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Sample records for anaerobic digestion system

  1. Anaerobic Digestion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anaerobic Digestion (Redirected from - Anaerobic Digestion) Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Anaerobic Digestion Incentives Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  3. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  4. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellinger, A.

    1995-11-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters-type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates-define the investment and operating costs of anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters in somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 11/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  5. Anaerobic Digestion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaerobic digestion is a common technology in today's agriculture, municipal waste, and brewing industries. It uses bacteria to break down waste organic materials into methane and other gases, which can be used to produce electricity or heat.

  6. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  7. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  8. Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

  9. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  10. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  11. Anaerobic digestion submarine in Abbey farmyard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    An anaerobic digestion system and fiber separation plant installed at Bethlehem Abbey (Northern Ireland) produces biogas for central heating and grain drying, and a compost which is bagged and sold. According to one report, it even keeps the monks warm at night. Designed by James Murcott of Farm Gas Ltd., the digester (shaped like a submarine) receives 10% solids slurry.

  12. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  13. Evaluating a model of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes through system identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anex, R.P.; Kiely, G.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), on its own or co-digested with primary sewage sludge (PSS), produces high quality biogas, suitable as renewable energy. Parameter estimation and evaluation of a two-stage mathematical model of the anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of MSW and PSS are described. Measured data are from a bench scale laboratory experiment using a continuously stirred tank reactor and operated at 36 C for 115 days. The two-stage model simulates acidogenesis and methanogenesis, including ammonia inhibition. Model parameters are estimated using an output error, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Sensitivity of the estimated parameter values and the model outputs to non-estimated model parameters and measurement errors are evaluated. The estimated mathematical model successfully predicts the performance of the anaerobic reactor. Sensitivity results provide guidance for improving the model structure and experimental procedures.

  14. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production More Documents &

  15. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge EA-1628: Final Environmental Assessment Biogas Markets and ...

  16. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  17. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at...

  18. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi...

  19. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  20. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-C: Beyond Biofuels Larry Baresi, Professor of Biology, California State University, Northridge PDF icon b13_baresi_1-C.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Environmental

  2. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  3. Economic evaluation of a swine farm covered anaerobic lagoon digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1996-12-31

    It is helpful to evaluate anaerobic digestion technologies using objective economic criteria. Options can then be ranked in terms of their relative cost effectiveness, leading to rational deployment decisions. This study presents the results of a hypothetical pro forma economic evaluation of one type of digestion system that could commonly be found on many swine farms; a covered anaerobic lagoon. The digester was assumed to be located in North Carolina, a major swine-producing state. Electricity generation with waste heat recovery was assumed to be the major end-use application of biogas manufactured from this process.

  4. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Gioannis, G.; Diaz, L.F.; Muntoni, A. Pisanu, A.

    2008-07-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  6. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  7. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  8. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potawatomi Community - A Case Study | Department of Energy A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study Presented by Jason Rieth, Industrial Construction Executive at Miron Construction at the April 16, 2013, Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters CommRE Webinar. PDF icon mironconstruction_rieth.pdf More Documents & Publications

  9. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sewage Sludge | Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Principal Environmental Engineer, Argonne National Laboratory

  10. A mass transfer model of ammonia volatilisation from anaerobic digestate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, M.J.; Everitt, T.; Villa, R.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly popular for treating organic waste. The methane produced can be burned to generate electricity and the digestate, which is high in mineral nitrogen, can be used as a fertiliser. In this paper we evaluate potential losses of ammonia via volatilisation from food waste anaerobic digestate using a closed chamber system equipped with a sulphuric acid trap. Ammonia losses represent a pollution source and, over long periods could reduce the agronomic value of the digestate. Observed ammonia losses from the experimental system were linear with time. A simple non-steady-state partitioning model was developed to represent the process. After calibration, the model was able to describe the behaviour of ammonia in the digestate and in the trap very well. The average rate of volatilisation was approximately 5.2 g N m{sup -2} week{sup -1}. The model was used to extrapolate the findings of the laboratory study to a number of AD storage scenarios. The simulations highlight that open storage of digestate could result in significant losses of ammonia to the atmosphere. Losses are predicted to be relatively minor from covered facilities, particularly if depth to surface area ratio is high.

  11. Current State of Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes in North...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012015 ISSN 2196-3010 Keywords anaerobic digestion, biogas, biosolids, fertilizer, food waste, manure, organic waste, renewable energy Abstract With the large volumes of...

  12. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  13. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel-alcohol plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengtson, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    An anaerobic-digestion system, coupled with a fuel-alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm-energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components; a hog finishing house with a manure pit; a solids handling pump to feed the manure; and a 13,000-gallon railroad tank car as the main digester vessel and pump to transfer effluent from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digester was operated for sufficient time to demonstrate the use of hot water in an automated digester temperature control system. Sufficient biogas was produced to demonstrate the use of biogas in a converted propane boiler.

  14. Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity program is designed to support small-sized electricity generation where the energy generated is used primarily at the electric customer's location (third...

  15. Evaluating anaerobic digestion for reduction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    A small-scale anaerobic digestion test has been developed for monitoring start-up work with inoperative digesters. The test is described and variables critical to its consistent operation are detailed. The method has been used in many anaerobic digestion studies, including evaluation of the digestibility of various municipal solid wastes like grass and hedge clippings, garbage and newspapers. Digestion rates are expressed in terms of the rate of production of combustible gas and the retention time needed for a fixed degree of volatile solids destruction. An example shows the advantage of digesting selected combined charges, and it is suggested that this approach might be fruitful with many toxic organic materials. Application of this test to find the digestion rates of some high-yield biomass crops is also described.

  16. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  17. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion with the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  18. A mixed plug flow anaerobic digester for dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M.S.; Delisle, U.; Ferland, D.; Chagnon, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, a ''mixed plug-flow'' anaerobic digester has been built to produce biogas from the manure of 350 dairy cows and, subsequently, to produce electricity for on-farm use only. This paper describes the digester and presents the main results of one year of technical follow-up.

  19. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  20. Anaerobic digestion as a waste disposal option for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C

    1993-01-01

    Tuna sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal problem as well as an emerging opportunity for use in renewable fuel production. This research project focuses on the biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products including methane and fertilizer-grade residue through anaerobic high solids digestion. In this preliminary study, the anaerobic bioconversion of tuna sludge with MSW appears promising.

  1. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  2. An adaptive strategy to control anaerobic digesters for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroy, O.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Cuervo, F.; Femat, R.

    1996-10-01

    The design and implementation of a new adaptive controller for anaerobic digesters is presented using a general nonlinear model and an uncertainties estimation scheme. The primary advantage of this controller over standard adaptive controllers is that biogas flow rate measurements are not required. The resulting controller is similar in form to standard adaptive controllers and can be tuned analogously. The adaptive control strategy has been implemented in a pilot-scale anaerobic digester showing good performance and robustness against changes in the feed load.

  3. Single stage anaerobic digester at Tarleton State University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The design and operation of the demonstration plant facilities at Tarleton State University to produce methane in a single stage anaerobic digester are described. A combination of manures from hogs and poultry are used as feedstock. Uses for the methane, cost of the digester, and value of the energy produced are discussed. During the 21 months of operation, 310 people have visited the project. (DMC)

  4. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013.

  5. Kinetic model for anaerobic digestion of biogas biological sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlostathis, S.G.; Gossett, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    The principal objective of this study was the development and evaluation of a comprehensive kinetic model capable of predicting digester performance when fed biological sludge. Preliminary conversion mechanisms such as cell deaths, lysis, and hydrolysis responsible for rendering viable biological sludge organisms to available substrate were studied in depth. The results of this study indicate that hydrolysis of the dead, particulate biomass - primarily consisting of protein - is the slowest step, and therefore kinetically controls the overall process of an anaerobic digestion of biological sludge. A kinetic model was developed which could accurately describe digester performance and predict effluent quality.

  6. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  7. Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.R. . E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk; Lang, N.L.; Cheung, K.H.M.; Spanoudaki, K.

    2005-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the principal method of stabilising biosolids from urban wastewater treatment in the UK, and it also has application for the treatment of other types of biowaste. Increasing awareness of the potential risks to human and animal health from environmental sources of pathogens has focused attention on the efficacy of waste treatment processes at destroying pathogenic microorganisms in biowastes recycled to agricultural land. The degree of disinfection achieved by a particular anaerobic digester is influenced by a variety of interacting operational variables and conditions, which can often deviate from the ideal. Experimental investigations demonstrate that Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are not damaged by mesophilic temperatures, whereas rapid inactivation occurs by thermophilic digestion. A hydraulic, biokinetic and thermodynamic model of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion showed that a 2 log{sub 10} reduction in E. coli (the minimum removal required for agricultural use of conventionally treated biosolids) is likely to challenge most conventional mesophilic digesters, unless strict maintenance and management practices are adopted to minimise dead zones and by-pass flow. Efficient mixing and organic matter stabilisation are the main factors controlling the rate of inactivation under mesophilic conditions and not a direct effect of temperature per se on pathogenic organisms.

  8. Discussion of ``The anaerobic digestion of organic waste``

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    With respect to economics, the presenter indicated that anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) may not be economical based on the value of the energy produced. This will most likely be the case, partly because of the low energy prices in this country. These facilities would have to rely on tipping fees paid for receiving and processing the waste. As stated earlier, the high solids process will help improve the economics. While there are said to be 20 plants operating in Europe on MSW, there seems to be none in the US, and that is the condition this paper addresses. It was hoped that by exploring the benefits of co-digestion and stimulation, and showing how digestible certain components of MSW can be, more operators of existing anaerobic facilities would consider expanding their operations to include at least some elements of MSW.

  9. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettinga, G.; Haandel, A.C. Vaan

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  10. Anaerobic waste-activated sludge digestion - A bioconversion mechanism and kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Tatsuo; Kudo, Kenzo; Nasu, Yoshikazu )

    1993-05-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of raw and mechanically lysed waste-activated sludge was kinetically investigated. The hydrolysis of the biopolymers, such as protein, which leaked out from the biological sludge with ultrasonic lysis, was a first-order reaction in anaerobic digestion and the rate constant was much higher than the decay rate constant of the raw waste activated sludge. An anaerobic digestion model that is capable of evaluating the effect of the mechanical sludge lysis on digestive performance was developed. The present model includes four major biological processes - the release of intracellular matter with sludge lysis; hydrolysis of biopolymers to volatile acids; the degradation of various volatile acids to acetate; and the conversion of acetate and hydrogen to methane. Each process was assumed to follow first-order kinetics. The model approximately simulated the overall process performance of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. The model suggested that when the lysed waste-activated sludge was fed, the overall digestive performance remarkably increased in the two-phase system consisting of an acid forming process and a methanogenic process, which ensured the symbiotic growth of acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  12. EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

  13. Effect of particle size reduction on anaerobic sludge digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koutsospyros, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of organic pollutants in primary sludge are suspended in the form of particulate rather than soluble matter. Microbial organisms cannot assimilate this material without initial solubilization. In anaerobic digestion, the initial size breakdown is accomplished by hydrolytic bacteria. The extent of solubilization is limited by the size of particulate matter. Thus, size reduction prior to digestion is a sound alternative. Size reduction pretreatment was achieved by means of ultrasonic waves. Sonication proved an effective method for size reduction of particulate matter in primary sludge. In addition, although the method produced relatively high amounts of finely dispered solids, the filtration properties of resulting sludges were not affected. Chemical characteristics of sludge, important in anaerobic digestion, were not affected, at least within the attempted range of sonication time and amplitude. The effect of size reduction of primary sludge solids was studied under batch and semi-continuous feed conditions. Preliminary batch digestion experiments were conducted in five 1.5 liter reactors that accepted sonicated feeds of varying pretreatment at four different feed loads (3.3-13.3% by volume). The digestion efficiency and gas production were increased by as much as 30 percent as a result of sonication without any deterioration in the filtration properties of the digester effluent. At higher feed loads the digester efficiency dropped drastically and significant deterioration of the effluent filtration properties from all reactors was evident. Semi-continuous runs were conducted in four reactors. Solids retention time (SRT) was varied from 8 to 20 days. Process efficiency and gas production were enhanced as a result of sonication. Process improvement was more evident under short SRT (8-10 days).

  14. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  15. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction of short-chain organic acids from anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wene, E.G.; Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters with glucose or municipal solid waste (MSW) feed were operated to maximize production of short-chain organic acids. Digester effluent was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or trioctylamine (TOA) in heptane or 2-heptanone as the water immiscible phase. Digester effluent was recycled to digesters after extraction. Both TOPO and TOA in organic solvents effectively extract organic acids from anaerobic digester fluid. Longer chain acids have a higher distribution coefficient than shorter-chain acids. Long term extraction of digester fluid with recycle was not toxic to the anaerobic production of short-chain acids.

  17. Anaerobic digestion analysis model: User`s manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Landucci, R.

    1994-08-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Analysis Model (ADAM) has been developed to assist investigators in performing preliminary economic analyses of anaerobic digestion processes. The model, which runs under Microsoft Excel{trademark}, is capable of estimating the economic performance of several different waste digestion process configurations that are defined by the user through a series of option selections. The model can be used to predict required feedstock tipping fees, product selling prices, utility rates, and raw material unit costs. The model is intended to be used as a tool to perform preliminary economic estimates that could be used to carry out simple screening analyses. The model`s current parameters are based on engineering judgments and are not reflective of any existing process; therefore, they should be carefully evaluated and modified if necessary to reflect the process under consideration. The accuracy and level of uncertainty of the estimated capital investment and operating costs are dependent on the accuracy and level of uncertainty of the model`s input parameters. The underlying methodology is capable of producing results accurate to within {+-} 30% of actual costs.

  18. Manure digester and power generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santina, P.F.; Chatterjee, A.K.

    1988-06-14

    A manure digester and power generating system is described comprising: a mixing tank for receiving manure, and for mixing water with the manure to produce a manure slurry of desired consistency; a closed anaerobic digester tank of fixed volume; the mixing tank being separate from and spaced from the digester tank; pumping and conduit means for transferring the contents of the mixing tank to the digester tank; automatic control means, associated with the pumping means, for monitoring and controlling temperature and volume of the contents of the mixing tank before transfer to the digester tank; means for discharging effluent by-products out the outflow end of the digester tank; a gas-fueled engine and a generator coupled to the engine, for generating electrical power; heater means; means for drawing off biogas from the digester tank and for conducting it to the engine as fuel, and wherein the manure slurry is heated sufficiently, prior to introduction into the digester tank and separately from the digester tank, to prevent temperature shock of already digesting slurry in the digester tank when the slurry is introduced into the digester tank.

  19. Biogasification of sorghum in a novel anaerobic digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Isaacson, H.R.; Hayes, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) conducted pilot-scale anaerobic digestion experiments with ensiled sorghum in a 160 ft/sup 3/ digester at the experimental test unit (ETU) facility at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex in Florida. The study focused on improving bioconversion efficiencies and process stability by employing a novel reactor concept developed at IGT. Steady-state performance data were collected from the ETU as well as from a laboratory-scale conventional stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at loading rates of 0.25 and 0.50 lb organic matter/ft/sup 3/-day at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively. This paper will describe the ETU facility, novel digester design and operating techniques, and the results obtained during 12 months of stable and uninterrupted operation of the ETU and the CSTR which showed that methane yields anad rates from the ETU were 20% to 50% higher than those of the CSTR. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  2. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Biomass Program perspective on anaerobic digestion and fuel cell integratin at biorefineries. Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  3. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production March 24, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Area Review Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Ph. D. Argonne National Laboratory Goal Statement  Ultimate Goal: Transform negative-value or low-value biosolids into high- energy-density, fungible hydrocarbon precursors through targeted research, development and demonstration. - Enhance anaerobic digestion of biosolids to produce biogas with ~90% methane content and hydrogen sulfide at

  4. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program eere.energy.gov Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biogas and Fuel Cell Workshop NREL June 11,2012 Brian Duff DOE Biomass Program 2 | Biomass Program eere.energy.gov Outline * The Importance of Anaerobic Digestion for Fuels, Products, and Power * Biomass Program Perspective * The Potential for Biogas/Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries o Retrofit Applications for 1st-Generation Biofuels Plants o Integration

  5. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60%, there was a significant performance drop, which was attributed to free ammonia inhibition. The performances in these two reactors were comparable to the ones achieved in the conventional wet digestion and thermophilic dry digestion processes.

  6. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19-6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20-30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352-450 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  7. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  8. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Zhongtang; Hitzhusen, Fredrick

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  9. Producing pipeline-quality biomethane via anaerobic digestion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and <5 ppb H2S), facilitated CO2 removal by up to 86.3%, boosted average CH4 content in biogas by up to 42.4% compared with the control digester, close to fungibility of natural...

  10. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  11. CO{sub 2} level control by anthropogenic peat: The anaerobic digestion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    Anthropogenic Peat (AP) has been described as an effective and economical way to control the level of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere without adverse effect on economic activity and development. All elements of the proposal are separately at work, but one, anaerobic digestion, is not widely known nor has it been applied to biomass as AP requires. Anaerobic digestion is described here, with some of its current large-scale applications. Results of lab studies of the digestion of other materials, including biomass especially grown for this purpose are presented, and the methods used to find them are explained. The preferred biomass source for AP is sugar cane, and extended studies have been run on a close relative, sorghum; preliminary work on cane itself and on various sugar sources is also reported.

  12. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of screened dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the operating results of a two-phase process that separate the acid-phase and methane-phase digestion of screened dairy manure under mesophilic temperature. Acidogenesis pretreatment prior to the methanogenic fixed-film reactor phase resulted in a significant increase in methane yield.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste potential market implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, H.T.D.; Mooij, H.P.

    1985-08-01

    A 10-day retention time experiment determined digester biogas production and overall digester performance for comparison with previous experiments using 12- and 18-day retention. The authors describe the experiments, compare the results, and discuss general operation and start-up of the three experiments. The results show that the 10-day retention time produces a high level of biogas with substantially lower retention times. The data suggest that as sludge is used and the problem of leaks is addressed, gas production rate can be increased as well as the extent of bio-conversion. They also suggest that a seven-day retention time is physically feasible, and that similar values for gas production and bio-conversion can be maintained. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Design of a large-scale anaerobic digestion facility for the recovery of energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayhanian, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-12-31

    The California Prison Industry Authority, in conjunction with the City of Folsom, operates a 100 ton/d municipal solid waste (MSW) recovery facility using inmate labor. Through manual sorting, all useful organic and inorganic materials are recycled for marketing. The remaining organic material will be further processed to remove hazardous and inert material and prepared as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion process. The clean organic waste (approximately 78 ton/d) will then be shredded and completely mixed with sewage water prior feeding to the digester. Off gas from the digester will be collected as a fuel for the steam boiler or combusted in a waste gas burner. Steam will be injected directly into the digester for heating. The anaerobically digested material will be moved to compost area where it will be mixed with wood faction of yard waste and processed aerobically for the production of compost material as a soil amendment. Anaerobic digesters will be constructed in two phases. The first phase consists of the construction of one 26 ton/d digester to confirm the suitability of feeding and mixing equipment. Modifications will be made to the second and third digesters, in the second phase, based on operating experience of the first digester. This paper discusses important design features of the anaerobic digestion facility.

  15. Methane enrichment digestion experiments at the anaerobic experimental test unit at Walt Disney World. Final report, March 1989-August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Hill, A.H.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the project was to determine the technical feasibility of utilizing a novel concept in anaerobic digestion, in-situ methane enrichment digestion or MED for producing utility-grade gas from a pilot-scale anaerobic digester. MED tests conducted during this program consistently achieved digester product gas with a methane (CH4) content of greater than 90% (on a dry-, nitrogen-free basis). The MED concept, because it requires relatively simple equipment and modest energy input, has the potential to simplify gas cleanup requirements and substantially reduce the cost of converting wastes and biomass to pipeline quality gas.

  16. Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo M, Edgar Fernando . E-mail: efcastil@uis.edu.co; Cristancho, Diego Edison; Victor Arellano, A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg{sup -1} of wet waste day{sup -1}. Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Rene Liden, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 deg. C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process.

  18. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ? MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ? Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ? In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ? Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively.

  19. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

  20. Mechanism, Kinetics and Microbiology of Inhibition Caused by Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Laurens, Lieve L.; Jarvis, Eric E.; Nagle, Nick J.; Chen, Shulin; Frear, Craig S.

    2015-09-15

    Oleaginous microalgae contain a high level of lipids, which can be extracted and converted to biofuel. The lipid-extracted residue can then be further utilized through anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) have been identified as the main inhibitory factor on microbial activity of anaerobic consortium. In this study, the mechanism of LCFA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of whole and lipid-extracted algal biomass was investigated with a range of calcium concentrations against various inoculum to substrate ratios as a means to alleviate the LCFA inhibition.

  1. Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nopharatana, Annop; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.; Clarke, William P.

    2007-07-01

    A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200 l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 deg. C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50 mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations.

  2. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  3. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  4. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  6. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  8. Effect of seasonal changes in quantities of biowaste on full scale anaerobic digester performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illmer, P. Gstraunthaler, G.

    2009-01-15

    A 750,000 l digester located in Roppen/Austria was studied over a 2-year period. The concentrations and amounts of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S and several other process parameters like temperature, retention time, dry weight and input of substrate were registered continuously. On a weekly scale the pH and the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and volatile fatty acids (acetic, butyric, iso-butyric, propionic, valeric and iso-valeric acid) were measured. The data show a similar pattern of seasonal gas production over 2 years of monitoring. The consumption of VFA and not the hydrogenotrophic CH{sub 4} production appeared to be the limiting factor for the investigated digestion process. Whereas the changes in pH and the concentrations of most VFA did not correspond with changes in biogas production, the ratio of acetic to propionic acid and the concentration of H{sub 2} appeared to be useful indicators for reactor performance. However, the most influential factors for the anaerobic digestion process were the amount and the quality of input material, which distinctly changed throughout the year.

  9. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galgani, Pietro; Voet, Ester van der; Korevaar, Gijsbert

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land based climate mitigation mechanism in carbon markets, it would become economically viable at the lower carbon price of 30 EUR/t of carbon.

  10. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). > Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. > FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. > Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS{sub added} when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  11. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  12. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Walter, Andreas; Ebner, Christian; Insam, Heribert

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Different methanogenic communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. • High VFA levels do not cause major changes in archaeal communities. • Real-time PCR indicated greater diversity than ANAEROCHIP microarray. - Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array.

  13. Differences in volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) profiles in biogas from landfills and anaerobic digesters and energetics of VMS transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansel, Berrin Surita, Sharon C.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the 62% and 27% if siloxanes, respectively. • In landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were TMSOH (58%) followed by D4 (17%). • Methane utilization may be a possible mechanism for TMSOH formation in the landfills. • The geometric configurations of D4 and D5 molecules make them very stable. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare the types and levels of volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) present in biogas generated in the anaerobic digesters and landfills, evaluate the energetics of siloxane transformations under anaerobic conditions, compare the conditions in anaerobic digesters and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills which result in differences in siloxane compositions. Biogas samples were collected at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant and South Dade Landfill in Miami, Florida. In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the bulk of total siloxanes (62% and 27%, respectively) whereas in the landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were trimethylsilanol (TMSOH) (58%) followed by D4 (17%). Presence of high levels of TMSOH in the landfill gas indicates that methane utilization may be a possible reaction mechanism for TMSOH formation. The free energy change for transformation of D5 and D4 to TMSOH either by hydrogen or methane utilization are thermodynamically favorable. Either hydrogen or methane should be present at relatively high concentrations for TMSOH formation which explains the high levels present in the landfill gas. The high bond energy and bond distance of the Si–O bond, in view of the atomic sizes of Si and O atoms, indicate that Si atoms can provide a barrier, making it difficult to break the Si–O bonds especially for molecules with specific geometric configurations such as D4 and D5 where oxygen atoms are positioned inside the frame formed by the large Si atoms which are surrounded by the methyl groups.

  14. Energy and economic assessment of anaerobic digester and biofuels for waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    A history of biogas production in the USA is presented. Recent systems approaches to biogas are considered. Technological problems that have interfered with the routine operation of biogas digesters are the barriers to feed-material handling, inadequate feed material preparation, irregular gas production of current designs of small-scale systems, and the capital- and maintenance-intensive nature of the conversion of biogas to electricity. Finally, it was noted that so far no work has been carried out to study alternative uses for biogas, as for example the production of methanol or ammonia.

  15. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  16. Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerm, S.; Kleyboecker, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Alawi, M.; Kasina, M.; Liebrich, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study demonstrates that the coexistence of two types of methanogens, i.e. hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens is necessary to respond successfully to perturbation and leads to stable process performance.

  17. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  18. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  19. RCM Digesters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RCM Digesters Jump to: navigation, search Name: RCM Digesters Place: Berkeley, California Zip: CA 94704 Product: Manufactures anaerobic manure digesters which process animal waste...

  20. Demonstration of anaerobic biogas digesters in developing countries. Part III. The Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.H.; Morales, E.C.

    1980-03-01

    The main theme of this series of articles is that ours is now a world-wide society, short on meeting needs for energy yet long on waste from our industrial, agricultural and human consumption processes. This is a study report about developments in the Philippines where waste management has been recognized and considered as an important practical source of energy. This is revealed by several reports of the number of biogas plants in operation in this country. According to the July 31, 1977 survey made by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries, 200 biogas plants were then installed and in operation of which 46 were government-owned and 154 privately-owned. More have been installed since then. This report presents some of the operating observations and developments from the joint engineering analyses project of the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industry, Man and the Biosphere Inter-Agency Committee on Ecological Studies, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and the National Institute of Science and Technology. The project's main objective was to show that establishing a biogas plant involves not only the production of a methane gas mixture but the integration of its other products as part of a system (i.e., using effluent water from the biogas digester for production of algae chlorell sp. for livestock and poultry feed, production of fish and fertilizing-irrigating of pasture and vegetable plots.). Housing development sewer systems with added biogas generators are also discussed.

  1. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  2. Anaerobic treatment in a sludge bed system compared with a filter system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frostell, B.

    1981-02-01

    In parallel experiments, an anaerobic filter filled with a high-porosity (0.96) plastic material and an anaerobic sludge bed reactor equipped with a specially designed sludge separation system were investigated. The main purpose was to study the sludge bed reactor and to compare the results with those obtained using a well designed anaerobic filter. The experiments are described and the results discussed indicating that the sludge bed reactor should be an economically attractive alternative to the anaerobic filter.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

  4. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  5. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  6. Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.

    2011-12-14

    In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH{sub 4} and the quantity of CH{sub 4} lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N{sub 2}O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

  7. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ? The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ? Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ? Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ? Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to inoculated substrates, and substrates without inoculum, respectively.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  9. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J.

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  10. Optimization of micro-aeration intensity in acidogenic reactor of a two-phase anaerobic digester treating food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Suyun; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W.C.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of micro-aeration on acidogenesis and hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. • Micro-aeration at 258 L-air/kg TS/d increased the VFAs production 3-fold. • High aeration leads to loss of substrate through microbial biomass and respiration. • Optimum aeration increased methane recovery while high aeration intensity reduced methane yield. - Abstract: Micro-aeration is known to promote the activities of hydrolytic exo-enzymes and used as a strategy to improve the hydrolysis of particulate substrate. The effect of different micro-aeration rates, 0, 129, 258, and 387 L-air/kg TS/d (denoted as LBR-AN, LBR-6h, LBR-3h and LBR-2h, respectively) on the solubilization of food waste was evaluated at 35 °C in four leach bed reactors (LBR) coupled with methanogenic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Results indicate that the intensity of micro-aeration influenced the hydrolysis and methane yield. Adequate micro-aeration intensity in LBR-3h and LBR-2h significantly enhanced the carbohydrate and protein hydrolysis by 21–27% and 38–64% respectively. Due to the accelerated acidogenesis, more than 3-fold of acetic acid and butyric acid were produced in LBR-3h as compared to the anaerobic treatment LBR-AN resulting in the maximum methane yield of 0.27 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} in the UASB. The performance of LBR-6h with inadequate aeration was similar to that of LBR-AN with a comparable hydrolysis degree. Nevertheless, higher aeration intensity in LBR-2h was also unfavorable for methane yield due to significant biomass generation and CO{sub 2} respiration of up to 18.5% and 32.8% of the total soluble hydrolysate, respectively. To conclude, appropriate micro-aeration rate can promote the hydrolysis of solid organic waste and methane yield without undesirable carbon loss and an aeration intensity of 258 L-air/kg TS/d is recommended for acidogenic LBR treating food waste.

  11. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  12. Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digester Facility | Department of Energy for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility at the University of California, Davis in Yolo County, California, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy website. PDF icon Floodplain Assessment More Documents & Publications Floodplain Assessment and

  13. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  14. Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Anaerobic Digestion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  16. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the deficit in methane production in the TPMR attributed to COD loss due to biomass synthesis and adsorption of hard COD onto the flocs. These results including the complicated operational procedure of the two-phase process and the economic factors suggested that the single-phase process could be the preferred system for FVW.

  17. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-05-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4 kg NO{sub 3}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0 kg SO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960 kg CO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the importance of taking also downstream emissions into consideration when comparing different collection systems. The hot spot identification shows that losses of organic matter in mechanical pretreatment as well as tank connected food waste disposal systems and energy in drying and vacuum systems reply to the largest impact on the results in each system respectively.

  18. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  19. Biochemically enhanced hybrid anaerobic reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stover, E.L.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for treatment of highly contaminated industrial waste waters, comprising: introducing influent wastewater into a lower suspended growth zone of a digestion vessel wherein anaerobic digestion commences; receiving up-flow of digestion product through a middle fixed film zone of the digestion vessel to effect solids/liquids/gas separation; drawing off waste solids from the floor of the digester vessel at a predetermined rate of removal; receiving liquids/gas up-flow through an upper quiescent zone of the digestion vessel; drawing off treated effluent from said quiescent zone; selecting a portion of treated effluent for conduction via recycle line back to said point of introduction for mixture with said influent wastewater; and injecting selected ones of plural process enhancement chemicals in predetermined amounts into said recycle line, which plurality includes preselected amounts of Mg(OH)[sub 2] and iron chloride to effect cleaning of the biogas.

  20. Anaerobic treatment of food wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criner, G. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes a research project at the University of Maine in which food wastes from the University cafeteria salad bar are processed in the anaerobic facility which normally treats only animal wastes. The project has benefited the University in several ways: avoidance of waste disposal fees; increased electricity co-generated from the biogas process; and use of the residual as fertilizer. An economic analysis indicated that the estimated cost of anaerobic treatment of the salad bar wastes was $4520/yr and benefits were $4793/yr. Since the digester was already in use, this cost was not factored into the analysis. Further studies are being planned.

  1. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities ... Recovery Workshop Related Documents Biogas Technologies and Integration with Fuel ...

  2. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 days Second trial experiments needs to be conducted up to 7 days to minimize the biogas production. Summary Renewable Methane Production We developed a novel process...

  3. On-farm biogas systems information dissemination project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.K.; Koelsch, R.K.; Guest, R.W.; Fabian, E.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to study how farmers manage anaerobic digesters on three New York State dairy farms. Two years of data collected were from both plug-flow and tower-type mixed-flow digesters at regular intervals over a three-year period revealed that the financial return from the energy produced by a biogass system in the late 1980`s is marginal. Little difficulty was experienced in operation of the anaerobic digester; however, several farms utilizing congeneration to convert biogas into electricity and heat suffered from not applying maintenance to the congenerator in a timely fashion.

  4. Lincoln Electric System - Renewable Generation Rate (Nebraska...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Applicable Sector Commercial, Industrial Eligible Technologies Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Anaerobic Digestion, Small...

  5. Lincoln Electric System - Renewable Energy Rebate (Nebraska)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Program Applicable Sector Commercial, Industrial, Residential Eligible Technologies Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Biomass, Anaerobic Digestion, Small Hydroelectric, Other...

  6. Cayuga County Regional Digester - Vision Becomes Reality - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamyar V. Zadeh, Ph.D.; Blue Electron Technology Solutions International LLC

    2013-03-12

    With an average herd size of 113 mature cows, Cayuga County is home to 280 dairy farms and 31,500 dairy milking cows producing approximately 855 million gallons of milk per year. The Cayuga Dairy industry is a major contributor to the countys economy, employing nearly 1200 people, while generating $140,000,000 of revenue from sale of milk alone. At the same time, the Cayuga County dairy industry also produces 5.7 million gallons of manure daily: a) Nearly 34% of this manure is produced on smaller farms. b) Digesters are expensive pieces of equipment and require attention and care. c) The on-farm digester systems have fairly long payback (>10 years) even for larger CAFO farms (>1000 milking cows). In 2005, Cayuga County Soil and Water Conservation District (The District), a Public Agency under Cayuga County, decided to undertake a centralized community digester project. The primary goal of the project was to develop an economically sustainable model, under the auspices of The District to address manure management issues facing the smaller dairies, improve the water quality and improve the quality of life for Cayuga County residents. It is believed that the District has accomplished this goal by completing construction of Cayuga County Regional Digester on a parcel of land behind the Cayuga County Natural Resource Center located at 7413 County House Road in the Town of Sennett in Cayuga County, New York. The digester facility consists of the following major components. 1. Transfer Station: This an indoor truck bay, where 35,000 gallons of manure from three local farms, 8,500 gallons of liquid organic food-processor waste, and 1,200 gallons of brown grease are unloaded from tanker trucks and the digested slurry is loaded onto the tanker trucks for delivery back to the participating farms. 2. Anaerobic Digester: The project utilizes a hydraulic mix anaerobic digester, a unique design that has no internal moving parts for mixing. The digester, which operates at mesophilic temperatures, is designed to process the daily feedstock and produce 220,000 SCF2 of biogas per day. The digester also produces 44,000 gallons of digested slurry per day. 3. Biogas Conditioning System: The plant employs a biological biogas conditioning system to remove the H2S and moisture contents of the biogas and prepare it to be used by the plant generation system. 4. Combined Heat and Power System (CHP): This is a 633kW high efficiency biogas-fired GE-Jenbacher model JMS-312 GS-NL reciprocating engine cogeneration system. The heat recovery system incorporated into the package is designed to capture the waste heat from the engine exhaust, the jacket cooling water and the engine oil circuit. 5. Electrical Substation and Power Distribution Systems: An electrical distribution system has been constructed on-site that aggregates the electrical service of the different county buildings on the District campus into a county owned electric distribution system that is interconnected with the CHP and the local electric grid. The electrical system is designed, in accordance with the utility guidelines, to allow grid-parallel operation of CHP and provide for import and export of electric power. 6. Thermal Energy Distribution System: The heat recovery system has been integrated into a high temperature water distribution system that distributes the heat to the thermal circuits for the anaerobic digester facility. Additional piping has also been installed to transfer the remaining thermal energy to other county buildings on the campus. On a daily basis, the plant will co-process 35,000 gallons of manure from local dairy farms, 8,500 gallons of food-processor waste and 1,200 gallons of brown grease to produce 200,000 ft3/d of biogas and 44,000 gallons of pathogen-free nutrient-rich digested slurry for agricultural use by farms and in the local area. The biogas fueled CHP produces 5,157,000 kWh of electricity and 19,506 dekatherms of thermal energy per year. Electrical power generated by the cogeneration system powers all the buildings on the Cayuga County campus and any surplus power is exported to the grid under a power purchase agreement. Heat recovered from the cogeneration system will be used to maintain the temperature of the process equipment and the excess will be transported to the Cayuga County Public Safety Building to offset purchase of fossil fuel to fuel the boilers. The majority of plant operations are unmanned and automated. However, the plant will have a small staff of well-trained personnel to coordinate the feedstock deliveries and shipments, supervise the day-to-day operation, monitor the systems and perform maintenance, maintain a safe and reliable operation and to respond to emergencies.

  7. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  8. Some studies on anaerobic decomposition of leucaena leucocephala leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torane, J.V.; Lokhande, C.D.; Pawar, S.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Batch type anaerobic decomposition process in leucaena leucocephala plant material (leaves) has been carried out under mesophilic conditions (below 35{degrees}C). The results of studies involving variations in pH, conductivity, temperature, and optical density of digester slurry for four weeks are reported. The gas production rate was also studied which reveals that the use of leucaena leucocephala for biogas production will be helpful.

  9. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 {sup o}C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 {+-} 36 ml CH{sub 4}/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 {+-} 94 ml CH{sub 4}/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate ({mu}{sub max}) and the saturation constant (K{sub S}) of glycerol were 0.149 {+-} 0.015 h{sup -1} and 0.276 {+-} 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  10. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Virginia, MN 55792 FCPC Renewable Generation Facility * 2.0 megawatt biodigestion and biogas facility currently being constructed in Menomonee Valley of Milwaukee * Will operate...

  11. List of Anaerobic Digestion Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Heat recovery Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels No Agricultural Energy Loan...

  12. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon june2012biogasworkshopduff.pdf ...

  13. Microbial ecology of thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen H. Zinder

    2000-04-15

    This grant supported research on methanogenic archaea. The two major areas that were supported were conversion of acetic acid to methane and nitrogen fixation by Methanosarcina. Among the achievements of this research were the isolation of novel methanogenic cultures, elucidation of the pathways from acetate to methane, description of a specific DNA-binding complex in nitrogen fixing methanogens, and demonstration of an alternative nitrogenase in Methanosarcina.

  14. A novel plug-flow digester for biogasification of conventional and hazardous organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Kato, Y.; Liu, T.; Fukushi, K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel plug-flow digestion system of simple construction was designed, fabricated and operated for several years with a synthetic mixture of solid and liquid wastes simulating conditions south of the US-Mexican border and other developing countries. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX) were mixed with the synthetic feed in several phases of this research to simulate field conditions where these solvents are discharged to public sewers and mixed with non-hazardous pollutants. The mesophilic plug-flow digester exhibited a high gas yield of 0.46 SCM /kg VS added, a methane content of 77 mol%, and a VS reduction of 75% at an HRT of 13 days with a 96% biodegradation of the feed toluene. At a feed concentration of 50 mg/l, toluene did not inhibit anaerobic fermentation. Gas and methane yields, and VS and COD conversion efficiencies were about the same with or without toluene present in the feed. At a reduced HRT of 8 days, a high feed COD concentration of 50,000 mg/l, and a loading rate of 0.48 kg VS/m{sup 3}-day, the digester afforded a gas yield of 3.1 SCM /kg VS added, and a methane content of 67 mol%. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were biodegraded at efficiencies of 94%, 90%, and 88%, respectively. The degradation kinetics of the xenobiotic compound could be described by a model based on cometabolic degradation of these secondary substrates.

  15. Biogas from refuse via an earth-sheltered passive solar digester. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    As originally conceived, the project involved the design, construction and operation of a test-scale refuse digestion system and alternative energy technology, as an integral component of a planned comprehensive waste management system based on the concept of recycling and resource recovery. Specific technologies employed in the digestion system included aerobic composting and anaerobic fermentation. System inputs included non-recycleable organic refuse (paper, food wastes, etc.) and septage (septic tank sludge), both of which represent disposal problems for many North American communities, and heat. Anticipated system outputs were biogas (50 to 60% methane), a premium fuel, and compostable sludge, a potential soil amendment-fertilizer. Projected net energy output was enhanced by incorporating biological feedstock preheating, earth sheltering, passive solar heating, and sludge heat recovery into the project design. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of this system versus competing waste-to-energy technologies. Due primarily to institutional barriers and related factors, the project did not progress to the point of enabling the stated purpose to be demonstrated.

  16. Improved energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in sanitary landfills by two-phase digestion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onu, Chukwu.

    1990-01-01

    The concept under investigaton was the separation of the acidogenic and the methanogenic phases of anaerobic fermentation, converting the sanitary landfill into an acid reactor and using a separate upflow fixed-film anaerobic reactor for methanogenesis. Acidic leachate from the landfill simulator was used as the influent substrate to the anaerobic reactor. The goal of the study was to improve both methane yield and concentration through nutrient addition and two-phase digestion of MSW. Sewage sludge was utilized to provide moisture, buffering capacity, nutrients, and an adequate microbial population. Single-phase systems with other enhancement techniques were also compared to the two-phase with sludge addition. Data from this study indicated that gas produced in the anaerobic reactor had methane concentration as high as 80 Mole % at the fixed-bed reactor (FBR) hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The system reached a cumulative methane production rate of 78.6 {ell}/kg dry waste at an estimated cumulative production rate of approximately 270 {ell}/kg/yr. This performance was better than that reported in the literature for a similar type of feed. This study has also indicated that sewage sludge addition appears to be a successful enhancement technique for methane gas production from municipal solid waste. The addition of mineral nutrients and buffer solutions appears to have influenced the development of a dominant population of methanogenic bacteria in the FBR as indicated by the COD removal efficiency of 90% and 100% conversion of all influent organic acids. In terms of the overall system performance, the two-phase system was superior to the one-phase technique currently in use for methane generation.

  17. Biofuels Digest | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Digest Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuels Digest Address: 801 Brickell Avenue Suite 900 Place: Miami, Florida Zip: 33131 Sector: Services Product: Information Year Founded:...

  18. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  19. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  20. Swine lagoon biogas utilization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M.

    1994-12-31

    A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

  1. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production in DNA-supplemented Medium E. In addition to DNA or deoxyribonucleosides, nitrate, amino acids and vitamins were all required for anaerobic growth of JF-2. Bacillus mojavensisT (ABO21191), Bacillus mojavensis, strain ROB2 also required DNA or deoxyribonucleosides for anaerobic growth. The improved anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 was a prerequisite for studies that will lead to improved anaerobic biosurfactant production.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from methanogenic digester sludge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Zinder, Stephen H.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Liu, Wen -Tso

    2014-09-04

    In this study, we report a 2.0-Mb complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic digested sludge. This is the first genome report of the genus Methanolinea isolate belonging to the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales.

  4. Determination of operating conditions in an anaerobic acid-phase reactor treating dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasapgil, B.; Ince, O.; Anderson, G.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic material is a multistep process. Two groups of bacteria, namely acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria, are responsible for the acidification and for the methane formation, respectively. The growth requirements of the two groups of bacteria are rather different. In order to create optimum conditions for the process, it was first proposed to separate the process into two phases. Operating variables applicable for the selection and enrichment of microbial populations in phased digesters include digester loading, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, temperature, reactor design, and operating mode. By proper manipulation of these operating parameters it is possible to prevent any significant growth of methane bacteria and at the same time achieve the required level of acidification in the first reactor. Further enrichment of two cultures is possible by biomass recycle around each phase. Since the 1970s, phase separation has been introduced into anaerobic digestion technology. However, data concerning the optimization of operating conditions in both acidogenic and methanogenic phase reactors are scarce. This study was therefore carried out for the purposes given below. These were: (1) to determine the best combination of pH and temperature within the ranges studied for the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater; (2) to determine the maximum acidogenic conversion from COD to VFAs, and (3) to determine the changes in the distribution of major VFAs being produced during the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater.

  5. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  6. Refeeding biogas digester solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is composed larely of non-nutritive residues. 5 refs.

  7. Flux enhancement with powdered activated carbon addition in the membrane anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H.; Choo, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the performance of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) was investigated in terms of membrane filterability and treatability through a series of batch and continuous microfiltration (MF) experiments. In both batch and continuous MF of the digestion broth, a flux improvement with PAC addition was achieved, especially when a higher shear rate and/or a higher PAC dose were applied. Both the fouling and cake layer resistances decreased continuously with increasing the PAC dose up to 5 g/L. PAC played an important role in substantially reducing the biomass cake resistance due to its incompressible nature and higher backtransport velocities. PAC might have a scouring effect for removing the deposited biomass cake from the membrane surface while sorbing and/or coagulating dissolved organics and colloidal particles in the broth. The chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were much removed with PAC addition, and the system was also more stable against shock loading.

  8. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

    1986-02-28

    The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

  9. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  10. Fouling of inorganic membrane and flux enhancement in membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.H.; Kang, I.J.; Lee, C.H.

    1999-03-01

    The fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was studied during the operation of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) when alcohol distillery wastewater was used as a digester feed. It was observed that the fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was significantly different from that of conventional membrane filtration processes. The main foulant was identified to be an inorganic precipitate, struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O), rather than anaerobic microbial flocs. Struvite appears to be precipitated not only on the membrane surface but also inside the membrane pores. The amount of struvite generated during the bioreaction was estimated to be about 2 g/L alcohol distillery wastewater. The inorganic foulant was not easily removed by general physical cleaning such as depressurization, lumen flushing, and backflushing. Based on these findings, the membrane fouling was alleviated and thus flux was enhanced by adopting a backfeeding mode which has dual purpose of feeding and backflushing with particle-free acidic wastewater used as the feed for anaerobic digestion.

  11. Anaerobic treatment of sludge from a nitrification-denitrification landfill leachate plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranon, E. . E-mail: emara@uniovi.es; Castrillon, L.; Fernandez, Y.; Fernandez, E.

    2006-07-01

    The viability of anaerobic digestion of sludge from a MSW landfill leachate treatment plant, with COD values ranging between 15,000 and 19,400 mg O{sub 2} dm{sup -3}, in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was studied. The reactor employed had a useful capacity of 9 l, operating at mesophilic temperature. Start-up of the reactor was carried out in different steps, beginning with diluted sludge and progressively increasing the amount of sludge fed into the reactor. The study was carried out over a period of 7 months. Different amounts of methanol were added to the feed, ranging between 6.75 and 1 cm{sup 3} dm{sup -3} of feed in order to favour the growth of methanogenic flora. The achieved biodegradation of the sludge using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket Reactor was very high for an HRT of 9 days, obtaining decreases in COD of 84-87% by the end of the process. Purging of the digested sludge represented {approx}16% of the volume of the treated sludge.

  12. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  13. Simulation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single cell protein from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the operation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single-cell algal protein from a variety of biomass energy crops or waste streams. Economic analysis was performed at the end of each simulation. The model was capable of assisting in the determination of design parameters by providing relative economic information for various strategies. Three configurations of anaerobic reactors were simulated. These included fed-bed reactors, conventional stirred tank reactors, and continuously expanding reactors. A generic anaerobic digestion process model, using lumped substrate parameters, was developed for use by type-specific reactor models. The generic anaerobic digestion model provided a tool for the testing of conversion efficiencies and kinetic parameters for a wide range of substrate types and reactor designs. Dynamic growth models were used to model the growth of algae and Eichornia crassipes was modeled as a function of daily incident radiation and temperature. The growth of Eichornia crassipes was modeled for the production of biomass as a substrate for digestion. Computer simulations with the system model indicated that tropical or subtropical locations offered the most promise for a viable system. The availability of large quantities of digestible waste and low land prices were found to be desirable in order to take advantage of the economies of scale. Other simulations indicated that poultry and swine manure produced larger biogas yields than cattle manure. The model was created in a modular fashion to allow for testing of a wide variety of unit operations. Coding was performed in the Pascal language for use on personal computers.

  14. Improved efficiency and stable digestion of biomass in non-mixed upflow solids reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Fannin, K.F.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Frank, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR), which permitted longer solids than hydraulic retention times, was used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The performance of the USR was compared to that of the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at different organic loading rates in terms of methane yield, methane production rate, and process stability. Results showed that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp compositional variability, methane yields and production rates in the USR were significantly higher than those observed with the CSTR. Results also showed that volatile acid concentrations, which are generally inversely related to digester stability, were significantly lower in the USR than in the CSTR. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enzymatic Digestibility and ...

  16. Model calibration and validation for OFMSW and sewage sludge co-digestion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposito, G.; Frunzo, L.; Panico, A.; Pirozzi, F.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Disintegration is the limiting step of the anaerobic co-digestion process. > Disintegration kinetic constant does not depend on the waste particle size. > Disintegration kinetic constant depends only on the waste nature and composition. > The model calibration can be performed on organic waste of any particle size. - Abstract: A mathematical model has recently been proposed by the authors to simulate the biochemical processes that prevail in a co-digestion reactor fed with sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. This model is based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 of the International Water Association, which has been extended to include the co-digestion processes, using surface-based kinetics to model the organic waste disintegration and conversion to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. When organic waste solids are present in the reactor influent, the disintegration process is the rate-limiting step of the overall co-digestion process. The main advantage of the proposed modeling approach is that the kinetic constant of such a process does not depend on the waste particle size distribution (PSD) and rather depends only on the nature and composition of the waste particles. The model calibration aimed to assess the kinetic constant of the disintegration process can therefore be conducted using organic waste samples of any PSD, and the resulting value will be suitable for all the organic wastes of the same nature as the investigated samples, independently of their PSD. This assumption was proven in this study by biomethane potential experiments that were conducted on organic waste samples with different particle sizes. The results of these experiments were used to calibrate and validate the mathematical model, resulting in a good agreement between the simulated and observed data for any investigated particle size of the solid waste. This study confirms the strength of the proposed model and calibration procedure, which can thus be used to assess the treatment efficiency and predict the methane production of full-scale digesters.

  17. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1984-01-01

    A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

  18. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, H.I.

    1984-10-09

    A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Landfill Gas, Heat recovery, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Renewable Energy Systems Tax Credit (Personal) Residential Systems:......

  1. Reduced gas pressure operation of sludge digesters: Expanded studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Previous investigations strongly suggested that the municipal anaerobic sludge digestion process could be enhanced by reactor operation with subatmospheric headspace pressures. Enhanced solids destruction and methane production along with increased process stability were observed in these earlier studies. However, due to the small scale of the anaerobic reactors used ( {approx}1.5 L), definitive steady-state measurements could not be obtained. These expanded studies were undertaken to verify and define the magnitude of the benefits that might be obtained with vacuum operation of sludge digesters. Four reactors ({approx}15.0 L) were fed municipal sludge at three different organic loading rates while being maintained with a 15-day solids retention time. One reactor had a constant headspace pressure of 1.02 atm; a second was maintained at 0.75 atm; and the remaining two reactors were operated for the majority of the day at 1.02 atm, and for part of the day with a 0.75 atm headspace pressure. Additional small-scale, batch experiments were performed to help identify controlling digestion mechanisms. The results of these expanded studies indicate that vacuum operation did not yield significant advantages over the organic loading range investigated (0.088 to 0.352 lb VSS/ft{sup 3}{center_dot}d).

  2. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester parameters be held and managed in a single managed data repository, while allows users to customize standard values and perform individual analysis. Server-based calculations can be easily extended, versions and upgrades managed, and any changes are immediately available to all users. This user manual describes how to use and/or modify input database tables, run DANA, view and modify reports.

  3. Steam atmosphere dryer project: System development and field test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the use of a superheated steam atmosphere dryer as a highly improved alternative to conventional hot air-drying systems, the present industrial standard method for drying various wet feedstocks. The development program plan consisted of three major activities. The first was engineering analysis and testing of a small-scale laboratory superheated steam dryer. This dryer provided the basic engineering heat transfer data necessary to design a large-scale system. The second major activity consisted of the design, fabrication, and laboratory checkout testing of the field-site prototype superheated steam dryer system. The third major activity consisted of the installation and testing of the complete 250-lb/hr evaporation rate dryer and a 30-kW cogeneration system in conjunction with an anaerobic digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester was waste residue from a nearby commercial food processing plant. The superheated steam dryer system was placed into operation in August 1996 and operated successfully through March 1997. During this period, the dryer processed all the material from the digester to a powdered consistency usable as a high-nitrogen-based fertilizer.

  4. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  5. Continuous Digester Control Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuous Digester Control Technology Continuous Digester Control Technology Pulp Process Model Identifies Improvements that Save Energy and Improve Productivity The pulp digester is known as the bottleneck unit in the pulp mill flow sheet because it can require 5% to 50% of typical on-line operation time, making this component of the pulping process very capital intensive. Improving digester performance can significantly reduce production losses, operating costs, and negative environmental

  6. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: Influence of aggregate formation on process stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleyboecker, A.; Liebrich, M.; Kasina, M.; Kraume, M.; Wittmaier, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of process recovery with calcium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids and phosphate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of VFAs by the precipitates resulting in the formation of aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid uptake and phosphate release by the phosphate-accumulating organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbial degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. - Abstract: Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH > 7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4) the degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. Furthermore, this mechanism enabled a stable process performance after re-activation of biogas production. In contrast, during the counter measure with NaOH aggregate formation was only minor resulting in a rapid process failure subsequent the increase of the organic loading rate.

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Universal System Benefits Program Beginning January 1, 1999, all electric utilities --...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Universal System Benefits Program Beginning January 1, 1999, all electric utilities --...

  9. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  10. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  11. Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and Opportunities Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and Opportunities Presentation by Art Umble, MWH Americas, during the "Technological State of the Art" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and Opportunities More Documents & Publications The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse Microbial Fuel Cell

  12. Arizona Geological Society Digest 22

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Arizona Geological Society Digest 22 2008 437 Tectonic infuences on the spatial and temporal evolution of the Walker Lane: An incipient transform fault along the evolving Pacifc - North American plate boundary James E. Faulds and Christopher D. Henry Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557, USA ABSTRACT Since ~30 Ma, western North America has been evolving from an Andean type mar- gin to a dextral transform boundary. Transform growth has been marked by

  13. Complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from methanogenic digester sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Zinder, Stephen H.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Liu, Wen -Tso

    2014-09-04

    In this study, we report a 2.0-Mb complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic digested sludge. This is the first genome report of the genus Methanolinea isolate belonging to the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales.

  14. Definition:Digester Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    digestion is a biological process that produces a gas principally composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) otherwise known as biogas. These gases are produced...

  15. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  16. Feasibility of a digester gas fuel production facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakes, G.; Greene, D.S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Results of studies on the feasibility of using digester gas produced from wastewater sludge to fuel vehicles are reported. Availability and suitability of digester gas as well as digester gas production records and test analyses on digester gas were reviewed. The feasibility of the project based on economic and environmental considerations is reported and compared to possible alternative uses of the digester gas.

  17. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wastewater Reuse | Department of Energy The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse Presentation by Perry McCarty, Stanford University, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for

  18. T-728: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let Remote Users Conduct Bypass Attacks T-728: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let Remote Users Conduct...

  19. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth A.

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  20. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse Presentation by Perry McCarty, Stanford University, during the "Targeting High-Value ...

  1. Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Authors: Balan, Venkatesh ; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa ; Chundawat, Shishir P. S. ; Marshall, Derek ; Sharma, Lekh N. ; Chambliss, C. Kevin ; Dale, Bruce E. Publication

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic Digester...

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest, 1991 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olive, K L

    1991-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, and the areas NRC licenses. This digest is a compilation of NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1990, with exceptions noted. For operating US commercial nuclear power reactors, information on generating capacity and average capacity factor is obtained from Monthly Operating Reports submitted to the NRC directly by the licensee. This information is reviewed for consistency only. No independent validation and/or verification is performed by the NRC. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications. This digest is published annually for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  6. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranon, E.; Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y.; Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2014, commercial and industrial systems...

  9. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    flow rate. In the new design, the evaporator system, membrane reactor, and reverse osmosis system are scaled on hydraulic flow rate, while the anaerobic digester, aeration...

  10. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  11. Biogas from agricultural and other wastes: a subject bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadduck, G.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography covers the following areas: application of anaerobic digestion to agricultural wastes, biochemistry and microbiology, factors in digester design and performance, digester design and types, digestion of individual materials, biogas use, use of digester effluent, integrated recycling systems, and economics and policy. (MHR)

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State Government, Agricultural Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic Digester...

  13. Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

  14. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelter, Thomas; Meinhold, Peter; Feldman, Reid M. Renny; Hawkins, Andrew C.; Urano, Jun; Bastian, Sabine; Arnold, Frances

    2012-01-17

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  15. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayr, S. Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Universal System Benefits Program Beginning January 1, 1999, all electric utilities --...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Universal System Benefits Program Beginning January 1, 1999, all electric utilities --...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption Solar energy devices installed or...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2014, commercial and...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion Local Option- Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2013, a municipality may...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Local Option- Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2013, a municipality may...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2014, commercial and...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Power, Landfill Gas, Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Local Option- Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2013, a municipality may...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2014, commercial and...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if another...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2014, commercial and...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Local Option- Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2013, a municipality may...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Equipment The statute defines the components of a system eligible for the...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Exemption Oregon law states that any change in real market value...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws Solar and wind systems are also protected...

  11. Perry Wyoming manure to electricity generation plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    will build and operate anaerobic digestion systems to convert animal manure into methane for electricity generation. Coordinates: 42.895849, -89.760231 Show Map Loading...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption Solar energy devices installed or constructed on or after January...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Local Option- Property Tax Exemption Note: Solar PV systems of 10 kW or less are already currently...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Local Option- Property Tax Exemption Note: Solar photovoltaic systems of 50 kW or less are already...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Local Option- Property Tax Exemption Note: Solar photovoltaic systems of 50 kW or less are already...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Beginning in October 2014, commercial...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    not identified, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems In order to claim the exemption, property...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Universal System Benefits Program Beginning January 1, 1999, all electric utilities --...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yes; specific technologies not identified, Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion Universal System Benefits Program Beginning January 1, 1999, all electric utilities --...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    identified, Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Universal System Benefits Program Beginning January 1, 1999, all electric utilities --...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies System Benefits...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies System Benefits Charge The SBC has gone through several iterations...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion System Benefits Charge The SBC has...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Gross Receipts Tax Exemption for Sales of Wind and Solar Systems to Government Entities New Mexico has a gross receipts tax structure for...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Landfill Gas, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Solar Design Standards for State Buildings From 2010 to 2012, solar photovoltaic systems...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SystemsBuilding Controls, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, Other EE, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Other EE, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project Financing...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) Under the...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Exemption "Renewable energy" is defined...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Exemption "Renewable energy" is defined under 30 V.S.A. ...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Residential Alternative Energy System Tax Credit Recognized non-fossil forms of...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Alternative Energy Revolving Loan Program Alternative energy systems are defined by...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Exemption...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Exemption "Renewable energy" is defined under 30 V.S.A. ...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Heat recovery, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Renewable Energy Systems Exemption...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Renewable Energy Systems Exemption Recognized forms of energy generation include solar...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EE, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Residential Energy Tax Credit As of January 1, 2011, third-party owned systems are also eligible for...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Solar Pool Heating, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Biogas, Solar and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption A solar-energy system is defined as "equipment which directly...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (All), Biomass, Solar Pool Heating, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Biogas, Solar and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption A solar-energy system is defined as...

  3. Distributed Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    facility's anaerobic digesters. Photo from Kathryn Craddock, NREL 16710 Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve...

  4. Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and

  5. Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption Colorado State University Contact...

  6. Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) ...

  7. Kenaf Bast Fibers—Part I: Hermetical Alkali Digestion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Jinshu; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Barnes, H. Michael; Horstemeyer, Mark; Wang, Jinwu; Hassan, El-Barbary M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a hermetical alkali digestion process to obtain single cellulosic fibers from kenaf bast. Kenaf bast were hermetically digested into single fiber using a 5% sodium hydroxide solution for one hour at four different temperatures (80 ° C, 110 ° C, 130 ° C, and 160 ° C). The hermetical digestion process used in this study produced fibers with high cellulose content (84.2–92.3%) due to the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses. The surface hardness and elastic modulus of the fibers digested at 130 ° C and 160 ° C were improved significantlymore » compared with those digested at 80 ° C. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the individual fibers reduced as the digestion temperature increased from 110 ° C to 160 ° C. Micropores were generated in fiber cell wall when the fibers were digested at 130 ° C and 160 ° C. The studies on the composites that were made from polypropylene reinforced with the digested fibers indicated that the compatibility between the digested fibers and polypropylene matrix was poor.« less

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic...

  9. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  10. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution efficiency. This approach does not allow any conclusion regarding the possible advantage of sonication in selective dissolution of plutonium traces incorporated into an inorganic or organic fraction of the samples.

  11. Biomass Gasification and Methane Digester Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to be eligible for the exemption, methane digester equipment must be certified by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the farm must be verified as compliant under the Michig...

  12. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX in aquifer material. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, R.C.; Hunt, M.J.; Shafer, M.B.; Barlaz, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in two petroleum-contaminated aquifers to examine the anaerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) under ambient conditions. Aquifer material was collected from locations at the source, mid-plume and end-plume at both sites, incubated under ambient conditions, and monitored for disappearance of the test compounds. In the mid-plume location at the second site, in-situ column experiments were also conducted for comparison with the laboratory microscosm and field-scale results. In the end-plume microcosms, biodegradation was variable with extensive biodegradation in some microcosms and little or no biodegradation in others.

  14. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  15. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  16. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  17. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Production of methane by anaerobic fermentation of waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitzman, D.O.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing methane by anaerobic fermentation of waste material, comprising: cavity means in the earth for holding a quantity of the waste material; means for covering a quantity of the waste material in the cavity means and thereby separating the quantity of the waste material from the atmosphere; first conduit means communicating between the waste material in the cavity means and a location remote from the cavity means for conveying gas comprising carbon dioxide and methane from the cavity means to the location; gas separation means communicating with the first conduit means at the location for separating carbon dioxide from methane, the first conduit means including at least one pipe having a plurality of apertures therein and disposed in the cavity means extending into and in fluid flow communication with the waste material for receiving gas liberated by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste material and comprising carbon dioxide and methane, through the apertures therein for conveyance via the first conduit means to the gas separation means; second conduit means communicating between the gas separation means and the waste material in the cavity means for conveying carbon dioxide from the gas separation means to the waste material; and third conduit means communicating with the gas separation means for conveying methane from the gas separation means.

  19. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 1994 edition. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, L.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest (digest) provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRCs regulatory responsibility the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. The digest, published annually, is a compilation of nuclear-and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1993, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating US commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed.

  1. Methane generation from animal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    The conversion of manure to biogas via anaerobic digestion is described. The effluent resulting from the conversion retains fertilizer value and is environmentally acceptable. Discussion is presented under the headings: methane formation in the digester; the Tarleton State Poultry Waste to Methane production system; operating experience at Tarleton State; economics of biogas production from poultry waste; construction cost and biogas value; energy uses; feed and waste processing; and advantages of anaerobic digestion. (DMC)

  2. Intrinsic and accelerated anaerobic biodegradation of perchloroethylene in groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, R.J. Jr.; Ellis, D.E.; Odom, J.M.; Lee, M.D.; Mazierski, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The DuPont Niagara Falls Plant is located in a heavily industrialized area of Niagara Falls, New York, adjacent to the Niagara River. The plant has been in continuous operation since 1898 and manufactured various organic and inorganic chemicals. Chlorinated solvents were produced from 1930 to 1975 at the plant. Numerous hydrogeologic investigations have described the subsurface hydrogeology and indicated that the groundwater underlying the plant was impacted by a variety of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a wide range of concentrations. DuPont initiated in-field evaluations to determine whether biological reductive anaerobic dechlorination was occurring naturally and, if so, whether such dechlorination could be enhanced in situ. A field program was subsequently implemented could be enhanced in situ. A field program was subsequently implemented in a preselected area of the plant through use of an in situ borehole bioreactor to attempt to stimulate indigenous biological reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatics by the addition of yeast extract (substrate) and sulfate (electron acceptor). At this location, a very active microbial population developed, which reduced the in situ concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic compounds by more than 94%, but did not increase the typical biological degradation products. This may have been due to an alternative biological degradation pathway or to very rapid biological kinetics. Efforts to elucidate this mechanism have been initiated under a separate laboratory program.

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 1992 edition. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olive, K

    1992-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. This digest is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1991, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating US commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed.

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity program is designed to support small-sized electricity...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity program is designed to support small-sized electricity generation...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat (10) Apply Solar Water Heat filter Water Heaters (10) Apply Water Heaters filter Windows (10) Apply Windows filter Anaerobic Digestion (9) Apply Anaerobic Digestion filter...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ControlsSensors filter Solar Thermal Electric (10) Apply Solar Thermal Electric filter Windows (10) Apply Windows filter Anaerobic Digestion (9) Apply Anaerobic Digestion filter...

  8. Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Plant biomass represents a vast and renewable source of energy. However, harnessing this energy requires breaking down tough lignin and cellulose cell walls. In nature, certain microbes can deconstruct biomass into simple sugars by secreting combinations of enzymes. Two organisms that utilize cellulose are Clostridium thermocellum -

  9. Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia - Energy Innovation Portal Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia Inventors: Shishir Chundawat, Leonardo Sousa, Albert Cheh, Venkatesh Balan, Bruce Dale Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn the continuing push to develop alternative fuels, bioethanol is clearly a viable option. However, if it is to become a truly economical

  10. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough, component sizing, and utility needs. These data, along with process efficiency results from the model, were subsequently used to calculate the cost of electricity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to correlate the concentrations of key impurities in the fuel gas feedstock to the cost of electricity.

  11. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe

    2007-09-15

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity of gold superlattices obtained by digestive ripening for oxidation of CO to CO2 at room temperature. (7) Determine the photocatalytic activity of metal nanoparticles like Au, Ag,Cu, and Pd supported on TiO2 toward photocatalytic hydrogen production.

  13. Investigation and field testing of anaerobic biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    A study has been conducted that investigated and demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceuticals industry. This report presents the results of the multi-phase program and the conclusions and recommendations which have been derived from an analysis of the experimental data. The program was initiated in October 1985 and was conducted over a period of 26 months, at which point the experimental portions of the study were completed in December 1987. These can be divided to essentially three major tasks: screening assays to assess anaerobic treatability; bench-scale treatability investigations of the Merck Stonewall Plant wastewaters; and, pilot scale demonstration of anaerobic treatment. Each major element is discussed separately, addressing the design of the program (facilities), the experimental procedures, and finally the results of each task. The final section discusses the application of the technology to the pharmaceutical industry and the economic components associated with it. 2 refs., 54 figs., 35 tabs.

  14. Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing

  15. NREL Finds a New Cellulose Digestion Mechanism by a Fast-eating Enzyme -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL Finds a New Cellulose Digestion Mechanism by a Fast-eating Enzyme CelA digests cellulose faster than enzymes from commercial preparations January 2, 2014 Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have discovered that an enzyme from a microorganism first found in the Valley of Geysers on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia in 1990 can digest cellulose almost twice as fast as the current leading component cellulase enzyme on the

  16. BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy February 6, 2015 - 4:18pm Addthis Biofuels Digest recently released its "Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy," ranking Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Director Dr. Jonathan Male, Deputy Director Dr. Valerie Reed, Technology Manager Dr. Joyce Yang, and Lead Analyst Zia Haq at number 20. Other Energy Department leaders

  17. BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETO partners with the U.S. Department of Agriculture on Biomass Research and Development. Each year, Biofuels Digest, a widely read online biofuels trade publication, and its ...

  18. Method for digesting a nitro-bearing explosive compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein superoxide radicals from superoxide salt are used to break down the explosive compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for degrading explosives, and operates at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. Because the superoxide molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The superoxide salt generates reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro-bearing compound.

  19. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  20. Horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor for paper industry wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foresti, E.; Cabral, A.K.A.; Zaiat, M.; Del Nery, V.

    1996-11-01

    Immobilized cell reactors are known to permit the continuous operation without biomass washout and also for increasing the time available for cells` catalytic function in a reaction or in a series of reactions. Several cell immobilization supports have been used in different reactors for anaerobic wastewater treatment, such as: agar gel, acrylamide, porous ceramic, and polyurethane foam besides the self-immobilized biomass from UASB reactors. However, the results are not conclusive as to the advantages of these different reactors with different supports as compared to other anaerobic reactor configurations. This paper describes a new anaerobic attached growth reactor configuration, herein referred as horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor and presents the results of its performance test treating kraft paper industry wastewater. The reactor configuration was conceived aiming to increase the ratio useful volume/total volume by lowering the volume for gas separation. The HAIS reactor conception would permit also to incorporate the reactor hydrodynamic characteristics in its design criteria if the flow pattern could be approximated as plug-flow.

  1. Final Report: Feasibility Study of Biomass in Snohomish County, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryl Williams; Ray Clark

    2005-01-31

    This report and its attachments summarizes the results of a unique tribal-farmer cooperative study to evaluate the feasibility of building one or more regional anaerobic digestion systems in Snohomish County, Washington.

  2. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

  3. Ecovation Inc formerly AnAerobics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Victor, New York Zip: 14564 Product: The company build and operate organic waste management systems. Coordinates: 38.15924, -81.034233 Show Map Loading map......

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Methane Digester Loan Program In order to be eligible for a Methane Digester Loan, a borrower...

  5. American Biogas Council: The Voice of the US Biogas Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    anaerobic digestion designers equipment dealers waste managers waste water companies farms utilities consultants and EPCs financiers,...

  6. Anaerobic High-Throughput Cultivation Method for Isolation of Thermophiles Using Biomass-Derived Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Allman, Steve L; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Elkins, James G

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) techniques have been developed for sorting mesophilic organisms, but the difficulty increases if the target microbes are thermophilic anaerobes. We demonstrate a reliable, high-throughput method of screening thermophilic anaerobic organisms using FCM and 96-well plates for growth on biomass-relevant substrates. The method was tested using the cellulolytic thermophiles Clostridium ther- mocellum (Topt = 55 C), Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis (Topt = 78 C) and the fermentative hyperthermo- philes, Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt = 100 C) and Thermotoga maritima (Topt = 80 C). Multi-well plates were incubated at various temperatures for approximately 72 120 h and then tested for growth. Positive growth resulting from single cells sorted into individual wells containing an anaerobic medium was verified by OD600. Depending on the growth substrate, up to 80 % of the wells contained viable cultures, which could be transferred to fresh media. This method was used to isolate thermophilic microbes from Rabbit Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Substrates for enrichment cultures including crystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan (from Birchwood), pretreated switchgrass and Populus were used to cultivate organisms that may be of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  7. Intrinsic in situ anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents at an industrial landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.D.; Mazierski, P.F.; Buchanan, R.J. Jr.; Ellis, D.E.; Sehayek, L.S.

    1995-12-31

    The DuPont Necco Park Landfill in Niagara Falls, New York, is contaminated with numerous chlorinated solvents at concentrations of up to hundreds of mg/L in the groundwater. An extensive monitoring program was conducted to determine if intrinsic anaerobic biodegradation was occurring at the site, to determine what might limit this activity, and to characterize this activity with depth and distance away from the landfill. It was determined that anaerobic microbial activity was occurring in all zones, based upon the presence of intermediate products of the breakdown of the chlorinated solvents and the presence of final metabolic end products such as ethene and ethane. Aerobic, iron-reducing, manganese-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic redox conditions were identified at the site. High levels of nitrogen and biodegradable organic compounds were present in most areas to support cometabolic anaerobic microbial activity against the chlorinated solvents. Intrinsic biodegradation is clearly evident and is effective in reducing the concentrations of chlorinated organic in the groundwater at the site. Groundwater modeling efforts during development of a site conceptual model indicated that microbial degradation was necessary to account for the downgradient reduction of chlorinated volatile organic compounds as compared to chloride, a conservative indicator parameter.

  8. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

  9. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: Project overview and main results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consonni, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Massarutto, Antonio; Saccani, Cesare

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The source separation level (SSL) of waste management system does not qualify adequately the system. > Separately collecting organic waste gives less advantages than packaging materials. > Recycling packaging materials (metals, glass, plastics, paper) is always attractive. > Composting and anaerobic digestion of organic waste gives questionable outcomes. > The critical threshold of optimal recycling seems to be a SSL of 50%. - Abstract: This paper describes the context, the basic assumptions and the main findings of a joint research project aimed at identifying the optimal breakdown between material recovery and energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the framework of integrated waste management systems (IWMS). The project was carried out from 2007 to 2009 by five research groups at Politecnico di Milano, the Universities of Bologna and Trento, and the Bocconi University (Milan), with funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). Since the optimization of IWMSs by analytical methods is practically impossible, the search for the most attractive strategy was carried out by comparing a number of relevant recovery paths from the point of view of mass and energy flows, technological features, environmental impact and economics. The main focus has been on mature processes applicable to MSW in Italy and Europe. Results show that, contrary to a rather widespread opinion, increasing the source separation level (SSL) has a very marginal effects on energy efficiency. What does generate very significant variations in energy efficiency is scale, i.e. the size of the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. The mere value of SSL is inadequate to qualify the recovery system. The energy and environmental outcome of recovery depends not only on 'how much' source separation is carried out, but rather on 'how' a given SSL is reached.

  10. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    YrDigesterLandfillGas" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  11. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    YrDigesterLandfillGas" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  12. Natural Gas Market Digest (formerly Year in Review) - U.S. Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Natural Gas Reports Market Digest: Natural Gas (2013-2014) Updated: June 12, 2014 For prior report data see Natural Gas Year-in-Review archives EIA's Natural Gas Market Digest highlights the latest information and analyses on all aspects of the natural gas markets. Storage Record winter withdrawals create summer storage challenges, June 12, 2014 Natural gas storage working capacity grows 2% in 2012 - Today in Energy, July 24, 2013 High natural gas inventory last

  13. Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their

  14. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems - Current status and potential improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly relevant to establish more detailed guidelines within this field in order to increase both the general quality in assessments as well as the potentials for cross-study comparisons.

  15. Biogas systems in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtman, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to an analysis of household energy consumption, three scenarios are presented for the economic analysis of energy systems used for cooking, lighting, irrigation, and rice husk-cement manufacture. Digester design and feedstock variations are discussed. Problems such as gas pricing, sociological problems of distribution to diverse ethnic groups, and the complexity of technology transfer are mentioned. (CKK)

  16. Novel wastewater treatment processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saber, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Few fermentation processes are as versatile as anaerobic digestion in terms of utility, application and capability to handle feeds of varied chemical complexity and physical characteristics. The anaerobic digestion process has served the pollution control industry in the US for over 100 years in stabilizing organic sludges and wastewaters; treatment of these high-moisture-content and high-strength aqueous wastes by alternative thermal or aerobic biological processes requires much higher energy inputs than that needed to conduct anaerobic digestion. The anaerobic digestion process has taken on new importance and emphasis in recent years because of its potential application for energy and chemical production from various types of renewable-carbon resources, and because it can be coupled with certain electrochemical, thermochemical and biochemical processes to generate electric power, hydrocarbons, methanol and other high-value products. A number of initiatives have been taken to improve the anaerobic digestion process in keeping with the increasing appreciation for its utility and versatility of application in municipal, industrial and rural settings. Using processes based upon the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes, the Institute of Gas Technology has developed technologies applicable for the treatment of a wide variety of organic wastes. Increased methane gas production and enhanced waste reduction can be achieved through the ACIMET, SOLCON and HIMET Processes, depending upon concentration and characteristics of the incoming organic waste stream. These proprietary IGT waste treatment systems are described.

  17. Biogas management by controlled feeding and heating of a dairy manure digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chayovan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Gas production dynamics were investigated using laboratory scale digesters fed daily with dairy manure and operated both at constant temperature and with imposed temperature fluctuations of +/-3.3/sup 0/C about a mean of 35.8/sup 0/C. At constant temperature, a 14-liter control digester with a detention time of 19 days, fed with manure diluted to 25% and blended, behaved similarly to two 3-liter digesters fed hole manure at a detection time of 15 days. A second 14-liter digester fed with the diluted manure was operated with three phase relations between the 24 hour temperature cycle and the pulse feeding time. The higher the temperature at the time of feeding, the higher the peak gas production, up to 1.8 times the control. Gradually increasing the temperature after feeding results in sustained high gas production until the most rapidly degradable material is consumed. In all cases digester operation was stable as indicated by pH, alkalinity and total daily gas production. A mathematical model based on three substrate fractions having each first order kinetics and the Arrhenius temperature relationship successfully predicted gas production dynamics as long as hydrolysis remained the rate limiting step and the volatile acid pool did not change rapidly. Results show that gas storage can be reduced as much as 52% using managed heating and feeding for a situation in which gas is productively utilized for only eight hours of the day.

  18. Rural biogas technology: effect of digester pressure on gas rate and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamad, M.A.; Abdel, Dayem, A.M.; El-Halwagi, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of digester pressure on gas rate and composition was studied using an experimental Chinese-type digester of 5 m/sup 3/ volume. Water buffalo dung was used as feedstock and was fermented at 40 days retention time. The increase in digester pressure was accompanied by a decrease in the amount of biogas produced. However, this decrease was partially compensated for by the increase in methane content. The latter may be attributed to the transfer of carbon dioxide from the gas phase to the liquid phase. The remainder of the noted decrease in the obtained gas amount was related to the increase of the nonconfined amount of slurry in the outlet chamber. Thus, it can be concluded that the initial amount of gas liberated was not a direct consequence of varying the digester pressure. A modified design for the outlet chamber is proposed. Such modification is anticipated to decrease the gas losses, partially stabilize the gas pressure and accordingly increase the efficiency of the digester operation as well as the gas combustion process.

  19. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  20. Substrate inhibition and control for high rate biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    This research addresses a critical aspect of the technical feasibility of biogas recovery with poultry manure using anaerobic digestion, namely, inhibition and toxicity factors limiting methane generation under high rate conditions. The research was designed to identify the limiting factors and to examine alternative pretreatment and in situ control methods for the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure as an energy producing system. Biogas production was indicated by the daily gas volume produced per unit digester capacity. Enhanced biogas generation from the anaerobic digester systems using poultry manure was studied in laboratory- and pilot-scale digester operations. It was found that ammonia nitrogen concentration above 4000 mg/l was inhibitory to biogas production. Pretreatment of the manure by elutriation was effective for decreasing inhibitory/toxic conditions. Increased gas production resulted without an indication of serious inhibition by increased volatile acids, indicating a limitation of available carbon sources. For poultry manure digestion, the optimum pH range was 7.1 to 7.6. Annual costs for pretreatment/biogas systems for 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 birds were estimated and compared with annual surplus energy produced. The economic break-even point was achieved in digesters for greater than 30,000 birds. Capital cost of the digester system was estimated to be $18,300 with annual costs around $4000. It is anticipated that the digester system could be economically applied to smaller farms as energy costs increase.

  1. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III, Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC); Nichols, Sheldon T. (Augusta, GA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded diphosphonic acid resin with concentrated oxidizing acid in a closed vessel, and irradiating this mixture with microwave radiation. This efficiently increases the temperature of the mixture to a level suitable for digestion of the resin without the use of dehydrating acids that can damage downstream analytical resins. In order to ensure more complete digestion, the irradiated mixture can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidant, and reirradiated with microwave radiation.

  2. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Anderson, Harald [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hawkins, Mike [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garwicz, Stanislaw [Childhood Cancer Research Center, University Children's Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Sankila, Risto [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); El Fayech, Chiraz [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Winter, Dave [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rubino, Carole [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Curie Institute, Paris (France); Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Moller, Torgil [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Langmark, Froydis [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); and others

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose-response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7-16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6-35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  3. Treatment of VOCs in high strength wastes using an anaerobic expanded-bed GAC reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayanian, B.; Suidan, M.T.; Gelderloos, A.B.; Brenner, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of the expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) anaerobic reactor in treating a high strength waste containing RCRA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied. A total of six VOCs, methylene chloride, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, toluene and tetrachloroethylene, were fed to the reactor in a high strength matrix of background solvents. Performance was evaluated. The reactor was found to effect excellent removal of all VOCs (97%). Chloroform, while itself removed at levels in excess of 97%, was found to inhibit the degradation of acetate and acetone, two of the background solvents. Without any source of chloroform in the feed, excellent COD removals were obtained in addition to near-complete removal of all the VOCs.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  5. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small) Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government, Institutional Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Wind (Small) Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Building, CustomOthers pending approval, Yes; specific technologies not identified Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic...

  9. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2DigesterLandfillGas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    M2DigesterLandfillGas" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  10. Influence of H/sub 2/ stripping on methane production in conventional digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poels, J.; Van Assche, P.; Verstraete, W.

    1985-12-01

    Hydrogen is a central metabolite in the methanization process. In this study the partial pressure of hydrogen in the gas phase of laboratory manure digesters was monitored over extensive periods of time and found to vary between 50 and 100.10/sup -6/ atm. By sparging the gas phase of the digester through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were allowed to develop at the expense of hydrogen and carbon dioxide present in the biogas, independently of the liquid or cell residence time in the main reactor. By scrubbing ca. 100 volumes of biogas per liter reactor per day through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogen concentration could be decreased maximally 25%. This resulted in an increase in the gas production rate of the main digester of ca. 10% and a concomitant improved removal of volatile fatty acids from the mixed liquor. The results obtained indicate that considerable stripping of hydrogen from the digester could be achieved at acceptable energy expenditure. However, the microbial removal of the hydrogen at these low concentrations is extremely slow and limits the applicability of this approach.

  11. Anaerobic U(IV) Bio-oxidation and the Resultant Remobilization of Uranium in Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, John D.

    2005-06-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites is based on immobilizing U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Due to the use of nitric acid in the processing of nuclear fuels, nitrate is often a co-contaminant found in many of the environments contaminated with uranium. Recent studies indicate that nitrate inhibits U(VI) reduction in sediment slurries. However, the mechanism responsible for the apparent inhibition of U(VI) reduction is unknown, i.e. preferential utilization of nitrate as an electron acceptor, direct biological oxidation of U(IV) coupled to nitrate reduction, and/or abiotic oxidation by intermediates of nitrate reduction. Recent studies indicates that direct biological oxidation of U(IV) coupled to nitrate reduction may exist in situ, however, to date no organisms have been identified that can grow by this metabolism. In an effort to evaluate the potential for nitrate-dependent bio-oxidation of U(IV) in anaerobic sedimentary environments, we have initiated the enumeration of nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing bacteria. Sediments, soils, and groundwater from uranium (U) contaminated sites, including subsurface sediments from the NABIR Field Research Center (FRC), as well as uncontaminated sites, including subsurface sediments from the NABIR FRC and Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Texas, lake sediments, and agricultural field soil, sites served as the inoculum source. Enumeration of the nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing microbial population in sedimentary environments by most probable number technique have revealed sedimentary microbial populations ranging from 9.3 x 101 - 2.4 x 103 cells (g sediment)-1 in both contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Interestingly uncontaminated subsurface sediments (NABIR FRC Background core FB618 and Longhorn Texas Core BH2-18) both harbored the most numerous nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing population 2.4 x 103 cells (g sediment)-1. The nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing microbial population in groundwaters is less numerous ranging from 0 cells mL-1 (Well FW300, Uncontaminated Background NABIR FRC) to 4.3 x 102 cells mL-1 (Well TPB16, Contaminated Area 2 NABIR FRC). The presence of nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing bacteria supports our hypothesis that bacteria capable of anaerobic U(IV) oxidation are ubiquitous and indigenous to sedimentary and groundwater environments.

  12. Thiol-facilitated cell export and desorption of methylmercury by anaerobic bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Hui; Lu, Xia; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2015-09-04

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg), formed by anaerobic bacteria, is shown to be rapidly excreted from the cell, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. Using both Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 strains, we investigated the factors affecting export and distribution of MeHg in mercury methylation and MeHg sorption-desorption assays. Thiols, such as cysteine, were found to greatly facilitate desorption and export of MeHg, particularly by PCA cells. However, in cysteine-free assays (4 h) >90% of the synthesized MeHg was associated with PCA, among which ~73% was sorbed on the cell surface and 19% remained inside the cells. Inmore » comparison, a majority of the MeHg (70%) was exported by ND132, leaving ~20% of the MeHg sorbed on the surface and 10% inside the cells. When MeHg was added directly to the cell suspensions, ND132 adsorbed much lower MeHg but took up more MeHg inside cells than PCA did. These results demonstrate that MeHg export is bacteria strain-specific, time dependent, and is influenced by thiols, implicating important roles of ligand complexation in facilitating MeHg production and mobilization in the environment.« less

  13. Fractionation of heavy metals in sludge from anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds in southern Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, E.

    2006-07-01

    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to assess the potential environmental and health risk associated with the sludge coming from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, it is necessary to apply sequential extraction techniques to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability or toxicity. In this paper, a sequential extraction scheme according to the Standard, Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission was applied to sludge samples collected from ten anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) located in southern Spain. Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn were determined in the sludge extracts by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In relation to current international legislation for the use of sludge for agricultural purposes, none of the metal concentrations exceeded maximum permitted levels. Overall, heavy metals were mainly associated with the two less-available fractions (34% oxidizable metal and 55% residual metal). Only Mn and Zn showed the highest share of the available (exchangeable and reducible) fractions (25-48%)

  14. Thiol-facilitated cell export and desorption of methylmercury by anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hui; Lu, Xia; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2015-09-04

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg), formed by anaerobic bacteria, is shown to be rapidly excreted from the cell, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. Using both Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 strains, we investigated the factors affecting export and distribution of MeHg in mercury methylation and MeHg sorption-desorption assays. Thiols, such as cysteine, were found to greatly facilitate desorption and export of MeHg, particularly by PCA cells. However, in cysteine-free assays (4 h) >90% of the synthesized MeHg was associated with PCA, among which ~73% was sorbed on the cell surface and 19% remained inside the cells. In comparison, a majority of the MeHg (70%) was exported by ND132, leaving ~20% of the MeHg sorbed on the surface and 10% inside the cells. When MeHg was added directly to the cell suspensions, ND132 adsorbed much lower MeHg but took up more MeHg inside cells than PCA did. These results demonstrate that MeHg export is bacteria strain-specific, time dependent, and is influenced by thiols, implicating important roles of ligand complexation in facilitating MeHg production and mobilization in the environment.

  15. Anaerobic cometabolic transformation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: evidence from laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Safinowski; Christian Griebler; Rainer U. Meckenstock

    2006-07-01

    The sulfate-reducing enrichment culture N47 can grow on naphthalene or 2-methylnaphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. The study reported shows that the culture can furthermore cometabolically transform a variety of polycyclic and heteroaromatic compounds with naphthalene or methylnaphthalene as the auxiliary substrate. Most of the cosubstrates were converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids, frequently to several isomers. The mass spectra of specific metabolites that were extracted from supernatants of cultures containing the cosubstrates benzothiophene, benzofuran, and 1-methylnaphthalene resembled known intermediates of the anaerobic naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation pathways. This indicates that some of the tested compounds were first methylated and then transformed to the corresponding methylsuccinic acids by a fumarate addition to the methyl group. For some of the cosubstrates, a partial or total inhibition of growth on the auxiliary substrate was observed. This was caused by a specific combination of auxiliary substrate and cosubstrate. None of the cosubstrates tested could be utilized as the sole carbon source and electron donor by the enrichment culture N47. Field investigations at the tar-oil-contaminated aquifer (at a former gasworks in southwest Germany), where strain N47 originated, revealed the presence of metabolites similar to the ones identified in batch culture supernatants. The findings suggest that aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds can be converted by aquifer organisms and produce a variety of polar compounds that become mobile in groundwater. 51 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  17. Evaluation of a biosolids minimization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bizier, P.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Micronair{trademark} residuals management system has been described by its manufacturer as a zero biosolids system. The system consists of three main parts--RAS screening, inerts removal, and an extremely fine bubble aeration system for the digester. The system's design assumes that trash and other non-biodegradable materials make up the bulk of residuals which would normally be digested. If these materials are removed, then the remaining biological material is assumed to biodegrade to either inerts or dissolved materials. This paper presents additional background on the design and operation of the residuals handling system. In addition, actual data from the facility detailing the operation of the residuals handling system. In addition, actual data from the facility detailing the operation of the Micronair{trademark} system since its initial start-up is provided. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the existing system are discussed and points for consideration in future installations identified.

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Interconnection Standards The SIR...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    approval, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Conservation...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Net Metering Eligibility and Availability Eligibility:...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Efficiency Maine Trust- Energy Efficiency and...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Interconnection Standards California's...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Interconnection Standards The new rules apply to...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Connecticut Clean Energy Fund Connecticut's 1998...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard Eligible...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractors Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion,...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies New Jersey Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Sustainable Biopower)...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Connecticut Clean Energy Fund Connecticut's 1998 electric restructuring legislation...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard Eligible technologies Eligibility:...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard Background Eligibility:...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Interconnection Standards Rule 569 applies to all qualifying...

  12. NY-Sun Solar PV Competitive Program (New York) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industrial, Nonprofit, Construction, InstallerContractor Eligible Technologies Photovoltaics, Anaerobic Digestion Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector State...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Anaerobic Digestion, Microturbines Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Renewable...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption Eligible renewable resources include wind, solar, biomass, landfill gas, anaerobic digestion, hydroelectricity, and geothermal energy....

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewables Portfolio...

  17. Clean Cities: State of Maryland Clean Cities coalition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    trucks. His past projects include: PSC Case No. 9261, anaerobic digestion, biomass combustiongasification, biodiesel consumptionproduction, ethanol consumptionproduction, CNG,...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    include wind, solar, biomass, landfill gas, anaerobic digestion, hydroelectricity, and geothermal energy. Facilities must use renewable energy to produce electricity......

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Anaerobic Digestion, Microturbines Consumers Energy- Experimental Advanced Renewable Program The Experimental Advanced Renewable Energy Program...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Consumers Energy- Experimental Advanced Renewable Program The Experimental Advanced Renewable Energy Program...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    approval, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Insulation, Hydroelectric (Small), Food Service Equipment, Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies,...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Societal Benefits...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Interconnection...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Net...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Connecticut Clean...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Net Metering...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Interconnection...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies New Jersey Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Sustainable...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Alternative Energy...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Efficiency Maine...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Energy Conversion...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Sustainable Building Design Revolving Loan Fund Recommended projects include Eligibility: Local Government,...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies New...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Net...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  3. Enabling a Transition to Low Carbon Economies in Developing Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Waste to Energy, - Anaerobic Digestion, Solar, - Concentrating Solar Power, - Solar PV, Wind Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Policiesdeployment...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Production Incentive Hydro Facility Eligibility Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial,...

  6. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administrative center for project. ASU: Lab workelemental analysis. OUC: Cultivate algae in raceway tanksbioreactors. UF: Cultavate microalgae & operate anaerobic digesters....

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Biomass, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion, Microturbines...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...

  9. Animal Farm Powers Village | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Agriculture, Energy Efficiency - Central Plant, Economic Development, Renewable Energy, Biomass - Anaerobic Digestion, Biomass, Biomass - Waste To Energy Phase Develop...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other...

  11. List of Daylighting Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Loan Program Michigan Agricultural Agricultural Equipment Heat pumps Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Daylighting Ethanol Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using...

  12. List of Photovoltaics Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standard West Virginia Investor-Owned Utility Retail Supplier Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Fuel Cells Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Energy Conversion and Thermal...

  14. List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commercial Industrial Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Ethanol Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Yes Business Energy Tax...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Heat recovery, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard Eligible technologies...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Others pending approval, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard Eligible technologies Eligibility:...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard Eligible technologies Eligibility:...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Heat recovery, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Corporate)...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Personal) Massachusetts...

  4. PlasmaTech Caribbean Corporation PCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Project developer focussing on plasma gasification, anaerobic digestion, solar integrated technologies and recycling in the Caribbean. References:...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Net Metering Eligible Technologies Eligibility: Commercial, Local Government, Nonprofit,...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Net Metering Eligibility and Availability Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Local...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Portfolio...

  8. Renewable Natural Gas - Producer Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capital Partner with Commercial Technology Providers Anaerobic digester Food Waste Animal Waste Sludge Gasification Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Connecticut Clean Energy Fund Connecticut's 1998...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Renewable Portfolio Standard Requirements Large utilities -- those with 3%...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Puerto Rico- Net Metering Eligibility and Availability Eligibility:...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal, Anaerobic Digestion Interconnection Standards for Small Generators Origin Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Local Government, Nonprofit, Residential,...

  15. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  16. Genomic expansion of Domain Archaea highlights roles for organisms from new phyla in anaerobic carbon cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelle, Cindy; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thomas, Brian C.; Hug, Laura A.; Brown, Christopher T.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Frischkorn, Kyle R.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Singh, Andrea; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-03-01

    Domain Archaea is currently represented by one phylum (Euryarchaeota) and two superphyla (TACK and DPANN). However, gene surveys indicate the existence of a vast diversity of uncultivated archaea for which metabolic information is lacking. We sequenced DNA from complex sediment- and groundwater-associated microbial communities sampled prior to and during an acetate biostimulation field experiment to investigate the diversity and physiology of uncultivated subsurface archaea. We sampled 15 genomes that improve resolution of a new phylum within the TACK superphylum and 119 DPANN genomes that highlight a major subdivision within the archaeal domain that separates DPANN from TACK/Euryarchaeota lineages. Within the DPANN superphylum, which lacks any isolated representatives, we defined two new phyla using sequences from 100 newly sampled genomes. The first new phylum, for which we propose the name Woesearchaeota, was defined using 54 new sequences. We reconstructed a complete (finished) genome for an archaeon from this phylum that is only 0.8 Mb in length and lacks almost all core biosynthetic pathways, but has genes encoding enzymes predicted to interact with bacterial cell walls, consistent with a symbiotic lifestyle. The second new phylum, for which we propose the name Pacearchaeota, was defined based on 46 newly sampled archaeal genomes. This phylum includes the first non-methanogen with an intermediate Type II/III RuBisCO. We also reconstructed a complete (1.24 Mb) genome for another DPANN archaeon, a member of the Diapherotrites phylum. Metabolic prediction and transcriptomic data indicate that this organism has a fermentation-based lifestyle. In fact, genomic analyses consistently indicate lack of recognizable pathways for sulfur, nitrogen, methane, oxygen, and metal cycling, and suggest that symbiotic and fermentation-based lifestyles are widespread across the DPANN superphylum. Thus, as for a recently identified superphylum of bacteria with small genomes and no cultivated representatives, the biogeochemical impacts of this major radiation of archaea are primarily through anaerobic carbon and hydrogen cycling.

  17. Pathways of anaerobic organic matter decomposition in tundra soils from Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Mann, Benjamin F.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    2015-11-23

    Arctic tundra soils store a large quantity of organic carbon that is susceptible to decomposition and release to the atmosphere as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) under a warming climate. Anaerobic processes that generate CH4 and CO2 remain unclear because previous studies have focused on aerobic decomposition pathways. To predict releases of CO2 and CH4 from tundra soils, it is necessary to identify pathways of soil organic matter decomposition under the anoxic conditions that are prevalent in Arctic ecosystems. Here molecular and spectroscopic techniques were used to monitor biological degradation of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during anoxic incubation of tundra soils from a region of continuous permafrost in northern Alaska. Organic and mineral soils from the tundra active layer were incubated at –2, +4, or +8°C for up to 60 days to mimic the short-term thaw season. Results suggest that, under anoxic conditions, fermentation converted complex organic molecules into simple organic acids that were used in concomitant Fe-reduction and acetoclastic methanogenesis reactions. Nonaromatic compounds increased over time as WEOC increased. Organic acid metabolites initially accumulated in soils but were mostly depleted by day 60 because organic acids were consumed to produce Fe(II), CO2, and CH4. We conclude that fermentation of nonprotected organic matter facilitates methanogenesis and Fe reduction reactions, and that the proportion of organic acids consumed by methanogenesis increases relative to Fe reduction with increasing temperature. As a result, the decomposition pathways observed in this study are important to consider in numerical modeling of greenhouse gas production in the Arctic.

  18. Pathways of anaerobic organic matter decomposition in tundra soils from Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Mann, Benjamin F.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    2015-11-23

    Arctic tundra soils store a large quantity of organic carbon that is susceptible to decomposition and release to the atmosphere as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) under a warming climate. Anaerobic processes that generate CH4 and CO2 remain unclear because previous studies have focused on aerobic decomposition pathways. To predict releases of CO2 and CH4 from tundra soils, it is necessary to identify pathways of soil organic matter decomposition under the anoxic conditions that are prevalent in Arctic ecosystems. Here molecular and spectroscopic techniques were used to monitor biological degradation of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during anoxic incubation ofmore » tundra soils from a region of continuous permafrost in northern Alaska. Organic and mineral soils from the tundra active layer were incubated at –2, +4, or +8°C for up to 60 days to mimic the short-term thaw season. Results suggest that, under anoxic conditions, fermentation converted complex organic molecules into simple organic acids that were used in concomitant Fe-reduction and acetoclastic methanogenesis reactions. Nonaromatic compounds increased over time as WEOC increased. Organic acid metabolites initially accumulated in soils but were mostly depleted by day 60 because organic acids were consumed to produce Fe(II), CO2, and CH4. We conclude that fermentation of nonprotected organic matter facilitates methanogenesis and Fe reduction reactions, and that the proportion of organic acids consumed by methanogenesis increases relative to Fe reduction with increasing temperature. As a result, the decomposition pathways observed in this study are important to consider in numerical modeling of greenhouse gas production in the Arctic.« less

  19. Scale-Up Maturation Plan for Digestion of Graphite Fuel Pebbles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scale-Up Maturation Plan for Digestion of Graphite Fuel Pebbles Official Use Only Pre-decisional Draft R. A. Pierce K. M. Fox June 2014 SRNL-RP-2014-00464, Revision 0 SRNL-RP-2014-00464 Revision 0 -- Official Use Only -- ii DISCLAIMER This work was prepared under an agreement with and funded by the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government or its employees, nor any of its contractors, subcontractors or their employees, makes any express or implied: 1. warranty or assumes any legal liability

  20. Effects of nickel on biological methane generation from a laboratory poultry waste digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, C.M.; Shih, J.C.H.; Spears, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel added in concentrations as low as 10..mu..M significantly increased biogas production in a laboratory poultry waste digester utilizing excreta from laying hens as the organic energy source. It was shown that the initial rate of biogas production increased as early as 4 h after the addition of nickel to the laboratory cultures. Analysis of the excreta for nickel content prior to addition of exogenous NiCl/sub 2/ showed appreciable amounts of nickel present. The data indicate that nickel naturally present in layer excreta is suboptimal or unavailable to the bacteria for biogas production purposes.

  1. Science Digests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of mini-articles that provide a context for our historical approach, current problem solving and our vision for the future. Spatial partitioning for the ocean simulation data set. ...

  2. Increasing biogas yield of rural biogas digester by addition of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, G.C.; Chen, G.Q.; Chen, M.; Liu, K.X.; Zhou, S.Y.

    1983-12-01

    By addition of 0.3% NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ instead of animal manure into rural biogas digester in which the rotted rice straw was the major feedstock, the biogas yield doubled in comparison with the check digester (0.1 m/sup 3//m/sup 3//d) and the fertility of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ did not decrease because of biogas fermentation. Many digesters have been built in China. But, owing to the problems of improper management, unsuitable influent mixing, etc., neither digesters nor feedstock were fully utilized. In order to solve these problems, adding NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ into digester instead of animal manure was tried. Its results showed that the suitable C/N ratio of influent mixing was obtained, the fertility of effluent went up, and biogas producing rate increased. The concentration of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ is 0.2-0.6%, but the optimal is 0.3%.

  3. GTI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GTI

    2003-07-01

    Manure management is an ever-increasing environmental impact problem within the U.S. livestock industry due to the trends in growing scale of operation of individual animal raising facilities. Anaerobic digestion, the fermentation of organic matter into a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide called biogas, offers the livestock industry a viable solution to this problem. When anaerobic digestion is combined with by-product recovery and biogas utilization, the integrated system can potentially solve manure handling issues while creating significant energy, environmental and economic opportunities. The overall objective of this project was to conduct a laboratory proof-of-concept evaluation to determine the potential energy generation and pathogen control benefits of applying anaerobic digestion for the management of swine manure.

  4. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-03-18

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

  5. A pilot-scale field study on the anaerobic biotreatment of soil impacted with highly chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanand, K.; Foulke, B.; Delnicki, W.A.; Ying, A.C.; Baek, N.H.; Coats, M.L.; Duffy, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    An on-site pilot-scale demonstration of anaerobic biodegradation of highly chlorinated benzenes was successfully performed at a chemical manufacturing industrial facility in Niagara Falls, New York. The field investigation was conducted in 6-yd{sup 3} capacity soil boxes. Approximately 4 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with chlorinated compounds was placed in each soil box. Chlorinated benzenes with 3 or more chlorines accounted for about 85% of the total chemistry in the soil. The soil box amended with water, nutrients, and acclimated soil microbial inoculum exhibited greater than 78% reduction in the levels of highly chlorinated compounds after one year of field study. The total concentrations of hexa-, penta-, tetra-, and trichlorobenzenes decreased from 920 mg/kg to less than 190 mg/kg, while the total concentrations of di-, and monochlorobenzene increased from 8 mg/kg to greater than 400 mg/kg during one year of field operation. The control soil that did not receive any external nutrient or microbial amendments maintained the same percentage of the highly chlorinated benzenes after one year and di-, and monochlorobenzene never exceeded more than 4 mg/kg at any given time period. The anaerobic activity was further confirmed by monitored parameters such as nutrient consumption (butyrate, nitrogen, organic matter), sulfate depletion, and methane production.

  6. Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

    2012-05-30

    Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.

  7. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  8. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  9. Complete genome sequence of the bile-resistant pigment- producing anaerobe Alistipes finegoldii type strain (AHN2437T)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavromatis, K; Stackebrandt, Erko; Munk, Christine; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Alistipes finegoldii Rautio et al. 2003 is one of five species of Alistipes with a validly pub- lished name: family Rikenellaceae, order Bacteroidetes, class Bacteroidia, phylum Bacteroidetes. This rod-shaped and strictly anaerobic organism has been isolated mostly from human tissues. Here we describe the features of the type strain of this species, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. A. finegoldii is the first member of the genus Alistipes for which the complete genome sequence of its type strain is now available. The 3,734,239 bp long single replicon genome with its 3,302 protein-coding and 68 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Methane production from marine biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1980-01-01

    The overall concept of the giant brown kelp farm and conversion system, the integrated research program engaged in its study, and IGT's work on biogasification process development are discussed. A summary of results to date on anaerobic digestion will be emphasized. (MHR)

  11. Recycling and Energy Recovery Pilot Project: Project Report and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Rivard.

    1999-05-19

    A novel bioprocessing technology was developed that efficiently converts negative-value organic waste, including domestic refuse, animal manures, industrial wastes, food processing wastes, and municipal sewage sludge into saleable products, including fuel gas and compost. This technology is known as high solids anaerobic digestion and was developed at NREL from fundamental research to laboratory- and intermediate-scale system evaluations.

  12. Small-scale biogas applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Guidance is given through the exercise of determining whether a biogas system is worthwhile for a farm owner. After a brief description of anaerobic digestion and characteristics and economics of biogas, basic features of anaerobic digesters are discussed. The use of biogas is discussed, starting with gas collection at the digester and ending with waste heat recovery in cogeneration systems. Direct heating with biogas is also covered briefly. The parts of a working biogas system are discussed. Three different case studies are reviewed. Directions are offered for collecting site data and a method for performing a preliminary economic analysis of a given operation. Firms and consultants with experience in the design and construction of biogas systems are listed. (LEW)

  13. A technoeconomic assessment of solar-assisted biogas systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, N.K. )

    1988-01-01

    Biogas has been recognized as one of the best available renewable and decentralized sources of energy and organic fertilizer for a country like India. There is enough evidence to prove that temperature has a profound influence on the rate of biogas production. In temperate climates, where the winters are mild, solar energy systems can be effectively used to increase the temperature of the biogas digester to the desired level. This paper examines various techniques, such as a solar greenhouse on the biogas digester, a shallow solar pond water heater, insulation, and a heat exchanger, and their technoeconomic viability.

  14. In situ capping for size control of monochalcogenides (ZnS, CdS, and SnS) nanocrystals produced by anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Joshi, Pooran C; Meyer III, Harry M; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Datskos, Panos G; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Metal monochalcogenide quantum dot nanocrystals of ZnS, CdS and SnS were prepared by anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria using in situ capping by oleic acid or oleylamine. The capping agent preferentially adsorbs on the surface of the nanocrystal, suppressing the growth process in the early stages, thus leading to production of nanocrystals with a diameter of less than 5 nm.

  15. Development of biogas technology in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiranjivi, C.; Raviprasad, A.; Rao, K.V.

    1981-01-01

    Biogas from organic wastes is a potential renewable energy to meet the domestic energy needs in India. The fundamentals of bio-gasification by anaerobic digestion are presented. The production of biogas from cattle manure in small anaerobic digesters is discussed illustrating with a popular digester model. 9 refs.

  16. 3H nuclear magnetic resonance study of anaerobic glycolysis in packed erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R.D.; Un, S.; Williams, P.G.; Carson, P.J.; Morimoto, H.; Klein, M.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The utility and power of 3H NMR spectroscopy as a technique for monitoring biological systems in vivo is illustrated with glucose metabolism in erythrocytes. Use of C-1-tritiated glucose allowed us to monitor the disappearance of the alpha and beta tritons, with the production of lactate and 1H3HO (HTO), as well as some intermediates. Spin lattice relaxation times (T1) were measured to avoid T1 distortion of the spectral intensities. Detection of the formation of 1 mM tritiated water in the presence of 110 M H2O protons and deuterons allows the eventual fate of the label in the pentose shunt to be observed in vivo.

  17. Symbiotically integrated organic recycling/renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamburg, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Two operating systems designed for the integrated recycling of organic materials and production of renewable energy are described. Both systems include the Chinese design, water-pressure biogas digesters, a solar greenhouse and algae/aquatic plant ponds, all in passive symbiotic relationships with a minimum of high technology sophistication. A discussion of fish ponds and fuel alcohol production is also included since they offer many possibilities for expanded integration.

  18. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  19. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  20. Effect of particle size and doses of olivine addition on carbon dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sequestration during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at ambient and mesophilic temperatures | Argonne National Laboratory Effect of particle size and doses of olivine addition on carbon dioxide sequestration during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at ambient and mesophilic temperatures Title Effect of particle size and doses of olivine addition on carbon dioxide sequestration during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at ambient and mesophilic temperatures Publication Type Journal

  1. Fiscalini Farms Renewable Energy Power Generation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Fiscalini Farms L.P., in collaboration with University of the Pacific, Biogas Energy, Inc., and the University of California at Berkeley will measure and analyze the efficiency and regulatory compliance of a renewable energy system for power generation. The system will utilize digester gas from an anaerobic digester located at the Fiscalini Farms dairy for power generation with a reciprocating engine. The project will provide power, efficiency, emissions, and cost/benefit analysis for the system and evaluate its compliance with federal and California emissions standards.

  2. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  3. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  4. Integration of Leading Biomass Pretreatment Technologies with Enzymatic Digestion and Hydrolyzate Fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this project is to develop comprehensive performance information on a common basis on integrated biomass pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation systems.

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Interconnection Standards NOTE: In Feb 2014, the PUC...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Dollar and Energy Savings Loans The Nebraska Dollar...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Net Metering Class I, Class II, Class III net metering...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    approval, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Net Metering The New Hampshire Public Utilities...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) Note: IRS Notice...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Daylighting, Solar Pool Heating, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State Office of Energy) There are several job creation and job quality requirements that must be...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Jane E. Lawton Conservation Loan Program Lawton Loans can be made to eligible nonprofits,...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The sales of equipment used to generate electricity using fuel cells, wind, sun, biomass energy, tidal or wave energy, geothermal, anaerobic digestion or landfill gas is...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion USDA- High Energy Cost Grant Program The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers an ongoing grant program for the improvement of energy...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Property Nebraska allows for a refund of the sales and...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Local Option- Renewable Energy Machinery and Tools Property Tax Exemption HB 1297 enacted in March 2015 provides option for local governing body...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption North Dakota also offers a property tax reduction for centrally-assessed*...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion City and County of Honolulu- Real Property Tax Exemption for Alternative Energy Improvements In September 2009, the Honolulu City...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Sales and Use Tax Exclusion for Advanced Transportation and Alternative Energy Manufacturing Program To...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion Howard County- High Performance and Green Building Property Tax Credit The state of Maryland permits local governments (Md Code: Property Tax 9-242)...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Property Nebraska allows for a refund of the sales and use taxes paid for a renewable energy...

  3. Insource Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Place: England, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: The energy and waste management business provides biomass boilers and anaerobic digestion combined heat and...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pool Heating, Wind (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion Renewable Energy Cost Recovery Incentive Payment Program These multipliers result in production incentives...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Commonwealth's Energy Leasing Program The funds can be used to...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Grants Grants support both energy...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Microturbines Green Power Purchasing Commitment In April 2007, Massachusetts Gov....

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Controls, Other EE, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project Financing For the purposes of this...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    specific technologies not identified, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project Financing For the purposes of this...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion Renewable Energy Tax Credit (Personal) Note: Senate Bill 372, signed in April 2015, provides a...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    not identified, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Advanced Energy Fund History Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Investor-Owned Utility, Municipal...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Others pending approval, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity program is designed to support small-sized electricity generation where the energy generated is used primarily at the electric...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Tidal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Other EE, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Energy Efficiency...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels NV...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The sales of equipment used to generate electricity using fuel cells, wind, sun, biomass energy, tidal or wave energy, geothermal, anaerobic digestion or landfill gas is eligible...

  1. Personal Tax Credit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institutional Residential Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Hydrogen Landfill Gas Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Wind Municipal Solid Waste CHP...

  2. Personal Tax Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institutional Residential Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Hydrogen Landfill Gas Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Wind Municipal Solid Waste CHP...

  3. Clean Energy Projects Helping Wisconsin Tribe Achieve Sustainability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects Helping Wisconsin Tribe Achieve Sustainability Goals Clean Energy Projects ... 2.0 megawatt anaerobic digester to convert food waste into biogas; An LED lighting project ...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Trust Fund The renewable energy fund, known as the Massachusetts Renewable Energy...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    that generates electricity using solar, wind or hydro resources, anaerobic digesters, or fuel cells capable of being powered by renewable fu... Eligibility: Commercial,...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Connecticut...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Delmarva-...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Power Project...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Alternative...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Societal...

  16. Conversion Technology and the San Jose Zero Waste Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Michele Young, Organics Manager for the City of San Jose, California, at the April 16, 2013, Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters CommRE Webinar.

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Portfolio Energy Credits Nevada's Energy Portfolio Standard requires NV Energy to derive...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Solar and Wind Easements, Local Options, and Severability Local Ordinances and...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Solar and Wind Easements, Local Options, and Severability Local Ordinances and...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Anaerobic Digestion, Microturbines NY-Sun Commerical...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion,...

  2. Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eligible renewable resources include wind, solar, biomass, landfill gas, anaerobic digestion, hydroelectricity, and geothermal energy. Facilities must use renewable energy to produce electricity...

  3. BioGas Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Sector: Biomass Product: Makes anaerobic digesters that convert manure into methane for fuel Website: www.biogas-energy.comsiteind Coordinates: 47.6163159,...

  4. Distributed Generation Technologies DGT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commercializing a technology to convert organic waste into pure and compressed methane gas via anaerobic digestion. Coordinates: 39.93746, -84.553194 Show Map Loading...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Landfill Gas, Daylighting, Solar Pool Heating, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion California Solar Initiative- PV Incentives In...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Solar Pool Heating, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion Public Benefits Funds for Renewables and...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Solar Pool Heating, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion Refine your results Keyword(s) State All...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion Solar Easements Virginia's solar easement law is...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion CHP...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion SDG&E (Electric)- Energy Efficiency Business...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion Renewable Energy Standard In October 2008, Michigan enacted the Clean, Renewable, and Efficient Energy Act, Public Act 295, requiring the state's...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF) Rhode Island's PBF is supported by a surcharge on electric and gas...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Corporate Property Tax Reduction for NewExpanded Generating Facilities The taxable value varies,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas, Other EE, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Property Tax Assessment for Renewable Energy Equipment HB 2403 of 2014 clarified that...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Sales and Use Tax...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion,...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion Solar...