LOCALIZATIONS OF KONUS SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal'shin, V. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, P. P.; Ulanov, M. V. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K., E-mail: val@mail.ioffe.ru [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the Interplanetary Network (IPN) consisted of up to 11 spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 271 bursts were obtained. We present the most comprehensive IPN localization data on these events. The short burst detection rate, {approx}18 yr{sup -1}, exceeds that of many individual experiments.

  13. Off-site Lodging (short-term) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Off-site Lodging (short-term): Extended Stay America external link 2345 Sokol Court, Darien, IL (For special Argonne rates call 630-985-4708) Oakwood Apartments external link...

  14. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  16. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Value of Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Sharp, J.; Margulis, M.; Mcreavy, D.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes an assessment of improved short-term wind power forecasting in the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) market and provides a quantification of its potential value.

  18. SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "A Short History of Length" | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2013, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "A Short History of Length" Professor Joel Langer Department of Mathematics, Case Western Reserve University...

  19. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    late September as hurricanes Isidore and Lili caused production shut downs in the Gulf of Mexico. However, this price surge is expected to be short-lived, unless the weather in...

  20. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    commercial sector demand are offset by lower demand in the electric power sector. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, September 2003 History Projections Jun-03 Jul-03 Aug-03...

  1. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 1.8 percent as the economy continues to expand and prices ease slightly. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, January 2004 History Projections Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03...

  2. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    economy. In 2003, natural gas demand growth is expected across all sectors. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, July 2002 History Projections Apr-02 Ma May-02 Jun-02...

  3. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 2005 relative to the first quarter of 2004 and relatively lower fuel oil prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, April 2004 History Projections Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04...

  4. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    should relieve some of the potential upward price pressure on the domestic market Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, January 2003 History Projections Oct-02 Nov-02 Dec-02...

  5. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    because of somewhat weaker prices and higher demand in the electric power sector. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, July 2003 History Projections Apr-03 May-03 Jun-03 Jul-03...

  6. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    than those of 2003, when stocks after the winter of 2002-2003 were at record lows. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, December 2003 History Projections Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03...

  7. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power sector eases and relative coal and fuel oil spot prices decline somewhat. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, May 2004 History Projections Feb-04 Mar-04 Apr-04 May-04...

  8. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    demand in the first quarter of 2005 relative to the first quarter of 2004. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, March 2004 History Projections Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04...

  9. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the rest of the winter and perhaps well into spring, with prices averaging 4.90 per MMBtu through March and 4.45 in April (Short-Term Energy Outlook, February 2003). Wellhead...

  10. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    the rest of the winter and the first part of spring, with prices averaging 5.19 per MMBtu through March and 4.58 in April (Short-Term Energy Outlook, February 2004). Wellhead...

  11. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids - Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ... day (bd) in 2008 to 13.75 million bd in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook ...

  12. Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas and propane will increase by 13%...

  13. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    63 and 2.72 per MMBtu during the months through October without the wide variations that occurred over the spring and early summer months (Short-Term Energy Outlook, August 2002)....

  14. Ultra-short ion and neutron pulse production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Kwan, Joe W.

    2006-01-10

    An ion source has an extraction system configured to produce ultra-short ion pulses, i.e. pulses with pulse width of about 1 .mu.s or less, and a neutron source based on the ion source produces correspondingly ultra-short neutron pulses. To form a neutron source, a neutron generating target is positioned to receive an accelerated extracted ion beam from the ion source. To produce the ultra-short ion or neutron pulses, the apertures in the extraction system of the ion source are suitably sized to prevent ion leakage, the electrodes are suitably spaced, and the extraction voltage is controlled. The ion beam current leaving the source is regulated by applying ultra-short voltage pulses of a suitable voltage on the extraction electrode.

  15. Thermoacoustic Engines and Refrigerators: A Short Course (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Thermoacoustic Engines and Refrigerators: A Short Course Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermoacoustic Engines and Refrigerators: A Short Course × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this

  16. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates Authors: Stupakov, Gennady ; /SLAC ; Zhou, Demin ; /KEK, Tsukuba Publication Date: 2016-01-22 OSTI Identifier: 1236428 Report

  17. Dedication, Innovation, and Courage: A Short History of Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dedication, Innovation, and Courage: A Short History of Y-12 Dedication, Innovation, and Courage: A Short History of Y-12 Page | i This booklet was written and compiled by Eve Whittenburg in the year 2012. Articles were written by Y-12 National Security Complex Historian D. Ray Smith. A sincere thank you goes out to everyone who contributed with historical materials. Page | ii Page | 1 Table of Contents Table of Contents

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safety Short program wins Department of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Award DOE Innovation Award Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safety Short program wins Department of Energy Innovation Award The Lab's Safety Short products address practices that promote the well-being of every Lab worker throughout each day, both at work and at home. October 7, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from

  19. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  20. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  1. Hopper compilers and DDT short outage next Wed, May 16

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compilers and DDT short outage next Wed, May 16 Hopper compilers and DDT short outage next Wed, May 16 May 10, 2012 Due to a scheduled maintenance for the License Servers, most of the compilers (except GNU) and the DDT debugger on Hopper will not be available from 10:30 am to 12:30 pm on Wednesday, May 16. If there are any questions or concerns, please contact "consult at nersc dot gov". Subscribe via RSS Subscribe Browse by Date February 2013 September 2012 August 2012 May 2012 April

  2. First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Articles First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven neutron source First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven...

  3. Process for protecting bonded components from plating shorts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Bonde, Wayne L. (Pleasanton, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method which protects the region between a component and the substrate onto which the components is bonded using an electrically insulating fillet of photoresist. The fillet protects the regions from subsequent plating with metal and therefore shorting the plated conductors which run down the sides of the component and onto the substrate.

  4. Gasoline prices fall for first time this year (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the first time this year to $3.76 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2 1/2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  5. Gasoline prices increase for first time since February (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time since February to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  6. U.S. Gasoline Price Continues to Increase (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Price Continues to Increase (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.27 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  7. U.S. Gasoline prices continue increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  8. U.S. gasoline continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. gasoline continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.33 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1- tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. U.S. gasoline continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. gasoline continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.33 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.75 a gallon on Monday. That's down 5.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  11. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.69 a gallon on Monday. That's down 5.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  12. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Price Increases (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.72 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. U.S. gasoline price continues to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price continues to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.79 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  15. U.S. gasoline price continues to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2015 U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.32 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodydard

  16. U.S. gasoline price continues to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price continues to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.19 a gallon on Monday. That's up 12.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  17. U.S. gasoline price continues to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price continues to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.33 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  18. U.S. gasoline price continues to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price continues to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.47 a gallon on Monday. That's up 14.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. U.S. gasoline price decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline dropped to $2.80 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  20. U.S. gasoline price decreases (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.64 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  1. U.S. gasoline price increases (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price increases (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.83 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  2. U.S. gasoline price increases this week (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price increases this week (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.46 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4 tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.03 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  4. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.00 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  5. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $1.91 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  6. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $1.86 a gallon on Monday. That's down 5.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  7. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $1.82 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  8. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $1.76 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  9. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $1.72 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $1.73 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6- tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  11. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $1.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $1.84 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $1.96 a gallon on Monday. That's up 12 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.44 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.38 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  16. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.23 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  17. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.22 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  18. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.09 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  19. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.82 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.06 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  1. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.78 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  2. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.05 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level since April 2009 to $2.04 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  4. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.03 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  5. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.45 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  6. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.35 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  7. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.27 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  8. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.49 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up 9.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  11. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.74 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.77 a gallon on Memorial Day Monday. That's up 3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  13. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6- tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4 1/2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  16. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.56 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  17. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  18. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.61 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 5.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. U.S. gasoline prices continued to decreased (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. gasoline prices continued to decreased (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.24 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  1. U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.33 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  2. U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.28 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. U.S. gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6, 2015 U.S. gasoline prices decrease (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.41 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  4. U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6, 2014 U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.30 a gallon on Monday. That's down a nickel and a half from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard

  5. U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    14, 2014 U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level of the year at $3.21 a gallon on Monday. That's down 9.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the

  6. U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.18 a gallon on Monday. That's down 5.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  7. U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.64 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  8. U.S. gasoline prices increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.03 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8- tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  11. U.S. gasoline prices remain steady (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices remain steady (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline remained unchanged this week at $2.78 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  12. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices unchanged (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed no movement from last week. The average price remained flat at $3.70 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This

  13. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington

  14. Gasoline prices continue to decrease nationally (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.58 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-21

    Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by patterns in mutation, suggesting thatselection which causes their conservation is not always verystrong.

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  17. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  18. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Murray (Newington, CT); Schroll, Craig R. (West Hartford, CT)

    1985-10-22

    Electrical short protection is provided in an electrolytic cell stack by the combination of a thin, nonporous ceramic shield and a noble metal foil disposed on opposite sides of the sealing medium in a gas manifold gasket. The thin ceramic shield, such as alumina, is placed between the porous gasket and the cell stack face at the margins of the negative end plate to the most negative cells to impede ion current flow. The noble metal foil, for instance gold, is electrically coupled to the negative potential of the stack to collect positive ions at a harmless location away from the stack face. Consequently, corrosion products from the stack structure deposit on the foil rather than on the stack face to eliminate electrical shorting of cells at the negative end of the stack.

  19. Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas and propane will increase by 13% and 9%, respectively, this winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) compared with last winter. Projected U.S. household expenditures are 2% higher for electricity and 2% lower for heating oil this winter. Although EIA expects average expenditures for households that heat with natural gas will be significantly

  20. U.S. gasoline price falls under $3 (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3, 2014 U.S. gasoline price falls under $3 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level since December 2010 at $2.99 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Amerine Woodyard, 202-586-1256

  1. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell 5.4 cents from a week ago to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. This marks the first time since early March that prices have dipped below 3.55, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington

  2. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell 4.2 cents from a week ago to $3.59 a gallon on Monday. This marks the first time since early April that prices have dipped below 3.60, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington

  3. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the 5 th week in a row to $3.52 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.4 cents from a week ago and down 16.3 cents from a month ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington

  4. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - April 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 1 April 2006 Short-Term Energy Outlook and Summer Fuels Outlook April 11, 2006 Release Contents Overview Global Petroleum Markets U.S. Petroleum Markets Motor Gasoline Diesel Fuel Natural Gas Markets Electricity Markets Coal Markets Overview Continued steady world oil demand growth, combined with only modest increases in world spare oil production capacity and the continuing risks of geopolitical instability, are expected to keep crude oil prices high through 2006. The price of West Texas

  5. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - February 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2005 Winter Fuels Update (Figure 1) Despite some cold weather during the second half of January, expected average consumer prices for heating fuels this heating season are little changed since the January Outlook, leaving projections for household heating fuel expenditures about the same as previously reported. Heating oil expenditures by typical Northeastern households are expected to average 32 percent above last winter's levels, with

  6. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - January 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2005 Winter Fuels Update (Figure 1) Consumer prices for heating fuels are relatively unchanged since the December Outlook, leaving projections for household heating fuel expenditures about the same as previously projected, despite continued warm weather in the middle of the heating season. Heating oil expenditures by typical Northeastern households are expected to average 30 percent above last winter's levels, with residential fuel oil prices

  7. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - October 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 1 October 2005 Short-Term Energy Outlook and Winter Fuels Outlook October 12, 2005 Release (Next Update: November 8, 2005) Overview Warnings from previous Outlooks about the potential adverse impacts of an active hurricane season on domestic energy supply and prices are unfortunately being reflected in the challenging realities brought about by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The impact of the hurricanes on oil and natural gas production, oil refining, natural gas processing, and pipeline systems

  8. Microsoft Word - Short Form CRADA Agreement Boilerplate Approved June 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    agreement, which is uniform across the Departmental facilities, for small value transactions. Except for minor modifications to the terms of this agreement made by CONTRACTOR, most changes will require approval by the DOE Contracting Officer, WHICH WILL LIKELY DELAY THE START DATE OF THE PROJECT. If substantive changes are required, the DOE Model CRADA may be more appropriate due to the increased flexibility such agreements afford. STEVENSON-WYDLER (15 U.S.C. 3710a) SHORT FORM COOPERATIVE

  9. Application of Yb:YAG short pulse laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Crane, John K.; Telford, Steve; Perry, Michael D.

    2004-07-06

    A diode pumped, high power (at least 20W), short pulse (up to 2 ps), chirped pulse amplified laser using Yb:YAG as the gain material is employed for material processing. Yb:YAG is used as the gain medium for both a regenerative amplifier and a high power 4-pass amplifier. A single common reflective grating optical device is used to both stretch pulses for amplification purposes and to recompress amplified pulses before being directed to a workpiece.

  10. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

    2009-08-24

    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  11. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  12. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  13. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. OMEGA: a short-wavelength laser for fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soures, J.M.; Hutchison, R.J.; Jacobs, S.D.; Lund, L.D.; McCrory, R.L.; Richardson, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The OMEGA, Nd:glass laser facility was constructed for the purpose of investigating the feasibility of direct-drive laser fusion. With 24 beams producing a total energy of 4 kJ or a peak power of 12 TW, OMEGA is capable of nearly uniform illumination of spherical targets. Six of the OMEGA beams have recently been converted to short-wavelength operation (351 nm). In this paper, we discuss details of the system design and performance, with particular emphasis on the frequency-conversion system and multi-wavelength diagnostic system.

  16. The Value of Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Value of Improved Short- Term Wind Power Forecasting B.-M. Hodge and A. Florita National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Sharp Sharply Focused, LLC M. Margulis and D. Mcreavy Lockheed Martin Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-63175 February 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

  17. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, M.; Schroll, C.R.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention relates to a device for preventing the electrical shorting of a stack of electrolytic cells during an extended period of operation. The device has application to fuel cell and other electrolytic cell stacks operating in low or high temperature corrosive environments. It is of particular importance for use in a stack of fuel cells operating with molten metal carbonate electrolyte for the production of electric power. Also, the device may have application in similar technology involving stacks of electrolytic cells for electrolysis to decompose chemical compounds.

  18. January 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (STEO)  This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2014.  EIA expects that the Brent crude oil spot price, which averaged $112 per barrel in 2012, will fall to an average of $105 per barrel in 2013 and $99 per barrel in 2014. The projected discount of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to Brent, which averaged $18 per barrel in 2012, falls to an average of $16 per barrel in 2013 and $8 per barrel in 2014, as planned new pipeline capacity lowers

  19. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - April 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2005 2005 Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook (Figure 1) Gasoline prices in 2005 are projected to remain high, at an expected average of $2.28 per gallon for the April to September summer season, 38 cents above last summer. Similar high motor gasoline prices are expected through 2006. Monthly average prices are projected to peak at about $2.35 per gallon in May. Summer diesel fuel prices are expected to average $2.24 per gallon. As in 2004, the primary

  20. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - July 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 2005 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2005 2005 Summer Motor Fuels Outlook Update (Figure 1) Retail regular-grade gasoline prices moved up from about $2.12 per gallon at the beginning of June to $2.33 on July 11. Gasoline pump prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.25 per gallon, 8 cents per gallon higher than last month's projection and about 35 cents per gallon above the year-ago level. Crude oil prices are expected to remain high enough to keep quarterly

  1. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - June 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2005 2005 Summer Motor Fuels Outlook Update (Figure 1) In May, while West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil prices oscillated from the low $50s range to $47 and back again, retail gasoline prices declined steadily from about $2.24 per gallon at the beginning of the month to $2.10 on May 30. On June 6, average retail prices were $2.12 per gallon. Pump gasoline prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.17 per gallon, similar to last

  2. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - May 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2005 2005 Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook Update (Figure 1) A considerable break in the expected strength of near-term crude oil prices has resulted in a lower forecast for retail gasoline prices this spring. Gasoline prices may well have seen their peak for the year, barring sharp disruptions in crude oil supply or refinery operations. Pump prices for the summer (April-September) are now projected to average $2.17 per gallon, still high by historical standards

  3. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook - September 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook September 2005 Hurricane Katrina (Figures 1 and 2) The Gulf of Mexico coast region is a major oil and natural gas supply center for the United States with significant offshore oil and natural gas production, refining capacity, and petrochemical facilities, and serves as a major import hub and nexus for pipeline infrastructure. In the Gulf coast region, Federal offshore crude oil production accounts for 1.5 million barrels per day (29 percent of total U.S.

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Changes to the Natural Gas Storage Regions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short-Term Energy Outlook: Changes to the Natural Gas Storage Regions December 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook: Changes to the Natural Gas Storage Regions 1 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  5. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ? 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  6. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  7. Method of manufacturing a shapeable short-resistant capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2013-04-02

    A method that employs a novel combination of conventional fabrication techniques provides a ceramic short-resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The method allows thinner and more flexible ceramic capacitors to be made. The method includes forming a first thin metal layer on a substrate; depositing a thin, ceramic dielectric layer over the metal layer; depositing a second thin metal layer over the dielectric layer to form a capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode; and separating the capacitor from the substrate. The method may also include bending the resulting capacitor into a serpentine arrangement with gaps between the layers that allow venting of evaporated electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  8. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  9. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  10. Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs This presentation covers: deep inelastic processes and transverse momentum distributions; chiral symmetry breaking, including the physical picture, the dynamical model, and parton distributions; partonic structures, including transverse momentum distributions, coordinate space correlator, and short range correlations; and measurements of semi-inclusive deep

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: March 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: April 12, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis Price

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: March 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: April 12, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: March 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: April 12, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Analysis & Projections Short-Term Energy Outlook Release Date: March 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: April 12, 2016 | Full Report | Text Only | All Tables | All Figures Glossary › FAQS › Overview STEO Report Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions Data Figures Tables Custom Table Builder Real Prices Viewer Forecast Changes (PDF) Special Analysis

  15. Short- and long-range magnetic order in LaMnAsO

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McGuire, Michael A.; Garlea, Vasile Ovidiu

    2016-02-02

    The magnetic properties of the layered oxypnictide LaMnAsO have been revisited using neutron scattering and magnetization measurements. The present measurements identify the Néel temperature T N =360(1) K. Below T N the critical exponent describing the magnetic order parameter is β=0.33–0.35 , consistent with a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Above this temperature, diffuse magnetic scattering indicative of short-range magnetic order is observed, and this scattering persists up to T SRO =650(10) K. Morevoer, the magnetic susceptibility shows a weak anomaly at T SRO and no anomaly at T N . Analysis of the diffuse scattering data using a reverse Monte Carlomore » algorithm indicates that above T N nearly two-dimensional, short-range magnetic order is present with a correlation length of 9.3(3) Å within the Mn layers at 400 K. The inelastic scattering data reveal a spin gap of 3.5 meV in the long-range ordered state, and strong, low-energy (quasielastic) magnetic excitations emerging in the short-range ordered state. When we compared it with other related compounds correlates the distortion of the Mn coordination tetrahedra to the sign of the magnetic exchange along the layer-stacking direction, and suggests that short-range order above T N is a common feature in the magnetic behavior of layered Mn-based pnictides and oxypnictides.« less

  16. Short-term time step convergence in a climate model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to themoreexpected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.less

  17. A Comparison of Short Rayleigh Range FEL Performance with Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Stephen; Evtushenko, Pavel; Michelle D. Shinn; Neil, George; Blau, Joe; Burggraff, D.; Colson, William; Crooker, P.P.; Sans Aguilar, J.

    2007-08-01

    One approach to attaining very high power in a free-electron laser (FEL) is to operate with a Rayleigh range much smaller than the wiggler length. Previously, 3D simulations of Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators showed that FEL gain doesn't fall off with Rayleigh range as predicted by one-dimensional simulations*. They also predict that the angular tolerance for the mirrors is much large than simplistic theory predicts. Using the IR Upgrade laser at Jefferson Lab lasing at 935 nm we have studied the performance of an FEL with very short Rayleigh range. We also looked at the angular sensitivity for several different Rayleigh ranges. We find very good agreement between simulations and measured gain and angular sensitivities. Surprisingly the gain continues to rise as the Rayleigh range is shortened and continues to grow even when the resonator becomes geometrically unstable. The same behavior is seen in both the experiment and simulations. We also find that, even for large Rayleigh r

  18. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to the expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.

  19. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to themore » expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.« less

  20. Short range spread-spectrum radiolocation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-04-29

    A short range radiolocation system and associated methods that allow the location of an item, such as equipment, containers, pallets, vehicles, or personnel, within a defined area. A small, battery powered, self-contained tag is provided to an item to be located. The tag includes a spread-spectrum transmitter that transmits a spread-spectrum code and identification information. A plurality of receivers positioned about the area receive signals from a transmitting tag. The position of the tag, and hence the item, is located by triangulation. The system employs three different ranging techniques for providing coarse, intermediate, and fine spatial position resolution. Coarse positioning information is provided by use of direct-sequence code phase transmitted as a spread-spectrum signal. Intermediate positioning information is provided by the use of a difference signal transmitted with the direct-sequence spread-spectrum code. Fine positioning information is provided by use of carrier phase measurements. An algorithm is employed to combine the three data sets to provide accurate location measurements.

  1. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy-weighted industrial production indices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy-weighted industrial production indices December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy-weighted industrial production indices i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  3. Soviet short-range nuclear forces: flexible response or flexible aggression. Student essay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.R.

    1987-03-23

    This essay takes a critical look at Soviet short-range nuclear forces in an effort to identify Soviet capabilities to fight a limited nuclear war with NATO. From an analysis of Soviet military art, weapon-system capabilities and tactics, the author concludes that the Soviets have developed a viable limited-nuclear-attack option. Unless NATO reacts to this option, the limited nuclear attack may become favored Soviet option and result in the rapid defeat of NATO.

  4. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntz, Floyd; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac applications; for instance, it could be employed to both accelerate the beam and to stabilize the superbunch mode of operation in circular track machines.

  5. Coordinated optical and ultraviolet observations of short period RS CVn and W UMa type stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Fiber Optic Echelle Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Spectrograph at KPNO as well as IUE data were analyzed in this study of short period RS CVn and W UMa type binaries. Optical data were analyzed using a spectral subtraction technique to find excess emission (or absorption) in the component spectra. Analysis of data for the W UMa type contact binary VW Cep strongly suggests the existence of extended material near the contact region but clearly outside the Roche lobes. This material is presumably confined in magnetic loops bridging the two components. Making simple assumptions, the density can be estimated at 4 to 5 times 10 {sup 12} cm (sup {minus}3). A possible prominence was also detected on the secondary component of the detached short period RS CVn system DH Leo.

  6. Test methods for determining short and long term VOC emissions from latex paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krebs, K.; Lao, H.C.; Fortmann, R.; Tichenor, B.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses an evaluation of latex paint (interior, water based) as a source of indoor pollution. A major objective of the research is the development of methods for predicting emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over time. Test specimens of painted gypsumboard are placed in dynamic flow-through test chambers. Samples of the outlet air are collected on Tenax sorbents and thermally desorbed for analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. These tests produce short- and long-term data for latex paint emissions of Texanol, 2-2(-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol, and glycols. Evaluation of the data shows that most of the Texanol emissions occur within the first few days, and emissions of the glycols occur over several months. This behavior may be described by an evaporative mass transfer process that dominates the short-term emissions, while long-term emissions are limited by diffusion processes within the dry paint-gypsumboard.

  7. Four-boson system with short-range interactions (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Four-boson system with short-range interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Four-boson system with short-range interactions We consider the nonrelativistic four-boson system with short-range forces and large scattering length in an effective quantum mechanics approach. We construct the effective interaction potential at leading order in the large scattering length and compute the four-body binding energies using the Yakubovsky equations. Cutoff independence of the

  8. First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    neutron source Science & Innovation » Technical Articles » First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven neutron source First time nuclear material detection by one short-pulse-laser-driven neutron source The results obtained are the first experimental demonstration of active interrogation of nuclear material by a short pulse laser driven neutron source. April 3, 2013 TRIDENT pulse The results obtained are the first experimental demonstration of active

  9. De Novo Sequencing with Short Reads: Does the Read Length Matter? (2009 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pezner, Pavel A

    2011-04-25

    Pavel Pevzner of UC San Diego spoke about "De Novo Sequencing with Short Reads" on March 26, 2009 during the 4th Annual User Meeting

  10. Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Study Using Multi-Physics Internal Short-Circuit Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-.H.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01

    This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.

  11. DSM savings verification through short-term pre-and-post energy monitoring at 90 facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misuriello, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the DSM impact results obtained from short-term energy measurements performed at sites monitored as part of the Commercial, Industrial and Agricultural (CIA) Retrofit Incentives Evaluation Program sponsored by the Pacific Gas & Electric Company. The DSM measures include those typically found in these sectors; i.e., lighting, motors, irrigation pumps and HVAC modifications. The most important findings from the site measurements are the estimated annual energy and demand savings. Although there may be large differences of projected energy savings for individual sites, when viewed in the aggregate the total energy savings for the program were found to be fairly comparable to engineering estimates. This paper describes the lessons learned from attempting in-situ impact evaluations of DSM savings under both direct and custom rebate approaches. Impact parameters of interest include savings under both direct and custom rebate approaches. Impact parameters of interest include gross first-year savings and load shape impacts. The major method discussed in this paper is short-term before/after field monitoring of affected end-uses; however, the complete impact evaluation method also includes a billing analysis component and a hybrid statistical/engineering model component which relies, in part, on the short-term end-use data.

  12. Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM): Application of the PSTAR method to a residence in Fredericksburg, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, K.; Burch, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Lekov, A.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes a project to assess the thermal quality of a residential building based on short-term tests during which a small number of data channels are measured. The project is called Short- Term Energy Monitoring (STEM). Analysis of the data provides extrapolation to long-term performance. The test protocol and analysis are based on a unified method for building simulations and short-term testing called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance is best satisfied in the least squares sense; hence, the name PSTAR. The mathematical formulation of PSTAR is detailed in earlier reports. This report describes the short-term tests and data analysis performed using the PSTAR method on a residential building in Fredricksburg, Virginia. The results demonstrate the ability of the PSTAR method to provide a realistically complex thermal model of a building, and determine from short-term tests the statics as well as the dynamics of a building, including solar dynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes - ISWAMP2 nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 Print http://iswamp2.jlu.edu.cn/ July 20-22, 2013; Xi'an, China

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied From the Short Gastric Artery: Treatment With Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Ung Bae Lee, Jun Woo Baik, Seung Kug Kim, Tae Un Choo, Ki Seok Kim, Kun Il Kim, Yong-Woo Moon, Tae-Yong

    2012-12-15

    We report a case of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that was supplied by the short gastric artery. A 67-year-old woman with two nodular HCCs underwent repeated TACE. One of the nodules was supplied by the short gastric artery.

  15. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2015-12-22

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicate that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.

  16. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2015-12-22

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicatemore » that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.« less

  17. Short spatial filters with spherical lenses for high-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdonov, K F; Soloviev, A A; Shaikin, A A; Potemkin, A K; Egorov, A S

    2013-11-30

    We report possible employment of short spatial filters based on spherical lenses in a pulsed laser source (neodymium glass, 300 J, 1 ns). The influence of the spherical aberration on the quality of output radiation and coefficient of conversion to the second harmonics is studied. The ultra-short aberration spatial filter of length 1.9 m with an aperture of 122 mm is experimentally tested. A considerable shortening of multi-cascade pump lasers for modern petawatt laser systems is demonstrated by the employment of short spatial filters without expensive aspherical optics. (elements of laser systems)

  18. Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b The localization of the short-duration,

  19. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); He, Fei (Ann Arbor, MI); Lau, Yue-Ying (Potomac, MD)

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  20. Ormat's North Brawley plant with 17MW short of its 50MW potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Site: Ormat's North Brawley plant with 17MW short of its 50MW potential Author Think Geoenergy Published Publisher Not Provided, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  1. Rapid Evolutionary Placement of Short Sequence Reads (2010 JGI/ANL HPC Workshop)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None, None

    2011-06-08

    Alexis Stamatakis of the Technical University of Munich gives a presentation on "Rapid Evolutionary Placement of Short Sequence Reads" at the JGI/Argonne HPC Workshop on January 26, 2010.

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  7. Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  8. Efficient Short-Read Assembly of Eukaryotic Genomes (2010 JGI/ANL HPC Workshop)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chapman, Jarrod

    2011-06-03

    Jarrod Chapman of the DOE JGI gives a presentation on "Efficient Short-Read Assembly of Eukaryotic Genomes" at the JGI/Argonne HPC Workshop on January 25, 2010.

  9. Parallel Assembly of Large Genomes from Paired Short Reads (2010 JGI/ANL HPC Workshop)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Aluru, Srinivas [Iowa State University

    2011-06-08

    Srinivas Aluru from Iowa State University gives a presentation on "Parallel Assembly of Large Genomes from Paired Short Reads" at the JGI/Argonne HPC Workshop on January 25, 2010.

  10. 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes - ISWAMP2 nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 http://iswamp2.jlu.edu.cn/ July 20-22, 2013; Xi'an, China

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Previous Short-Term Energy Outlook reports are available in the original Adobe Acrobat PDF file with text, charts, and tables, or just the monthly data tables in an Excel file. +...

  12. Y-12's history captured in short film | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    To close out the celebration of Y-12's 70th anniversary, a short film capturing highlights of the site's history now is available for viewing on the Y-12 public Web site at http:...

  13. THE LOCATIONS OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AS EVIDENCE FOR COMPACT OBJECT BINARY PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.

    2013-10-10

    We present a detailed investigation of Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV/optical observations of 22 short gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and sub-galactic environments. Utilizing the high angular resolution and depth of HST we characterize the host galaxy morphologies, measure precise projected physical and host-normalized offsets between the bursts and host centers, and calculate the locations of the bursts with respect to their host light distributions (rest-frame UV and optical). We calculate a median short GRB projected physical offset of 4.5 kpc, about 3.5 times larger than that for long GRBs, and find that ?25% of short GRBs have offsets of ?> 10 kpc. When compared to their host sizes, the median offset is 1.5 half-light radii (r{sub e} ), about 1.5 times larger than the values for long GRBs, core-collapse supernovae, and Type Ia supernovae. In addition, ?20% of short GRBs having offsets of ?> 5r{sub e} , and only ?25% are located within 1r{sub e} . We further find that short GRBs severely under-represent their hosts' rest-frame optical and UV light, with ?30%-45% of the bursts located in regions of their host galaxies that have no detectable stellar light, and ?55% in the regions with no UV light. Therefore, short GRBs do not occur in regions of star formation or even stellar mass. This demonstrates that the progenitor systems of short GRBs must migrate from their birth sites to their eventual explosion sites, a signature of kicks in compact object binary systems. Utilizing the full sample of offsets, we estimate natal kick velocities of ?20-140 km s{sup 1}. These independent lines of evidence provide the strongest support to date that short GRBs result from the merger of compact object binaries (NS-NS/NS-BH)

  14. Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways In this paper, we discuss the results of 2000-2100 simulations with a chemistry-climate model, focusing on

  15. High Statistics Study of Nearby Type 1a Supernovae. QUEST Camera Short Term

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Maintenance: Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: High Statistics Study of Nearby Type 1a Supernovae. QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance: Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Statistics Study of Nearby Type 1a Supernovae. QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance: Final Technical Report The Quest Camera was installed at the Palomar Obervatory in California. The camera was used to carry out a survey of low redshift Type 1a

  16. DOE/EIA-0202(88/2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections April 1988 aergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy E nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy '? nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook '"""look Short-Terni

  17. Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication NREL Internal Short Circuit (ISC) Fact Sheet (321 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Energy storage cells (also referred to herein as "cells" or "batteries") sold for

  18. Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Endurance | Department of Energy Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance Results of an investigation into effects of biofuels on engine- and system-out emissions, specifically US 2010 EPA exhaust after-treatment system from Mack Trucks PDF icon deer11_barnum.pdf More Documents & Publications High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine A European Perspective of EURO

  19. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND BROADBAND VARIABILITY IN SHORT MAGNETAR BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Watts, Anna L.; Uttley, Phil; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Goegues, Ersin; Granot, Jonathan; Vaughan, Simon; Finger, Mark H.

    2013-05-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. However, with only three giant flares ever recorded, and only two with data of sufficient quality to search for QPOs, such analysis is seriously data limited. We set out a procedure for doing QPO searches in the far more numerous, short, less energetic magnetar bursts. The short, transient nature of these bursts requires the implementation of sophisticated statistical techniques to make reliable inferences. Using Bayesian statistics, we model the periodogram as a combination of red noise at low frequencies and white noise at high frequencies, which we show is a conservative approach to the problem. We use empirical models to make inferences about the potential signature of periodic and QPOs at these frequencies. We compare our method with previously used techniques and find that although it is on the whole more conservative, it is also more reliable in ruling out false positives. We illustrate our Bayesian method by applying it to a sample of 27 bursts from the magnetar SGR J0501+4516 observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and we find no evidence for the presence of QPOs in any of the bursts in the unbinned spectra, but do find a candidate detection in the binned spectra of one burst. However, whether this signal is due to a genuine quasi-periodic process, or can be attributed to unmodeled effects in the noise is at this point a matter of interpretation.

  20. Prediction of Multi-Physics Behaviors of Large Lithium-Ion Batteries During Internal and External Short Circuit (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation describes the multi-physics behaviors of internal and external short circuits in large lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Development of a Novel Test Method for On-Demand Internal Short Circuit in a Li-Ion Cell (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.

  2. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic array will considerably improve the recording capacity of regional and local seismic events. It will allow detection of signatures of seismic waves propagating in submeridional and sublatitudinal directions. The latter is of special interest not only to access the influence of the Urals on propagation patterns of seismic waves, but also to address other questions, such as the structure and dynamic characteristics of the internal dynamo of the Earth [9,13]. Recording seismic waves at low angular distances from seismically active subpolar zones will allow us to collect data on vortical and convective movements in subpolar lithosphere blocks and at the boundary of the inner core of the Earth, possibly giving essential clues to the modeling of the Earth's electromagnetic field [3,13]. The present study considers basic features of seismic noise at the Vorkuta station obtained through the analysis of seismic records from March, 2006 till December, 2007.

  3. Economic Evaluation of Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts in ERCOT: Preliminary Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orwig, K.; Hodge, B. M.; Brinkman, G.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Banunarayanan, V.; Nasir, S.; Freedman, J.

    2012-09-01

    Historically, a number of wind energy integration studies have investigated the value of using day-ahead wind power forecasts for grid operational decisions. These studies have shown that there could be large cost savings gained by grid operators implementing the forecasts in their system operations. To date, none of these studies have investigated the value of shorter-term (0 to 6-hour-ahead) wind power forecasts. In 2010, the Department of Energy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration partnered to fund improvements in short-term wind forecasts and to determine the economic value of these improvements to grid operators, hereafter referred to as the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP). In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the economic benefit analysis portion of the WFIP for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. The improvements seen in the wind forecasts are examined, then the economic results of a production cost model simulation are analyzed.

  4. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M.; Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsss, H.; Thakur, S.; Maiti, K.

    2014-09-15

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25?eV and a fluence of approximately 5??10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6??6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  5. Short-circuit current density imaging of crystalline silicon solar cells via lock-in thermography: Robustness and simplifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fertig, Fabian Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan

    2014-11-14

    Spatially resolved determination of solar cell parameters is beneficial for loss analysis and optimization of conversion efficiency. One key parameter that has been challenging to access by an imaging technique on solar cell level is short-circuit current density. This work discusses the robustness of a recently suggested approach to determine short-circuit current density spatially resolved based on a series of lock-in thermography images and options for a simplified image acquisition procedure. For an accurate result, one or two emissivity-corrected illuminated lock-in thermography images and one dark lock-in thermography image have to be recorded. The dark lock-in thermography image can be omitted if local shunts are negligible. Furthermore, it is shown that omitting the correction of lock-in thermography images for local emissivity variations only leads to minor distortions for standard silicon solar cells. Hence, adequate acquisition of one image only is sufficient to generate a meaningful map of short-circuit current density. Beyond that, this work illustrates the underlying physics of the recently proposed method and demonstrates its robustness concerning varying excitation conditions and locally increased series resistance. Experimentally gained short-circuit current density images are validated for monochromatic illumination in comparison to the reference method of light-beam induced current.

  6. EVALUATING SHORT-TERM CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN THE LATE HOLOCENE OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph H. Hartman

    1999-09-01

    This literature study investigated methods and areas to deduce climate change and climate patterns, looking for short-term cycle phenomena and the means to interpret them. Many groups are actively engaged in intensive climate-related research. Ongoing research might be (overly) simplified into three categories: (1) historic data on weather that can be used for trend analysis and modeling; (2) detailed geological, biological (subfossil), and analytical (geochemical, radiocarbon, etc.) studies covering the last 10,000 years (about since last glaciation); and (3) geological, paleontological, and analytical (geochemical, radiometric, etc.) studies over millions of years. Of importance is our ultimate ability to join these various lines of inquiry into an effective means of interpretation. At this point, the process of integration is fraught with methodological troubles and misconceptions about what each group can contribute. This project has met its goals to the extent that it provided an opportunity to study resource materials and consider options for future effort toward the goal of understanding the natural climate variation that has shaped our current civilization. A further outcome of this project is a proposed methodology based on ''climate sections'' that provides spatial and temporal correlation within a region. The method would integrate cultural and climate data to establish the climate history of a region with increasing accuracy with progressive study and scientific advancement (e. g., better integration of regional and global models). The goal of this project is to better understand natural climatic variations in the recent past (last 5000 years). The information generated by this work is intended to provide better context within which to examine global climate change. The ongoing project will help to establish a basis upon which to interpret late Holocene short-term climate variability as evidenced in various studies in the northern Great Plains, northern hemisphere, and elsewhere. Finally these data can be integrated into a history of climate change and predictive climate models. This is not a small undertaking. The goals of researchers and the methods used vary considerably. The primary task of this project was literature research to (1) evaluate existing methodologies used in geologic climate change studies and evidence for short-term cycles produced by these methodologies and (2) evaluate late Holocene climate patterns and their interpretations.

  7. Short timescale photometric and polarimetric behavior of two BL Lacertae type objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covino, S.; Baglio, M. C.; Foschini, L.; Sandrinelli, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.; Zhang, H.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bonnoli, G.; Böttcher, M.; Cecconi, M.; D’Ammando, F.; di Fabrizio, L.; Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Lindfors, E.; Lorenzi, V.; Molinari, E.; Prandini, E.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2015-06-05

    Context. Blazars are astrophysical sources whose emission is dominated by non-thermal processes, typically interpreted as synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. Although the general picture is rather robust and consistent with observations, many aspects are still unexplored. Aims. Polarimetric monitoring can offer a wealth of information about the physical processes in blazars. Models with largely different physical ingredients can often provide almost indistinguishable predictions for the total flux, but usually are characterized by markedly different polarization properties. We explore, with a pilot study, the possibility to derive structural information about the emitting regions of blazars by means of a joint analysis of rapid variability of the total and polarized flux at optical wavelengths. Methods. Short timescale (from tens of seconds to a couple of minutes) optical linear polarimetry and photometry for two blazars, BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, was carried out with the PAOLO polarimeter at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Several hours of almost continuous observations were obtained for both sources. Results. Our intense monitoring allowed us to draw strongly different scenarios for BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, with the former characterized by intense variability on time-scales from hours to a few minutes and the latter practically constant in total flux. Essentially the same behavior is observed for the polarized flux and the position angle. The variability time-scales turned out to be as short as a few minutes, although involving only a few percent variation of the flux. The polarization variability time-scale is generally consistent with the total flux variability. Total and polarized flux appear to be essentially uncorrelated. However, even during our relatively short monitoring, different regimes can be singled out. Conclusions. No simple scenario is able to satisfactorily model the very rich phenomenology exhibited in our data. As a result, detailed numerical simulations show that the emitting region should be characterized by some symmetry, and the inclusion of turbulence for the magnetic field may constitute the missing ingredient for a more complete interpretation of the data.

  8. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in this region.

  9. A survey for very short-period planets in the Kepler data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Brian; Stark, Christopher C.; Chambers, John; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Deming, Drake

    2013-12-20

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler data set. Our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with orbital periods less than 12 hr. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean that they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m s{sup 1}) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered. Such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  10. Hall magnetohydrodynamics simulations of end-shorting induced rotation in field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macnab, A. I. D.; Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2007-09-15

    End-shorting of the open field lines that surround a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is believed to contribute to its observed rotation. In this study, nonlinear extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations were performed that detail the end-shorting process and the resulting spin-up of the FRC. The tangential component of the electric field E{sub T} is set to zero at the axial boundaries in an extended MHD model that includes the Hall and {nabla}P{sub e} terms. This shorting of the electric field leads to the generation of toroidal fields on the open field lines, which apply a torque leading to a rotation of the ions on the open field lines. The FRC then gains angular momentum through a viscous transfer from the open field line region. In addition, it is shown that spin-up is still induced when insulating boundaries are assumed.

  11. Short-wavelength plasma turbulence and temperature anisotropy instabilities: Recent computational progress

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gary, S. Peter

    2015-04-06

    Plasma turbulence consists of an ensemble of enhanced, broadband electromagnetic fluctuations, typically driven by multi-wave interactions which transfer energy in wavevector space via non- linear cascade processes. In addition, temperature anisotropy instabilities in collisionless plasmas are driven by quasi-linear wave–particle interactions which transfer particle kinetic energy to field fluctuation energy; the resulting enhanced fluctuations are typically narrowband in wavevector magnitude and direction. Whatever their sources, short-wavelength fluctuations are those at which charged particle kinetic, that is, velocity-space, properties are important; these are generally wavelengths of the order of or shorter than the ion inertial length or the thermal ion gyroradius.more » The purpose of this review is to summarize and interpret recent computational results concerning short-wavelength plasma turbulence, short-wavelength temperature anisotropy instabilities and relationships between the two phenomena.« less

  12. In-situ short-circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2003-04-15

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  13. In-situ short circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  14. One- and two-dimensional simulations of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B.I.; Kaiser, T.B.; Garrison, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    Ultra-short-pulse reflectometry is studied by means of the numerical integration of one- and two-dimensional full-wave equations for ordinary and extraordinary modes propagating in a plasma. The numerical calculations illustrate the use of the reflection of ultra-short-pulse microwaves as an effective probe of the density or magnetic profile in the presence of density or magnetic fluctuations in the plasma. Bragg resonance effects can be identified in the reflected signals, which give information on fluctuations. It is also demonstrated that ultra-short-pulse reflectometry can be used to perform correlation reflectometry measurements in which correlation lengths for density fluctuations are deduced from the observed cross-correlation function of phase shifts as a function of frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. One- and two-dimensional simulations of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B.I.; Kaiser, T.B.; Garrison, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ultra-short-pulse reflectometry is studied by means of the numerical integration of one- and two-dimensional full-wave equations for ordinary and extraordinary modes propagating in a plasma. The numerical calculations illustrate the use of the reflection of ultra-short-pulse microwaves as an effective probe of the density or magnetic profile in the presence of density or magnetic fluctuations in the plasma. Bragg resonance effects can be identified in the reflected signals, which give information on fluctuations. It is also demonstrated that ultra-short-pulse reflectometry can be used to perform correlation reflectometry measurements in which correlation lengths for density fluctuations are deduced from the observed cross-correlation function of phase shifts as a function of frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

  17. SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND DARK MATTER SEEDING IN NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles [Department of Fundamental Physics and IUFFyM, University of Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Daigne, F.; Silk, J., E-mail: mperezga@usal.es, E-mail: daigne@iap.fr, E-mail: j.silk1@physics.ox.ac.uk [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-05-10

    We present a mechanism based on internal self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars that may trigger full or partial conversion into a quark star. We explain how this effect may induce a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that could be classified as short, according to the usual definition based on time duration of the prompt gamma-ray emission. This mechanism differs in many aspects from the most discussed scenario associating short GRBs with compact object binary mergers. We list possible observational signatures that should help distinguish between these two possible classes of progenitors.

  18. Spectral characteristics of ultra-short laser pulses in plasma amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riconda, C.; Weber, S.; Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines, 18221 Prague ; Lancia, L.; INFNSez. RomaSAPIENZA, University of Rome, 00185 Rome ; Marqus, J.-R.; Fuchs, J.; Mourou, G. A.

    2013-08-15

    Amplification of laser pulses based on the backscattering process in plasmas can be performed using either the response of an electron plasma wave or an ion-acoustic wave. However, if the pulse durations become very short and the natural spread in frequency a substantial amount of the frequency itself, the Raman and Brillouin processes start to mix. Kinetic simulations show the transition from a pure amplification regime, in this case strong-coupling Brillouin, to a regime where a considerable downshift of the frequency of the amplified pulse takes place. It is conjectured that in the case of very short pulses, multi-modes are excited which contribute to the amplification process.

  19. Influence of discharge gap on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, G. L.; Jin, D. Z.; Dai, J. Y.; Yang, L.

    2012-02-15

    The influence of the discharge gap between cathode and anode on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc (SVA) ion source is presented in this paper. Planar cathode and cylindrical hollow anode made of titanium are investigated. There is a great need in present accelerator injection research for SVA source to produce the small deviation of the ion current beam. Current research shows that increasing the short discharge gap can reduce the level of ion current deviation and ion charge deviation from 29% and 31% to 15% and 17%, respectively. A microplasma plume generation mechanism in SVA and scanning electron microscopic results can be used to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  20. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: a Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 KeV to GeV Energies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Observations of GRB 090510: a Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 KeV to GeV Energies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: a Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 KeV to GeV Energies Authors: Ackermann, M. ; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys.

  1. Photonic band gaps in three-dimensional network structures with short-range order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Schreck, Carl F.; Dufresne, Eric R.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui

    2011-12-15

    We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PASs) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PASs with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PASs, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PASs without long-range order.

  2. Calculation of the Naval Long and Short Waste Package Three-Dimensional Thermal Interface Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Marr

    2006-10-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the Naval Long and Naval Short spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste packages (WP) in the repository emplacement drift. The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the temperature profiles upon the surfaces of the Naval Long and Short SNF waste package for up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The temperatures on the top of the outside surface of the naval canister are the thermal interfaces for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP). The results of this calculation are intended to support Licensing Application design activities.

  3. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures (Conference) | SciTech Connect Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave Structures Authors: Dolgashev, V.A. ; Tantawi, S.G. ; Yeremian, A.D. ; Li, Z. ; /SLAC ; Higashi, Y. ; /KEK, Tsukuba ; Spataro, B. ; /LNF, Dafne Light Publication Date: 2014-08-05 OSTI Identifier: 1149343 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-16060 DOE Contract Number:

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction of short-chain organic acids from anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wene, E.G.; Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters with glucose or municipal solid waste (MSW) feed were operated to maximize production of short-chain organic acids. Digester effluent was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or trioctylamine (TOA) in heptane or 2-heptanone as the water immiscible phase. Digester effluent was recycled to digesters after extraction. Both TOPO and TOA in organic solvents effectively extract organic acids from anaerobic digester fluid. Longer chain acids have a higher distribution coefficient than shorter-chain acids. Long term extraction of digester fluid with recycle was not toxic to the anaerobic production of short-chain acids.

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  6. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN PEAK ENERGY AND PEAK LUMINOSITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Chen, D. Y. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Huang, Y. F., E-mail: sci.zbzhang@gzu.edu.cn, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-08-10

    A correlation between the peak luminosity and the peak energy has been found by Yonetoku et al. as L{sub p} {proportional_to}E{sup 2.0}{sub p,i} for 11 pre-Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this study, for a greatly expanded sample of 148 long GRBs in the Swift era, we find that the correlation still exists, but most likely with a slightly different power-law index, i.e., L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i}. In addition, we have collected 17 short GRBs with necessary data. We find that the correlation of L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i} also exists for this sample of short events. It is argued that the radiation mechanism of both long and short GRBs should be similar, i.e., of quasi-thermal origin caused by the photosphere, with the dissipation occurring very near the central engine. Some key parameters of the process are constrained. Our results suggest that the radiation processes of both long and short bursts may be dominated by thermal emission, rather than by the single synchrotron radiation. This might put strong physical constraints on the theoretical models.

  9. A SEARCH FOR PULSATIONS IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS TO CONSTRAIN THEIR PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Frontera, F. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Amati, L. [INAF-IASF Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-10

    We searched for periodic and quasi-periodic signals in the prompt emission of a sample of 44 bright short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with Fermi/GBM, Swift/BAT, and CGRO/BATSE. The aim was to look for the observational signature of quasi-periodic jet precession, which is expected from black hole (BH)-neutron star (NS) mergers, but not from double NS systems. Thus, this kind of search holds the key to identifying the progenitor systems of short GRBs and, in the interim before gravitational wave detectors become on-lines, represents the only direct way to constrain the progenitors. We tailored our search to the nature of the expected signal by properly stretching the observed light curves by an increasing factor with time, after calibrating the technique with synthetic curves. None of our GRBs showed evidence for periodic or quasi-periodic signals. In particular, for the seven unambiguously short GRBs with the best signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained significant upper limits to the amplitude of the possible oscillations. This result suggests that BH-NS systems do not dominate the population of short GRB progenitors, as described by the kinematic model of Stone et al.

  10. Electrolytic etch for preventing electrical shorts in solar cells on polymer surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Michael F. (St. Paul, MN)

    1991-10-08

    A method for preventing shorts and shunts in solar cells having in order, an insulating substrate, a conductive metal layer on the substrate, an amorphous silicon layer and a transparent conductive layer. The method includes anodic etching of exposed portions of the metal layer after deposition of the amorphous silicon and prior to depositing the transparent conductive layer.

  11. Gasoline prices increase for first time in 5 weeks (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasoline prices increase for first time in 5 weeks (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time in 5 weeks to $3.31 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. U.S. gasoline increase for the first time in four weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. gasoline increase for the first time in four weeks (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time in 4 weeks to $3.27 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. U.S. gasoline price decrease for first time in seven weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price decrease for first time in seven weeks (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.45 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. U.S. gasoline price decrease for first time in seven weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices remain flat (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.41 a gallon on Monday. That's down half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. U.S. gasoline price decrease for first time in seven weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.57 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  16. U.S. gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the 17th week in a row to $2.04 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  17. U.S. gasoline price falls below $2.90 (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price falls below $2.90 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.89 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard

  18. U.S. gasoline price falls to lowest point of year so far (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest point this year to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. U.S. gasoline price increase for first time since August (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time since August to $2.34 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. U.S. gasoline price increases for the first time since September (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline price increases for the first time since September (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time since September to $2.07 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  1. U.S. gasoline prices at its lowest since February 2011 (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell 7.1 cents from a week ago to $3.19 a gallon on Monday. That's the lowest national pump price since February 2011, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  2. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease across the U.S. (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.43 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. U.S. gasoline prices decrease across the U.S. (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.50 a gallon on Monday. That's down 5.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  4. U.S. gasoline prices decrease for first time in three weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the first time in three weeks to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  5. U.S. gasoline prices decrease for first time in three weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the first time in three weeks to $3.59 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  6. U.S. gasoline prices decrease from previous week (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2015 U.S. gasoline prices decrease from previous week (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.80 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  7. U.S. gasoline prices fall to lowest level since February 2010 (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices fall to lowest level since February 2010 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 9.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  8. U.S. gasoline prices fall to lowest level since January 2011 (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0, 2014 U.S. gasoline prices fall to lowest level since January 2011 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level since January 2011 at $3.12 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8.7

  9. U.S. gasoline prices fall to lowest level since October 2009 (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices fall to lowest level since October 2009 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $2.55 a gallon on Monday. That's down 12 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. U.S. gasoline prices increase for first time in a month (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices increase for first time in a month (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time in a month to $2.49 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  11. U.S. gasoline prices increase for first time in a month (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time in a month to $2.24 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. U.S. gasoline prices increase for first time in four weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose 2 ½ cents from a week ago to $3.22 a gallon on Monday. That's the first increase in four weeks, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. U.S. gasoline prices increase from previous week (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices increase from previous week (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $2.84 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5.5 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. U.S. gasoline prices see sharpest increase since February (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.64 a gallon on Monday. That's up 14.7 cents from a week ago marking the sharpest increase since February, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. Changes in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption Data Collection and the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with the December 2010 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) will present natural gas consumption forecasts for the residential and commercial sectors that are consistent with recent changes to the Form EIA-857 monthly natural gas survey.

  16. Predicting and verifying energy savings for energy service companies using short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arney, W.M.; Waterbury, S.S.; Ossi, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a method using short-term monitoring to estimate lighting retrofit savings. This method meets the requirements of Options A and B of the IPMVP (International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol, US DOE 1997). This protocol was previously known as the NEMVP (North American Energy Measurement and Verification Protocol, US DOE 1996a). These protocols require that energy savings be calculated from the measured reduction in demand with run hours stipulated (Option A) or measured (Option B). Using short-term monitoring, the pre- and post-retrofit demand and energy consumption are recorded to meet the Option A requirements of measuring the demand reduction, including demand diversity, and through monitoring, the actual run hours are quantified. The short-term measured run hours are used to determine the stipulated annual run hours. After the retrofit has been performed, short-term monitoring is again performed to measure the reduced demand, and to verify that the post-retrofit run hours have not significantly changed. For Option B, both sets of run hours measurements are used for the energy savings estimates. Two case studies are presented. The first case study used the whole-building approach to monitoring of the lighting systems. The second case study required a sampling approach, since multiple end uses were served by the circuit panels. In both cases the savings estimated from the monitored data was less than the estimates based on the more traditional spreadsheet approach.

  17. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the first time in 4 weeks to $3.33 a gallon on Monday. That's down half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  18. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.30 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1-tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.38 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.58 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  1. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.60 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  3. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's up 9- tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  4. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the first time in three weeks to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  5. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  6. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  7. GRB 080503: IMPLICATIONS OF A NAKED SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST DOMINATED BY EXTENDED EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perley, D. A.; Metzger, B. D.; Butler, N. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Miller, A. A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Granot, J.; Sakamoto, T.; Gehrels, N.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Bunker, A.; Chen, H.-W.; Glazebrook, K.; Hall, P. B.; Hurley, K. C.; Kocevski, D.; Norris, J.

    2009-05-10

    We report on observations of GRB 080503, a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) with very bright extended emission (about 30 times the gamma-ray fluence of the initial spike) in conjunction with a thorough comparison to other short Swift events. In spite of the prompt-emission brightness, however, the optical counterpart is extraordinarily faint, never exceeding 25 mag in deep observations starting at {approx}1 hr after the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) trigger. The optical brightness peaks at {approx}1 day and then falls sharply in a manner similar to the predictions of Li and Paczynski (1998) for supernova-like emission following compact binary mergers. However, a shallow spectral index and similar evolution in X-rays inferred from Chandra observations are more consistent with an afterglow interpretation. The extreme faintness of this probable afterglow relative to the bright gamma-ray emission argues for a very low density medium surrounding the burst (a 'naked' GRB), consistent with the lack of a coincident host galaxy down to 28.5 mag in deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging. The late optical and X-ray peak could be explained by a slightly off-axis jet or by a refreshed shock. Our observations reinforce the notion that short GRBs generally occur outside regions of active star formation, but demonstrate that in some cases the luminosity of the extended prompt emission can greatly exceed that of the short spike, which may constrain theoretical interpretation of this class of events. This extended emission is not the onset of an afterglow, and its relative brightness is probably either a viewing-angle effect or intrinsic to the central engine itself. Because most previous BAT short bursts without observed extended emission are too faint for this signature to have been detectable even if it were present at typical level, conclusions based solely on the observed presence or absence of extended emission in the existing Swift sample are premature.

  8. Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Effects from Short-Pulse Lasers and Fusion Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eder, D C; Throop, A; Brown, Jr., C G; Kimbrough, J; Stowell, M L; White, D A; Song, P; Back, N; MacPhee, A; Chen, H; DeHope, W; Ping, Y; Maddox, B; Lister, J; Pratt, G; Ma, T; Tsui, Y; Perkins, M; O'Brien, D; Patel, P

    2009-03-06

    Our research focused on obtaining a fundamental understanding of the source and properties of EMP at the Titan PW(petawatt)-class laser facility. The project was motivated by data loss and damage to components due to EMP, which can limit diagnostic techniques that can be used reliably at short-pulse PW-class laser facilities. Our measurements of the electromagnetic fields, using a variety of probes, provide information on the strength, time duration, and frequency dependence of the EMP. We measure electric field strengths in the 100's of kV/m range, durations up to 100 ns, and very broad frequency response extending out to 5 GHz and possibly beyond. This information is being used to design shielding to mitigate the effects of EMP on components at various laser facilities. We showed the need for well-shielded cables and oscilloscopes to obtain high quality data. Significant work was invested in data analysis techniques to process this data. This work is now being transferred to data analysis procedures for the EMP diagnostics being fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In addition to electromagnetic field measurements, we measured the spatial and energy distribution of electrons escaping from targets. This information is used as input into the 3D electromagnetic code, EMSolve, which calculates time dependent electromagnetic fields. The simulation results compare reasonably well with data for both the strength and broad frequency bandwidth of the EMP. This modeling work required significant improvements in EMSolve to model the fields in the Titan chamber generated by electrons escaping the target. During dedicated Titan shots, we studied the effects of varying laser energy, target size, and pulse duration on EMP properties. We also studied the effect of surrounding the target with a thick conducting sphere and cube as a potential mitigation approach. System generated EMP (SGEMP) in coaxial cables does not appear to be a significant at Titan. Our results are directly relevant to planned short-pulse ARC (advanced radiographic capability) operation on NIF.

  9. Comment on “Measurement of two- and three-nucleon short-range correlation probabilities in nuclei”

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.; Hen, Or

    2015-04-24

    Comment on 'Measurement of 2- and 3-nucleon short range correlation probabilities in nuclei' shows how the reported three-nucleon plateau was likely due to resolution effects.

  10. GRB 090227B: THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN THE GENUINE SHORT AND LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muccino, M.; Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Izzo, L.; Penacchioni, A. V. [Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)] [Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    The time-resolved spectral analysis of GRB 090227B, made possible by the Fermi-GBM data, allows us to identify in this source the missing link between the genuine short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Within the Fireshell model of the GRBs we predict genuine short GRBs: bursts with the same inner engine of the long bursts but endowed with a severely low value of the baryon load, B {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. A first energetically predominant emission occurs at the transparency of the e {sup +} e {sup -} plasma, the Proper-GRB (P-GRB), followed by a softer emission, the extended afterglow. The typical separation between the two emissions is expected to be of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} s. We identify the P-GRB of GRB 090227B in the first 96 ms of emission, where a thermal component with the temperature kT = (517 {+-} 28) keV and a flux comparable with the non-thermal part of the spectrum is observed. This non-thermal component as well as the subsequent emission, where there is no evidence for a thermal spectrum, is identified with the extended afterglow. We deduce a theoretical cosmological redshift z = 1.61 {+-} 0.14. We then derive the total energy E{sup tot}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}= (2.83{+-}0.15) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53} erg, the baryon load B = (4.13 {+-} 0.05) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}, the Lorentz {Gamma} factor at transparency {Gamma}{sub tr} = (1.44 {+-} 0.01) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}, and the intrinsic duration {Delta}t' {approx} 0.35 s. We also determine the average density of the circumburst medium (CBM), (n {sub CBM}) = (1.90 {+-} 0.20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} particles cm{sup -3}. There is no evidence of beaming in the system. In view of the energetics and of the baryon load of the source, as well as of the low interstellar medium and of the intrinsic timescale of the signal, we identify the GRB progenitor as a binary neutron star. From the recent progress in the theory of neutron stars, we obtain masses of the stars m {sub 1} = m {sub 2} = 1.34 M {sub Sun} and their corresponding radii R {sub 1} = R {sub 2} = 12.24 km and thickness of their crusts {approx}0.47 km, consistent with the above values of the baryon load, of the energetics and of the time duration of the event.

  11. Solvation thermodynamics of amino acid side chains on a short peptide backbone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajari, Timir; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der

    2015-04-14

    The hydration process of side chain analogue molecules differs from that of the actual amino acid side chains in peptides and proteins owing to the effects of the peptide backbone on the aqueous solvent environment. A recent molecular simulation study has provided evidence that all nonpolar side chains, attached to a short peptide backbone, are considerably less hydrophobic than the free side chain analogue molecules. In contrast to this, the hydrophilicity of the polar side chains is hardly affected by the backbone. To analyze the origin of these observations, we here present a molecular simulation study on temperature dependent solvation free energies of nonpolar and polar side chains attached to a short peptide backbone. The estimated solvation entropies and enthalpies of the various amino acid side chains are compared with existing side chain analogue data. The solvation entropies and enthalpies of the polar side chains are negative, but in absolute magnitude smaller compared with the corresponding analogue data. The observed differences are large; however, owing to a nearly perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation, the solvation free energies of polar side chains remain largely unaffected by the peptide backbone. We find that a similar compensation does not apply to the nonpolar side chains; while the backbone greatly reduces the unfavorable solvation entropies, the solvation enthalpies are either more favorable or only marginally affected. This results in a very small unfavorable free energy cost, or even free energy gain, of solvating the nonpolar side chains in strong contrast to solvation of small hydrophobic or nonpolar molecules in bulk water. The solvation free energies of nonpolar side chains have been furthermore decomposed into a repulsive cavity formation contribution and an attractive dispersion free energy contribution. We find that cavity formation next to the peptide backbone is entropically favored over formation of similar sized nonpolar side chain cavities in bulk water, in agreement with earlier work in the literature on analysis of cavity fluctuations at nonpolar molecular surfaces. The cavity and dispersion interaction contributions correlate quite well with the solvent accessible surface area of the nonpolar side chains attached to the backbone. This correlation however is weak for the overall solvation free energies owing to the fact that the cavity and dispersion free energy contributions are almost exactly cancelling each other.

  12. THE FREQUENCY OF LOW-MASS EXOPLANETS. III. TOWARD {eta}{sub +} AT SHORT PERIODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Horner, J.; Butler, R. P.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Jones, H. R. A.; Carter, B. D.

    2011-09-01

    Determining the occurrence rate of 'super-Earth' planets (m sin i < 10 M{sub +}) is a critically important step on the path toward determining the frequency of Earth-like planets ({eta}{sub +}), and hence the uniqueness of our solar system. Current radial-velocity surveys, achieving precisions of 1 m s{sup -1}, are now able to detect super-Earths and provide meaningful estimates of their occurrence rate. We present an analysis of 67 solar-type stars from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search specifically targeted for very high precision observations. When corrected for incompleteness, we find that the planet occurrence rate increases sharply with decreasing planetary mass. Our results are consistent with those from other surveys: in periods shorter than 50 days, we find that 3.0% of stars host a giant (msin i > 100 M{sub +}) planet, and that 17.4% of stars host a planet with msin i < 10 M{sub +}. The preponderance of low-mass planets in short-period orbits is in conflict with formation simulations in which the majority of super-Earths reside at larger orbital distances. This work gives a hint as to the size of {eta}{sub +}, but to make meaningful predictions on the frequency of terrestrial planets in longer, potentially habitable orbits, low-mass terrestrial planet searches at periods of 100-200 days must be made an urgent priority for ground-based Doppler planet searches in the years ahead.

  13. Risk management considerations for seismic upgrading of an older facility for short-term residue stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Additon, S.L.; Peregoy, W.L.; Foppe, T.L.

    1999-06-01

    Building 707 and its addition, Building 707A, were selected, after the production mission of Rocky Flats was terminated a few years ago, to stabilize many of the plutonium residues remaining at the site by 2002. The facility had undergone substantial safety improvements to its safety systems and conduct of operations for resumption of plutonium operations in the early 1990s and appeared ideally suited for this new mission to support accelerated Site closure. During development of a new authorization basis, a seismic evaluation was performed. This evaluation addressed an unanalyzed expansion joint and suspect connection details for the precast concrete tilt-up construction and concluded that the seismic capacity of the facility is less than half of that determined by previous analysis. Further, potential seismic interaction was identified between a collapsing Building 707 and the seismically upgraded Building 707A, possibly causing the partial collapse of the latter. Both the operating contractor and the Department of Energy sought a sound technical basis for deciding how to proceed. This paper addresses the risks of the as-is facility and possible benefits of upgrades to support a decision on whether to upgrade the seismic capacity of Building 707, accept the risk of the as-is facility for its short remaining mission, or relocate critical stabilization missions. The paper also addresses the Department of Energy`s policy on natural phenomena.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPACT PHOTO-INJECTOR WITH RFFOCUSING LENS FOR SHORT PULSE ELECTRON SOURCE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabenhofer, Alexander; Eaton, Douglas W.

    2013-09-01

    For development of compact ultrafast electron source system, we are currently designing a short-pulse RF-gun with RF focusing structure by means of a series of comprehensive modeling analysis processes. EM design of a 2.5 cell resonant cavity with input coupler, acceleration dynamics of photo-emitted electron bunch, EM design of RF-lens with input coupler, and phasespace analysis of focused electron bunch are systematically examined with multi-physics simulators. All the features of the 2.856 GHz cavity geometry were precisely engineered for acceleration energies ranging from 100 keV to 500 keV (safety limited) to be powered by our 5 MW S-band klystron. The klystron (Thales TH2163) and modulator system (ScandiNova K1 turnkey system) were successfully installed and tested. Performance tests of the klystron system show peak output power > 5 MW, as per operation specifications. At the quasi-relativistic energies, the electron source is capable of generating 100fC – 1 pC electron bunch with pulse duration close to 30 fs – 1 ps and transverse size of a few hundred microns. PIC simulations have shown that the electron bunch undergoes fast RF acceleration, rapidly reaching the desired energies, which can be controlled by tuning RF injection phase and input driving power. It has been shown that it is possible to also focus/compress the bunch longitudinally using a RF-lens, which would allow us to control the temporal resolution of the system as well. While our primary analysis has been performed on a 2.5 cell design, we are also looking into half-cell (single cavity) design that is expected to provide the same range of beam energy with a simple configuration.

  15. Short-Term Energy Tests of a Credit Union Building in Idaho (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, K.; Balcomb, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes tests and results of the energy performance of a credit union building in Idaho. The building is in the Energy Edge Program administered by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). BPA provided incentives to incorporate innovative features designed to conserve energy use by the building. It is of interest to determine the actual performance of these features. The objective of this project was to evaluate the applicability of the SERI short-term energy monitoring (STEM) method to nonresidential buildings.

  16. Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed Short-lived Fission Product Gamma Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.

    2011-09-29

    A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at short times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.

  17. Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources The primary objective of this invention is to minimize the sensitivity of the human eye to intense visible light by blocking or reducing the incident fluence of light before it can cause the eye to become insensitive to the light, or temporarily blinded. Typical applications may be pilots subjected to light from laser pointers, or workers in occupations that may expose them to temporary intense light sources.

  18. Session 4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?"

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?" Speakers: Howard K. Gruenspecht, EIA David M. Arseneau, Federal Reserve Board Guy F. Caruso, Center for Strategic and International Studies Christopher Ellsworth, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Edward L. Morse, Credit Suisse Securities [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Howard: And this presentation could not be more timely,

  19. Role of short range correlations on nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, R. [Department of Applied Physics, B. B. Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226025 (India); Chaturvedi, K. [Department of Physics, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi-284128 (India); Rath, P. K. [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India); Raina, P. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar, Rupnagar - 140001, Punjab (India)

    2011-11-23

    Employing four different parametrization of the pairing plus multipolar type of effective two-body interaction and three different parametrizations of Jastrow-type of short range correlations, the uncertainties in the nuclear transition matrix elements due to the exchange of light as well as heavy Majorana neutrino for the 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} transition of neutrinoless positron {beta}{beta} decay are estimated in the PHFB model.

  20. DOE/EIA-0202(84/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections February 1984 Published: March 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- .iort- iort- lort- <ort- ort Tt- .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term Term .-Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  1. DOE/EIA-0202(84/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook pn Quarterly Projections August 1984 Published: September 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t- jrt .ort lort .iort .iort iort iort iort ort Tt jm .erm -Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  2. DOE/EIA-0202(84/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1984 Published: November 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort iort lort iort lort \ort ort Tt .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  3. DOE/EIA-0202(85/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1985 Published: February 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort lort lort nort lort *.ort ort Tt .m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  4. DOE/EIA-0202(85/2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook amm Quarterly Projections April 1985 Published: May 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort .iort iort iort lort '.ort ort .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  5. DOE/EIA-0202(85/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections July 1985 Published: August 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort iort iort iort iort '.ort ort Tt .-m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  6. DOE/EIA-0202(87/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1987 i- rt- jrt ort lort lort lort- iort- lort- ort- ort Tt- " t- . m erm Perm -Term -Term -Term -Term ,-Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term 71 e rrn TT1 "1 Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "nergy -cry Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  7. U.S. gasoline prices fall below $3.50 (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gasoline prices fall below $3.50 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell 3.3 cents from a week ago to $3.47 a gallon on Monday. This marks the first time since early March that prices have dipped below the 3.50 mark, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  8. QUARTER SHORT-T ERM ENERGY OUTLOO K QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3Q) 1991 3 QUARTER SHORT-T ERM ENERGY OUTLOO K QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION August 1991 This publication may be purchased from the Superintenden t of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Purchasing in formation for this or other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be obtained from the Government Printing Office or ElA's National Energy Information Center. Questions on energy statistics should be directed to the Center by mail, telephone, or

  9. QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) 1991 1 QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION February 1991 This publication may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Purchasing in formation for this or other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be obtained from the Government Printing Office or ElA's National Energy Information Center. Questions on energy statistics should be directed to the Center by mail, telephone, or

  10. Dispersion curves from short-time molecular dynamics simulation. 1. Diatomic chain results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noid, D.W.; Broocks, B.T.; Gray, S.K.; Marple, S.L.

    1988-06-16

    The multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) for frequency estimation is used to compute the frequency dispersion curves of a diatomic chain from the time-dependent structure factor. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that MUSIC can accurately determine the frequencies from very short time trajectories. MUSIC is also used to show how the frequencies can vary in time, i.e., along a trajectory. The method is ideally suited for analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of large systems.

  11. MELCOR calculations for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A postulated, low-pressure, short term station blackout severe accident has been analyzed using the MELCOR code for the Grand Gulf nuclear power plant. Different versions have been used with three different models of the plant. This paper presents results of the effects of different plant models and versions of MELCOR on the calculated results and to present the best-estimating timing of events for this transient.

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - Arseneau_EIA_ShortTermDriversofEnergyPrices.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TERM ENERGY PRICES: WHAT DRIVERS MATTER MOST? DAVID M. ARSENEAU FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD U.S. Energy Information Administration & Johns Hopkins University - SAIS FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD Johns Hopkins University SAIS 2010 Energy Conference Washington, D.C., U.S.A. A il 6 2010 April 6, 2010 BROAD COMMODITY PRICES SINCE 2000 Short-term Energy Prices: What Drivers Matters Most? BROAD COMMODITY PRICES SINCE 2000 April 6, 2010 Seminar: 2010 EIA/SAIS Energy Conference 2 A (GROSSLY OVERSIMPLIFIED)

  13. Ramp Forecasting Performance from Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Freedman, J.

    2014-05-01

    The variable and uncertain nature of wind generation presents a new concern to power system operators. One of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of wind power into the grid is the ability to handle large ramps in wind power output. Large ramps can significantly influence system economics and reliability, on which power system operators place primary emphasis. The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) was performed to improve wind power forecasts and determine the value of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the performance of improved short-term wind power ramp forecasting. The study is performed for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) by comparing the experimental WFIP forecast to the current short-term wind power forecast (STWPF). Four types of significant wind power ramps are employed in the study; these are based on the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental short-term wind power forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting, especially during the summer.

  14. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  15. Low work function surface layers produced by laser ablation using short-wavelength photons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); Siekhaus, Wigbert J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Short-wavelength photons are used to ablate material from a low work function target onto a suitable substrate. The short-wavelength photons are at or below visible wavelength. The elemental composition of the deposit is controlled by the composition of the target and the gaseous environment in which the ablation process is performed. The process is carried out in a deposition chamber to which a short-wavelength laser is mounted and which includes a substrate holder which can be rotated, tilted, heated, or cooled. The target material is mounted onto a holder that spins the target during laser ablation. In addition, the deposition chamber is provided with a vacuum pump, an external gas supply with atomizer and radical generator, a gas generator for producing a flow of molecules on the substrate, and a substrate cleaning device, such as an ion gun. The substrate can be rotated and tilted, for example, whereby only the tip of an emitter can be coated with a low work function material.

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Macro Bridge Procedure to Update Regional Macroeconomic Forecasts with National Macroeconomic Forecasts

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) uses macroeconomic variables such as income, employment, industrial production and consumer prices at both the national and regional1 levels as explanatory variables in the generation of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). This documentation explains how national macroeconomic forecasts are used to update regional macroeconomic forecasts through the RSTEM Macro Bridge procedure.

  17. Gravitational waves versus X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R., E-mail: fe.fisica@gmail.com, E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it, E-mail: ruffini@icra.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universit di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 090227B, allows us to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short GRB.

  18. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  19. 2D Optical Streaking for Ultra-Short Electron Beam Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.T.; Huang, Z.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose a novel approach to measure short electron bunch profiles at micrometer level. Low energy electrons generated during beam-gas ionization are simultaneously modulated by the transverse electric field of a circularly-polarized laser, and then they are collected at a downstream screen where the angular modulation is converted to a circular shape. The longitudinal bunch profile is simply represented by the angular distribution of the electrons on the screen. We only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration and there is no phase synchronization problem. Meanwhile the required laser power is also relatively low in this setup. Some simulations examples and experimental consideration of this method are discussed. At Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an S-band RF transverse deflector (TCAV) is used to measure the bunch length with a resolution 10 femtosecond (fs) rms. An X-band deflector (wavelength 2.6cm) is proposed recently to improve the resolution. However, at the low charge operation mode (20pC), the pulse length can be as short as fs. It is very challenging to measure femtosecond and sub-femtosecond level bunch length. One of the methods is switching from RF to {mu}m level wavelength laser to deflect the bunch. A powerful laser ({approx}10s GW) is required to deflect such a high energy beam (GeV) in a wiggler. Synchronization is another difficulty: the jitter between the bunch and the laser can be larger than the laser wavelength, which makes single-shot measurement impossible. To reduce the laser power, we propose to use ionized electrons from high energy electron beam and gas interaction for high energy electron bunch diagnostics. Similarly, the femtosecond X-ray streak camera uses X-ray ionization electrons to measure the X-ray pulse. The electrons generated by beam-gas ionization have low energy (eVs). Therefore, a lower laser power is possible to deflect such low energy electrons. Note that there is no field ionization in our case. To avoid field ionization, which occurs in plasma case, gases species with high field ionization threshold should be considered. For a linear polarized laser, the kick to the ionized electrons depends on the phase of the laser when the electrons are born and the unknown timing jitter between the electron beam and laser beam makes the data analysis very difficult. Here we propose to use a circular polarized laser to do a 2-dimensional (2D) streaking (both x and y) and measure the bunch length from the angular distribution on the screen, where the phase jitter causes only a rotation of the image on the screen without changing of the relative angular distribution. Also we only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration. A similar circular RF deflecting mode was used to measure long bunches. We developed a numerical particle-in-Cell (PIC) code to study the dynamics of ionization electrons with the high energy beam and the laser beam.

  20. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  1. SHORT-BASELINE NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MiniBooNE E. D. Zimmerman

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MiniBooNE E. D. Zimmerman University of Colorado PANIC 2011 Cambridge, Mass. 25 July 2011 Short-Baseline Neutrino Physics at MiniBooNE * MiniBooNE * Neutrino cross-sections * Hadron production channels * Oscillation physics * Antineutrino Oscillations * MiniBooNE-SciBooNE joint result Motivating MiniBooNE: LSND Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector * Stopped + beam at Los Alamos LAMPF produces e , , ̅ but no ̅ e (due to capture). * Look for delayed coincidence of positron

  2. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2016 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (STEO) Highlights  This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts for 2017.  North Sea Brent crude oil prices averaged $38/barrel (b) in December, a $6/b decrease from November, and the lowest monthly average price since June 2004. Brent crude oil prices averaged $52/b in 2015, down $47/b from the average in 2014, as growth in global liquids inventories put downward pressure on Brent prices throughout much of the year.  Forecast Brent crude oil prices

  3. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hongxiang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, WG; Yuan, XD; Xiang, Xia; Sun, Kai; Gao, Fei

    2014-05-28

    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  4. DOBEIA-0202(83/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOBEIA-0202(83/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections November 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort .lort lort lort lort <.ort ort Tt- .-m .erm -Term -Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Nrm ,iergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  5. DOE/EIA-0202(84/2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections May 1984 Published: June 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort .iort .iort- iort- iort- '.ort- ort- .m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term i-Term rTerm -Term xrm uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  6. DOE/EIA-0202(85/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook OBIS Quarterly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook OBIS Quarterly Projections October 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort .iort aort iort iort <.ort ort Tt .-m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term xrm uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  7. DOE/EIA-0202(86/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Ter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Ter m Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1986 .m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term ion-Term lort-Term ion-Term lort-Term lort-Term ort-Term ort-Term -rt-Term -t-Term -Term iiergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy " Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  8. DOE/EIA-0202(87/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1987 . m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term iort-Term lort-Term ion-Term lort-Term lort-Term ort-Term ort-Term rt-Term "t-Term -Term "rerm aergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  9. DOE/EIA-0202(87/2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections April 1987 . m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term iort-Term ion-Term ion-Term lort-Term lort-Term ort-Term ort-Term Tt-Term ".-Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  10. DOE/EIA-0202(88/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1988 .m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term ion-Term ion-Term tort-Term jort-Term ion-Term ort-Term ore-Term rt-Term 't-Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  11. DOE/EIA-0202|83/2Q)-1 Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    |83/2Q)-1 Short-Term Energy Outlook Volume 1-Quarterly Projections May 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort iort iort lOrt iort '.ort- ort Tt . m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release Schedule Release Date. The Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) scheduling procedure calls for the release of the STEO on the first Tuesday following the first Thursday of each month. For example, since the first Thursday of July 2009 was July 2, under this plan, the July edition was released on Tuesday, July 7. If a Federal holiday falls on the Monday before the normal release date the release is delayed until Wednesday. There may be the occasional unusual delay in the release because of

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Coal Supply EIA estimates that U.S. coal production for February 2016 was 54 million short tons (MMst), a 4 MMst (7%) decrease from the previous month and 18 MMst less than in February 2015. Forecast coal production is expected to decrease by 111 MMst (12%) in 2016, which would be the largest annual percentage decline since 1958. In 2016, forecast Appalachian and Western region production declines by 9% and 17%, respectively, and Interior region production falls by 4%. Total coal production

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report This is a regular monthly supplement to the EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook. Contact: James Preciado (James.Preciado@eia.gov) Full Report Crude Oil Prices: The North Sea Brent front month futures price rose $2.83 per barrel (b) from February 1 to settle at $37.07/b on March 3 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price rose $2.95/b and settled at $34.57 over the same period. Figure 1: Historical crude oil front month futures prices

  15. U.S. gasoline prices increase for first time since June (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2014 U.S. gasoline prices increase for first time since June (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose for the first time since late June to $3.46 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Amerine Woodyard on 202-586-1256

  16. QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    >OE/EIA-0202(92/3Q) 1992 3 QUARTER SHORT-TERM ENERGY OUTLOOK QUARTERLY PROJECTIONS ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION August 1992 This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. All telephone orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office Farragut Bookstore 151 OH Street N.W. Washington, DC 20005 (202)653-2050 FAX (202) 376-5055 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., eastern time,

  17. A short model excitation of an asymmetric force free superconducting transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wake, M.; Sato, H.; Carcagno, R.; Foster, W.; Hays, S.; Kashikhin, V.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Rabehl, R,; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    A short model of asymmetric force free magnet with single beam aperture was tested at Fermilab together with the excitation test of VLHC transmission line magnet. The design concept of asymmetric force free superconducting magnet was verified by the test. The testing reached up to 104 kA current and no indication of force imbalance was observed. Since the model magnet length was only 10cm, A 0.75m model was constructed and tested at KEK with low current to ensure the validity of the design. The cool down and the excitation at KEK were also successful finding very small thermal contraction of the conductor and reasonable field homogeneity.

  18. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2014-09-15

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  19. Form EIA-861S ANNUAL ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY REPORT (SHORT FORM)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1S ANNUAL ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY REPORT (SHORT FORM) INSTRUCTIONS OMB No. 1905-0129 Approval Expires: 05/31/2017 Burden: 0.75 Hours Page 1 PURPOSE Form EIA-861S collects information on the status of selected electric power industry participants involved in the sale, and distribution of electric energy in the United States. The data collected on this form are used to monitor the current status and trends of the electric power industry and to evaluate the future of the industry. REQUIRED

  20. Method for promoting specific alignment of short oligonucleotides on nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY); Kieleczawa, Jan (Coram, NY); Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for promoting specific alignment of short oligonucleotides on a nucleic acid polymer. The nucleic acid polymer is incubated in a solution containing a single-stranded DNA-binding protein and a plurality of oligonucleotides which are perfectly complementary to distinct but adjacent regions of a predetermined contiguous nucleotide sequence in the nucleic acid polymer. The plurality of oligonucleotides anneal to the nucleic acid polymer to form a contiguous region of double stranded nucleic acid. Specific application of the methods disclosed include priming DNA synthesis and template-directed ligation.

  1. meraculous: de novo genome assembly with short paired-end reads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Ho, Isaac; Sunkara, Sirisha; Luo, Shujun; Schroth, Gary P.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2011-08-01

    We describe a new algorithm, meraculous, for whole genome assembly of deep paired-end short reads, and apply it to the assembly of a dataset of paired 75-bp Illumina reads derived from the 15.4 megabase genome of the haploid yeast Pichia stipitis. More than 95% of the genome is recovered, with no errors; half the assembled sequence is in contigs longer than 101 kilobases and in scaffolds longer than 269 kilobases. Incorporating fosmid ends recovers entire chromosomes. Meraculous relies on an efficient and conservative traversal of the subgraph of the k-mer (deBruijn) graph of oligonucleotides with unique high quality extensions in the dataset, avoiding an explicit error correction step as used in other short-read assemblers. A novel memory-efficient hashing scheme is introduced. The resulting contigs are ordered and oriented using paired reads separated by ~280 bp or ~3.2 kbp, and many gaps between contigs can be closed using paired-end placements. Practical issues with the dataset are described, and prospects for assembling larger genomes are discussed.

  2. Short-Term Monitoring Results for Advanced New Construction Test House - Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, D.; Brozyna, K.; Imm, C.

    2013-09-01

    A builder (K. Hovnanian Homes), design consultant, and trades collaborated to identify a systems integrated measures package for a 2,253-ft slab-on-grade ranch house to achieve a modeled energy savings of 60% with respect to the Building America House Simulation Protocols, while minimizing construction costs and without requiring changes to the drawing that would impact local code or zoning approval. The key building improvements were applying R-10 insulation to the slab edge, increasing exterior wall cavity insulation from R-13 to R-15, and increasing attic insulation from R-30 to R-38. Also, the air handling unit was relocated from the attic to conditioned space, and ductwork was relocated along the attic floor with an insulated bulkhead built above it. Short-term testing results showed that duct air leakage was low due to short duct runs and the placement of ductwork in conditioned space. However, during commissioning, the lack of access for servicing the ductwork and dampers in the bulkhead area prevented retroactive balancing of individual branches, resulting in significant differences between specified and measured airflow values for some duct runs. Thermal imaging results performed on the house when operating in both heating and cooling modes validated historic stratification issues of ceiling supply registers with high supply air temperatures. Long-term monitoring results will be detailed in a future report.

  3. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  4. Micromechanical modeling of short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics-Isotropic damage of pseudograins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kammoun, S.; Brassart, L.; Doghri, I.; Delannay, L. [Universite catholique de Louvain, institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), 4, av. G. Lemaitre, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Robert, G. [Rhodia Engineering Plastics, Avenue Ramboz, B.P. 64, 69192 Saint-FONS Cedex (France)

    2011-05-04

    A micromechanical damage modeling approach is presented to predict the overall elasto-plastic behavior and damage evolution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The practical use of the approach is for injection molded thermoplastic parts reinforced with short glass fibers. The modeling is proceeded as follows. The representative volume element is decomposed into a set of pseudograins, the damage of which affects progressively the overall stiffness and strength up to total failure. Each pseudograin is a two-phase composite with aligned inclusions having same aspect ratio. A two-step mean-field homogenization procedure is adopted. In the first step, the pseudograins are homogenized individually according to the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The second step consists in a self-consistent homogenization of homogenized pseudograins. An isotropic damage model is applied at the pseudograin level. The model is implemented as a UMAT in the finite element code ABAQUS. Model is shown to reproduce the strength and the anisotropy (Lankford coefficient) during uniaxial tensile tests on samples cut under different directions relative to the injection flow direction.

  5. Different Factors Affecting Short Circuit Behavior of a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Samaan, Nader A.; Gevorgian, Vahan; Li, Jun; Pasupulati, Subbaiah

    2010-12-21

    A wind power plant consists of a large number of turbines interconnected by underground cable. A pad-mount transformer at each turbine steps up the voltage from generating voltage (690 V) to a medium voltage (34.5 kV). All turbines in the plant are connected to the substation transformer where the voltage is stepped up to the transmission level. An important aspect of wind power plant (WPP) impact studies is to evaluate the short-circuit (SC) current contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This task can be challenging to protection engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper investigates the short circuit behavior of a wind power plant for different types of faults. The impact of wind turbine types, the transformer configuration, and the reactive compensation capacitor will be investigated. The voltage response at different buses will be observed. Finally, the SC line currents will be presented along with its symmetrical components.

  6. Different Factors Affecting Short Circuit Behavior of a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Samaan, Nader A.; Gevorgian, Vahan; Li, Jun; Pasupulati, Subbaiah

    2013-01-31

    A wind power plant consists of a large number of turbines interconnected by underground cable. A pad-mount transformer at each turbine steps up the voltage from generating voltage (690 V) to a medium voltage (34.5 kV). All turbines in the plant are connected to the substation transformer where the voltage is stepped up to the transmission level. An important aspect of wind power plant (WPP) impact studies is to evaluate the short-circuit (SC) current contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This task can be challenging to protection engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper investigates the short circuit behavior of a wind power plant for different types of faults. The impact of wind turbine types, the transformer configuration, and the reactive compensation capacitor will be investigated. The voltage response at different buses will be observed. Finally, the SC line currents will be presented along with its symmetrical components.

  7. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomersmore » and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.« less

  8. Short-term energy outlook, October 1998. Quarterly projections, 1998 4. quarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from October 1998 through December 1999. Values for third quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the October 1998 version of the Short-term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  9. DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE GALAXIES HOSTING SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Margutti, R.; Czekala, I.; Zauderer, B. A.; Laskar, T.; Servillat, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Levan, A. J.; Tunnicliffe, R. L. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fox, D. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Perley, D. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Room 232, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Persson, S. E.; Monson, A. J.; Kelson, D. D.; Birk, C.; Murphy, D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anglada, G. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, Universitaet Goettingen, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-05-20

    We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, a star formation rate of Almost-Equal-To 16 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 50 Myr. We also report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i {approx}> 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4}-1 cm{sup -3} and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment ({approx}1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type ( Almost-Equal-To 50%), early-type ( Almost-Equal-To 15%), inconclusive ( Almost-Equal-To 20%), and ''host-less'' (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of {approx}> 26 mag; Almost-Equal-To 15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of Almost-Equal-To 60%-80% and Almost-Equal-To 20%-40%, respectively. We find no clear trend between gamma-ray duration and host type. We also find no change to the fractions when excluding events recently claimed as possible contaminants from the long GRB/collapsar population. Our reported demographics are consistent with a short GRB rate driven by both stellar mass and star formation.

  10. Another short-burst host galaxy with an optically obscured high star formation rate: The case of GRB 071227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Rossi, A.; Schmidl, S. [Thringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Micha?owski, M. J.; McKenzie, M. R. G. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Savaglio, S.; Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hunt, L. K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronoma s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Palazzi, E. [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We report on radio continuum observations of the host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst 071227 (z = 0.381) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect the galaxy in the 5.5 GHz band with an integrated flux density of F {sub ?} = 43 11 ?Jy, corresponding to an unobscured star-formation rate of about 24 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}, 40 times higher than what was found from optical emission lines. Among the ?30 well-identified and studied host galaxies of short bursts this is the third case where the host is found to undergo an episode of intense star formation. This suggests that a fraction of all short-burst progenitors hosted in star-forming galaxies could be physically related to recent star formation activity, implying a relatively short merger timescale.

  11. Spatially resolved determination of the short-circuit current density of silicon solar cells via lock-in thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fertig, Fabian Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan

    2014-05-19

    We present a spatially resolved method to determine the short-circuit current density of crystalline silicon solar cells by means of lock-in thermography. The method utilizes the property of crystalline silicon solar cells that the short-circuit current does not differ significantly from the illuminated current under moderate reverse bias. Since lock-in thermography images locally dissipated power density, this information is exploited to extract values of spatially resolved current density under short-circuit conditions. In order to obtain an accurate result, one or two illuminated lock-in thermography images and one dark lock-in thermography image need to be recorded. The method can be simplified in a way that only one image is required to generate a meaningful short-circuit current density map. The proposed method is theoretically motivated, and experimentally validated for monochromatic illumination in comparison to the reference method of light-beam induced current.

  12. THE BURST CLUSTER: DARK MATTER IN A CLUSTER MERGER ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST, GRB 050509B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahle, H.; Sarazin, C. L.; Lopez, L. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Rol, E.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Fynbo, J.; Michalowski, M. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Grupe, D.; Gehrels, N.

    2013-07-20

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous 'Bullet cluster', and we conclude that this 'Burst cluster' adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the origin of short GRBs. We also present our results from a weak-lensing survey based on archival Very Large Telescope images in the areas of five other short GRBs, which do not provide any firm detections of mass concentrations representative of rich clusters.

  13. Short torch design for direct liquid sample introduction using conventional and micro-nebulizers for plasma spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montaser, Akbar; Westphal, Craig S.; Kahen, Kaveh; Rutkowski, William F.

    2008-01-08

    An apparatus and method for providing direct liquid sample introduction using a nebulizer are provided. The apparatus and method include a short torch having an inner tube and an outer tube, and an elongated adapter having a cavity for receiving the nebulizer and positioning a nozzle tip of the nebulizer a predetermined distance from a tip of the outer tube of the short torch. The predetermined distance is preferably about 2-5 mm.

  14. Tamper to delay motion and decrease ionization of a sample during short pulse x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Szoke; Abraham (Fremont, CA), Hau-Riege; Stefan P. (Fremont, CA), Chapman; Henry N. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-26

    A system for x-ray imaging of a small sample comprising positioning a tamper so that it is operatively connected to the sample, directing short intense x-ray pulses onto the tamper and the sample, and detecting an image from the sample. The tamper delays the explosive motion of the sample during irradiation by the short intense x-ray pulses, thereby extending the time to obtain an x-ray image of the original structure of the sample.

  15. Short timescale photometric and polarimetric behavior of two BL Lacertae type objects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Covino, S.; Baglio, M. C.; Foschini, L.; Sandrinelli, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.; Zhang, H.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bonnoli, G.; Böttcher, M.; et al

    2015-06-05

    Context. Blazars are astrophysical sources whose emission is dominated by non-thermal processes, typically interpreted as synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. Although the general picture is rather robust and consistent with observations, many aspects are still unexplored. Aims. Polarimetric monitoring can offer a wealth of information about the physical processes in blazars. Models with largely different physical ingredients can often provide almost indistinguishable predictions for the total flux, but usually are characterized by markedly different polarization properties. We explore, with a pilot study, the possibility to derive structural information about the emitting regions of blazars by means of a joint analysismore » of rapid variability of the total and polarized flux at optical wavelengths. Methods. Short timescale (from tens of seconds to a couple of minutes) optical linear polarimetry and photometry for two blazars, BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, was carried out with the PAOLO polarimeter at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Several hours of almost continuous observations were obtained for both sources. Results. Our intense monitoring allowed us to draw strongly different scenarios for BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, with the former characterized by intense variability on time-scales from hours to a few minutes and the latter practically constant in total flux. Essentially the same behavior is observed for the polarized flux and the position angle. The variability time-scales turned out to be as short as a few minutes, although involving only a few percent variation of the flux. The polarization variability time-scale is generally consistent with the total flux variability. Total and polarized flux appear to be essentially uncorrelated. However, even during our relatively short monitoring, different regimes can be singled out. Conclusions. No simple scenario is able to satisfactorily model the very rich phenomenology exhibited in our data. As a result, detailed numerical simulations show that the emitting region should be characterized by some symmetry, and the inclusion of turbulence for the magnetic field may constitute the missing ingredient for a more complete interpretation of the data.« less

  16. A fast coherent synchrotron radiation monitor for the bunch length of the short CEBAF bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, D.X.; Krafft, G.A.; Price, E.; Wood, P.; Porterfield, D.; Crowe, T.

    1996-04-01

    A novel bunch length monitor for short (down to subpicosecond) electron bunches has been developed in a collaboration between CEBAF and the University of Virginia (UVA), using coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) detection techniques. The monitor employs a state of the art {open_quote}{open_quote}narrowband{close_quote}{close_quote} GaAs Schottky whisker diode developed by the UVA group, and has the following features: it is non-invasive, compact, and low cost, it has fast rise time, low noise, high sensitivity, and it operates at room temperature. In this paper, the design parameters and performance of the monitor and selected measurement results will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Wave chaos in the stadium: Statistical properties of short-wave solutions of the Helmholtz equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1988-04-15

    We numerically investigate statistical properties of short-wavelength normal modes and the spectrum for the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional stadium-shaped region. As the geometrical optics rays within this boundary (billiards) are nonintegrable, this wave problem serves as a simple model for the study of quantum chaos. The local spatial correlation function and the probability distribution P/sub n/(psi) of wave amplitude for normal modes psi/sub n/ are computed and compared with predictions based on semiclassical arguments applied to this nonintegrable Hamiltonian. The spectrum is analyzed in terms of the probability P(..delta..E) of neighboring energy-eigenvalue separations, which is shown to be similar to a Wigner distribution for the eigenvalues of a random matrix

  18. Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1 Pennsylvania 3.8 3.3 18.9 .8 .0 .0 .0 22.7 4.2 26.9 Virginia .1

  19. Table 7.2 Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1 Underground Surface 1 East of the Mississippi 1 West of the Mississippi 1 1949 437,868,000 [2] [2] 42,702,000 358,854,000 121,716,000 444,199,000 36,371,000 480,570,000 1950 516,311,000 [2] [2] 44,077,000 421,000,000 139,388,000 524,374,000 36,014,000 560,388,000 1951 533,665,000 [2] [2] 42,670,000 442,184,000 134,151,000 541,703,000 34,632,000 576,335,000

  20. Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 167,595 0 1,923,434 6,671 7,636,614 2,038,774 19,646 205 718,149 0 0 1,212 0 238 0 1,450 0 85 12,512,623 2001 315,870 24,178 2,571,415 8,325 11,176,191 3,335,258 109,877 1,169 882,455 15,933 514,166 219,077 0 75,704 12 824,892 440,408 97,261 19,787,299 2002 821,280 0

  1. Table 7.5 Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons) Year Canada Brazil Europe Japan Other 3 Total Belgium 1 Denmark France Germany 2 Italy Nether- lands Spain Turkey United Kingdom Other 3 Total 1960 12,843 1,067 1,116 130 794 4,566 4,899 2,837 331 NA – 2,440 17,113 5,617 1,341 37,981 1961 12,135 994 971 80 708 4,326 4,797 2,552 228 NA – 2,026 15,688 6,614 974 36,405 1962 12,302 1,327 1,289 38 851 5,056 5,978 3,320 766 NA 2 1,848 19,148 6,465 973 40,215 1963 14,557 1,161

  2. Table 7.7 Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour 1) Year Mining Method Location Total 2 Underground Surface 2 East of the Mississippi West of the Mississippi Underground Surface 2 Total 2 Underground Surface 2 Total 2 1949 0.68 [3] 1.92 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.72 1950 .72 [3] 1.96 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .76 1951 .76 [3] 2.00 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .80 1952 .80 [3] 2.10 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .84 1953 .88 [3] 2.22 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .93 1954 1.00 [3] 2.48 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA

  3. Table 7.8 Coke Overview, 1949-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coke Overview, 1949-2011 (Thousand Short Tons) Year Production Trade Stock Change 2 Consumption 3 Imports Exports Net Imports 1 1949 63,637 279 548 -269 176 63,192 1950 72,718 438 398 40 -659 73,417 1951 79,331 162 1,027 -865 372 78,094 1952 68,254 313 792 -479 419 67,356 1953 78,837 157 520 -363 778 77,696 1954 59,662 116 388 -272 269 59,121 1955 75,302 126 531 -405 -1,248 76,145 1956 74,483 131 656 -525 634 73,324 1957 75,951 118 822 -704 814 74,433 1958 53,604 122 393 -271 675 52,658 1959

  4. Table 7.9 Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 4.90 [4] 33.80 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.37 16.35 [R] 8.90 61.38 [R] 5.24 36.14 [R] 1950 4.86 [4] 33.16 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.41 16.44 [R] 9.34 63.73 [R] 5.19 35.41 [R] 1951 4.94 [4] 31.44 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.44 15.53 [R] 9.94 63.26 [R] 5.29 33.67 [R] 1952 4.92 [4] 30.78 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.39 14.95 [R] 9.58 59.94 [R]

  5. Aerodynamic force measurement on a large-scale model in a short duration test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanno, H.; Kodera, M.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Takahasi, M.; Itoh, K.

    2005-03-01

    A force measurement technique has been developed for large-scale aerodynamic models with a short test time. The technique is based on direct acceleration measurements, with miniature accelerometers mounted on a test model suspended by wires. Measuring acceleration at two different locations, the technique can eliminate oscillations from natural vibration of the model. The technique was used for drag force measurements on a 3 m long supersonic combustor model in the HIEST free-piston driven shock tunnel. A time resolution of 350 {mu}s is guaranteed during measurements, whose resolution is enough for ms order test time in HIEST. To evaluate measurement reliability and accuracy, measured values were compared with results from a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation. The difference between measured values and numerical simulation values was less than 5%. We conclude that this measurement technique is sufficiently reliable for measuring aerodynamic force within test durations of 1 ms.

  6. Experimental investigation of a relativistic magnetron with diffraction output on a repetitive short pulse generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Sun, Xiao-liang; Liu, Yong-gui

    2014-04-15

    An experimental investigation of a relativistic Magnetron with Diffraction Output (MDO) on a short voltage pulse generator, which has maximum repetition rate of 100?Hz and plateau of 2.5?ns, is detailed in this paper. Compared to the conversional solid cathode, a direct Density Modulation Cathode is capable for desired microwave radiation. When applied voltage is 200?kV and axial magnetic field is ?0.12?T, the MDO radiates 120?MW of microwave with 2.3?GHz of central frequency. Power conversion efficiency reaches 22%. Pulse duration is 3?ns. At repetition rates of 50?Hz and 100?Hz, output microwave powers range from 90?MW to 120?MW. Life time is up to 10{sup 4} shots.

  7. High detectivity short-wavelength II-VI quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P. Gmachl, Claire F.; Garcia, Thor A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jesus, Joel De

    2014-08-11

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe-based short-wavelength photovoltaic Quantum Cascade Detector (QCD). The QCD operates in two spectral bands centered around 2.6??m and 3.6??m. Calibrated blackbody measurements yield a peak responsivity of 0.1?mA/W or 2400?V/W at 80?K, and a corresponding 300?K background radiation limited infrared performance detectivity (BLIP) of ?2.5??10{sup 10?}cm ?Hz/W. Comparison of background illuminated and dark current-voltage measurements demonstrates a BLIP temperature of 200?K. The device differential resistance-area product, decreases from about 10{sup 6} ? cm{sup 2} at 80?K to about 8000 ? cm{sup 2} at 300?K, indicative of the ultra-low Johnson noise in the detectors.

  8. Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra short laser pulses in a real time, on line manner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1994-01-01

    An ultra short (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra short pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra short pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90.degree. angle of incidence.

  9. THIRD COMPONENT SEARCH AND ABUNDANCES OF THE VERY DUSTY SHORT-PERIOD BINARY BD +20 Degree-Sign 307

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Cordero, Maria J.; Galicher, Raphael; Zuckerman, B.; Melis, Carl; Weinberger, Alycia J. E-mail: majocord@indiana.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: weinberger@dtm.ciw.edu

    2012-04-10

    We have obtained near-infrared adaptive optics imaging and collected additional radial velocity observations to search for a third component in the extremely dusty short-period binary system BD +20 Degree-Sign 307. Our image shows no evidence for a third component at separations greater than 19 AU. Our four seasons of radial velocities have a constant center-of-mass velocity and are consistent with the systemic velocities determined at two earlier epochs. Thus, the radial velocities also provide no support for a third component. Unfortunately, the separation domains covered by our imaging and radial velocity results do not overlap. Thus, we examined the parameters for possible orbits of a third component that could have been missed by our current observations. With our velocities we determined improved circular orbital elements for the 3.4 day double-lined binary. We also performed a spectroscopic abundance analysis of the short-period binary components and conclude that the stars are a mid- and a late-F dwarf. We find that the iron abundances of both components, [Fe/H] = 0.15, are somewhat greater than the solar value and comparable to that of stars in the Hyades. Despite the similarity of the binary components, the lithium abundances of the two stars are very unequal. The primary has log {epsilon} (Li) = 2.72, while in the secondary log {epsilon} (Li) {<=}1.46, which corresponds to a difference of at least a factor of 18. The very disparate lithium abundances in very similar stars make it impossible to ascribe a single age to them. While the system is likely at least 1 Gyr old, it may well be as old as the Sun.

  10. SHORT VERSUS LONG AND COLLAPSARS VERSUS NON-COLLAPSARS: A QUANTITATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Nakar, Ehud [The Raymond and Berverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)] [The Raymond and Berverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-02-20

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are traditionally divided into long and short according to their durations (lg2 s). It was generally believed that this reflects a different physical origin: collapsars (long) and non-collapsars (short). We have recently shown that the duration distribution of collapsars is flat, namely, independent of the duration, at short durations. Using this model for the distribution of Collapsars we determine the duration distribution of non-Collapsars and estimate the probability that a burst with a given duration (and hardness) is a Collapsar or not. We find that this probability depends strongly on the spectral window of the observing detector. While the commonly used limit of 2 s is conservative and suitable for BATSE bursts, 40% of Swift's bursts shorter than 2 s are Collapsars and the division lg0.8 s is more suitable for Swift. We find that the duration overlap of the two populations is very large. On the one hand there is a non-negligible fraction of non-Collapsars longer than 10 s, while on the other hand even bursts shorter than 0.5 s in the Swift sample have a non-negligible probability to be Collapsars. Our results enable the construction of non-Collapsar samples while controlling the Collapsar contamination. They also highlight that no firm conclusions can be drawn based on a single burst and they have numerous implications concerning previous studies of non-Collapsar properties that were based on the current significantly contaminated Swift samples of localized short GRBs. Specifically (1) all known short bursts with z > 1 are most likely Collapsars; (2) the only short burst with a clear jet break is most likely a Collapsar, indicating our lack of knowledge concerning non-Collapsar beaming; and (3) the existence of non-Collapsars with durations up to 10 s imposes new challenges to non-Collapsar models.

  11. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  12. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  13. Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

    1999-11-09

    The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

  14. Short-wavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors operating above room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lotfi, Hossein; Li, Lu; Lei, Lin; Jiang, Yuchao; Yang, Rui Q.; Klem, John F.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2016-01-13

    High temperature operation (250–340 K) of short-wavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors (ICIPs) with InAs/GaSb/Al0.2In0.8Sb/GaSb superlattice absorbers has been demonstrated with a 50% cutoff wavelength of 2.9 μm at 300 K. Two ICIP structures, one with two and the other with three stages, were designed and grown to explore this multiple-stage architecture. At λ = 2.1 μm, the two- and three-stage ICIPs had Johnson-noise-limited detectivities of 5.1 × 109 and 5.8 ×109 cm Hz1/2/W, respectively, at 300 K. The better device performance of the three-stage ICIP over the two-stage ICIP confirmed the advantage of more stages for this cascade architecture. Furthermore,more » an Arrhenius activation energy of 450 meV is extracted for the bulk resistance-area product, which indicates the dominance of the diffusion current at these high temperatures.« less

  15. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2008-05-01

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Impurity effects on short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode in elongated tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Huarong; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Dong, J. Q.

    2015-02-15

    The effects of impurity ions on the short wavelength ion temperature gradient (SWITG) driven instability in elongated tokamak plasmas are numerically investigated with the gyrokinetic integral eigenmode equation. It is found that for a moderate electron density gradient, the SWITG mode is first destabilized and then stabilized with increasing elongation ?, which is different from the conventional long wavelength ITG mode. For a large electron density gradient, the elongation can effectively stabilize the SWITG mode. Moreover, the low Z impurity ions with inwardly (outwardly) peaked density profiles have stabilizing (destabilizing) effects on the SWITG modes in elongated plasmas. Interestingly, the high Z tungsten impurity ions with inwardly peaked density profiles play a stronger stabilizing role in the SWITG modes than the low Z impurity ions (such as carbon and oxygen) do. In particular, the high Z tungsten impurity ions with a weakly outwardly peaked density profile still have a stabilizing effect. Finally, the critical threshold of impurity density gradient scale length for exciting impurity mode is also numerically obtained, indicating that the impurity mode is harder to be excited in elongated plasmas than in circular ones.

  17. Effects of confinement on short-period surface waves: Observations from a new dataset

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, H.; Bonner, J.; Leidig, M.

    2006-04-15

    The Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE) was conducted during the summer of 2003 in Arizona. Single-fired chemical shots were detonated and recorded at two locations, including a coal mine in the Black Mesa district of northern Arizona. This article reports on research into the effects of confinement on the generation of short-period, fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg), using a subset of the SPE data. Results show important differences between the Rg amplitudes of confined and unconfined explosions which must be understood to develop discriminants for mining explosions, which are an important aspect of nuclear test monitoring. Rg energy and frequency content depend on explosive weight and confinement, and unconfined explosions generate up to eight times less energy than equivalent confined explosions. For this reason, unconfined mining explosions cannot be simulated using a Mueller and Murphy (1971) source without including an empirical chemical decoupling factor. Rg chemical decoupling factors for unconfined shots vary from 0.5 to 8.2 at frequencies between 0.5 and 11 Hz. The effects of the bench free face are evident in radiation patterns. Explosions on the topographic bench show increased spectral energies for Rg (by a factor of 1.5) at azimuths behind the bench. This suggests that a discriminant based on the relative azimuthal spectral energies of Rg may be a possibility.

  18. Is a Short-Interval Postradiation Mammogram Necessary After Conservative Surgery and Radiation in Breast Cancer?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Kevin Eradat, Jilbert B.S.; Mehta, Niraj H.; Bent, Chris; Lee, Steve P.; Apple, Sophia K.; Bassett, Lawrence W.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To examine, in a retrospective study, whether the initial posttreatment mammogram offers any benefit to patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected who had radiation after breast-conservation therapy from 1995 through 2005 and had follow-up mammography at University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) within 1 year of completing radiotherapy. Results of the initial follow-up mammogram were analyzed to determine the yield of this initial mammogram. Results: Between 1995 and 2005, 408 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy and radiation had follow-up mammograms at UCLA within 1 year of completion of radiation. Median age at radiation completion was 56.9 years. Median interval between radiation and the initial mammogram was 3.1 months. Ten patients were found to have suspicious findings on the initial postradiation mammogram, prompting biopsy, but only 2 were found to have recurrent cancer. None of those lesions were palpable. In both cases the recurrences were ductal carcinoma in situ. Thus, the yield of the initial postoperative mammogram as compared with physical examination findings is estimated at 0.49 recurrences detected per 100 mammograms performed (95% confidence interval 0.059-1.759). Conclusions: The yield of the initial postradiation mammography at UCLA seems to be low, and only noninvasive carcinomas were found. Our data support the rationale to avoid the initial short-interval postradiation mammography and evaluate patients at 12 months.

  19. NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST PRODUCTION IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Lee, William H.

    2014-06-10

    The central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) is hidden from direct view, operating at a scale much smaller than that probed by the emitted radiation. Thus we must infer its origin not only with respect to the formation of the triggerthe actual astrophysical configuration that is capable of powering an sGRBbut also from the consequences that follow from the various evolutionary pathways that may be involved in producing it. Considering binary neutron star mergers we critically evaluate, analytically and through numerical simulations, whether the neutrino-driven wind produced by the newly formed hyper-massive neutron star can allow the collimated relativistic outflow that follows its collapse to actually produce an sGRB or not. Upon comparison with the observed sGRB duration distribution, we find that collapse cannot be significantly delayed (?100ms) before the outflow is choked, thus limiting the possibility that long-lived hyper-massive remnants can account for these events. In the case of successful breakthrough of the jet through the neutrino-driven wind, the energy stored in the cocoon could contribute to the precursor and extended emission observed in sGRBs.

  20. U.S. gasoline prices decrease across the U.S. except for the west coast region (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  1. Tidally distorted exoplanets: Density corrections for short-period hot-Jupiters based solely on observable parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Moulds, V.; Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J.; Littlefair, S. P.

    2014-07-10

    The close proximity of short-period hot-Jupiters to their parent star means they are subject to extreme tidal forces. This has a profound effect on their structure and, as a result, density measurements that assume that the planet is spherical can be incorrect. We have simulated the tidally distorted surface for 34 known short-period hot-Jupiters, assuming surfaces of constant gravitational equipotential for the planet, and the resulting densities have been calculated based only on observed parameters of the exoplanet systems. Comparing these results to the density values, assuming the planets are spherical, shows that there is an appreciable change in the measured density for planets with very short periods (typically less than two days). For one of the shortest-period systems, WASP-19b, we determine a decrease in bulk density of 12% from the spherical case and, for the majority of systems in this study, this value is in the range of 1%-5%. On the other hand, we also find cases where the distortion is negligible (relative to the measurement errors on the planetary parameters) even in the cases of some very short period systems, depending on the mass ratio and planetary radius. For high-density gas planets requiring apparently anomalously large core masses, density corrections due to tidal deformation could become important for the shortest-period systems.

  2. Instrument performance study on the short and long pulse options of the second Spallation Neutron Source target station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Robertson, J. L.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Riemer, Bernard W.

    2013-10-15

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is designed with an upgrade option for a future low repetition rate, long wavelength second target station. This second target station is intended to complement the scientific capabilities of the 1.4 MW, 60 Hz high power first target station. Two upgrade possibilities have been considered, the short and the long pulse options. In the short pulse mode, proton extraction occurs after the pulse compression in the accumulator ring. The proton pulse structure is thus the same as that for the first target station with a pulse width of ?0.7 ?s. In the long pulse mode, protons are extracted as they are produced by the linac, with no compression in the accumulator ring. The time width of the uncompressed proton pulse is ?1 ms. This difference in proton pulse structure means that neutron pulses will also be different. Neutron scattering instruments thus have to be designed and optimized very differently for these two source options which will directly impact the overall scientific capabilities of the SNS facility. In order to assess the merits of the short and long pulse target stations, we investigated a representative suit of neutron scattering instruments and evaluated their performance under each option. Our results indicate that the short pulse option will offer significantly better performance for the instruments and is the preferred choice for the SNS facility.

  3. Development of a Single-Pass Cut-and-Chip Harvest System for Short Rotation Woody Crops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Development of a Single-Pass Cut-and-Chip Harvest System for Short Rotation Woody Crops Timothy Volk, Senior Research Associate, State University of New York—College of Environmental Science and Forestry

  4. verification & Validation of High-Order Short-Characteristics-Based Deterministic Transport Methodology on Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azmy, Yousry; Wang, Yaqi

    2013-12-20

    The research team has developed a practical, high-order, discrete-ordinates, short characteristics neutron transport code for three-dimensional configurations represented on unstructured tetrahedral grids that can be used for realistic reactor physics applications at both the assembly and core levels. This project will perform a comprehensive verification and validation of this new computational tool against both a continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. MCNP) and experimentally measured data, an essential prerequisite for its deployment in reactor core modeling. Verification is divided into three phases. The team will first conduct spatial mesh and expansion order refinement studies to monitor convergence of the numerical solution to reference solutions. This is quantified by convergence rates that are based on integral error norms computed from the cell-by-cell difference between the codes numerical solution and its reference counterpart. The latter is either analytic or very fine- mesh numerical solutions from independent computational tools. For the second phase, the team will create a suite of code-independent benchmark configurations to enable testing the theoretical order of accuracy of any particular discretization of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. For each tested case (i.e. mesh and spatial approximation order), researchers will execute the code and compare the resulting numerical solution to the exact solution on a per cell basis to determine the distribution of the numerical error. The final activity comprises a comparison to continuous-energy Monte Carlo solutions for zero-power critical configuration measurements at Idaho National Laboratorys Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Results of this comparison will allow the investigators to distinguish between modeling errors and the above- listed discretization errors introduced by the deterministic method, and to separate the sources of uncertainty.

  5. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozbek, Orhan; Acar, Kadir; Koc, Osman; Saritas, Kadir; Toy, Hatice; Solak, Yalcin; Ozbek, Seda; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  6. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation for Weak Lensing in Short Exposure Imaging Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.; Marshall, P.J.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Kahn, S.M.; Gull, S.F.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    A main science goal for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is to measure the cosmic shear signal from weak lensing to extreme accuracy. One difficulty, however, is that with the short exposure time ({approx_equal}15 seconds) proposed, the spatial variation of the Point Spread Function (PSF) shapes may be dominated by the atmosphere, in addition to optics errors. While optics errors mainly cause the PSF to vary on angular scales similar or larger than a single CCD sensor, the atmosphere generates stochastic structures on a wide range of angular scales. It thus becomes a challenge to infer the multi-scale, complex atmospheric PSF patterns by interpolating the sparsely sampled stars in the field. In this paper we present a new method, psfent, for interpolating the PSF shape parameters, based on reconstructing underlying shape parameter maps with a multi-scale maximum entropy algorithm. We demonstrate, using images from the LSST Photon Simulator, the performance of our approach relative to a 5th-order polynomial fit (representing the current standard) and a simple boxcar smoothing technique. Quantitatively, psfent predicts more accurate PSF models in all scenarios and the residual PSF errors are spatially less correlated. This improvement in PSF interpolation leads to a factor of 3.5 lower systematic errors in the shear power spectrum on scales smaller than {approx} 13, compared to polynomial fitting. We estimate that with psfent and for stellar densities greater than {approx_equal}1/arcmin{sup 2}, the spurious shear correlation from PSF interpolation, after combining a complete 10-year dataset from LSST, is lower than the corresponding statistical uncertainties on the cosmic shear power spectrum, even under a conservative scenario.

  7. MIXING AND TRANSPORT OF SHORT-LIVED AND STABLE ISOTOPES AND REFRACTORY GRAINS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2013-08-10

    Analyses of primitive meteorites and cometary samples have shown that the solar nebula must have experienced a phase of large-scale outward transport of small refractory grains as well as homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous short-lived isotopes. The stable oxygen isotopes, however, were able to remain spatially heterogeneous at the {approx}6% level. One promising mechanism for achieving these disparate goals is the mixing and transport associated with a marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disk, a likely cause of FU Orionis events in young low-mass stars. Several new sets of MGU models are presented that explore mixing and transport in disks with varied masses (0.016 to 0.13 M{sub Sun }) around stars with varied masses (0.1 to 1 M{sub Sun }) and varied initial Q stability minima (1.8 to 3.1). The results show that MGU disks are able to rapidly (within {approx}10{sup 4} yr) achieve large-scale transport and homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous distributions of disk grains or gas. In addition, the models show that while single-shot injection heterogeneity is reduced to a relatively low level ({approx}1%), as required for early solar system chronometry, continuous injection of the sort associated with the generation of stable oxygen isotope fractionations by UV photolysis leads to a sustained, relatively high level ({approx}10%) of heterogeneity, in agreement with the oxygen isotope data. These models support the suggestion that the protosun may have experienced at least one FU Orionis-like outburst, which produced several of the signatures left behind in primitive chondrites and comets.

  8. DIVERSITY OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS FROM COMPACT BINARY MERGERS HOSTING PULSARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Cole; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Montes, Gabriela [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) are widely believed to result from the mergers of compact binaries. This model predicts an afterglow that bears the characteristic signatures of a constant, low-density medium, including a smooth prompt-afterglow transition, and a simple temporal evolution. However, these expectations are in conflict with observations for a non-negligible fraction of sGRB afterglows. In particular, the onset of the afterglow phase for some of these events appears to be delayed and, in addition, a few of them exhibit late-time rapid fading in their light curves. We show that these peculiar observations can be explained independently of ongoing central engine activity if some sGRB progenitors are compact binaries hosting at least one pulsar. The Poynting flux emanating from the pulsar companion can excavate a bow-shock cavity surrounding the binary. If this cavity is larger than the shock deceleration length scale in the undisturbed interstellar medium, then the onset of the afterglow will be delayed. Should the deceleration occur entirely within the swept-up thin shell, a rapid fade in the light curve will ensue. We identify two types of pulsar that can achieve the conditions necessary for altering the afterglow: low-field, long-lived pulsars, and high-field pulsars. We find that a sizable fraction (?20%-50%) of low-field pulsars are likely to reside in neutron star binaries based on observations, while their high-field counterparts are not. Hydrodynamical calculations motivated by this model are shown to be in good agreement with observations of sGRB afterglow light curves.

  9. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  10. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a doseresponse model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR dose-dependently increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ?-muricholic acid (?MCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs). Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  11. Environmental Shortcourse Final report [Joint US-EC Short Course on Environmental Biotechnology: Microbial Catalysts for the Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, Gerben; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2013-03-05

    The Joint US-EC Short Course on Environmental Biotechnology is designed for several purposes. One of the central tenets is to bring together young scientists (at the late Ph.D. or early postdoctoral stages of their careers) in a forum that will set the groundwork for future overseas collaborative interactions. The course is also designed to give the scientists hands-on experience in modern, up-to-date biotechnological methods for the analysis of microbes and their activities pertinent to the remediation of pollutants in the environment. The 2011 course covered multiple theoretical and practical topics in environmental biotechnology. The practical part was centered around a full concise experiment to demonstrate the possibility for targeted remediation of contaminated soil. Experiments included chemical, microbiological, and molecular analyses of sediments and/or waters, contaminant bioavailability assessment, seeded bioremediation, gene probing, PCR amplification, microbial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene diversity, and microarray analyses. Each of these topics is explained in detail. The practical part of the course was complemented with two lectures per day, given by distinguished scientists from the US and from Europe, covering a research area related to what the students are doing in the course.

  12. Effect of short-term material balances on the projected uranium measurement uncertainties for the gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, J.M.; Rushton, J.E.

    1980-02-05

    A program is under way to design an effective International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system that could be applied to the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). This system would integrate nuclear material accountability with containment and surveillance. Uncertainties in material balances due to errors in the measurements of the declared uranium streams have been projected on a yearly basis for GCEP under such a system in a previous study. Because of the large uranium flows, the projected balance uncertainties were, in some cases, greater than the IAEA goal quantity of 75 kg of U-235 contained in low-enriched uranium. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the benefits of material balance periods of less than a year in order to improve the sensitivity and timeliness of the nuclear material accountability system. An analysis has been made of projected uranium measurement uncertainties for various short-term material balance periods. To simplify this analysis, only a material balance around the process area is considered and only the major UF/sub 6/ stream measurements are included. That is, storage areas are not considered and uranium waste streams are ignored. It is also assumed that variations in the cascade inventory are negligible compared to other terms in the balance so that the results obtained in this study are independent of the absolute cascade inventory. This study is intended to provide information that will serve as the basis for the future design of a dynamic materials accounting component of the IAEA safeguards system for GCEP.

  13. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps from Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a final rule regarding the request for exclusion of 100 Watt R20 short incandescent reflector lamps from energy conservation standards.

  15. Short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance, tritium beta decay, and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    We consider the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly and the gallium radioactive source experiments anomaly in terms of short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance in the framework of 3+1 four-neutrino mixing schemes. The separate fits of MiniBooNE and gallium data are highly compatible, with close best-fit values of the effective oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}. The combined fit gives {Delta}m{sup 2}(greater-or-similar sign)0.1 eV{sup 2} and 0.11(less-or-similar sign)sin{sup 2}2{theta}(less-or-similar sign)0.48 at 2{sigma}. We consider also the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments and the limits on the effective electron antineutrino mass in {beta} decay obtained in the Mainz and Troitsk tritium experiments. The fit of the data of these experiments limits the value of sin{sup 2}2{theta} below 0.10 at 2{sigma}. Considering the tension between the neutrino MiniBooNE and gallium data and the antineutrino reactor and tritium data as a statistical fluctuation, we perform a combined fit which gives {Delta}m{sup 2}{approx_equal}2 eV and 0.01(less-or-similar sign)sin{sup 2}2{theta}(less-or-similar sign)0.13 at 2{sigma}. Assuming a hierarchy of masses m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, m{sub 3}<

  16. Characterizing Composition Modulations in InAs/AIAs Short-Period Superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrenkiel, S.P.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Jones, E.D.; Lee, S.R.; Mascarenhas, A.; Millunchick, J. Mirecki; Norman, A.G.; Reno, J.L.; Twesten, R.D.

    1999-04-26

    The formation of quantum wires has much interest due to their novel electronic properties which may lead to enhanced optoelectronic device performance and greater photovoltaic efficiencies. One method of forming these structures is through spontaneous lateral modulation found during the epitaxial growth of III/V alloys. In this paper, we report and summarize our investigations on the formation of lateral moduation in the MBE grown InAlAs/InP(001) system. This system was grown as a short-period superlattice where n-monolayers of InAs are deposited followed by m-Monolayers of AlAs (with n and m~2) and this sequence is repeated to grown a low strain InAlAs ternary alloy on InP(001) that exhibits lateral modulation. Films were grown under a variety of condition (growth temperature, effective alloy composition, superlattice period, and growth rate). These films have been extensively analyzed using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microcharacterization, in addition to photon-based spectroscopes. Here we present results of several microstructural characterizations using a wide range of TEM-based techniques, and compare them to results from the other methods to obtain a unified understanding of composition modulation. Two strong points consistently emerge: 1) The lateral modulation wavelength is insensitive to growth temperature and effective alloy composition, but the strength of the lateral modulation is greatest near an effective alloy composition of In(0.46)Al(0.54)As, which corresponds to a slightly tensile global strain with respect to InP. 2) The composition variation for the strongly modulated films is as much as 0.38 InAs mole fraction. In addition, for these strongly modulated films, the modulation wave is asymmetric showing strongly peaked, narrower InAs-rich regions separated by flat AlAs-rich regions. We discuss these results and their possible implications in addition to detailing the techniques used to obtain them.

  17. A methodology to assess the radionuclide migration parameters through bentonite-sand backfill in a short experimental duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurumoorthy, C.; Kusakabe, O.

    2007-07-01

    Bentonite-Sand Backfill is a part of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) widely used in a Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) to delay migration of radionuclides from the disposed nuclear waste in a geo environment. Laboratory migration experiments have been conducted to understand the advection/diffusion mechanisms of various radionuclides through backfill and to evaluate their migration rates in order to assess the performance of EBS. Migration through backfill is an extremely slow process and the experiments are time consuming. Also, these experiments have limitations to simulate the field stress conditions. Various researchers have experienced the advantages of centrifuge modeling technique to model contaminant transport problems of geo-environment. However, no such studies have been carried out adopting this technique to model the behaviour of bentonite-sand mixture as backfill in NSDF. An attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the validity of this technique to carry out such studies. Significance of geotechnical centrifuge modeling to simulate the prototype radionuclide migration mechanisms through backfill is highlighted. This paper presents the dimensional analysis of various scale factors to construct a physical model for centrifuge tests to monitor online the migration phenomena of radionuclides through bentonite-sand mixture. Studies reveal the feasibility of the technique to evaluate the migration parameters in a short experimental duration. Such studies help in improving EBS design and assessing the long-term performance of EBS in NSDF. (authors)

  18. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  19. Short-time asymptotics of a rigorous path integral for N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemannian manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, Dana S.; Sawin, Stephen

    2014-06-15

    Following Feynman's prescription for constructing a path integral representation of the propagator of a quantum theory, a short-time approximation to the propagator for imaginary-time, N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a compact, even-dimensional Riemannian manifold is constructed. The path integral is interpreted as the limit of products, determined by a partition of a finite time interval, of this approximate propagator. The limit under refinements of the partition is shown to converge uniformly to the heat kernel for the Laplace-de Rham operator on forms. A version of the steepest descent approximation to the path integral is obtained, and shown to give the expected short-time behavior of the supertrace of the heat kernel.

  20. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J.; Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.

    2011-12-30

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.