Sample records for anaerobic extremely thermophilic

  1. anaerobic extreme thermophilic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for methane production by anaerobic digestion of animal manures. Experiences with design, construction, and operation of a two-stage heated continuous-feed digester for a herd of...

  2. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophilic biogas Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biogas Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic thermophilic biogas Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Institute for Renewable Energy Ltd...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophilic digestion Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophiles annual Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophiles progress Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    due to various... returns from energy and byproduct sales. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, biogas, cooperatives, carbon Source: Laughlin, Robert B. - Department of Physics, Stanford...

  7. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anaerobic thermophilic oil reservoir and well communities.been detected in hot oil reservoirs and production fluids (other thermophilic oil reservoirs and wells suggests that

  8. Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a continental hot spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slobodkin, A.; Wiegel, J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Reysenbach, A.L. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strain of a thermophilic, anaerobic, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/AS-Y7{sup T}; DSM 11255), was isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and New Zealand. The gram-positive-staining cells occurred singly or in pairs as straight to slightly curved rods, 0.3 to 0.4 by 1.6 to 2.7 {mu}m, with rounded ends and exhibited a tumbling motility. Spores were not observed. The temperature range for growth was 50 to 74{degrees}C with an optimum at 65{degrees}C. The pH range for growth at 65{degrees}C was from 5.5 to 7.6, with an optimum at 6.0 to 6.2. The organism coupled the oxidation of glycerol to reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as an electron acceptor. In the presence as well as in the absence of Fe(III) and in the presence of CO{sub 2}, glycerol was metabolized by incomplete oxidation to acetate as the only organic metabolic product; no H{sub 2} was produced during growth. The organism utilized glycerol, lactate, 1,2-propanediol, glycerate, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, mannose, and yeast extract as substrates. In the presence of Fe(III) the bacterium utilized molecular hydrogen. The organism reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, fumarate (to succinate), and thiosulfate (to elemental sulfur) but did not reduce MnO{sub 2}, nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or elemental sulfur. The G+C content of the DNA was 41 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography). The 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis placed the isolated strain as a member of a new genus within the gram-type positive Bacillus-Clostridium subphylum.

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterium thermoanaerobacter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    .1.5 Selection of thermophilic conditions 7 1.2 Microbiology of thermophilic anaerobic methanol conversion 7 1 Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for Ecological and...

  10. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  11. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svetlitshnyi, V.; Wiegel, J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Rainey, F. [German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-264{sup T}; DSM 11003) were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60{degrees}C, the pH range for growth determined at 25{degrees}C [pH{sup 25{degrees}C}] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH{sup 60{degrees}C} of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH{sup 25{degrees}C} of 8.5 temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70{degrees}C, with an optimum between 60 and 66{degrees}C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic continuously stirred Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or thermophilic... ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

  13. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct Switchgrass. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct...

  14. Autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deeny, K. (Junkins Engineering, Morgantown, PA (United States)); Hahn, H.; Leonhard, D. (Univ. Karlsruhe (West Germany)); Heidman, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is first and foremost a digestion process, the primary purpose of which is to decompose a portion of the waste organic solids generated from wastewater treatment. As a result of the high operating temperature, digestion is expected to occur within a short time period (6 days) and accomplish a high degree of pathogen reduction. ATAD systems are two-stage aerobic digestion processes that operate under thermophilic temperature conditions (40 to 80C) without supplemental heat. Like composting, the systems rely on the conservation of heat released during digestion itself to attain and sustain the desired operating temperature. Typical ATAD systems operate at 55C and may reach temperatures of 60 to 65C in the second-stage reactor. Perhaps because of the high operating temperature, this process has been referred to as Liquid Composting.' Major advantages associated with thermophilic operation include high biological reaction rates and a substantial degree of pathogen reduction.

  15. Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relationships are necessary. ª 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Land application the opportunity to put sewage sludge, which otherwise needs to be disposed of, towards beneficial use such as crop, enteric viruses and Salmonella spp. Land application of Class B biosolids, which require only reduction

  16. anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and tested in pilot scale for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment...

  17. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  18. Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    samples are overwhelmingly in favor of AD technology. Keywords Anaerobic digester, biogas, electricityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation

  19. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  20. Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    technology. Keywords Anaerobic digester, biogas, electricity production, manure management #12;4 TableArnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors

  1. Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors H U U B H . J . C O X , T H O M A S S E X of ethanol vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated. Two reactors were adaptation phase, the removal of ethanol was similar in both reactors. At a bed contact time of 57 s

  2. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Springs Thermophilic microbial fuel cell Horse manure "Natronoanaerobium sp. microbial fuel cell clone SHBZ503 (Clostridia" Tropical tree Microbial fuel cell Horse manure ?

  3. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    due to corrosion are expensive problems in the oil industrycorrosion. The similarity of core taxa in these samples and those from other thermophilic oil

  4. Bibliography on anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishna, J.; Pruett, D.M.; Santerre, M.T.; Toyoshiba, T.S.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The priority assigned to biogas systems by participants in A.I.D's Energy for Rural Development Program spurred the compilation of this 373-item bibliography on anaerobic digestion. The materials focus on energy technologies that are especially suited to the social, economic, and institutional concerns of rural Asia and the Pacific. Entries are presented in two sections. The first presents largely non-technical reports on anaerobic digesters in South and Southeast Asia, for the years 1956-80, with emphasis on the period 1970-80. The second section, which includes both technical and non-technical references, is a condensation of a computerized search of the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Research Abstracts published during the period 1977-80. The search revealed a lack of reliable data, pointing to the need for further research on the technology and potential of anaerobic digestion.

  5. The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    and commercialization. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic municipal solid waste and subsequent biogas and methaneThe Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Municipal Solid Waste in California. Anaerobic Digestion Technology 2.1. Feedstock Characterization 2.2. Collection & Sorting 2.2.1. Waste

  6. 5, 23052341, 2008 Anaerobic methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 5, 2305­2341, 2008 Anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments N. J. Knab et al. Title of Biogeosciences Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea N. J. Knab1 , B. A. Cragg2­2341, 2008 Anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments N. J. Knab et al. Title Page Abstract

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophiles final Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for treating this waste stream since it results in two valuable final products, biogas and ... Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council...

  8. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Jimmy H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mountain, Bruce W [NEW ZEALAND; Feng, Lu [NANKAI UNIV; Omelchenko, Marina V [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Hou, Shaobin [UNIV OF HAWAII; Saito, Jennifer A [UNIV OF HAWAII; Stott, Matthew B [NEW ZEALAND; Li, Dan [NANKAI UNIV; Zhao, Guang [NANKAI UNIV; Wu, Junli [NANKAI UNIV; Galperin, Michael Y [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Koonin, Eugene V [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Makarova, Kira S [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Wolf, Yuri I [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Rigden, Daniel J [UNIV OF LIVERPOOL; Dunfield, Peter F [UNIV OF CALGARY; Wang, Lei [NANKAI UNIV; Alam, Maqsudul [UNIV OF HAWAII

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli.

  9. 1H, 13C, and 15N backbone and side chain resonance assignments of thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus cyclophilin-A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holliday, Michael; Zhang, Fengli; Isern, Nancy G.; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclophilins catalyze the reversible peptidyl-prolyl isomerization of their substrates and are present across all kingdoms of life from humans to bacteria. Although numerous biological roles have now been discovered for cyclophilins, their function was initially ascribed to their chaperone-like activity in protein folding where they catalyze the often rate-limiting step of proline isomerization. This chaperone-like activity may be especially important under extreme conditions where cyclophilins are often over expressed, such as in tumors for human cyclophilins {Lee, 2010 #1167}, but also in organisms that thrive under extreme conditions, such as theromophilic bacteria. Moreover, the reversible nature of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerization reaction catalyzed by cyclophilins has allowed these enzymes to serve as model systems for probing the role of conformational changes during catalytic turnover {Eisenmesser, 2002 #20;Eisenmesser, 2005 #203}. Thus, we present here the resonance assignments of a thermophilic cyclophilin from Geobacillus kaustophilus derived from deep-sea sediment {Takami, 2004 #1384}. This thermophilic cyclophilin may now be studied at a variety of temperatures to provide insight into the comparative structure, dynamics, and catalytic mechanism of cyclophilins.

  10. Protein Dynamics in a Family of Laboratory Evolved Thermophilic Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    , Deqiang Zhang1,2 , Nagarajan Vaidehi1,2 Frances H. Arnold1 and William A. Goddard III1,2 * 1 DivisionProtein Dynamics in a Family of Laboratory Evolved Thermophilic Enzymes Patrick L. Wintrode1 these variants display much higher melt- ing temperatures than wild-type (up to 18 8C higher) they are both .97

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkalophilic thermophilic bacillus Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Life on Earth. II The Hadean Earth Summary: ) Alkalophiles - inhabit alkaline lakes (pH10) Barophiles - high pressure Thermophiles - hot environments... of Life LUCA...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic co-oxidizing thermophile Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life LUCA may be a Thermophile Possibly more complex than some existing life 12;The Tree of Life 12... ) Alkalophiles - inhabit alkaline lakes (pH10) Barophiles -...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - autoheated thermophilic aerobic Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life LUCA may be a Thermophile Possibly more complex than some existing life 12;The Tree of Life 12... ) Alkalophiles - inhabit alkaline lakes (pH10) Barophiles -...

  14. Extreme Tourism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: The stereotype of the Japanese tourist with his camera has been taken to an extreme by one Toshifumi Fujimoto. Mr. Fujimoto likes to don camo clothing and sneak up to the front lines of international ...

  15. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  17. Extreme superstarclusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul P. van der Werf; Leonie Snijders

    2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of superstarclusters is a characteristic feature of starburst galaxies. We examine the properties of star forming regions and young star clusters in various environments, ranging from common to extreme. We then discuss new high spatial resolution mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of extreme superstarclusters in the obscured region of the Antennae (NGC4038-4039). We find that the PAH emission in this region is not dominated by the superstarclusters but is mostly diffuse. Emission line ratios found in our high spatial resolution data differ significantly from those in larger apertures, strongly affecting the derived results.

  18. A Highly Active Protein Repair Enzyme from an Extreme Thermophile: The L-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Steven

    and Biochemistry and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 to be intermediate between those of the high-affinity human enzyme and those of the lower-affinity wheat, nematode

  19. Extreme Users WHY engage with extreme users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    Extreme Users METHOD WHY engage with extreme users HOW to engage extreme users Designers engage inspiration from their work-arounds and frameworks. When you speak with and observe extreme users, their needs extreme users are often also needs of a wider population. Determine who's extreme Determining who

  20. Extremal Graph Problems, Degenerate Extremal Problems,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simonovits, Miklós

    Extremal Graph Problems, Degenerate Extremal Problems, and Supersaturated Graphs Mikl´os Simonovits´an-type extremal problem. The graphs attaining the maximum will be called extremal and their family will be denoted and multi- ple edges. In 1940, P. Tur´an posed and solved the extremal problem of Kp+1, the complete graph

  1. The dangers of extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of quantum corrections to extreme black holes indicate noeffects [10]. The dangers of extremes 8. Ori, A. : StructureFOUNDATION The dangers of extremes Donald Marolf Published

  2. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  3. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi...

  4. anaerobic reactors treating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a destabilisation. Key words: Haldane model, Anaerobic Bernard, Olivier 20 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

  5. anaerobic reactor treating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a destabilisation. Key words: Haldane model, Anaerobic Bernard, Olivier 20 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

  6. Extreme Optimization Announcements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Extreme Optimization Announcements Assignment 3 due tomorrow @ 5pm. No late days on Extreme, we will hold extra office hours during regular section times. #12;Extreme Optimization Extreme University Fall 2014 #12;Extreme Optimization The radiotherapy problem Saving Lives: Radiotherapy Radiation

  7. Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

  8. Siting Requirements for Anaerobic Lagoons (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute provides regulations for required distances between anaerobic lagoons and residences or public use areas. The separation distances may be waived or reduced with the agreement of the...

  9. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

  10. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acid-resistant bacterium Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterium anaerocellum Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

  14. anaerobic odontogenic infections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producers to operate an anaerobic digester with minimum technological knowhow and for the cost of a conventional (more) Giard, David 2011-01-01 13 ANAEROBIC CULTURE METHODS IN A...

  15. Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

  16. anaerobic bacterial aggregates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems Setia, Sanjeev 73 Biogeochemistry of Isoprenoid Production and Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodgeradation. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??This dissertation...

  17. Biological Hydrogen Production Measured in Batch Anaerobic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the energy balance of a global economy (1, 2). Low-cost hydrogen based fuel cells, which have been expensiveBiological Hydrogen Production Measured in Batch Anaerobic Respirometers B R U C E E . L O G A N The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests

  18. Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timmer, Jens

    -knit community of bacteria cooperate to form a stable, self- regulating fermentation that transforms organic-chain fatty acids); fermentation of aminoacids and sugars; anaero- bic oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols; anaerobic oxidation of intermediary products such as volatile fatty acids; conversion of acetate

  19. Extreme Value Theory, Extreme Temperatures, and demonstration of extRemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extreme Value Theory, Extreme Temperatures, and demonstration of extRemes Eric Gilleland, National;Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Web Page http://www.isse.ucar.edu/extremevalues/evtk.html #12;Background on Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) Motivation Central Limit Theorem Extremal Types Theorem Normal (light tail

  20. The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Weather and Climate Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Weather and Climate Applications of Extreme Value Statistics Eric;The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Web Page http://www.assessment.ucar.edu/toolkit Acknowledgements 1. The Extremes Toolkit is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the NCAR Weather and Cli- mate

  1. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  2. The HPr Proteins from the Thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus Can Form Domain-swapped Dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Sudharsan; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J. Martin; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of proteins from extremophilic organisms continues to generate interest in the field of protein folding because paradigms explaining the enhanced stability of these proteins still elude us and such studies have the potential to further our knowledge of the forces stabilizing proteins. We have undertaken such a study with our model protein HPr from a mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, and a thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus. We report here the high-resolution structures of the wild-type HPr protein from the thermophile and a variant, F29W. The variant proved to crystallize in two forms: a monomeric form with a structure very similar to the wild-type protein as well as a domain-swapped dimer. Interestingly, the structure of the domain-swapped dimer for HPr is very different from that observed for a homologous protein, Crh, from B. subtilis. The existence of a domain-swapped dimer has implications for amyloid formation and is consistent with recent results showing that the HPr proteins can form amyloid fibrils. We also characterized the conformational stability of the thermophilic HPr proteins using thermal and solvent denaturation methods and have used the high-resolution structures in an attempt to explain the differences in stability between the different HPr proteins. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the solution properties of the HPr proteins using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods.

  3. Extremal generalized quantum measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Jencova

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement on a section K of the set of states of a finite dimensional C*-algebra is defined as an affine map from K to a probability simplex. Special cases of such sections are used in description of quantum networks, in particular quantum channels. Measurements on a section correspond to equivalence classes of so-called generalized POVMs, which are called quantum testers in the case of networks. We find extremality conditions for measurements on K and characterize generalized POVMs such that the corresponding measurement is extremal. These results are applied to the set of channels. We find explicit extremality conditions for two outcome measurements on qubit channels and give an example of an extremal qubit 1-tester such that the corresponding measurement is not extremal.

  4. anaerobic processes occurring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  5. anaerobic aquifer polluted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  6. Optimization of running strategies based on anaerobic energy and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amandine Aftalion

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 13, 2013 ... We extend this analysis, based on the equation of motion and aerobic energy, to include a balance of anaerobic energy (or accumulated...

  7. anaerobic enrichment culture: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producers to operate an anaerobic digester with minimum technological knowhow and for the cost of a conventional (more) Giard, David 2011-01-01 34 Parameter identification in...

  8. Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagoons. Abstract: This study evaluated the use of biochar produced from anaerobic digester dairy fiber (ADF) to sequester phosphorus (P) from dairy lagoons. The ADF was...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic betaproteobacterium georgfuchsia...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  10. anaerobic mixed microbial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  11. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayono, Satoto Endar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of anaerobic reactors treating OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste), especially in terms (more)

  12. FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study ON EXTREMES · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes (Germany, France) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme Value Theory (EVT) (4) Application of EVT to Verification (5) Frost

  13. FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study on Extremes · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes "Il est impossible que l'improbable n'arrive jamais." #12;3 OUTLINE (1) Motivation (2) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme

  14. FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study ON EXTREMES · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes "Il est impossible que l'improbable n'arrive jamais." #12;3 OUTLINE (1) Motivation (2) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme

  15. Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic that anaerobic biofuel production could be significantly improved via directed evolution of a sugar transporter: cellodextrin transporter; cellobiose utilization; cellulosic biofuel; anaerobic fermentation; directed

  16. DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES Simeonov, I variables of anaerobic digestion processes. For this purpose, different mathematical models of anaerobic digestion and different theoretical approaches (differential algebraic approach, Kalman filter modifications

  17. Extremal quantum protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Generalized quantum instruments correspond to measurements where the input and output are either states or more generally quantum circuits. These measurements describe any quantum protocol including games, communications, and algorithms. The set of generalized quantum instruments with a given input and output structure is a convex set. Here we investigate the extremal points of this set for the case of finite dimensional quantum systems and generalized instruments with finitely many outcomes. We derive algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline anaerobic respiration Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Effects of Benthic Organic Matter Quality on Aerobic and Anaerobic Sediment Metabolism in West Falmouth Harbor Summary: , respectively. Anaerobic respiration...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biodegradation potential Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plas- tic Materials in the Presence... of Municipal Sewage Sludge D 5210 17. Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fungus neocallimastix Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    neocallimastix Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI: POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS Summary: . Yarlett et al. (1986) reported cryopreservation of the anaerobic fungus...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic filamentous fungus Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    filamentous fungus Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI: POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS Summary: . Yarlett et al. (1986) reported cryopreservation of the anaerobic fungus...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic immobilized biomass Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. W., Samani... of the above MSW fractions for their suitability to be converted to biogas and anaerobic compost using... of anaerobic compost (fermentation residue) and has the...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestor methanothrix Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The main factors that affect the economic viability of anaerobic digestors... of the biogas and the energy required to heat the digestor). Anaerobic digestors are normally...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion analysis Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digesters current Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion usa Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic 2-methylnaphthalene degradation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: that can be degraded by bacteria. Biogas: the gas produced by anaerobic bacteria in the anaerobic digestion... at Virginia...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion final Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion performance Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested cattle Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion heat Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digesters treating Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester treating Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester performance Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biosurfactant production Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (1990) Received 25th January Summary: ). High Solids Anaerobic Fermentation for Biogas and Compost Production. Biomass 16, 173-182. Owen, W... Reactor for Anaerobic...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion model Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acidification broth Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    broth produced in the biomass... is expected to undergo anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. This biogas will serve as the primary source... be produced during the anaerobic...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacteria thermoanaerobacter Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic selenate-respiring bacteria Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

  2. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume E T H A N L . G R O S S M A N , * , L U I, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its

  3. Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Brian J.

    Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data. Montserrat-developed, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order-developed. However, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. One

  4. Extremal covariant measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We characterize the extremal points of the convex set of quantum measurements that are covariant under a finite-dimensional projective representation of a compact group, with action of the group on the measurement probability space which is generally non-transitive. In this case the POVM density is made of multiple orbits of positive operators, and, in the case of extremal measurements, we provide a bound for the number of orbits and for the rank of POVM elements. Two relevant applications are considered, concerning state discrimination with mutually unbiased bases and the maximization of the mutual information.

  5. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Prospectus Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio #12;The field of extreme ultraviolet light (XUV to the way XUV interacts with object, XUV properties are difficult to observe. Extreme ultraviolet light is absorbed by all objects it comes in contact with. Furthermore, extreme ultraviolet light also has low

  7. Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb, , G. Gauliera , C. Hurlinb aUniversity Maastricht proposes a new approach to date extreme financial cycles. Elabo- rating on recent methods in extreme value theory, it elaborates an extension of the famous calculus rule to detect extreme peaks and troughs

  8. Extremes in Chaotic Dynamical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extremes in Chaotic Dynamical Systems Valerio Lucarini valerio.lucarini@uni-hamburg.de D. Faranda Vortragsthema Datum #12;1. Introduction 2. Classical Theory: Extreme Values for i.i.d. Variables 3. Extreme Values in Dynamical Systems: Theoretical Background 4. Numerical Algorithms for studying Extremes 5

  9. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  10. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  11. THE EXTREME HOSTS OF EXTREME SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 50F-1650, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8139 (United States); Seibert, Mark [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Overzier, Roderik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neff, Susan G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donas, Jose [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how extreme they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.

  12. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano; P. Perinotti; N. J. Cerf

    2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are "extremal" in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called "double-Bell states", whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacements.

  13. April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar was held April 16, 2013, and provided information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system, and the Forest County Potawatomi...

  14. Design of an anaerobic digester in Quebec, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouaziz, Alexandre N. (Alexandre Nathanel)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .In response to the future Quebec, Canada regulations prohibiting landfilling of organic matter by 2020, EBI, a waste management company located near Montreal is considering constructing an anaerobic digester. This thesis ...

  15. anaerobic energy metabolism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

  16. Extreme Cosmic String

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    1995-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the geometry of supermassive cosmic strings. We have used an approach that enforces the spacetime of cosmic strings to also satisfy the conservation laws of a cylindric gravitational topological defect, that is a spacetime kink. In the simplest case of kink number unity, the entire energy range of supermassive strings becomes then quantized so that only cylindrical defects with linear energy density $G\\mu=1/4$ (critical string) and $G\\mu=1/2$ (extreme string) are allowed to occur in this range. It has been seen that the internal spherical coordinate $\\theta$ of the string metric embedded in an Euclidean three-space also evolves on imaginary values, leading to the creation of a covering shell of broken phase that protects the core with trapped energy, even for $G\\mu=1/2$. Then the conical singularity becomes a removable horizaon singularity. We re-express the extreme string metric in the Finkelstein- McCollum standard form and remove the geodesic incompleteness by using the Kruskal technique. The z=const. sections of the resulting metric are the same as the hemispherical section of the metric of a De Sitter kink. Some physical consequences from these results, including the possibility that the extreme string drives inflation and thermal effects in its core, are also discussed.

  17. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  18. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report, September 1, 1979-May 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peck, H.D. Jr.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reseach progress is reported for the period September, 1979 to May, 1980. Studies on the mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms fermenting cellulose to various products (ethanol, acetate, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and methane) are summarized. (ACR)

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic xylose fermentation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Glucose... ) Thermophilic Fermentation (Xylose) Wet oxidation 196C, 12 Bar O2 NaCO2 Biogas Ethanol 55C 32C 70C 12... or transport 6.4 Ris Energy Report 2 Introduction...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ethanol oxidation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ) Thermophilic Fermentation (Xylose) Wet oxidation 196C, 12 Bar O2 NaCO2 Biogas Ethanol 55C 32C 70C 12... 90% of new cars have engines specially designed to...

  1. Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthapratim Pradhan; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact that one must evaluate the near-extremal and near-horizon limits of Kerr space-time in a specific order, is shown to a lead to discontinuity in the extremal limit, such that this limiting space-time differs nontrivially from the precisely extremal space-time. This is established by first showing a discontinuity in the extremal limit of the maximal analytic extension of the Kerr geometry, given by Carter. Next, we examine the ISCO of the exactly extremal Kerr geometry and show that on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr black hole, it coincides with the principal null geodesic generator of the horizon, having vanishing energy and angular momentum. We find that there is no such ISCO in the near-extremal geometry, thus garnering additional support for our primary contention. We relate this disparity between the two geometries to the lack of a trapping horizon in the extremal situation.

  2. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Jinfu (CIW)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  3. Extremal covariant measurements Giulio Chiribellaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Extremal covariant measurements Giulio Chiribellaa and Giacomo Mauro D'Arianob Istituto Nazionale characterize the extremal points of the convex set of quantum measurements that are covariant under a finite operators, and, in the case of extremal measurements, we provide a bound for the number of orbits

  4. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  5. Climate Policy: Science, Economics, and Extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, A. C; Le, P. V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. Herring, 2013. Explaining extreme events of 2012 from a2010. Fat tails, exponents, extreme uncertainty: SimulatingScience, Economics, and Extremes Anthony C. Fisher and Phu

  6. The Extreme Physics Explorer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some tests of fundamental physics - the equation of state at supra-nuclear densities, the metric in strong gravity, the effect of magnetic fields above the quantum critical value - can only be measured using compact astrophysical objects: neutron stars and black holes. The Extreme Physics Explorer is a modest sized (~500 kg) mission that would carry a high resolution (R ~300) X-ray spectrometer and a sensitive X-ray polarimeter, both with high time resolution (~5 ?s) capability, at the focus of a large area (~5 sq.m), low resolution (HPD~1 arcmin) X-ray mirror. This instrumentation would enable new classes of tests of fundamental physics using neutron stars and black holes as cosmic laboratories.

  7. Finding Extreme Subdwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Marshall

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I develop a new technique to identify M-type extreme subdwarfs (esdMs) and demonstrate that it is substantially more efficient than previous methods. I begin by obtaining spectroscopy and improved photometry of a sample of 54 late-type halo candidates using the rNLTT reduced proper motion (RPM) diagram. From spectroscopy, I find that four of these are esdMs, three of which were previously unknown. From the improved photometry, I show that all four lie in a narrow RPM corridor that contains only 4 non-esdMs. Hence, with good photometry (i.e., without spectroscopy), it appears possible to select esdM candidates with a 50% esdM yield. This is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than previous methods.

  8. Extremal vs. Non-Extremal Correlators with Giant Gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawel Caputa; Robert de Mello Koch; Konstantinos Zoubos

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider extremal and non-extremal three-point functions of two giant gravitons and one point-like graviton using Schur polynomials in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and holographically, using a semiclassical Born-Infeld analysis as well as bubbling geometries. For non-extremal three-point functions our computations using all three approaches are in perfect agreement. For extremal correlators we find that our results from the bubbling geometry analysis agree with existing results from the gauge theory. The semiclassical Born-Infeld computation for the extremal case is known to give a different answer, which we interpret as a manifestation of the known subtlety of holography for extremal correlators.

  9. Thermoflexus hugenholtzii gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, microaerophilic, filamentous bacterium representing a novel class in the Chloroflexi, Thermoflexia classis nov., and description of Thermoflexaceae fam. nov. and Thermoflexales ord. nov.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Gevorkian, Jonathan; Despujos, Fairuz; Cole, Jesse; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen J.; Zhang, Gengxin; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermophilic, filamentous, heterotrophic bacterium designated strain JAD2T was isolated from sediment of Great Boiling Spring in Nevada, USA. Cells had an average diameter of 0.3 m and length of 4.0 m, and formed filaments typically ranging in length from 20 m to 200 m. Filaments were negative for the Gram stain reaction, spores were not formed, and motility was not observed. The optimum temperature for growth was 75 C with a range from 67.5-75 C, and the optimum pH for growth was 6.75 with a range from 6.5-7.75. Peptone, tryptone or yeast extract were able to support growth when supplemented with a vitamin solution, but no growth was observed using a variety of defined organic substrates. Strain JAD2T was a facultative microaerophile, with optimal growth at 1% v/v O2 and an upper limit of 8% O2, and anaerobic growth was stimulated by fumarate but inhibited by sulfite and elemental sulfur. The major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were C16:0, C19:0, C18:0, C20:0, and C19:1. The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3%. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequences and other conserved genes placed JAD2T and other members of the yet-uncultivated GAL35 group within the phylum Chloroflexi, but not within any existing class in this phylum. These results indicate that strain JAD2T is the first cultivated representative of a new lineage within the phylum Chloroflexi, for which we propose the name Thermoflexus hugenholtzii gen. nov., sp. nov., type strain JAD2T, within Thermoflexia classis nov., Thermoflexales ord. nov., and Thermoflexaceae fam. nov.

  10. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yen-Chin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been (more)

  11. Extreme measures : mechanisms driving changes in climate extremes in Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Lisa Victoria

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Changes in the frequency and/or severity of extreme climate events have the potential to have profound societal and ecological impacts and observations suggest that in (more)

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobe und anaerobe Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of GI, tissue, cavity or wound anaerobes. Aerobic and fungal... to avoid loss of oxygen-excluding gas cap. Blood Culture Bottles for Aerobic and Anaerobic Culture... are used...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacteria adapted Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    yield a b s t r a c t Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors... , and their interconnectivity on the methane yield of anaerobic processes for animal waste treatment. During...

  14. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scampini, Amanda C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial wastewater into clean water and energy. The goal of this project was to set up lab-scale anaerobic digesters to collect data that will be used to develop and validate ...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - acidogenic anaerobic reactor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: anaerobic digestion in the inlet of the pre-treatment zone of a plug-flow biogas reactor for biomass... -flow anaerobic reactor for domestic organic waste treatment...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biogas reactors Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biogas reactors Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic biogas reactors Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Anaerobic Co-digestion of...

  17. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic degradation pathways Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Biotechnology 22 Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic...

  19. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic feiii-reducer rhodoferax Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and agricultural wastewater, includ- ing methanogenic anaerobic digestion, biological hydro- gen production... material in industrial and agricultural wastewater Methanogenic...

  1. Extremality conditions for generalized channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Jencova

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized channel is a completely positive map that preserves trace on a given subspace. We find conditions under which a generalized channel with respect to a positively generated subspace J is an extreme point in the set of all such generalized channels. As a special case, this yields extremality conditions for quantum protocols. In particular, we obtain new extremality conditions for quantum 1-testers with 2 outcomes, which correspond to yes/no measurements on the set of quantum channels.

  2. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  3. Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion This report presents performance data for an anaerobic digestion system (at a 10-liter scale) utilizing corncob biochar as biofilm support. The system operated on grease-trap wastewater and high-rate anaerobic digestion of this material

  4. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  5. NSERC-Laflche Industrial Research Chair Advanced Anaerobic Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petriu, Emil M.

    O + a. b. Enhanced digestion and biogas production of solid residue via (i) MW and (ii) ultrasound. LANDFILL BIOREACTORS EXSITU ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Apply stand alone reactor technology to digest solid 6133. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Digestion Time

  6. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria. Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  7. Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    as food-processing wastes) to increase biogas productivity, improve digester performance, and increase in manure and other feedstock to methane-rich biogas, a source of renewable energy (US-EPA 2006) (Figure 1-EPA 2005; US-EPA 2008). In addition to biogas, AD generates fiber and Figure 1. Overview of anaerobic

  8. Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, an unexpected complement of flagellar genes, and presence of three laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value.

  9. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wind, and bottom conditions that repre- sent a potential large farm site, but do not reach the extremes

  10. On extreme Bosonic linear channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Holevo

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The set of all channels with fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be extreme point of this set in terms of complementary channel, a notion of big importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra due to Arveson. We then apply this formulation to prove the main result of this note: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, purity of the environment is necessary and sufficient for extremality of Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channel. It follows that Gaussian channel between finite-mode Bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimal noise.

  11. Extreme field physics and QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a brief overview of the most important QED effects that can be studied in the presence of extreme fields such as those expected at the Vulcan laser upgraded to a power of 10 Petawatts.

  12. Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison Stochastic Tail Order Back to Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison of Multivariate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Haijun

    Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison Stochastic Tail Order Back to Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison of Multivariate Extremes Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University IWAP12, Jerusalem Haijun Li Dependence Comparison of Multivariate Extremes IWAP12, Jerusalem 1

  13. In Situ Expression of Acidic and Thermophilic Carbohydrate Active Enzymes by Filamentous Fungi (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosier, Annika [Stanford University] [Stanford University

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Annika Mosier, graduate student from Stanford University presents a talk titled "In Situ Expression of Acidic and Thermophilic Carbohydrate Active Enzymes by Filamentous Fungi" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  14. In Situ Expression of Acidic and Thermophilic Carbohydrate Active Enzymes by Filamentous Fungi (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mosier, Annika [Stanford University

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Annika Mosier, graduate student from Stanford University presents a talk titled "In Situ Expression of Acidic and Thermophilic Carbohydrate Active Enzymes by Filamentous Fungi" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  15. Metagenome of an Anaerobic Microbial Community Decomposing Poplar Wood Chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L. L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to lignin-modification or depolymerization under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  17. Northeast Climate Science Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall to Assess Climate Vulnerability Northeast Climate Science Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall to Assess Climate Vulnerability November 12,...

  18. Study of extreme nuclear shapes in extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan, E-mail: srb@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of extreme nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different extreme conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.

  19. The winds of (evolutionary) change: Breathing new life into microbiology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, G.J.; Woese, C.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Overbeek, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, over 1500 prokaryotes have been characterized by small subunit rRNA sequencing and molecular phylogeny has had an equally profound effect on our understanding of relationship among eukaryotic microorganisms. The universal phylogenetic tree readily shows however how artificial the strong distinction between the eukaryote and prokaryotes has become. The split between the Archaea and the Bacteria is now recognized as the primary phylogenetic division and that the Eucarya have branched from the same side of the tree as the Archaea. Both prokaryotic domains would seem to be of thermophilic origin suggesting that life arose in a very warm environment. Among the Archaea, all of the Crenarchaeota cultured to date are thermophiles, and the deepest euryarchaeal branchings are represented exclusively by thermophiles. Among the Bacteria, the deepest known branchings are again represented exclusively by thermophiles, and thermophilia is widely scattered throughout the domain. The Archaea comprise a small number of quite disparate phenotypes that grow in unusual niches. All are obligate or facultative anaerobes. All cultured crenarchaeotes are thermophilic, some even growing optimally above the normal boiling temperature of water. The Archaeoglobales are sulfate reducers growing at high temperatures. The extreme halophiles grow only in highly saline environments. The methanogens are confined to a variety of anaerobic niches, often thermophilic. The Bacteria, on the other hand, are notable as being the source of life`s photosynthetic capacity. Five kingdoms of bacteria contain photosynthetic species; and each of the five manifests a distinct type of (chlorophyll-based) photosynthesis.

  20. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  1. Treatment program of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) (Quebec, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Program for processing of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) provides financial assistance to municipalities and the private sector for the installation of...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic feiii reduction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OCt. 1986, p. 751-757 0099-224086100751-0702.000 Summary: ) reduction in sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions and depth profiles of oxalate-extractable...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic toluene degraders Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mixed waste undergoing anaerobic decomposition. We hypothesize that both covalent... of PCE and toluene, and that these associations will become increasingly important as the...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic respiration isolation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was the result of aerobic but not anaerobic Source: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 48 2. Banded iron formations...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic aqueous solutions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    %), accumulated from anaerobic toluene metabolism. These same products were also produced when ... Source: Williams, Martin M. II - Department of Crop Sciences, University of...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic cometabolic conversion Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N... treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. They...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biofilm reactors Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemically active bacteria on an electrode were therefore studied using anaerobic sewage sludge in a two... . By applying biofilm scraped from the anode of a working MFC to...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic contact filter Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clarifier 1 Clarifier Sludge1 Clarifier Sludge FinalFinal FilterUVFilterUV Sludge... Supernatant 2 Clarifier Anaerobic Digested Sludge 1 Sludge Bar Screen...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic filter ufaf-subsurface Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clarifier 1 Clarifier Sludge1 Clarifier Sludge FinalFinal FilterUVFilterUV Sludge... Supernatant 2 Clarifier Anaerobic Digested Sludge 1 Sludge Bar Screen...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fungus piromyces Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acetic... acid concentrations and (2) prolonged anaerobic continuous cultivation without pH control, in which Source: Wagner, Andreas - Department of Biochemistry, Universitt...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic exercise performance Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    words: anaerobic metabolism, critical swimming speed, sub- maximal swimming, exercise, energy... of lactate 1mol of glycosyl unit; Arthur et al. 1992; Moyes et al. 1993). During...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobe acetobacterium dehalogenans Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Needs for Evaluating the Summary: , and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated... that permanent retention...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic upflow column Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were hermetically sealed. Only the filter was heated... , pyrolysis, and biological gaSification by anaerobic digestion have been in vestigated. Due to the very... heterogeneous...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sewage sludge Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process, " Symposium on Clean Fuels From Biomas... , pyrolysis, and biological gaSification by anaerobic digestion ... Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy Research...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic hybrid reactor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is an anaerobic process, commercial techniques usually add air... just steam as gasification medium in a hybrid process in order to further reduce tar and hydrocarbon... steam...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically induced small Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic potency test Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene communities Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ammonia oxidation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic treatment process Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Summary: .R. Hall (1992) Towards a useful dynamic model of the anaerobic wastewater treatment process: a practical... .M. and E.R. Hall (1989) Assessment of dynamic...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic wastewater treatment Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wastewater treatment Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic wastewater treatment Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Impact of EPS on...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzoate degradation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Idaho Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material Summary: the...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic aquifer column Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic aquifer column Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene degradation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic benzene degradation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic microbial degradation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Summary: . 107 Anaerobic benzene degradation Derek R. Lovley Department of...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic carbon degradation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Summary: . 107 Anaerobic benzene degradation Derek R. Lovley Department of...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic protein-degrading hyperthermophilic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    protein-degrading hyperthermophilic Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic protein-degrading hyperthermophilic Page: << < 1 2 3...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for: anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-22409704.00 0 Summary: . Rabus, R., and F. Widdel. 1995....

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic work capacity Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: lost some of its biogas production potential. Anaerobic digesters work best when the digestion pro... at...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic mixed microflora Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic energy release Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source produced through the anaerobic... at...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic chloroethene-dehalogenating activity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion concept Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to methane. The anaerobic digestion consortium was introduced to high... M, and a biogas composition of 55%-60% methane. INTRODUCTION Economic evaluations of ... Source:...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic waste water Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recovery Jun Wei LIM... waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION... of brown water and food ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion technology Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology on livestock farms... dioxide (EPA AgStar 2006). Benefits and Challenges of Biogas Technology Anaerobic digestion can convert... digester. Resources which ... Source:...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic process effects Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on headspace gas chromatography. Submitted. Paper III Boe... . 12;12;4 2. The biogas process Anaerobic digestion is a multi-step biological process where... . The...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic hydrogen producing Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a small percentage of hydrogen sulfide, water vapor, carbon... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source produced through the anaerobic... are...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic psychrophilic enrichment Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion program Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management ... Source: Liskiewicz,...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic closed digester Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to methane. The anaerobic digestion consortium was introduced to high... M, and a biogas composition of 55%-60% methane. INTRODUCTION Economic evaluations of ... Source:...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic reactor systems Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of organic matter... -processing wastes, and industrial wastes. A typical biogas system consists of manure collection, anaerobic digestion... and carbon credits. The...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic stirred sequencing-batch Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fitness markers Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested sludge Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic ... Source: Liskiewicz, Maciej - Institut fr...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically corroding iron Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: . Scrubbing the biogas with iron-impregnated wood chips has been used in anaerobic digesters in municipal......

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion role Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic mesophilic granular Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic chlorophenol-degrading community...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions model Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic interval training Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions improve Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    online VFA monitoring system is presented, as well as the methods for improving biogas production... monitoring system for the anaerobic process, based on headspace gas...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic soil slurry Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aberystwyth Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Separated slurry Summary: scenarios. In fact, anaerobic digestion of animal...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fixed bed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic aggregates determined Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Environment & Resources Online monitoring and control Summary: determines the biogas yield. Anaerobic substrate input is often measured in term of total chemical oxygen......

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester sludge Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic ... Source: Liskiewicz, Maciej - Institut fr...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic reactor star Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    overview of anaero- Summary: dioxide (EPA AgStar 2006). Benefits and Challenges of Biogas Technology Anaerobic digestion can convert... at Virginia Tech. Most of the discussion...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic contact reactor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically growing xylose-utilizing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested municipal Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: . Scrubbing the biogas with iron-impregnated wood chips has been used in anaerobic digesters in municipal......

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterial community Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic baffled reactor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic gac reactor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobe ammoniakoxidation von Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Otto-Von-Guericke-UniVersitat Magdeburg, UniVersitatsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg, Germany... acid (MA) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was investigated. The Ce(IV)...

  5. anaerobic iron-reducing bacterium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance of anaerobes Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: is unknown. Since it is known...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acid resistance Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1972 Anaerobic Metabolism during Activity... . An estimated 80-90% of the total energy utilized during initial vigorous activity comes from ... Source: Bennett, Albert F. -...

  7. Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California; published 20 January 2010 Extreme correlations arise as the limit of strong correlations, when the local-J model, embodying such extreme correlations. We formulate the picture of an extremely correlated electron

  8. Statistical Analysis of EXTREMES in GEOPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Statistical Analysis of EXTREMES in GEOPHYSICS Zwiers FW and Kharin VV. 1998. Changes in the extremes of the climate simulated by CCC GCM2 under CO2 dou- bling. J. Climate 11:2200­2222. http://www.ral.ucar.edu/staff/ericg/readinggroup.html #12;Outline · Some background on Extreme Value Statistics ­ Extremal Types Theorem ­ Max

  9. Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland Research Applications Laboratory National Center for Atmospheric Research 2007-08 Program on Risk Analysis, Extreme Events and Decision Theory, opening workshop 16-19 September, North Carolina #12;Extremes · Interest in making inferences about large, rare, extreme phenomena

  10. KNMI publicatie 221 Extreme klimaatverandering en

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    . Superstormen 16 5.1 Introductie: extreme wind en kustverdediging 16 5.2 Extreme wind en wateropzet in het verleden 17 5.3 Detectie van superstormen 18 5.4 Extreme wind en wateropzet in de toekomst 20 5.5 DiscussieKNMI publicatie 221 · · · · · · · · april 2008 Extreme klimaatverandering en waterveiligheid

  11. 4, 23232360, 2007 Extreme precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract Extreme hydro that are not-commonly used by hydro-meteorology community, i.e., Kolmogorov­Smirnov test, Levene's test for small data sets (e.g., less than 100 points) and small distribution parameter difference (e.g., 50

  12. Extremism

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASEEmissionsi LEFT-WING

  13. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  14. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  15. Ecovation Inc formerly AnAerobics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It is classified asThisEcoGrid EU (SmartEcovation Inc formerly AnAerobics

  16. EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

  17. Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas:Austin,AnAn Exploration ofAnaerobic MBR:

  18. Extreme Co-movements and Extreme Impacts in High Frequency Data in Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengjun

    Extreme Co-movements and Extreme Impacts in High Frequency Data in Finance Zhengjun Zhang, 2006 Abstract Extreme co-movement and extreme impact problems are inherently stochastic control in the future. Extreme co-movements among financial assets have been reported in the literature. However

  19. Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    by wood-fired boilers. By generating biogas through anaerobic digestion of swine manure, fuel can: A mechanical anaerobic digester to handle organic farm waste. A complete biogas collection system with hook Digestion by PENERGY Solutions Overview For most farmers in Pennsylvania, the growing season ends

  20. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION-cal/m3 , biogas has been widely used in heating digesters and gas engines (Wang et al., 2007LIM J.W. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery Jun Wei LIM

  1. Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System@cornell.edu URL: http://www.jove.com/video/3978/ DOI: 10.3791/3978 Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Bioenergy, Biogas, Methane, Organic Waste, Methanogenesis, Energy Crops, Date Published: // Citation: Usack

  2. Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled Terence Bayen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    substrate) are digested and converted into biogas. One essential feature of the model is that the evolutionOptimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen , Francis by light and an anaerobic digester. The mathematical model for the dynamics of the reactors takes

  3. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000,000 digesters, 2000 [14]), among other places [15,16]. These digesters operate to generate biogas, comprisingAnaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production Accepted 24 May 2013 Available online Keywords: Anaerobic digestion Ammonia Bioenergy Bioammonia Hydrogen

  4. Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor Treatment of Low-Strength Wastewater at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor Treatment of Low-Strength Wastewater at Low Temperatures Largus anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was studied for the treatment of low- strength soluble wastewater milk substrate as a synthetic wastewater at low temperatures (15 and 20 °C). The concentration

  5. Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, Olivier

    Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater treatment an unstable biological process used for wastewater treat- ment. This anaerobic digestion ecosystem can have popular bioprocess (Angelidaki et al., 2003) that treats wastewater and at the same time produces energy

  6. A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater anal- ysis and estimation schemes for specific growth rates for an anaerobic wastewater treatment the organic and inorganic materials) of municipal or industrial wastewater often needs to be highly reduced

  7. Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girguis, Peter R.

    Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3636, USA. Summary The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a glo- bally significant sink that regulates methane flux from sediments into the oceans and atmosphere. Here we examine

  8. Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michelle

    and Anaerobic Digestion Frederick C. Michel, Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering Zhongtang Yu, Animal digestion and composting at mesophilic or moderate temperature significantly reduced the antimicrobial concluded that both anaerobic digestion and composting--especially at elevated temperatures--are effective

  9. Extremal limits and black hole entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean M. Carroll; Matthew C. Johnson; Lisa Randall

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Taking the extremal limit of a non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole (by externally varying the mass or charge), the region between the inner and outer event horizons experiences an interesting fate -- while this region is absent in the extremal case, it does not disappear in the extremal limit but rather approaches a patch of $AdS_2\\times S^2$. In other words, the approach to extremality is not continuous, as the non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solution splits into two spacetimes at extremality: an extremal black hole and a disconnected $AdS$ space. We suggest that the unusual nature of this limit may help in understanding the entropy of extremal black holes.

  10. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (Livermore, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  11. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (727 Clara St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kubiak, G. D. (475 Maple St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  12. Extremal asymmetric universal cloning machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mingming Jiang; Sixia Yu

    2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The trade-offs among various output fidelities of asymmetric universal cloning machines are investigated. First we find out all the attainable optimal output fidelities for the 1 to 3 asymmetric universal cloning machine and it turns out that there are two kinds of extremal asymmetric cloning machines which have to cooperate in order to achieve some of the optimal output fidelities. Second we construct a family of extremal cloning machines that includes the universal symmetric cloning machine as well as an asymmetric 1 to $1+N$ cloning machine for qudits with two different output fidelities such that the optimal trade-off between the measurement disturbance and state estimation is attained in the limit of infinite $N$.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Extreme event time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAciddroplet size ARMgovMeasurementsExtreme

  14. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  15. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Extreme inequalities for infinite group problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 3, 2006 ... In this paper we derive new properties of extreme inequalities for infinite group ... (f,f(r)) is called extreme if it cannot be written as a convex...

  17. Extremality of Gaussian quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael M. Wolf; Geza Giedke; J. Ignacio Cirac

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate Gaussian quantum states in view of their exceptional role within the space of all continuous variables states. A general method for deriving extremality results is provided and applied to entanglement measures, secret key distillation and the classical capacity of Bosonic quantum channels. We prove that for every given covariance matrix the distillable secret key rate and the entanglement, if measured appropriately, are minimized by Gaussian states. This result leads to a clearer picture of the validity of frequently made Gaussian approximations. Moreover, it implies that Gaussian encodings are optimal for the transmission of classical information through Bosonic channels, if the capacity is additive.

  18. Extreme phase and rotated quadrature measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juha-Pekka Pellonp

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the extreme points of the convex set of covariant phase observables. Such extremals describe the best phase parameter measurements of laser light - the best in the sense that they are free from classical randomness due to fluctuations in the measuring procedure. We also characterize extreme fuzzy rotated quadratures.

  19. Extreme Events Met Data and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Extreme Events Met Data and Modeling: Needs and Challenges Data Collection and Analysis Modeling and Calibration Design, Construction, O&M Bruce Williams, University of Delaware Tuesday, July 2, 2013 #12;Extreme and marine operations ­ Fatigue and increased maintenance Tuesday, July 2, 2013 #12;What Defines "Extreme

  20. Extremal Problems on Posets and Hypergraphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griggs, Jerrold R.

    Extremal Problems on Posets and Hypergraphs Linyuan Lu University of South Carolina Collaborators, June 16-19, 2014 #12;Overview Extremal problems on posets and hypergraphs Linyuan Lu, University of South Carolina ­ 2 / 32 Extremal problems on subsets (posets) Tur´an problems on (non

  1. Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid with U ! 1. This liquid has an underlying auxiliary Fermi liquid Green's function that is further caparisoned by extreme correlations. The theory leads to two

  2. Extreme Web Data Integration August 14, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    Extreme Web Data Integration August 14, 2010 Felix Naumann #12;Acknowledgements @IBM Almaden) Open Data community Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | NFIC 2010 2 #12;Overview Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | NFIC 2010 3 Web Data abounds ­ linked, open, and otherwise Web

  3. Presented by Climate Extremes: The Science,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presented by Climate Extremes: The Science, Impacts, and Policy Relevance Auroop R. Ganguly-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Ganguly_ClimateExtremes_SC10 Global warming is credible: Without-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Ganguly_ClimateExtremes_SC10 Knowledge gaps exist in the science

  4. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

    1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

  5. Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beersma, Jules

    Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities Jules Beersma #12;Promotor: Prof. dr. A Onderzoekschool (BBOS) #12;Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities Extreme hydro

  6. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Medical Sequencing at the Extremes of Human Body Mass Nadavcandidate genes and the extremes of human body mass.especially in the population extremes of a given phenotype

  7. Changes in concurrent monthlyprecipitation and temperature extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    changes in daily climate extremes of temperature J. Geophys.Bayesian spatial modeling of extreme precipitation returnand Mearns L 2000 Climate extremes: observations, modeling,

  8. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the performance of extreme ultraviolet micro?eld expo-calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists, Opticsthree essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

  9. Trichloroethene Removal From Waste Gases in Anaerobic Biotrickling Filters Through Reductive Dechlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popat, Sudeep Chandrakant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reductive dechlorination of PCE. Environ. Sci. Technol 2003,588. Kim, J. O. Gaseous TCE and PCE removal by an activatedTsotsis, T. T. Degradation of PCE in an anaerobic waste gas

  10. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foucault, Lucas Jose

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activity and tlie pattern of oxygen debt in the West African caecilian... ;BENNETT AND WAKE-METABOLISM IN A CAECILIAN 767 its energetic production is anaerobic, or 7.3 times as...

  12. Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

  13. Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Raymond H. W.

    In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion held Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anaerobic digestion held Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook Summary: 1 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook: NYS On-farm...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biological reactors Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Environment & Resources Online monitoring and control Summary: . 12;12;4 2. The biogas process Anaerobic digestion is a multi-step biological process where... H drop (<6)...

  16. Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaks, David P. M.

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

  17. Effects of Seasonality on the Estimation of Environmental Extremes: A Study of Non-Homogeneous Methods for Estimating Environmental Extremes:.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahan, A.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Extreme value theory is commonly applied in ocean engineering to estimate extreme environmental conditions (e.g. wave height and wind speed). Extreme value models generally assume (more)

  18. The incidence and significance of anaerobic bacteria in the equine uterus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Dean Roger

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    that anaerobic bacteria may participate in inflammatory processes of the equine uterus (Kenney 1978a, Reynolds 1978, Ricketts 1981, Brook 1984). Elliott et al. (1971) conducted a study to obtain uterine cultures under anaerobic conditions but failed to obtain... not definitively been proven whether the normal equine uterine environment is sterile (Peterson et al. 1969, Hughes 1978) or if bacteria may normally be present in the non-inflamed uterus (Farrelly and Mullaney 1964, Kenney 1978a, Samuel et al. 1979). Knudsen...

  19. Anaerobic Redox Cycling of Iron by Freshwater Sediment Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Urrutia, Matilde M.; Churchill, Perry F.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Roden, Eric E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for microbially-mediated anaerobic redox cycling of iron (Fe) was examined in a first-generation enrichment culture of freshwater wetland sediment microorganisms. MPN enumerations revealed the presence of significant populations of Fe(III)-reducing (ca. 108 cells mL-1) and Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organisms (ca. 105 cells mL-1) in the sediment used to inoculate the enrichment cultures. Nitrate reduction commenced immediately following inoculation of acetate-containing (ca. 1 mM) medium with a small quantity (1% vol/vol) of wetland sediment, and resulted in the transient accumulation of NO2- and production of a mixture of end-products including NH4+. Fe(III) oxide (high surface area goethite) reduction took place - after NO3- was depleted and continued until all the acetate was utilized. Addition of NO3 after Fe(III) reduction ceased resulted in the immediate oxidation of Fe(II) coupled to reduction of + NO3-to NH4 . No significant NO2- accumulation was observed during nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. No Fe(II) oxidation occurred in pasteurized controls. Microbial community structure in the enrichment was monitored by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16s rDNA and RT-PCR amplified 16S rRNA, as well as by construction of 16S rDNA clone libraries for four different time points during the experiment. Strong similarities in dominant members of the microbial community were observed in the Fe(III) reduction and nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation phases of the experiment, specifically the common presence of organisms closely related (= 95% sequence similarity) to the genera Geobacter and Dechloromonas. These results indicate that the wetland sediments contained organisms such as Geobacter sp. which are capable of both + dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction and oxidation of Fe(II) with reduction of NO3-reduction to NH4 . Our findings suggest that microbially-catalyzed nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation has the potential to contribute to a dynamic anaerobic Fe redox cycle in freshwater sediments.

  20. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Conditions. * Collaborating with EMC Corporation to support the Department of Energy's Exascale Initiative, which is aimed...

  1. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Conditions. Collaborating with EMC Corporation to support the Department of Energy's Exascale Initiative, which is aimed...

  2. Extremely Hazardous Substances Risk Management Act (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act lays out provisions for local governments to implement regulations and standards for the management of extremely hazardous substances, which are defined and categorized as follows:

  3. Effects of TNT and its metabolites on anaerobic TNT degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pendharkar, S. [Computron, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Ahmad, F. [Booz, Allen and Hamilton, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of the presence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene on the anaerobic treatment procedure developed for munitions-contaminated soil were examined. When 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene was spiked in increasing levels into cultures containing TNT, inhibition of the rate of TNT degradation was observed. The degradation of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene did not proceed while TNT was present in the cultures. When 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was spiked into cultures that also contained TNT, TNT degradation rates were inhibited, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene were not degraded at all. When 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was spiked into cultures containing 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, degradation of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene was not effected but 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was not degraded. These results suggest that the rapid removal of TNT from the treatment system, before the intermediates have a chance to accumulate, or the rapid removal of the intermediates of TNT degradation is of utmost importance during the remediation of TNT-contaminated soils. If these intermediates are allowed to accumulate above inhibitory levels, the degradation of TNT will be slowed and the removal of the intermediates will halt completely.

  4. Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch, Govindjee, Jan B. Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch://www.jstor.org #12;Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme"Red Light Abstract. Photosynthesis produced by far-red light (about 700 m,b) is reversibly inhibited in some algae by extreme-red light ( 750 m

  5. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  6. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishihara, Osamu [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  7. Ris R 1068EN Extreme Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ris R 1068EN Extreme Winds in Denmark Leif Kristensen and Ole Rathmann Ris National Laboratory of this investigationis to study, on basis of climatologicalrecords, how large extreme wind speeds are in various parts;Abstract Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates

  8. Achieving Extreme Efficiency: How to get the job done when energy is extremely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5601E Achieving Extreme Efficiency: How to get the job done when energy is extremely expensive the job done when energy is extremely expensive and scarce Rich Brown, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Karina and scarce Rich Brown, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Karina Garbesi and Alan Meier Environmental Energy

  9. Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes Debasish Das1,2 , Auroop R. Ganguly1 , Snigdhansu Chatterjee3 , Vipin Kumar4 , Zoran@cs.umn.edu, zoran.obradovic@temple.edu. ABSTRACT The inability to predict precipitation extremes under non

  10. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  11. Extreme Bowen-York initial data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio Dain; Mara E. Gabach Clment

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bowen-York family of spinning black hole initial data depends essentially on one, positive, free parameter. The extreme limit corresponds to making this parameter equal to zero. This choice represents a singular limit for the constraint equations. We prove that in this limit a new solution of the constraint equations is obtained. These initial data have similar properties to the extreme Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom black hole initial data. In particular, in this limit one of the asymptotic ends changes from asymptotically flat to cylindrical. The existence proof is constructive, we actually show that a sequence of Bowen-York data converges to the extreme solution.

  12. Route to extreme events in excitable systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajat Karnatak; Gerrit Ansmann; Ulrike Feudel; Klaus Lehnertz

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with different coupling topologies are capable of self-generating and -terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics that can be regarded as extreme events due to their rareness and recurrent occurrence. Here we demonstrate the crucial role of an interior crisis in the emergence of extreme events. In parameter space we identify this interior crisis as the organizing center of the dynamics by employing concepts of mixed-mode oscillations and of leaking chaotic systems. We find that extreme events occur in certain regions in parameter space, and we show the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to the system size.

  13. Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

  14. Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 administrivia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damon, Craig A.

    Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 administrivia today assignment 3 due (last assignment!) extreme from original) project designs due 1 Tuesday, October 19, 2010 #12;Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 extreme programming extreme programming (XP) is a recent shift about the last decade plus part of agile development

  15. CONDITIONAL EXTREMES AND NEAREXTREMES: CONCEPTS, ASYMPTOTIC THEORY, AND ECONOMIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrieli, John

    CONDITIONAL EXTREMES AND NEAR­EXTREMES: CONCEPTS, ASYMPTOTIC THEORY, AND ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS on Graduate Studies: iii #12; Abstract This dissertation develops the theory of extremal (near­extreme and extreme) quantile re­ gression: estimation, inference, and applications in economics. In particular

  16. Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and maxstable random fields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max­stable random fields. Clément Dombry # May 31, 2010 Abstract We consider the extremal shot noise defined by M(y) = sup{mh(y - x); (x, m) # #}, where function. Extremal shot noises naturally appear in extreme value theory as a model for spatial extremes

  17. Maximal rank of extremal marginal tracial states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiromichi Ohno

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    States on coupled quantum system whose restrictions to each subsystems are normalized traces are called marginal tracial states. We investigate extremal marginal tracial states and maximal rank of such states. Diagonal marginal tracial states are also considered.

  18. Extreme Web Data Integration Keynote @ ICWE 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    WILD experience #12;A brief history of data Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | ICWE 2012 3 DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS #12;Linked Data & Data Spaces: A database guy`s point

  19. Extreme events due to localisation of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colm Mulhern; Stephan Bialonski; Holger Kantz

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a one-dimensional chain of harmonically coupled units in an asymmetric anharmonic soft potential. Due to nonlinear localisation of energy, this system exhibits extreme events in the sense that individual elements of the chain show very large excitations. A detailed statistical analysis of extremes in this system reveals some unexpected properties, e.g., a pronounced pattern in the inter event interval statistics. We relate these statistical properties to underlying system dynamics, and notice that often when extreme events occur the system dynamics adopts (at least locally) an oscillatory behaviour, resulting in, for example, a quick succession of such events. The model therefore might serve as a paradigmatic model for the study of the interplay of nonlinearity, energy transport, and extreme events.

  20. Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    changes in two different climate scenarios. In the Mediterranean region, precipitation amount, frequencyChanges in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss with climate change, with potentially severe impacts on human society and ecosystems. This study analyses

  1. Extremal Channels for a genaral Quantum system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuldeep Dixit; E. C. G. Sudarshan

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum channels can be mathematically represented as completely positive trace-preserving maps that act on a density matrix. A general quantum channel can be written as a convex sum of `extremal' channels. We show that for an $N$-level system, the extremal channel can be characterized in terms of $N^2$-$N$ real parameters coupled with rotations. We give a representation for $N$= 2, 3, 4.

  2. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate, chelated ferric iron or nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate-mail: alvarez@rice.edu) Key words: anaerobic biostimulation, bioremediation, BTEX, ethanol, natural attenuation­Fe(III) or nitrate to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX and ethanol mixtures. The rapid biodegradation of ethanol

  3. Novel monosaccharide fermentation products in Caldicellulosiruptor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: Profiles of metabolites produced by the thermophilic obligately anaerobic cellulose-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903...

  4. Drought and the California DeltaA Matter of Extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettinger, Michael; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California DeltaA Matter of Extremes Michael Dettinger 1, *1962 California is in an extreme drought as a result of lowIn large part, this extreme variability arises from the

  5. Extreme Value Analysis and Ventures into Space and Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extreme Value Analysis and Ventures into Space and Time 15 Center for Atmospheric Research Copyright NCAR 2013 #12;Extreme Value Analysis'arrive jamais" --Emil Gumbel Copyright NCAR 2013 Extreme Value Analysis #12;Copyright

  6. Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under extreme conditions. Citation: Zhang J, M Lang, RC Ewing, R Devanathan, WJ Weber, and M Toulemonde.2010."Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

  7. Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk...

  8. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid the inlet of a function- ing plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals cab- bage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor

  9. Simulation of low temperature anaerobic digestion of dairy and swine manure q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the primary biogas component at approximately 10°C. Thus, digestion Bioresource Technology 78 (2001) 127±131 qSimulation of low temperature anaerobic digestion of dairy and swine manure q D.T. Hill *, S performance data from digesters using animal waste in this temperature range have been lacking, thus allowing

  10. Testing the profitability of Anaerobic Digestion in a large-scale UK dairy farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coz Leniz, Luis Fernando

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD) consists in the transformation of any organic non-woody material by micro-organisms into biogas. This biogas, composed of approximately 60 per cent methane can be further burnt and converted into electricity and heat. The UK...

  11. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for treatment in EU, followed by spreading on land, which accounted for 37% of the sewage sludge produced allow recycling of nutrients. Hence, bioprocessed sewage sludge application on agricultural soilRemoval of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N

  12. Effect of a liquid multi-vitamin-mineral supplement on anaerobic exercise performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fry, Andrew C.; Bloomer, Richard J.; Falvo, Michael J.; Moore, Chris A.; Schilling, Brian K.; Weiss, Lawrence W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with a liquid multi-vitamin/mineral would improve anaerobic exercise performance. Fourteen resistance-trained men performed a 30-second cycle sprint and one set of squat exercise on 2...

  13. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model N1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater Carlos García-Diéguez 1 , Olivier Bernard 2 , Enrique Roca 1, * 1 USC ­ PRODES for winery effluent wastewater. A new reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters

  14. Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used

  15. The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological

  16. Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at the Hanford site in south- central Washington state. Benzoate in south- central Washington state has been a defense materials pro- duction complex since 1943. Carbon

  17. ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    L ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and treatment structures. In a lagoon, organic waste is diluted with water and bacteria decompose the organic as fertilizer. Effluent also can be recycled for manure handling in a flush system. Efficiency To be efficient

  18. Prolixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    ferment sugars by using a mixed acid fermentation pathway and it can grow over a wide range with oxygen. Several organisms that are able to oxidize organic acids, such as acetate, to CO2 and utilizeProlixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe

  19. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (Alameda County, CA); Kubiak, G. D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1T, a thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovannelli, Donato [Rutgers University; Ricci, Jessica [Rutgers University; Perez-Rodriguez, Ileana [Rutgers University; Hugler, Michael [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; O'Brien, Charles [Rutgers University; Keddis, Ramaydalis [Rutgers University; Grosche, Ashley [Rutgers University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Vetriani, Costantino [Rutgers University

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermovibrio ammonificans type strain HB-1T is a thermophilic (Topt: 75 C), strictly anaero- bic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that was isolated from an active, high temperature deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise. This organism grows on mineral salts medium in the presence of CO2/H2, using NO3- or S0 as electron acceptors, which are re- duced to ammonium or hydrogen sulfide, respectively. T. ammonificans is one of only three species within the genus Thermovibrio, a member of the family Desulfurobacteriaceae, and it forms a deep branch within the phylum Aquificae. Here we report the main features of the genome of T. ammonificans strain HB-1T (DSM 15698T).

  1. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures; Quarterly report, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to determine the chemical and physical effects of thermophilic organisms on crude oils and cores at elevated temperatures and pressures. Ultimately a data base will be generated which will be used in technical and economic feasibility studies leading to field application. Results of the biotreatment of the teapot Naval Petroleum Resume {number_sign}3(PR3) with BNL strain BNL-4-24 at 65{degree}C under 2000 psi of nitrogen and 80 psi of carbon dioxide are presented. Results are also briefly discussed on the biotreatment of Wilmington, CA crude with BNL-4-22 on the reduction of nickel porphyrin complex. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfur-reducer Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum type strain (BSAT) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mwirichia, Romano [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Wirth, Reinhard [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum L'Haridon et al. 1998 is the type species of the ge- nus Desulfurobacterium which belongs to the family Desulfurobacteriaceae. The species is of interest because it represents the first thermophilic bacterium that can act as a primary pro- ducer in the temperature range of 45-75 C (optimum 70 C) and is incapable of growing un- der microaerophilic conditions. Strain BSAT preferentially synthesizes high-melting-point fatty acids (C18 and C20) which is hypothesized to be a strategy to ensure the functionality of the membrane at high growth temperatures. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the family Desulfurobacteriaceae and the first sequence from the genus Desulfu- robacterium. The 1,541,968 bp long genome harbors 1,543 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. Extreme Science (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo-Franklin, Caroline; Klein, Spencer; Minor, Andrew; Torok, Tamas

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 27, 2012 at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, four Berkeley Lab scientists presented talks related to extreme science - and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in extreme environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel.

  4. EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leclercq, Remi

    EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Clifford torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

  5. STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute of the validity of this analysis." -- Emil Gumbel #12;3 Outline (1) Introduction (2) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Classical Approach (3) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Modern Approach (4) Extreme

  6. STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Richard W. Katz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Richard W. Katz Institute for Study of Society the application of the statistical theory of extreme values to climate, in general, and to climate change, in particular. The statistical theory of extreme values is briefly reviewed, both the extremal types theorem

  7. STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS Rick Katz Institute) Unified Modeling of Distributions (6) Resources #12;4 #12;5 (1) Background · Use of Extremal Models -- Stochastic weather generators Improved treatment of extremes #12;6 (2) Observed Tail Behavior · Extreme Value

  8. EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakobson, Dmitry

    EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Cli#11;ord torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

  9. European Temperature Extremes: Mechanisms and Responses to Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    European Temperature Extremes: Mechanisms and Responses to Climate Change PhD Thesis Julien temperature extremes under CC December 22, 2010 1 / 41 #12;Extremes? Why? Summer 2003: public & scientific of summer heat-waves (e.g., Fischer and Schär, 2009). Years ISI Publi's topic: 'Temperature extreme' 1985

  10. On Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Alexander J.

    to withstand extreme winds or extreme water levels. The 50­year return level is a level which, on averageOn Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil Departement Mathematik ETH Zentrum CH­8092 Z¨urich Tel in extreme value theory as part of his mathematics degree. He therefore decides to undertake an analysis

  11. On Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Alexander J.

    extreme winds or extreme water levels. The 50-year return level is a level which, on average, should onlyOn Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil Departement Mathematik ETH Zentrum CH-8092 Zurich Tel in extreme value theory as part of his mathematics degree. He therefore decides to undertake an analysis

  12. AIR CONDITIONER REQUEST EXTREME MEDICAL CIRCUMSTANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AIR CONDITIONER REQUEST DUE TO EXTREME MEDICAL CIRCUMSTANCES TO BE COMPLETED BY ATTENDING Moderate Significant Is the use of an air conditioner desirable Yes No OR essential Yes No to the management of allergy? Is the use of an air conditioner

  13. Where is the extremal Kerr ISCO?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ted Jacobson

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the circular photon orbit and ISCO for the Kerr black hole remain distinct from each other and from the horizon in the extremal spin limit on a constant Boyer-Lindquist time slice, on a horizon-crossing slice they both coincide with the null generators of the horizon.

  14. LIFE ON EARTH: EXTREMES AND ASTROBIO IMPLICATIONS...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    deep on the ocean floor (no oxygen). #12;#12;·Microorganisms that grow in extremely dry environments withstand 1000 times the radiation dose that would kill a human in minutes. It keeps 5 stacked copies of its thing in the solar system to another water world. An icy crust covers an ocean. #12;Europa #12

  15. Extremes in climate science Andreas Sterl (KNMI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    (non-deterministic) influences: sun, volcanoes, anthropogenic effects (GHG emissions) => deterministic Sterl, PhysMathClim Climate change GHG concentrations increase => Temperature increases => other weather;31.01.2012, Utrecht Andreas Sterl, PhysMathClim EVT - 1 Extremes: tail of a distribution => few observations => tail

  16. Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites A.V. Cherkaev \\Lambda L.V. Gibiansky y April 19, 1995 Abstract In this paper we construct microstructures of multiphase composites with un be easily gen­ eralized for the three­dimensional composites with arbitrary number of phases. 1 Introduction

  17. ECSS in the eXtreme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William O'Mullane; John Hoar; Uwe Lammers

    2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The ESAC Gaia team engages in a form of eXtreme programming while the DPAC will follow a series of six month development cycles modeled on this approach. As a project within the European Space Agency the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) standards are required. We present the bringing together of these realms.

  18. Extremal unital completely positive normal maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anilesh Mohari

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the convex set of unital completely positive normal map on a von-Neumann algebra and find a necessary and sufficient condition for an element in the convex set to be extremal. We also deal with the same problem for the convex subset which admits a faithful normal state.

  19. Extreme Value Theory and the Solar Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Asensio Ramos

    2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the statistical properties of the extreme events of the solar cycle as measured by the sunspot number. The recent advances in the methodology of the theory of extreme values is applied to the maximal extremes of the time series of sunspots. We focus on the extreme events that exceed a carefully chosen threshold and a generalized Pareto distribution is fitted to the tail of the empirical cumulative distribution. A maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters of the generalized Pareto distribution and confidence levels are also given to the parameters. Due to the lack of an automatic procedure for selecting the threshold, we analyze the sensitivity of the fitted generalized Pareto distribution to the exact value of the threshold. According to the available data, that only spans the previous ~250 years, the cumulative distribution of the time series is bounded, yielding an upper limit of 324 for the sunspot number. We also estimate that the return value for each solar cycle is ~188, while the return value for a century increases to ~228. Finally, the results also indicate that the most probable return time for a large event like the maximum at solar cycle 19 happens once every ~700 years and that the probability of finding such a large event with a frequency smaller than ~50 years is very small. In spite of the essentially extrapolative character of these results, their statistical significance is very large.

  20. Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies: The Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filho, M E; Muoz-Tun, C; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F; He, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the HI component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbours. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local Universe: ~60% occupy underdense regions, and ~75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the frac...

  1. Extreme events in discrete nonlinear lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Maluckov; Lj. Hadzievski; N. Lazarides; G. P. Tsironis

    2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform statistical analysis on discrete nonlinear waves generated though modulational instability in the context of the Salerno model that interpolates between the intergable Ablowitz-Ladik (AL) equation and the nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equation. We focus on extreme events in the form of discrete rogue or freak waves that may arise as a result of rapid coalescence of discrete breathers or other nonlinear interaction processes. We find power law dependence in the wave amplitude distribution accompanied by an enhanced probability for freak events close to the integrable limit of the equation. A characteristic peak in the extreme event probability appears that is attributed to the onset of interaction of the discrete solitons of the AL equation and the accompanied transition from the local to the global stochasticity monitored through the positive Lyapunov exponent of a nonlinear map.

  2. Low dimensional model of heart rhythm dynamics as a tool for diagnosing the anaerobic threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anosov, O.L. [Institute of Physiology, Charite Humboldt-University at Berlin, Berlin, D-10117 (Germany)] [Regional. Cardio Center, Vladimir, (Russia); Butkovskii, O.Y. [Vladimir State Technical University, 87, Gorki St., Vladimir, 600026 (Russia); Kadtke, J. [Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Science University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0360 (United States); Kravtsov, Y.A. [Space Research Institute of RAS, 84/32 Profsoyuznaja St., Moscow, 117810 (Russia); Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6364 (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report preliminary results on describing the dependence of the heart rhythm variability on the stress level by using qualitative, low dimensional models. The reconstruction of macroscopic heart models yielding cardio cycles (RR-intervals) duration was based on actual clinical data. Our results show that the coefficients of the low dimensional models are sensitive to metabolic changes. In particular, at the transition between aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic metabolism, there are pronounced extrema in the functional dependence of the coefficients on the stress level. This strong sensitivity can be used to design an easy indirect method for determining the anaerobic threshold. This method could replace costly and invasive traditional methods such as gas analysis and blood tests. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  4. Characterization and environmental studies of Pompano Beach anaerobic digestion facility. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S; Gerrish, H P; Wong, K F; Nemerow, N; Daly, Jr, E L; Farooq, S; Chriswell, C

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal solid wastes contain numerous substances of potential environmental concern. While some understanding of the composition of raw municipal waste and its leachate products is available, no information regarding characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous outputs from anaerobic digestion exists. If centralized anaerobic digestion plants are to be environmentally viable, the characteristics and environmental effects of effluents from these plants must be acceptable. The environmental concerns are particularly acute where ground water supplies are precariously low and the water table is high, South Florida is such a location. A characterization and environmental study was initiated by the Resource Recovery Group on August 1978. The specific objectives are: (1) systematic characterization of solid, liquid and gaseous inputs and outputs; (2) investigations of leaching characteristic of output solid and liquid effluents, and the transport of pollutants to and through ground water systems; and (3) analysis of environmental and process parameters to obtain causal relationships.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: resilient to extreme events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskiteremoving the highlypowerresilient to extreme

  6. Extreme commutative quantum observables are sharp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teiko Heinosaari; Juha-Pekka Pellonp

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that, in the description of quantum observables, positive operator valued measures (POVMs) generalize projection valued measures (PVMs) and they also turn out be more optimal in many tasks. We show that a commutative POVM is an extreme point in the convex set of all POVMs if and only if it is a PVM. This results implies that non-commutativity is a necessary ingredient to overcome the limitations of PVMs.

  7. Chiral Gravity, Log Gravity and Extremal CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Maloney; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

    2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS3 vacuum have positive energy. Non-chiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity-- the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions --has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic CFT. Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We normally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  8. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloney, Alexander [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Song Wei [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  9. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  10. The metagenome of an anaerobic microbial community decomposing poplar wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L.-L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S.-Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to lignin-modification or depolymerization under anaerobic conditions.

  11. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Final performance report, June 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site.

  12. Sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

    Precipitation extremes increase in intensity over many regions of the globe in simulations of a warming climate1, 2, 3. The rate of increase of precipitation extremes in the extratropics is consistent across global climate ...

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Green Extreme Homes &...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Green Extreme Homes & Carl Franklin Homes, Garland, TX DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Green Extreme Homes & Carl Franklin Homes, Garland, TX Case study of a DOE Zero Energy...

  14. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  15. Scaling Extreme Astrophysical Phenomena to the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remington, B A

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  16. Chaotic Information Processing by Extremal Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review an explicit regularization of the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence, that preserves all isometries of bulk and boundary degrees of freedom. This scheme is useful to characterize the space of the unitary evolution operators that describe the dynamics of the microstates of extremal black holes in four spacetime dimensions. Using techniques from algebraic number theory to evaluate the transition amplitudes, we remark that the regularization scheme expresses the fast quantum computation capability of black holes as well as its chaotic nature.

  17. Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng, E-mail: LiT@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (79 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

  18. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for and ApplicationNuclearLeao BrunoInvestigating Extreme

  19. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy andExsolution Enhanced OilExtracting theExtreme Scale Computing,

  20. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask

  1. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

  2. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme Ultraviolet

  3. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme UltravioletInvestigating

  4. Extremal Quantum Correlations and Cryptographic Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Franz; F. Furrer; R. F. Werner

    2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate a fundamental property of device independent security in quantum cryptography by characterizing probability distributions which are necessarily independent of the measurement results of any eavesdropper. We show that probability distributions that are secure in this sense are exactly the extremal quantum probability distributions. This allows us to give a characterization of security in algebraic terms. We apply the method to common examples for two-party as well as multi-party setups and present a scheme for verifying security of probability distributions with two parties, two measurement settings, and two outcomes.

  5. Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10-Managing Pediatric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squire, Larry R.

    Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 1 Managing Pediatric Fractures Andrew Pennock, M extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 2 Children Are Not Miniature Adults! · Open Growth Plates · Remodeling is Changing "Citius, Altius, Fortius" - Faster, Higher, Stronger #12;Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10

  6. PROBLEM APPLICATIONS: EXERCISE SESSION ON ANALYSES OF EXTREMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    PROBLEM APPLICATIONS: EXERCISE SESSION ON ANALYSES OF EXTREMES Rick Katz Institute for Study exercises) serves as a companion to the lecture by Richard Smith on Extreme Value Theory. It consists of two parts, the first focuses on climate applications of extreme value theory under stationarity, the second

  7. Extreme Response Analysis A. Naess1,2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    NTNU Extreme Response Analysis A. Naess1,2) 1) Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures (CeSOS) 2) Department of Mathematical Sciences Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim, Norway Extreme Response Analysis ­ p. 1/33 #12;NTNU Introduction The approach to extreme value statistics generally

  8. Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species Niklaus E. Zimmermanna,1 of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate

  9. SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY AND RESPONSES TO GLOBAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY AND RESPONSES TO GLOBAL WARMING Mxolisi Excellent Shongwe #12;ISBN : 978-90-902-5046-5 #12;SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY;. . . Dedicated to my late father John Mabhensa Shongwe #12;ABSTRACT Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural

  10. Robust Extremes in Chaotic Deterministic Systems Renato Vitolo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robust Extremes in Chaotic Deterministic Systems Renato Vitolo, Mark P. Holland, and Christopher A: December 11, 2008) Abstract A chaotic deterministic system exhibits robust extremes when the statistics of its extreme values depend smoothly on the system's control parameters. Such robustness can

  11. Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity Thorsten B. H. Reusch with such climatic extremes is a question central to contem- porary ecology and biodiversity conservation. Previous, and it may buffer against extreme climatic events. In a manipulative field experiment, increasing

  12. Extremal Properties of Random Structures E. Ben-Naim1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Extremal Properties of Random Structures E. Ben-Naim1 , P. L. Krapivsky2 , and S. Redner2 1. The extremal characteristics of random structures, including trees, graphs, and networks, are discussed. A statistical physics approach is employed in which extremal properties are obtained through suitably defined

  13. Extreme English Origins of English and its Sibling, Frisian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extreme English Origins of English and its Sibling, Frisian Eric Gilleland National Center always has been." Chicago Tribune, May 17, 2005 By Nathan Bierma #12;Extreme English -- 23 April 2009 similar to English? #12;Extreme English -- 23 April 2009 Earliest Record of English "This she

  14. Extreme-Point Stability Tests for Discrete-Time Polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TA9 -10:40 Extreme-Point Stability Tests for Discrete-Time Polynomials F. PCrez *, C been an increasinginterest in finding extreme- point results for the study of stability of uncertain in the coefficients space where Schur stability of the extremes im- plies the stability of the entire family 12). Our

  15. Issue: April 2013 Algae Go to Extremes with "Borrowed" Genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schönknecht, Gerald

    Issue: April 2013 Algae Go to Extremes with "Borrowed" Genes by Patricia Waldron Brand-New Genes their extreme environment. For example, some bacteria that live at high temperatures have special molecules that are highly acidic, or full of toxic metals. While most microbes that live in extreme environments

  16. Science moves forward, at least in part, by pursuing extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    Science moves forward, at least in part, by pursuing extremes -- seeking what's faster, hotter into space. In chasing such extremes, we often pass milestones, sometimes almost without noticing. Seventy inability to produce the extreme conditions required to see them. But with the rapid and continuing

  17. RisR1238(EN) Extreme Winds over Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø­R­1238(EN) Extreme Winds over Denmark from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Helmut P. Frank Wind Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark May 2001 #12;Abstract An extreme wind analysis of wind speed calculatedPa, and geostrophic winds at 850 hPa, 1000 hPa, and at the sea level are analyzed. At 10 m height the expected extreme

  18. Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe Matthew J. Swann;Abstract Flood and wind damage to property and livelihoods resulting from extreme precipitation events variability of these extreme events can be closely related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation

  19. Performance of building cladding in urban environments under extreme winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Performance of building cladding in urban environments under extreme winds By Tiphaine Williamsa ABSTRACT: When tropical storms, hurricanes, typhoons and other extreme wind events make landfall-rise construction in these regions, as well as other areas impacted by extreme wind events, generally reveal

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic syntrophic phthalate Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of marine and freshwater... not previously been achieved. Many natural microbial community structures, such as viral loops and syntrophic... ); and chemical extremes (eg:...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic syntrophic long-chain Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of marine and freshwater... not previously been achieved. Many natural microbial community structures, such as viral loops and syntrophic... ); and chemical extremes (eg:...

  2. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  3. Modeling hydrologic and water quality extremes in a changing climate: A statistical approach based on extreme value theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    Modeling hydrologic and water quality extremes in a changing climate: A statistical approach based on extreme value theory Erin Towler,1,2 Balaji Rajagopalan,1,3 Eric Gilleland,2 R. Scott Summers,1 David makes quantifying changes to hydrologic extremes, as well as associated water quality effects

  4. STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART II: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART II: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS of Climate/Hydrologic Extremes (3) Unified Approach (Extremes/Non-Extremes) (4) Complex Extreme Climate Design -- No longer only need for extreme value theory · Complex Extreme Events -- e. g., heat waves

  5. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  6. Towards Extreme(ly) Usable Software: Exploring Tensions Between Usability and Agile Software Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrickard, Scott

    that draws from extreme programming (XP), a widely practiced agile software development process, and scenario that need to be addressed for agile software development methods and usability engineering practices to work with multidisciplinary system design--focusing specifically on agile software development and usability----by developing

  7. Investigation of possible alternate end products of anaerobic metabolism in the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trant, John Miller

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accumulated due to anoxia in the fish was lactate. Succinate and alanine showed slight or no accumulation with t1me. Alanine actually showed reduced pool size due to anox1a and hypoxia as compared to 1n vitro aerobic tissue pool-size. Even though in vivo... anaerobic tissues showed only slightly elevated and time constant lactate concentrat1ons compared to 1n vitro aerob1c tissue, a C tracer ind1cated accumulation and an efflux 14 w1th1n the lactate pool. Total act1vity decreased with t1me. There- fore...

  8. Three Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Weather Extremes on the United States' Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Phu Viet

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ii Contents Essay 3 Impact of Extreme Heating Condition on2 Modeling the Impact of Extreme Heating on FarmlandSuggests that Recent Extreme Droughts Contributed to

  9. Oxygen Loss from Venus and the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnulty, Tess

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the influence of extreme solar wind conditions on O + escapeand the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions by Tessand the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions Copyright

  10. Non-extremal fuzzballs and ergoregion emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borun D. Chowdhury; Samir D. Mathur

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the traditional picture of black holes Hawking radiation is created by pair creation from the vacuum at the horizon. In the fuzzball proposal, individual microstates do not have a horizon with the `vacuum' state in its vicinity. For a special family of non-extremal microstates it was recently found that emission occurs due to pair creation in an ergoregion, rather than at a horizon. In this paper we extend this result to a slightly larger class of microstates, again finding exact agreement between the emission in the gravity picture and the CFT dual. We write down an expression for emission from geometries with ergoregions, in terms of the leading falloff behavior of the wavefunctions in the fuzzball region. Finally, we describe another family of nonextremal microstates and find their ergoregion.

  11. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  12. A Road Map to Extreme High Vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and the procedures [1,2]. Until now much attention has been paid in minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the chamber material. However, procedures and processing deserves further scrutiny than hitherto given so far. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1 10-12 Torr l/sec need to be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This presentation will discuss: clean assembly procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to extreme high vacuum, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load, cascade pumping, sensitive helium leak detection techniques and the use of modified extractor and residual gas analyzers. Further, alternative back up pumping systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps will be presented.

  13. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R. (Tracey, CA); Nygren, Richard E. (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, NM); Ulrickson, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  14. Resource recovery and epidemiology of anaerobic wastewater treatment process in a controlled ecological life support system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Hunt, M.D.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of work accomplished under two different areas: (1) Resource Recovery of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment process, and (2) Epidemiological Study of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Process are documented. The first part of the work was to set up and test three anaerobic digesters and then run these three digesters with a NASA-simulated wastewater. The second part of the work was to use a multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis as the indicator bacteria for the epidemiological study. Details of these two parts can be found in two master`s theses and are described in Sections 3 and 4 of this report. Several important results condensed from these two parts are summarized in Section 2.

  15. Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A, GRAETZ, AND K. R. REDDY2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    information deals with land ap- plication of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and on- ly limited data such as plant biomass, sewage sludge, or animal wastes is used to generate CH4 and stabilized organic waste, or preferably utilized, in an environmentally safe manner. Disposal of the anaerobically digested sludge by land

  16. Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen1,4 and Francis Mairet2 and Pierre Martinon3 and Matthieu Sebbah4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen1,4 and Francis the production of methane in a bioreactor coupling an anaerobic digester and a culture of micro-algae limited-dimensional system taking into account a day-night model of the light in the culture of micro-algae. Applying

  17. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in an iron-rich Danish freshwater lake sediment Katrin a. Nori,a,* Bo Thamdrup,a and Carsten J. Schubert b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane in an iron-rich Danish freshwater lake sediment Katrin a´. Norði Freshwater systems are identified as one of the main natural methane sources, but little is known about the importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in these systems. We investigated AOM in a lake sediment

  18. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  19. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

  20. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  1. Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulolytic and filamentous thermophile that represents a novel lineage (Kallotenuales ord. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov.) within the class Chloroflexia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Jesse; Gieler, Brandon; Heisler, Devon; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Williams, Amanda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ming, Hong; Yu, Tian T.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Li, Wen J.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several closely-related, thermophilic, and cellulolytic bacterial strains, designated JKG1T, JKG2, JKG3, JKG4, and JKG5, were isolated from a cellulolytic enrichment (corn stover) incubated in the water column of Great Boiling Spring, NV. Strain JKG1T had cells of a diameter of 0.7 - 0.9 ?m and length of ~2.0 ?m that formed non-branched multicellular filaments reaching >300 ?m. Spores were not formed and dense liquid cultures were red. The temperature range for growth was 45-65 C, with an optimum of 55 C. The pH range for growth was 5.6-9.0, with an optimum of 7.5. JKG1T grew as an aerobic heterotroph, utilizing glucose, sucrose, xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, xylan, starch, casamino acids, tryptone, peptone, yeast extract, acetate, citrate, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol as sole carbon sources, and was not observed to photosynthesize. The cells stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolates in the class Chloroflexia, but distant from other cultivated members, with the highest sequence identity of 82.5% to Roseiflexus castenholzii. The major quinone was menaquinone-9; no ubiquinones were detected. The major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were C18:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C18:0, and iso-C17:0. C16:0, iso-C16:0, and C17:0. The peptidoglycan amino acids were alanine, ornithine, glutamic acid, serine, and asparagine. Whole-cell sugars included mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, ribose, arabinose, and xylose. Morphological, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic results suggest that JKG1T is representative of a new lineage within the class Chloroflexia, which we propose to designate Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov., Kallotenuales ord. nov.

  2. Extremal correlations of the tripartite no-signaling polytope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Pironio; Jean-Daniel Bancal; Valerio Scarani

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The no-signaling polytope associated to a Bell scenario with three parties, two inputs, and two outputs is found to have 53856 extremal points, belonging to 46 inequivalent classes. We provide a classification of these points according to various definitions of multipartite non-locality and briefly discuss other issues like the interconversion between extremal points seen as a resource and the relation of the extremal points to Bell-type inequalities.

  3. Extremal Graph Numbers of Graphs on Few May 4, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    Extremal Graph Numbers of Graphs on Few Vertices John Kim May 4, 2012 1 Introduction Let H this number to be the extremal graph number of H on n vertices, and we denote it by ex(n, H). When H(n, K3) n 2 2 . A precise formula for ex(n, K3) is given by: ex(n, K3) = n 2 n + 1 2 . The extremal

  4. Predictability of extreme events in a branching diffusion model Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ... electric power blackouts, economic recessions, stock-market crashes, .... the extreme ones, a cascade process responsible for redistribution of energy (or.

  5. LDRD symposium focuses on materials in extremes, big data, and...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    symposium focuses on materials in extremes, big data, and energy use impacts | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing...

  6. An electronic compendium of extreme functions for the Gomory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Kppe

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 18, 2014 ... Abstract: In this note we announce the availability of an electronic compendium of extreme functions for Gomory--Johnson's infinite group...

  7. Impact of externally forced changes on temperature extremes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morak, Simone

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis investigates changes in temperature extremes between 1950-2005, analysing gridded data sets of observations and climate model simulations. It focuses on changes in the (more)

  8. Extreme point inequalities and geometry of the rank sparsity ball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ities balancing the various features of the optimization problem at hand, at the extreme points of the solution set. Keywords Nuclear norm compressed sensing

  9. Joint probability analysis of precipitation and streamflow extremes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Chia-hung.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis focuses on evaluation of joint occurrence of extreme precipitation and streamflow events at several hydrologic structures in South Florida. An analysis of twelve (more)

  10. A combined climate extremes index for the Australian Region .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallant, Ailie J. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Changes in the area of Australia experiencing concurrent temperature and rainfall extremes are investigated through the use of two combined indices. The indices describe variations (more)

  11. Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shongwe, M.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest environmental threats to human and natural systems. (more)

  12. Radiation from the non-extremal fuzzball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borun D. Chowdhury; Samir D. Mathur

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuzzball proposal says that the information of the black hole state is distributed throughout the interior of the horizon in a `quantum fuzz'. There are special microstates where in the dual CFT we have `many excitations in the same state'; these are described by regular classical geometries without horizons. Jejjala et.al constructed non-extremal regular geometries of this type. Cardoso et. al then found that these geometries had a classical instability. In this paper we show that the energy radiated through the unstable modes is exactly the Hawking radiation for these microstates. We do this by (i) starting with the semiclassical Hawking radiation rate (ii) using it to find the emission vertex in the CFT (iii) replacing the Boltzman distributions of the generic CFT state with the ones describing the microstate of interest (iv) observing that the emission now reproduces the classical instability. Because the CFT has `many excitations in the same state' we get the physics of a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a thermal gas, and the usually slow Hawking emission increases, by Bose enhancement, to a classically radiated field. This system therefore provides a complete gravity description of information-carrying radiation from a special microstate of the nonextremal hole.

  13. Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    with wastewater sludge, wood ash, coal ash, lime-kiln dust, and/or limestone quarry dust to improve the profile systems [Block & Goldstein 2000]. Anaerobic composting is not well used in the U.S until now [Goldstein of the process, the methane gas ("cleaner energy") and harvesting materials from MSW to #12;either recycle

  14. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES USING ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED AND WETOXIDISED MANURE AS NUTRIENT AND WATER SUPPLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gasses, great interest has arisen in production of biofuels. The idea of combining biogas and bioethanol and water in industry is a rather expensive medium. The remaining liquid after the biogas process is waste to pollution of ground waters. Furthermore the biogas process does not kill all pathogens. Anaerobically

  15. Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Arous, Gérard

    Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu New York University and University at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-3840 E-mail:dvv@math.berkeley.edu Abstract: Free probability analogues- sification of freely max-stable laws and their domains of attraction, using "free extremal convolutions

  16. Construction of new extremal unimodular lattices Philippe Gaborit \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaborit, Philippe

    Construction of new extremal unimodular lattices Philippe Gaborit \\Lambda July 22, 2003 Abstract In this paper we construct new extremal and optimal unimodular lattices in di mensions 36; 38; 42; 45; 52; 54; 60 and 68. We construct them in two ways: first in the case of dimensions congruent to 4 modulo 8

  17. Extremely local MR representations: Youngmi Hur1 & Amos Ron2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    Extremely local MR representations: L-CAMP Youngmi Hur1 & Amos Ron2 Workshop on sparse representations: UMD, May 2005 1 Math, UW-Madison 2 CS, UW-Madison #12;Wavelet and framelet constructions History of all local MR representations #12;L-CAMP: Extremely local MR constructions Bird's view of the CAP

  18. Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data,itiscommontoeithercarry out extensive simulation studies or undertake a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind here is to estimate extreme loads for an offshore wind turbine for which the environmental and load

  19. Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006 Julien Cattiaux R. Vautard, P. Yiou LSCE ­ IPSL France European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2009 CL1 Session: Climate Extremes and Impacts. #12.Cattiauxetal.,OriginsoftheextremelywarmEuropeanfallof2006 European temperatures and atmospheric circulation #12;The best correlation is found for the V-Wind

  20. RisR1437(EN) Wind Simulation for Extreme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø­R­1437(EN) Wind Simulation for Extreme and Fatigue Loads M. Nielsen, G. C. Larsen, J. Mann, S integrity of a wind turbine structure involves analyses of fatigue loading as well as extreme loading University of Denmark, and NEG-Micon A/S, as part of the EFP-2001(Wind) programme sponsored by the Danish

  1. A model of anaerobic digestion for biogas production using Abel equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primitivo B. Acosta-Humnez; Maximiliano Machado-Higuera; Alexander V. Sinitsyn

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a nonlinear mathematical model for the study of anaerobic digestion processes. We decompose the original system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations into subsystems. For these subsystems we prove existence of lower and upper solutions in reverse order for one of the va\\-ria\\-bles. The upper and lower solutions are constructed in analytical form. Furthermore, the upper solutions of subsystem for feeding bacteria are related with solutions of Abel equations of the first kind. Using numerical and theoretical arguments we examine how to obtain upper and lower solutions approximated to the numerical solution of the system. In this work we establish special techniques of lower-upper solution, which includes reverse order for non monotone systems, in contrast to the techniques used by H.L. Smith and P. Waltman on their monograph.

  2. PART 1 OF TUTORIAL ON EXTREMES TOOLKIT (1) Installation of R software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    PART 1 OF TUTORIAL ON EXTREMES TOOLKIT (1) Installation of R software R-2.9.2-win32.exe Use default options (2) Installation of Extremes Toolkit extRemes (R package for extreme value analysis): extRemes_1.60.zip ismev (R package used by extRemes): ismev_1.34.zip Lmoments (R package used by extRemes): Lmoments

  3. Thermodynamics of the Near-Extremal NS5-brane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Harmark; N. A. Obers

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the thermodynamics of the near-extremal NS5-brane in type IIA string theory. The central tool we use is to map phases of six-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes to phases of near-extremal M5-branes with a transverse circle in eleven-dimensional supergravity. By S-duality these phases correspond to phases of the near-extremal type IIA NS5-brane. One of our main results is that in the canonical ensemble the usual near-extremal NS5-brane background, dual to a uniformly smeared near-extremal M5-brane, is subdominant to a new background of near-extremal M5-branes localized on the transverse circle. This new stable phase has a limiting temperature, which lies above the Hagedorn temperature of the usual NS5-brane phase. We discuss the limiting temperature and compare the different behavior of the NS5-brane in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles. We also briefly comment on the thermodynamics of near-extremal Dp-branes on a transverse circle.

  4. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey Lovelace; Mark A. Scheel; Robert Owen; Matthew Giesler; Reza Katebi; Bela Szilagyi; Tony Chu; Nicholas Demos; Daniel A. Hemberger; Lawrence E. Kidder; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Nousha Afshari

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The spin angular momentum $S$ of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area $A$ of its apparent horizon: $8\\pi S \\le A$, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses $M$ and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to $S/M^2 = 0.994$. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality $8\\pi S extremality by computing the smallest value that Booth and Fairhurst's extremality parameter can take for any scaling. Using this lower bound, we conclude that the common horizons are at least moderately close to extremal just after they appear. Finally, following Lovelace et al. (2008), we construct quasiequilibrium binary-black-hole initial data with "overspun" marginally trapped surfaces with $8\\pi S > A$ and for which our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. These superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with $8\\pi Sextremality lower bound on the enclosing apparent horizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an extremal Kerr black hole. (Abstract abbreviated.)

  5. Extreme events in excitable systems and mechanisms of their generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerrit Ansmann; Rajat Karnatak; Klaus Lehnertz; Ulrike Feudel

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study deterministic systems, composed of excitable units of FitzHugh-Nagumo type, that are capable of self-generating and self-terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics without the influence of noise or parameter change. These deviations are rare, short-lasting, and recurrent and can therefore be regarded as extreme events. Employing a range of methods we analyze dynamical properties of the systems, identifying features in the systems' dynamics that may qualify as precursors to extreme events. We investigate these features and elucidate mechanisms that may be responsible for the generation of the extreme events.

  6. Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max-stable random fields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max-stable random fields. Cl´ement Dombry May 31, 2010 Abstract We consider the extremal shot noise defined by M(y) = sup{mh(y - x); (x, m) }, where. Extremal shot noises naturally appear in extreme value theory as a model for spatial extremes and serve

  7. Geocomputation's future at the extremes: high performance computing and nanoclients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Keith

    Geocomputation's future at the extremes: high performance computing and nanoclients K.C. Clarke; High performance computing; Tractability; Geocom- putation E-mail address: kclarke@geog.ucsb.edu (K

  8. The Argument of an Extremal Dilatation Marvin Ortel; Wayne Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Wayne

    The Argument of an Extremal Dilatation Marvin Ortel; Wayne Smith Proceedings of the American DILATATION MARVIN ORTEL -4ND WAYNE SMITH (Communicated by Irwin Kra) ABSTRACT.Suppose n is the complex

  9. Fitting In: Extreme Corporate Wellness and Organizational Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Eric Preston

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , and (3) corporeal ethics. First, organizational culture, including espoused values and shared levels of assumptions, took on certain changes because of an emphasis on extreme fitness. Employee participation in CrossFit led to strict notions of strength...

  10. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts at Extreme Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aune, Taylor

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gamma-Ray Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redshift-CRUZ OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AT EXTREME ENERGIES AAncient Unvierse with Gamma-Ray Bursts, pages 330333. AIP,

  11. Mesoscale predictability of an extreme warm-season precipitation event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odins, Andrew Michael

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of June 29 through July 6, 2002, an extreme precipitation event occurred over Texas, resulting in catastrophic flooding. Operational forecasts performed poorly, neither predicting the copious amounts of rain nor its longevity...

  12. PAFC fed by biogas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste waters of a beet-sugar refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascoli, A.; Elias, G. [Univ. Diegli Studi di Milano (Italy); Bigoni, L. [CISE Tecnologie Innovative S.p.A., Segrate (Italy); Giachero, R. [Du Pont Pharma Italia, Firenze (Italy)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beet-washing waters of a beet-sugar refinery carry a high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), and their conditioning to meet legal constraints before disposal considerably contributes to the operation costs of the refinery. Their fermentation in an anaerobic digestor could instead produce readily disposable non-polluting waters, fertilizers and biogas, useful to feed a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) heat and power generator system. A real refinery case is considered in this work, where the electrical characteristics V = V(I) of a laboratory PAFC stack, fueled with a dry simulated reforming gas (having the same H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} content as the biogas obtainable by the above said anaerobic digestion), are determined. The encouraging results show that a possible market niche for fuel cells, in the food-industry waste partial recovery and residual disposal, deserves attention.

  13. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  14. Extremal Three-point Correlators in Kerr/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melanie Becker; Sera Cremonini; Waldemar Schulgin

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute three-point correlation functions in the near-extremal, near-horizon region of a Kerr black hole, and compare to the corresponding finite-temperature conformal field theory correlators. For simplicity, we focus on scalar fields dual to operators ${\\cal O}_h$ whose conformal dimensions obey $h_3=h_1+h_2$, which we name \\emph{extremal} in analogy with the classic $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ three-point function in the literature. For such extremal correlators we find perfect agreement with the conformal field theory side, provided that the coupling of the cubic interaction contains a vanishing prefactor $\\propto h_3-h_1-h_2$. In fact, the bulk three-point function integral for such extremal correlators diverges as $1/(h_3-h_1-h_2)$. This behavior is analogous to what was found in the context of extremal AdS/CFT three-point correlators. As in AdS/CFT our correlation function can nevertheless be computed via analytic continuation from the non-extremal case.

  15. Uptake and utilization of dissolved glycine by the polychaete Capitella capitata (Fabricius) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Duane Desmond

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of regression analyses on uptake data, with a Student's t test on the equality of slopes, H : B PB II Results of regression analyses on release data III Per cent distribution of C in C 02 14 . 14 production experiment. Page 26 30 32 IV... UPTAKE AND UTILIZATION OF DISSOLVED GLYCINE BY THE POLYCHAETE CAPITELLA CAPITATA (FABRICIUS) UNDER AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by DUANE DESMOND SANDERS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A(M University in partial...

  16. Overcoming the anaerobic hurdle in phenotypic microarrays: Generation andvisualization of growth curve data for Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique; Jacobsen, Janet; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hazen, Terry C.

    2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing anaerobic microorganisms in phenotypic microarrays (PM) and 96-well microtiter plates is an emerging technology that allows high throughput survey of the growth and physiology and/or phenotype of cultivable microorganisms. For non-model bacteria, a method for phenotypic analysis is invaluable, not only to serve as a starting point for further evaluation, but also to provide a broad understanding of the physiology of an uncharacterized wild-type organism or the physiology/phenotype of a newly created mutant of that organism. Given recent advances in genetic characterization and targeted mutations to elucidate genetic networks and metabolic pathways, high-throughput methods for determining phenotypic differences are essential. Here we outline challenges presented in studying the physiology and phenotype of a sulfate reducing anaerobic delta proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Modifications of the commercially available OmniLog(TM) system (Hayward, CA) for experimental setup, and configuration, as well as considerations in PM data analysis are presented. Also highlighted here is data viewing software that enables users to view and compare multiple PM data sets. The PM method promises to be a valuable strategy in our systems biology approach to D. vulgaris studies and is readily applicable to other anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.

  17. Climate Extremes in the Southeast United States: Observed Variability, Spatial Classification, and Related Planning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Emily J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Spatial and temporal trends in temperature and precipitation extremes were investigated for the Southeast United States for the period 1948 to 2012 using 27 extreme (more)

  18. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey Lovelace; Mark A. Scheel; Robert Owen; Matthew Giesler; Reza Katebi; Bela Szilagyi; Tony Chu; Nicholas Demos; Daniel A. Hemberger; Lawrence E. Kidder; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Nousha Afshari

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The spin angular momentum $S$ of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area $A$ of its apparent horizon: $8\\pi S \\le A$, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses $M$ and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to $S/M^2 = 0.994$. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality $8\\pi S A$ and for which our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. These superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with $8\\pi Sextremality lower bound on the enclosing apparent horizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an extremal Kerr black hole. (Abstract abbreviated.)

  19. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. Using a large suite of climate model experiments, we find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2 C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. We also find that the intensification of hot extremes is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2 C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  20. From Extreme Values of I.I.D. Random Fields to Extreme Eigenvalues of Finite-volume Anderson Hamiltonian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arvydas Astrauskas

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to study asymptotic geometric properties almost surely or/and in probability of extreme order statistics of an i.i.d. random field (potential) indexed by sites of multidimensional lattice cube, the volume of which unboundedly increases. We discuss the following topics: (I) high level exceedances, in particular, clustering of exceedances; (II) decay rate of spacings in comparison with increasing rate of extreme order statistics; (III) minimum of spacings of successive order statistics; (IV) asymptotic behavior of values neighboring to extremes and so on. The conditions of the results are formulated in terms of regular variation (RV) of the cumulative hazard function and its inverse. A relationship between RV classes of the present paper as well as their links to the well-known RV classes (including domains of attraction of max-stable distributions) are discussed. The asymptotic behavior of functionals (I)--(IV) determines the asymptotic structure of the top eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the large-volume discrete Schr\\" odinger operators with an i.i.d. potential (Anderson Hamiltonian). Thus, another aim of the present paper is to review and comment a recent progress on extreme value theory for eigenvalues of random Schr\\"odinger operators as well as to provide a clear and rigorous understanding of the relationship between the top eigenvalues and extreme values of i.i.d. potentials.

  1. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  2. Semiclassical Decay of Near-Extremal Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ted Jacobson

    1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Decay of a near-extremal black hole down to the extremal state is studied in the background field approximation to determine the fate of injected matter and Hawking pairs. By examining the behavior of light rays and solutions to the wave equation it is concluded that the singularity at the origin is irrelevant. Furthermore, there is most likely an instability of the event horizon arising from the accumulation of injected matter and Hawking partners there. The possible role of this instability in reconciling the D-brane and black hole pictures of the decay process is discussed.

  3. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  4. Absorption of scalars by extremal black holes in string theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filipe Moura

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the low frequency absorption cross section of minimally coupled massless scalar fields by extremal spherically symmetric black holes in d dimensions in the presence of string-theoretical alpha' corrections is equal to the horizon area. Classically one has the relation sigma=4GS between the absorption cross section and the black hole entropy. We discuss the validity of such relation in the presence of alpha' corrections for extremal black holes, both nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric. The examples we consider seem to indicate that this relation is verified in the presence of alpha' corrections for supersymmetric black holes, but not for nonsupersymmetric ones.

  5. TECA: A Parallel Toolkit for Extreme Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat, Mr; Ruebel, Oliver; Byna, Surendra; Wu, Kesheng; Li, Fuyu; Wehner, Michael; Bethel, E. Wes

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present TECA, a parallel toolkit for detecting extreme events in large climate datasets. Modern climate datasets expose parallelism across a number of dimensions: spatial locations, timesteps and ensemble members. We design TECA to exploit these modes of parallelism and demonstrate a prototype implementation for detecting and tracking three classes of extreme events: tropical cyclones, extra-tropical cyclones and atmospheric rivers. We process a modern TB-sized CAM5 simulation dataset with TECA, and demonstrate good runtime performance for the three case studies.

  6. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

  7. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  8. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen, E-mail: espen.govasmark@bioforsk.no [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research - Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahlsvei 20, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Staeb, Jessica [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft, Abteilung Hydrochemie, Bandtaele 2, D-70569 Stuttgart (Buesnau) (Germany); Holen, Borge [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research - Plant Health, Hogskoleveien 7, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Hoornstra, Douwe [University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Biocenter, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014 (Finland); Nesbakk, Tommy [Mjosanlegget AS, Roverudmyra Miljostasjon, Asmarkveien 301, NO-2600 Lillehammer (Norway); Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja [University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Biocenter, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  9. Influence of Modes of Climate Variability on Global Temperature Extremes JESSE KENYON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Modes of Climate Variability on Global Temperature Extremes JESSE KENYON Nicholas variability on worldwide summer and winter temperature extremes has been analyzed, namely, that of the El Niño for temperature extremes from world- wide land areas are used describe moderate extremes, such as the number

  10. Extremes (2010) 13:205217 DOI 10.1007/s10687-010-0105-7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extremes (2010) 13:205­217 DOI 10.1007/s10687-010-0105-7 Sources of uncertainty in the extreme in the calculation of extreme value statistics for observed and modeled climate data. Inter-model differences in the CMIP3 dataset. Keywords Extreme temperature · Return value · Uncertainty · Climate models AMS 2000

  11. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS Rick Extreme Value Analysis: Block Maxima (3) Conditional Extreme Value Analysis: Peaks over Threshold (4) Application to California Temperature Extremes (5) Remaining Work #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 (1) Introduction

  12. Detection of changes in temperature extremes during the second half of the 20th century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Detection of changes in temperature extremes during the second half of the 20th century Nikolaos in extremely warm nights. Human influence on cold nights and days is also detected, although less robustly, but there is no detection of a significant human influence on extremely warm days. In the future, extreme temperatures

  13. CONDITIONAL EXTREMES FROM HEAVY-TAILED DISTRIBUTIONS: AN APPLICATION TO THE ESTIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONDITIONAL EXTREMES FROM HEAVY-TAILED DISTRIBUTIONS: AN APPLICATION TO THE ESTIMATION OF EXTREME author, Stephane.Girard@inrialpes.fr Abstract - This paper is dedicated to the estimation of extreme on a simulation study. An application to the estimation of pointwise return levels of extreme rainfalls in the C

  14. The effect of climate change on extreme waves in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vries, Hans de

    #12;Results Extreme wind climate NCK days 18 March 2011 Renske de Winter Difference in wind speeds Sea #12;Results Extreme wind climate Winds exceeding 8 Bf (17 m/s) Means over all ESSENCE members of climate change. The are minor changes in the extreme wind climate Extreme wave heights probably do

  15. Report on the `Aha Huliko'a workshop on extreme events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    talked about my work on extreme wind events in GCMs ­ My main contributions: · Asking when GCMs: Extreme wind events · Extreme windstorm Kyrill (18-19 January 2007) ­ Wind gusts up to 134 mph (216 kphReport on the `Aha Huliko'a workshop on extreme events Held 23-26 January 2007, Honolulu, HI Jeff

  16. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL); Konkashbaev, Isak (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  17. Causal Analysis of the Unanticipated Extremity Exposure at HFEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. James; Charles R. Posegate; Thomas P. Zahn; Alan G. Wagner

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the unintended extremity exposure to an operator while handling a metallurgical mount sample of irradiated fuel following an off-scale high beta radiation reading of the sample. The decision was made to continue working after the meter indicated high off-scale by the HPT Supervisor, which resulted in the operator at the next operation being exposed.

  18. EXTREMAL CONFIGURATIONS OF ROBOT ARMS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siersma, Dirk

    EXTREMAL CONFIGURATIONS OF ROBOT ARMS IN THREE DIMENSIONS DIRK SIERSMA Abstract. We define a volume function for a robot arm in R3 and give geometric conditions for its critical points. 1. Introduction configurations of planar polygonal linkages and open robot arms considered as the critical points of the oriented

  19. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  20. INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT GOVINDJEE, EUGENE RABINOWITCH. INTRODUCTION It was shown in preceding papers (9, 10) that when the unicellular red alga Por- phyridium), these algae, when exposed to monochromatic light (bands isolated by a grating monochromator, band half

  1. How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather Dr. Mark Seeley Dept of Soil, Water Climate Headlines Data Sources Changing Minnesota Climate Features Climate Consequences Implications for Severe Weather #12;Three Reasons to Accept That Climate Change is Real #12;#12;Stationary (1) Cyclical (2

  2. Measuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Chen California Institute of Technology Jackie Li University of Michigan supported by CarnegieMeasuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity of Water Ice VII to 20 GPa David G. Cahill, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Dallas Trinkle, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bin

  3. Hamilton cycles in graphs and hypergraphs: an extremal perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osthus, Deryk

    Hamilton cycles in graphs and hypergraphs: an extremal perspective Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete problems, the Hamilton cycle problem has been the subject of intensive and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey these developments and highlight open problems

  4. HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osthus, Deryk

    HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete problems, the Hamilton cycle problem emerged, such as resilience, robustness and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey

  5. HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osthus, Deryk

    HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete prob- lems, the Hamilton cycle problem emerged, such as resilience, robustness and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey

  6. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  7. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provan, Jim

    An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cp

  8. Laura Roach Islamic Extremism: Undermining a Fundamentalist Movement in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Laura Roach Islamic Extremism: Undermining a Fundamentalist Movement in Indonesia College: COLSA, Major: EREC Freshman Editor: Stephanie Weiner #12;I. Problem Indonesia has the largest Muslim population, Indonesia is not an Islamic state; it is the third largest democracy in the world.1 Unsurprisingly

  9. FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS) Proposal Team: L INFORMATION · TECHNIQUE(S): Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Raman and visible spectroscopy; Diamond techniques combined with DACs; Laser heating techniques combined with DACs. · SOURCE: Large-gap (90 mm

  10. THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET Nicole Farnsworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET by Nicole Farnsworth Submitted to Brigham Young Ultraviolet and Thorium-based Mirrors . . . 1 1.2 Project Background the Optical Constants of Thorium Oxide 34 3.1 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements

  11. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  12. REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile

  13. Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe Kenneth Cavitation MBSL Plasma a b s t r a c t We review recent work on the use of sonoluminescence (SL) to probe spectroscopically the conditions created during cavitation, both in clouds of collapsing bubbles (multibubble

  14. Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir: Contribution from Bubbling Sediments manuscript received February 3, 2010. Accepted February 15, 2010. Methane emission pathways.Methanediffusionfromthesediment was generally low and seasonally stable and did not account for the high concentration of dissolved methane

  15. Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases Adaptation: long-term or fundamental changes people make Despite hazard mitigation efforts and scientific and technological ad- vances, extreme weather events and ad- dressing local causes of harm through participatory, community-based efforts formulated within

  16. Instabilities of (near) extremal rotating black holes in higher dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Hollands; Akihiro Ishibashi

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, Durkee and Reall have conjectured a criterion for linear instability of rotating, extremal, asymptotically Minkowskian black holes in $d\\ge 4$ dimensions, such as the Myers-Perry black holes. They considered a certain elliptic operator, $\\cal A$, acting on symmetric traceless tensors intrinsic to the horizon. Based in part on numerical evidence, they suggested that if the lowest eigenvalue, $\\lambda$, of this operator is less than the critical value $-1/4$ ( called "effective BF-bound"), then the black hole is linearly unstable. In this paper, we prove their conjecture. Our proof uses a combination of methods such as (i) the "canonical energy method" of Hollands-Wald, (ii) algebraically special properties of the near horizon geometries associated with the black hole, and (iii) the structure of the (linearized) constraint equations. Our method of proof is also applicable to rotating, extremal asymptotically Anti-deSitter black holes. In that case, our methods show that "all" such black holes are unstable. Although we explicitly discuss in this paper only extremal black holes, we argue that our methods can be generalized straightforwardly to obtain the same results for "near" extremal black holes.

  17. Recent years have witnessed a vigorous growth in the use of Extreme Value Theory and Statistics of Extremes, with relevance to applications in a broad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alves, Maria Isabel Fraga

    FOREWORD Recent years have witnessed a vigorous growth in the use of Extreme Value Theory and Statistics of Extremes, with relevance to applications in a broad spectrum of areas, ranging for example from, through recent advances in the field. Statistics of Extremes and Related Fields consists of six articles

  18. Published in Proceedings of the XL2003 (Response of Structures to Extreme Loading) Conference, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    , Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS USING INVERSE RELIABILITY K, USA ABSTRACT The reliability of wind turbines against extreme loads is the focus of this study of randomness in the gross wind environment as well as in the extreme response given wind conditions. A detailed

  19. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not occur in G.m. and response to stress must occur by other mechanisms. The Phenotype MicroArray technology can be reliably used as a rapid screening tool for characterization in anaerobic microbial ecology.

  20. Science at the Theatre - Extreme Science - Promo Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 27 at 7 pm at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, join four Berkeley Lab scientists as they discuss extreme science -- and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in extreme environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel. Go here for more information and to view videos of previous Science at the Theater events: http://www.lbl.gov/LBL-PID/fobl/

  1. Structure of nuclei at extreme values of the isospin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Dobaczewski

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics of nuclei at extreme values of the isospin is at the focus of present-day nuclear science. Experimentally, thanks to existing and emerging radioactive-ion-beam facilities, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties far from stability. Going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for an improvement of our description of normal nuclei from the neighborhood of the beta stability valley. In the present talk, we review several aspects of the present-day mean-field theoretical studies of weakly bound nuclei.

  2. Science at the Theatre - Extreme Science - Promo Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 27 at 7 pm at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, join four Berkeley Lab scientists as they discuss extreme science -- and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in extreme environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel. Go here for more information and to view videos of previous Science at the Theater events: http://www.lbl.gov/LBL-PID/fobl/

  3. Improved methods for simulating nearly extremal binary black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark A. Scheel; Matthew Giesler; Daniel A. Hemberger; Geoffrey Lovelace; Kevin Kuper; Michael Boyle; Bela Szilagyi; Lawrence E. Kidder

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical black holes could be nearly extremal (that is, rotating nearly as fast as possible); therefore, nearly extremal black holes could be among the binaries that current and future gravitational-wave observatories will detect. Predicting the gravitational waves emitted by merging black holes requires numerical-relativity simulations, but these simulations are especially challenging when one or both holes have mass $m$ and spin $S$ exceeding the Bowen-York limit of $S/m^2=0.93$. We present improved methods that enable us to simulate merging, nearly extremal black holes more robustly and more efficiently. We use these methods to simulate an unequal-mass, precessing binary black hole coalescence, where the larger black hole has $S/m^2=0.99$. We also use these methods to simulate a non-precessing binary black hole coalescence, where both black holes have $S/m^2=0.994$, nearly reaching the Novikov-Thorne upper bound for holes spun up by thin accretion disks. We demonstrate numerical convergence and estimate the numerical errors of the waveforms; we compare numerical waveforms from our simulations with post-Newtonian and effective-one-body waveforms; we compare the evolution of the black-hole masses and spins with analytic predictions; and we explore the effect of increasing spin magnitude on the orbital dynamics (the so-called "orbital hangup" effect).

  4. Simulating merging binary black holes with nearly extremal spins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 (United States); Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysically realistic black holes may have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e., close to 1 in dimensionless units). Numerical simulations of binary black holes are important tools both for calibrating analytical templates for gravitational-wave detection and for exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. However, all previous simulations of binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown have been limited by an apparently insurmountable barrier: the merging holes' spins could not exceed 0.93, which is still a long way from the maximum possible value in terms of the physical effects of the spin. In this paper, we surpass this limit for the first time, opening the way to explore numerically the behavior of merging, nearly extremal black holes. Specifically, using an improved initial-data method suitable for binary black holes with nearly extremal spins, we simulate the inspiral (through 12.5 orbits), merger and ringdown of two equal-mass black holes with equal spins of magnitude 0.95 antialigned with the orbital angular momentum.

  5. New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico brine pool via in situ mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girguis, Peter R.

    New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico Keywords: Methane flux Mass spectrometer Brine pool Methane oxidation Gulf of Mexico a b s t r a c t Deep heterogeneity. In particular, biogeochemical fluxes of volatiles such as methane remain largely unconstrained

  6. Use of the extreme groups approach: A critical reexamination and new recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preacher, K. J.; Rucker, D. D.; MacCallum, R. C.; Nicewander, W. A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of continuous variables sometimes proceeds by selecting individuals on the basis of extreme scores of a sample distribution and submitting only those extreme scores to further analysis. This sampling method is ...

  7. An extremely radioresistant green eukaryote for radionuclide bio-decontamination in the nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of adaptation to extreme environments. Introduction Nuclear energy technologies generate radioactiveAn extremely radioresistant green eukaryote for radionuclide bio-decontamination in the nuclear Blignyabcd Nuclear activities generate radioactive elements which require processes for their decontamination

  8. Absorption cross section of RN and SdS extremal black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sini R; Nijo Varghese; V C Kuriakose

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of scalar wave functions near the horizon of Reissner Nordstrom (RN) extremal and Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) extremal black holes are found using WKB approximation and the effect of reflection of waves from the horizon. The absorption cross section $\\sigma_{abs}$ when RN extremal and SdS extremal black holes placed in a Klein-Gordon field is calculated.

  9. Towards more realistic extreme load predictions J. Mann, G.C. Larsen and T.J. Larsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generator is demonstrated by emulating a measured extreme negative wind shear event. The aeroelastic response of a wind turbine, exposed to the generated extreme wind field, is assessed, and in addition are extreme (short term) wind shear, extreme wind speed gusts and extreme wind direction gusts. It is common

  10. Basic Research Needs for Materials Under Extreme Environments. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Materials Under Extreme Environments, June 11-13, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadsworth, J.; Crabtree, G. W.; Hemley, R. J.; Falcone, R.; Robertson, I.; Stringer, J.; Tortorelli, P.; Gray, G. T.; Nicol, M.; Lehr, J.; Tozer, S. W.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Vetrano, J. S.; Ashton, C. L.; Kitts, S.; Landson, C.; Campbell, B.; Gruzalski, G.; Stevens, D.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the potential for developing revolutionary new materials that will meet demanding future energy requirements that expose materials to environmental extremes.

  11. Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Flaring Solar Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milligan, Ryan O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature and density sensitive line ratios, Doppler shifted emission lines and nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, and continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this paper I shall review some of the advances made in recent years using these techniques, focusing primarily on studies that have utilized data from Hinode/EIS and SDO/EVE, while also providing some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

  12. Development of an Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility at Princeton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A B; Tully, C G; Austin, R; Calaprice, F; McDonald, K; Ascione, G; Baker, G; Davidson, R; Dudek, L; Grisham, L; Kugel, H; Pagdon, K; Stevenson, T; Woolley, R

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a fundamental understanding of material response to a neutron and/or high heat flux environment can yield development of improved materials and operations with existing materials. Such understanding has numerous applications in fields such as nuclear power (for the current fleet and future fission and fusion reactors), aerospace, and other research fields (e.g., high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for high energy physics research). A proposal has been advanced to develop a facility for testing various materials under extreme heat and neutron exposure conditions at Princeton. The Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility comprises an environmentally controlled chamber (48 m^3) capable of high vacuum conditions, with extreme flux beams and probe beams accessing a central, large volume target. The facility will have the capability to expose large surface areas (1 m^2) to 14 MeV neutrons at a fluence in excess of 10^13 n/s. Depending on the operating mode. Additionally beam line power on the order of 15-75 MW/m2 for durations of 1-15 seconds are planned... The multi-second duration of exposure can be repeated every 2-10 minutes for periods of 10-12 hours. The facility will be housed in the test cell that held the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which has the desired radiation and safety controls as well as the necessary loading and assembly infrastructure. The facility will allow testing of various materials to their physical limit of thermal endurance and allow for exploring the interplay between radiation-induced embrittlement, swelling and deformation of materials, and the fatigue and fracturing that occur in response to thermal shocks. The combination of high neutron energies and intense fluences will enable accelerated time scale studies. The results will make contributions for refining predictive failure modes (modeling) in extreme environments, as well as providing a technical platform for the development of new alloys, new materials, and the investigation of repair mechanisms. Effects on materials will be analyzed with in situ beam probes and instrumentation as the target is exposed to radiation, thermal fluxes and other stresses. Photon and monochromatic neutron fluxes, produced using a variable-energy (4-45 MeV) electron linac and the highly asymmetric electron-positron collisions technique used in high-energy physics research, can provide non-destructive, deep-penetrating structural analysis of materials while they are undergoing testing. The same beam lines will also be able to generate neutrons from photonuclear interactions using existing Bremsstrahlung and positrons on target quasi-monochromatic gamma rays. Other diagnostics will include infrared cameras, residual gas analyzer (RGA), and thermocouples; additional diagnostic capability will be added.

  13. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  14. Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

    2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

  15. Self-cleaning optic for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilayer reflective optic or mirror for lithographic applications, and particularly extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, having a surface or "capping" layer which in combination with incident radiation and gaseous molecular species such as O.sub.2, H.sub.2, H.sub.2 O provides for continuous cleaning of carbon deposits from the optic surface. The metal capping layer is required to be oxidation resistant and capable of transmitting at least 90% of incident EUV radiation. Materials for the capping layer include Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Au and combinations thereof.

  16. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  17. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  18. MoRu/Be multilayers for extreme ultraviolet applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa C. (Livermore, CA); Wall, Mark A. (Stockton, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High reflectance, low intrinsic roughness and low stress multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography comprise amorphous layers MoRu and crystalline Be layers. Reflectance greater than 70% has been demonstrated for MoRu/Be multilayers with 50 bilayer pairs. Optical throughput of MoRu/Be multilayers can be 30-40% higher than that of Mo/Be multilayer coatings. The throughput can be improved using a diffusion barrier to make sharper interfaces. A capping layer on the top surface of the multilayer improves the long-term reflectance and EUV radiation stability of the multilayer by forming a very thin native oxide that is water resistant.

  19. 'Extreme Makeover: Home Edition' Builds Efficiently | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment ofEnergy.pdfApplications:AdjustmentDepartment'Extreme Makeover:

  20. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503 D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Ciencias Fisicas Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.