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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

Trofimov, V.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride-vinyl methyl ether Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4-Methyl-2-pentanol Other secondary alcohols... - quire handling with precautions. Acrolein tert-Butyl methyl ether Di(1-propynl) ether n... Methoxy-1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene...

4

Separation of methyl t-butyl ether from close boiling C[sub 5] hydrocarbons by extractive distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovering methyl t-butyl ether from a mixture of methyl t-butyl ether and 1-pentene which comprises distilling a mixture of methyl t-butyl ether and 1-pentene in the presence of about one part of an extractive agent per part of methyl t-butyl ether -- 1-pentene mixture, recovering the 1-pentene as overhead product and obtaining the methyl t-butyl ether and the extractive agent from the still pot, wherein said extractive agent consists of one material selected from the group consisting of sulfolane, nitroethane, t-butanol, ethylene glycol diacetate, 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate, methyl isoamyl ketone, ethylene glycol methyl ether, propylene glycol phenyl ether and diethyl malonate.

Berg, L.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

5

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

6

Detection and Quantification of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Strain PM1 by Real-Time TaqMan PCR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...purification Fresh Water microbiology Geologic...Polymerase metabolism Water Pollution, Chemical...bioremediation detection ethers ground water hydrocarbons methyl tert-butyl...pollutants pollution remediation sampling water resources...

Krassimira R. Hristova; Christian M. Lutenegger; Kate M. Scow

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

8

Use of ethers as high-octane components of gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on a study of the possible utilization of methyl tert-amyl ether (MTAE) as an automotive gasoline component, both by itself and in combination with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The naphtha used in these studies consisted of 80% reformer naphtha produced under severe conditions and 20% straight-run IBP-62/sup 0/C cut. The physicochemical properties of the MTAE, the MTBE, and the naphtha base stock are given. It is determined that MTAE, which has a slightly poorer knock resistance than MTBE, is fully equal to MTBE in all other respects and can be used as an automotive gasoline component; that a gasoline blend prepared from 89% naphtha base stock, 5.5% MTAE, and 5.5% MTBE meets all of the requirements of the standard GOST 2084-77 for Grade AI-93 gasoline; and that the use of MTAE offers a means for expanding the resources of high-octane components, lowering the toxicity of the gasolines and the exhaust gas (in comparison with organometallic antiknock agents), and bringing non-petroleum raw materials into the fuel production picture.

Gureev, A.A.; Baranova, G.N.; Korotkov, I.V.; Levinson, G.I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sato, and N. Kato. 2003. Propane monooxygenase and NAD + -alcohol dehydrogenase in propane metabolism by Gordonia sp.tert-butyl ether by propane-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

11

Thermodynamic properties of organic oxygen compounds XLIII. Vapour pressures of some ethers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vapour pressures of methyl propyl, isopropyl methyl, butyl methyl, ethyl propyl, t-butyl methyl, dipropyl, di-isopropyl, di-t-butyl, and decyl methyl ethers were measured at pressures up to 205 kPa. The measured values were fitted by Antoine and by Chebyshev equations, values already published from this laboratory for three aromatic ethers were recomputed uniformly with the present results, and published values for four additional compounds were incorporated in a scheme for correlation of the vapour pressures of ethers. Estimates were made of the vapour pressures of 10 other ethers. Between 5 and 200 kPa the vapour pressures of ethers may be represented by a single equation in which carbon number or an effective carbon number is a parameter. Chebyshev equations are given for interpolation between the upper bounds of the measurements and the critical pressures of 11 ethers for which this property has been previously determined.

D Ambrose; J.H Ellender; C.H.S Sprake; R Townsend

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

13

Effect of temperature on the extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid by tri-n-amyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies have been carried out on the effect of temperature on the extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium by tri-n-amyl phosphate/n-dodecane, measured as a function of the extractant concentration and aqueous phase acidity. The results indicate that the extraction is exothermic as in the case of tri-n-butyl phosphate. From the data available an effort has been made to calculate the equilibrium constant, the Gibbs energy change and the entropy changes of the extraction reaction. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Sood, D.D. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)]|[BARC, Mumbai (India)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C?O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C?O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C?O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C?O cleavage occurs via a C?H ? O?H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C?O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C?O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

Crivello, J.V.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

17

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Final technical report, September 25, 1990--December 24, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to develop the methodology for the catalytic synthesis of ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been previously demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield MIBE and smaller amounts of MTBE at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. A wide range of organic resin catalysts and inorganic oxide and zeolite catalysts have been investigated for activity and selectivity in directly coupling alcohols, principally methanol and isobutanol, to form ethers and in the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in the presence of methanol. All of these catalysts are strong acids, and it was found that the organic and inorganic catalysts operate in different, but overlapping, temperature ranges, i.e. mainly 60--120{degrees}C for the organic resins and 90--175{degrees}C for the inorganic catalysts. For both types of catalysts, the presence of strong acid centers is required for catalytic activity, as was demonstrated by lack of activity of fully K{sup +} ion exchanged Nafion resin and zirconia prior to being sulfated by treatment with sulfuric acid.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl ether)s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl etherVed October 21, 2005 The synthesis and near-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-containing poly(aryl ether)s were studied

Wan, Xin-hua

20

Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Characterization Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding November 14, 2014 Schematic showing a graphene sheet containing an array of ideal crown ethers....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

22

Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (?4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. \\{NOx\\} emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load, the effect of the additives is much less significant, due to the fact that the ratio oxygen from additive/oxygen from air is much lower.

F. Gómez-Cuenca; M. Gómez-Marín; M.B. Folgueras-Díaz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by volume to gasoline from November to February, and blending 11% MTBE by volume during the rest of the year; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

Toran, Laura

25

The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol G. R. Freeman The two modes of decomposition of ethanol at 525 degrees C, namely dehydration and dehydrogenation, are affected...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} (V) wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether, and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

Crivello, J.V.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

27

Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding ORNL discovery holds potential for separations, sensors, batteries, biotech and more This sheet of graphene contains...

28

Sorption of vapours and liquids in PDMS: novel data and analysis with the GAB model of multilayer adsorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Novel data on the sorption of vapours and liquids in cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer at 25–40 °C are reported together with the accurate and original way of parameterising the sorption isotherms by using the GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer) model of multilayer adsorption. The GAB model has been found to provide a comparable or better representation of sorption isotherms than the Flory–Huggins model with a concentration-dependent interaction parameter and better than the ENSIC (Engaged Species Induced Clustering) model. This comparison holds true for poor solvents of PDMS (water, methanol), mild solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, dimethyl carbonate) and good solvents (tert-butyl methyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, cyclopentyl methyl ether). The GAB model provided a noticeably good assessment of the sorption of liquids and highly saturated vapours, which makes the model applicable within the entire activity range.

Ond?ej Vopi?ka; Alena Randová; Karel Friess

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

30

Neutron Scattering Study of Vermiculite?Poly(vinyl methyl ether) Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutrons scattered by the gel samples were recorded on a two-dimensional area detector, software coded as 128 × 128 pixels, situated 1.5 m behind the samples, covering the approximate q range between 0.2 and 2 nm-1, where the wavenumber q is defined by the equation with ? being the scattering angle. ... The quartz sample cells used were practically transparent to neutrons at the wavelength utilized on the SANS-J, and the small angle neutron scattering from D2O was of low intensity and completely unstructured over the q range studied. ...

H. Jinnai; M. V. Smalley; T. Hashimoto; S. Koizumi

1996-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

31

Reactions of Methyl Perfluoroalkyl Ethers with Isopropyl Alcohol: Experimental and Theoretical Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

B&W Pantex, LLC, Amarillo, Texas 79120, United States ... Chemicals and Materials ... Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (2007), 9 (29), 3864-3871 CODEN: PPCPFQ; ISSN:1463-9076. ...

Howard C. Knachel; Vladimir Benin; Chadwick D. Barklay; Janine C. Birkbeck; Billy D. Faubion; William E. Moddeman

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

32

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of its low cost and blending characteristics. Depending on the season, reformulated gasoline of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could enhancer in gasoline. The use of MTBE increased rapidly after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required

33

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tank (LUFT) remediation programme. A recent USGS study has estimated that as many as 9000 community, remediation actions are implemented at costs usually 10± 30% higher than those at sites without MTBE contamina- tion. The evaluation of innovative and cost-effective treatment such as bioremediation for MTBE spills

34

Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by a Pure Bacterial Culture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...identify cost-effective remediation technologies. Relatively...treated with ENV735 as a remediation biocatalyst, but the strain...through the Small Business Innovative Research program (grant...situ bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents in...

Paul B. Hatzinger; Kevin McClay; Simon Vainberg; Marina Tugusheva; Charles W. Condee; Robert J. Steffan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

discharge of organic compounds require that new, innovative tech- nologies and methods of remediation dioxide, making the DMP reactor a promising tool in the future remediation of water. Chemical and physical is transformed into a more toxic material or a substance that is more difficult to remediate, the treatment

Dandy, David

36

Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

A Novel Method for Separation and Identification of Sulphur Compounds in Naphtha (30–200°C) and Middle Distillate (200–350°C) Fractions of Lloydminster Heavy Oil by GC/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......5-diethylthiophene thiophene diethyl sulphide tetrahydrothiophene ethyl phenyl sulphide naphthalene...benzothiophene dibenzothiophene methyl tetrahydrothiophene methyl tetrahydrothiopyran dimethyl tetrahydrothiophene ethyl butyl sulphide amyl ethyl......

M.A. Poirier; G.T. Smiley

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Properties Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone)/Polyacrylonitrile Acid–Base Blend Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acid–base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-...

Zhaohua Li; Wenjing Dai; Lihong Yu; Le Liu; Jingyu Xi; Xinping Qiu; Liquan Chen

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Atmospheric chemistry of diethyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanisms for the Cl-initiated and OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of diethyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) have been determined. For diethyl ether the products are ethyl formate and formaldehyde and its atmospheric oxidation can be represented by C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC{sub 2}H{sub 5} + OH + 2NO {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(O)H + HCHO + 2NO{sub 2} + HO{sub 2}. The mechanism for the atmospheric oxidation of ETBE is more complex, with 80% of the reaction being accounted for in terms of tert-butyl formate and formaldehyde. The remaining 20% the authors ascribe to 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropanal. The atmospheric oxidation of ETBE can be represented by ETBE + OH + 1.8NO {yields} 0.8HCOOC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} + 0.2C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHO + HO{sub 2} + 0.8HCHO + 1.8NO{sub 2}. THe subsequent atmospheric chemistry of 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropanal the authors estimate to be represented by C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHO + OH + 3NO {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}CO + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 3NO{sub 2}. These results are discussed in terms of the reactivity of these compounds in urban atmospheres.

Wallington, T.J.; Japar, S.M. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Kinetic mechanism of dimethyl ether production process using syngas from integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a 1-step synthesis gas-to-dimethyl ether process, synthesis gas is converted into dimethyl ether (DME) in a single reactor. Three reactions are involved in this process: methanol synthesis, methanol dehydra...

Hee-Woo Park; Jin-Kuk Ha; Euy Soo Lee

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units ... Vehicle manufacturers are rushing ahead with research into alternative fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen. ...

Marita Nilsson; Lars J. Pettersson; Bård Lindström

2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

43

Controlling DNA Methylation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. In the bacteria there are distinct enzymes while one is capable of cleaving DNA, the other protects DNA by modification. The complementary function provided by the set of enzymes offers a defense mechanism against the phage infection and DNA invasion. The incoming DNA is cleaved sequence specifically by the class of enzymes called restriction endonuclease (REase). The host DNA is protected by the sequence specific action of matching set of enzymes called the DNA methyltransferase (MTase). The control of the relative activities of the REase and MTase is critical because a reduced ratio of MTase/REase activity would lead to cell death via autorestriction. However too high a ratio would fail to provide protection against invading viral DNA. In addition a separate group of proteins capable of controlling R-M proteins have been identified in various restriction-modification (R-M) systems which are called C proteins (Roberts et al., 2003).

44

Synthesis of Medium Ring Ethers. 5. The Synthesis of (+)-Laurencin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The eight-membered medium ring ether natural product (+)-laurencin 1 is the prototypical member of a growing family of marine natural product cyclic ethers isolated from red algae and those marine organisms which feed on Laurencia species. ... The reaction mixture immediately became yellow and gradually turned dark red as gas was evolved. ... We thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) UK for a research grant, Pfizer Central Research, and Corpus Christi College Cambridge for the award of a studentship and a Junior Research Fellow ship (J.W.B.), the Cambridge European Overseas Trust, Ciba (Novartis) and the Swiss Foundation for Gifted Students (scholarship to S.D.), and the Commission of the European Communities (TMR award to T.C.S.) for generous financial support. ...

Jonathan W. Burton; J. Stephen Clark; Sam Derrer; Thomas C. Stork; Justin G. Bendall; Andrew B. Holmes

1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

45

Dimethyl Ether Autoignition at Engine-Relevant Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of M.O.E., Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China ... The autoignition of dimethyl ether (DME), an alternative diesel engine fuel, has been studied at elevated pressures. ... In addition to studies aimed at ascertaining the performance of compression–ignition internal combustion engines fuel with DME,(2, 3) there have been a number of studies focused on experimental characterization of fundamental combustion properties for DME. ...

Zhenhua Li; Weijing Wang; Zhen Huang; Matthew A. Oehlschlaeger

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

48

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl glycidyl ether Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science 15 () Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Summary: ;() Acrolein () Acrylic acid () Allyl zlcohol () Allyl chloride () Allyl glycidyl ether(AGE) ()2-...

50

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN GALAPAGOS SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS WOLLEBAEKI)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) repre- sent persistent

Gobas, Frank

51

Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Liquid Fuels from Biomass BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf...

52

Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the historical record of dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in the same cores showed a decreasing trend. At present, PBDEs are recognized as a worldwide pollution problem since they have reached remote areas such as the deep ocean, the Arctic and Antarctica (de Boer et al... that cheerful and warm Brazilian spirit. You are my Aggie family! viii NOMENCLATURE #1; critical value of a statistical test used to reject the null hypothesis ANOVA Analysis of Variance BDE Brominated Diphenyl Ether BFR Brominated Flame Retardant DC...

Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO2(111) Model Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

F Calaza; T Chen; D Mullins; S Overbury

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO(2)(111) Model Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates by a New Strain, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and the O2 consumption rate was measured with a 12-mm...France). The measured rates were corrected for endogenous...Cells were broken by three passes through a French press...from 105 to 200C at a rate of 10C/min. Helium...flushed with a Spectra-Physics SCM 400 vacuum flusher...

Alan François; Hugues Mathis; Davy Godefroy; Pascal Piveteau; Françoise Fayolle; Frédéric Monot

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Induction of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Oxidizing Activity in Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 by MTBE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...directly from the culture vessels. In experiments that followed...time course of organic acid consumption as well as MTBE oxidation...determine the extent of MTBE consumption and the accumulation of TBA...detectable growth or MTBE consumption occurred when cells were incubated...

Erika L. Johnson; Christy A. Smith; Kirk T. O'Reilly; Michael R. Hyman

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...column was washed with the surfactant solution. d The sand was prewashed with the surfactant solution, and the cells...washed with BSM without surfactant. This work was supported...bacteria through a sandy soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...

Sheryl H. Streger; Simon Vainberg; Hailiang Dong; Paul B. Hatzinger

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation Derek C. Johnson1 , Vasgen A. Shamamian2 , John H. Callahan2 , Ferencz S in the future remediation of water. Chemical and physical mechanisms, together with carbon balances, are used

Dandy, David

59

Effects of Gasoline Formulation on Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Contamination in Private Wells near Gasoline Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation, 547 River Street, Room 300, Troy, New York 12180, and New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, P.O. ... Wells with contamination of ?20 ?g/L were scheduled for periodic or follow-up sampling by local county health departments or scheduled for remedial action, as appropriate. ... (13)?Delzer, G. C.; Zogorski, J. S.; Lopes, T. J.; Bosshart, R. L. Occurrence of the gasoline Oxygenate MTBE and BTEX compounds in urban stormwater in the United States, 1991?1995; U.S. Geologic Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, WRIR 96-4145, Rapid City, SD, 1996. ...

Daniel P. Lince; Lloyd R. Wilson; Gordon A. Carlson; Anthony Bucciferro

2001-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

60

Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...National Science Foundation Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program (award no...Ontario, Canada. Ground Water Monit. Remediation 18: 113-122. 52 Scholl, M. A...evaluation of in situ bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater...

Sheryl H. Streger; Simon Vainberg; Hailiang Dong; Paul B. Hatzinger

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Measurement of Trihalomethanes and Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in Tap Water Using Solid-Phase Microextraction GC-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ductive age living in Corpus Christi, Texas and Cobb...micro extraction with gas chromatography-mass...determinations using gas chromatog- raphy...of fulvic acids in natural waters. Env. Sci...trihalomethane by headspace-gas chromatog- raphy......

Frederick L. Cardinali; David L. Ashley; John C. Morrow; Deborah M. Moll; Benjamin C. Blount

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

63

Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

556-712-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. BULLETIN NO . 150 AUGUST , 1912. Division o f Chemistry TECHNICAL BULLETIN Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders By G S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE... Digestibility of the Constituents............................................................. 23 Summary and Conclusions.......................................................................29 BLANK PAGE IN ORIGINAL Composition and Digestibility of the Ether...

Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membranes based on fluoropolymers incorporating perfluorovinyl ether sulfonic acids and fluoroalkenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acids. A novel synthetic route describing the preparation of perfluorovinyl ether monomer containing. The radical (co) and terpolymerization of 4-[(,,-trifluorovinyl)oxy]benzene sulfonyl chloride (TFVOBSC) with 1,1-difluoroethylene (or vinylidene fluoride, VDF), hexafluoropropene (HFP), and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

Modelling the fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during the municipal sewage treatment process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source to the environment for many chemicals of concern (COCs). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one such group of COCs of present day concern for which studies on fate and transport during the ... Keywords: chemical fate and transport, mass balance model, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, risk assessment, sewage treatment, water and wastewater management

Kerry N. McPhedran; Rajesh Seth

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

67

Kinetic measurements of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with hydroxy ethers, hydroxy ketones, and keto ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were determined for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of hydroxy ethers as well as the simplest hydroxy ketone and keto ether with use of the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. At 298 K, the measured rate constants were as follows (in units of 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}): 2-methoxyethanol, 12.5 {plus minus} 0.7; 2-ethoxyethanol, 18.7 {plus minus} 2.0; 2-butoxyethanol, 23.1 {plus minus} 0.9; 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, 22.0 {plus minus} 1.3; 3-methoxy-l-butanol, 23.6 {plus minus} 1.6; acetol, 3.0 {plus minus} 0.3; and methoxyacetone, 6.8 {plus minus} 0.6. The kinetic data for 2-methoxyethanol obtained between 240 and 440 K were used to derive the following Arrhenius expression: k{sub 1} = (4.5 {plus minus} 1.4) {times} 10{sup {minus}12} exp((325 {plus minus} 100)/T) (cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The results for all seven reactants are discussed in terms of the prediction of OH rate constants for oxygenated organic compounds.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1989-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

69

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-labile cholesterol-vinyl ether-peg...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystallization of Recombinant Crithidia fasciculata Tryparedoxin Summary: of 30% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (PEG MME) 2000, 0.1 M TrisHCl, pH 8.2, 1% dimethyl Source:...

72

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in combusted residues and soils from an open burning site of electronic wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their extensive use. Combusted residue from electronic waste (e-waste) combustion is one of the contamination sources ... tr...

Qian Luo; Ming Hong Wong; Zijian Wang; Zongwei Cai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Solvent Effects on Cesium Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to study crown ether-water interactions in solvents of low dielectric constants such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Water forms a 1:1 complex with a number of crown ethers including 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18=crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown 8, and dibenzl-24-crown-8 in chloroform. Among these crown ethers, the 18-crown-6-H2 complex has the largest equilibrium constant (K=545) and 97% of the crown is complexed to water in chloroform. Addition of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform lowers the equilibrium constants of the crown-water complexes. The partition coefficients of crown ethers (D=crown in water/crown in solvent) between water and organic solvent also vary with solvent composition.

Chien M. Wai; Anne Rustenholtz; Shaofen Wang; Su-Chen Lee; Jamie Herman; Richard A. Porter

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

75

Atmospheric chemistry of automotive fuel additives: Diisopropyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To quantify the atmospheric reactivity of diisopropyl ether (DIPE), we have conducted a study of the kinetics and mechanism of reaction 1: OH + DIPE {r_arrow} products. Kinetic measurements of reaction 1 were made using both relative (at 295 K) and absolute techniques (over the temperature range 240-440 K). Rate data from both techniques can be represented by the following: k{sub 1} = (2.2{sub -0.8}{sup +14}) x 10{sup -12} exp[(445 {plus_minus} 145)/T] cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. At 298 K, k{sub 1} = 9.8 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. The products of the simulated atmospheric oxidation of DIPE were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy; isopropyl acetate and HCHO were the main products. The atmospheric oxidation of DIPE can be represented by i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}O-i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + OH + 2NO {r_arrow} HCHO + i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 2NO{sub 2}. Our kinetic and mechanistic data were incorporated into a 1-day simulation of atmospheric chemistry to quantify the relative incremental reactivity of DIPE. Results are compared with other oxygenated fuel additives. 30 refs., 9 figs.

Wallington, T.J.; Andino, J.M.; Potts, A.R. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [and others

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Ab initio calculations of various protonation sites in perfluorodiethyl ether: Models for high temperature lubricant decomposition?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricants have found successful application in spacecraft mechanisms and computer hard drives, there eventual breakdown is irksome, and the mechanism of decomposition is the subject of much scrutiny. However, very little notice is taken of the monomer ethers on which the polymer lubricants are based. Recently, concerted studies of the Lewis base properties of various fluorinated ethers have been performed, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. As an extension of the theoretical work, this study presents ab initio theoretical consideration of the multiple potential basic sites within perfluorodiethyl ether, (CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}){sub 2}O, by way of the proton affinity of the molecule at various possible protonation sites (i.e., oxygen and fluorine atoms). The results indicate that although protonation at the oxygen is more energetically favored, protonation at the fluorine is not much higher in energy and provides for formation of an excellent leaving group, HF.

Ball, D.W. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

79

The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluable Constituents of Feedstuffs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

586-914-10m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 169 SEPTEMBER, 19I4 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluble Constituents of Feedstuffs BY J. B. RATHER Assistant Chemist POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... IS T .* In previous publications of this Experiment Station (Fraps and Bather, Bulletins Nos. 150 and 162) it has been shown that the un? saponifiable matter in the ether extract of hays and fodders averages about 58 per cent. Of the total extract, and is of much...

Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

Becker, Marion Carol

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

82

Dimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies. Given China's rich coal resources, the production and use of coal-derived DME as a cooking fuelDimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China Eric D. Larson Princeton gas (LPG) as a household cooking fuel. As such, DME is an attractive fuel for clean cooking. DME can

83

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl-tert alkyl ethers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

> >> 1 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple Summary: of ProtonatedAlkyl tert-ButylEthers RO(H)C(CH&+ (To.6 Values in meV...

84

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in mortars2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.06.002 #12;2 ABSTRACT22 23 We show how nuclear magnetic spin-lattice relaxation dispersion of protons-water24 (NMRD) can be used to elucidate the effect of cellulose ethers

Boyer, Edmond

85

Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Accelerated Degradation of Methyl Iodide by Agrochemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accelerated Degradation of Methyl Iodide by Agrochemicals ... Integrating the application of certain agrochemicals with soil fumigation provides a novel approach to reduce excessive fumigant emissions. ... This study investigated the potential for several agrochemicals that are commonly used in farming operations, including fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors, to transform MeI in aqueous solution. ...

Wei Zheng; Sharon K. Papiernik; Mingxin Guo; Scott R. Yates

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Low temperature synthesis of methyl formate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas reaction process for the preferential production of methyl formate over the co-production of methanol wherein the reactant ratio of CO/H.sub.2 is upgraded and this reaction takes place at low temperatures of 50.degree.-150.degree. C. and moderate pressures of .gtoreq.100 psi.

Mahajan, Devinder (Selden, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

E-Print Network 3.0 - amplified methylation polymorphism Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 Infraspecific DNA Methylation Polymorphism in Cotton (Gossypium Summary: Infraspecific DNA Methylation Polymorphism in Cotton (Gossypium...

89

Kinetics of liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the kinetics of the liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether investigated. The experiments were carried out under low concentrations of feed in a 1-L stirred autoclave, according to a statistical experimental design. The inert liquid phase used for this investigation was a 78:22 blend of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils. A complete thermodynamic analysis was carried out in order to determine the liquid phase concentrations of the dissolved species. A global kinetic model was developed for the rate of dimethyl ether synthesis in terms of the liquid phase concentration of methanol. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 18,830 cal/gmol. Based on a step-wise linear regression analysis of the kinetic data, the order of the reaction which gave the best fit was 0.28 with respect to methanol.

Gogate, M.R.; Lee, B.G.; Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Kulik, C.J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

91

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Dynamic Simulation of Startup in Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation with Input Multiplicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic Simulation of Startup in Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation with Input Multiplicity ... However, smaller internal rates inside the column that result from lower reboiler and condenser duty could increase the potential risk of flooding in the column and reduce the availability of reactants in the reactive section. ... Column simulations performed using both Pro/II and SpeedUp showed excellent agreement with previously published exptl. ...

Budi H. Bisowarno; Moses O. Tadé

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

94

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

98

Mercury methylation in periphyton of the Florida Everglades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... aquatic ecosystems is of global concern due to health effects associated with eating fish with ... This new methylation site has implications for trophic transfer of

99

A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

Tseng, C.-H. [National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Development, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Yun-Lin, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine of the National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ccktsh@ms6.hinet.net

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with cyclic ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of dioxanes and other cyclic ethers by using the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Kinetic data for 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane, reactions 1 and 2, over the temperature range 240-440 K were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions. These results are compared to our earlier measurements for aliphatic ethers and are discussed in terms of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of reaction rates for such compounds from group reactivity values.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

103

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A 57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to advance Oxyhydrochlorination technology to an integrated engineering-scale process. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Finding of No Significant Impact Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for

105

Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

Chou, Howard H. (Berkeley, CA); Keasling, Jay D. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic methylation profiles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , urinary arsenic methylation profiles, and urothelial carcinoma susceptibility. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 929... and in vitro studies suggest that methylated arsenic...

107

Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

Maruyama, Shigeo

108

Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60–90 °C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370 °C, 40 min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC–MS and FT-ICR MS techniques.

Dong Liu; Linhua Song; Pingping Wu; Yan Liu; Qingyin Li; Zifeng Yan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Using Heteropolyacids in the Anode Catalyst Layer of Dimethyl Ether PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, polarization experiments were performed on a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DMEFC). The experimental setup allowed for independent control of water and DME flow rates. Thus the DME flow rate, backpressure, and water flow rate were optimized. Three heteropoly acids, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and silicotungstic acid (STA) were incorporated into the anode catalyst layer in combination with Pt/C. Both PTA-Pt and STA-Pt showed higher performance than the Pt control at 30 psig of backpressure. Anodic polarizations were also performed, and Tafel slopes were extracted from the data. The trends in the Tafel slope values are in agreement with the polarization data. The addition of phosphotungstic acid more than doubled the power density of the fuel cell, compared to the Pt control.

Ferrell III, J. R.; Turner, J. A.; Herring, A. M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Methyl Bromide Recovery on Activated Carbon with Repeated Adsorption and Electrothermal Regeneration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The desorbed methyl bromide could then be recovered by condensation. ... The volume fraction of methyl bromide required to condense at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure is 0.895. ... To prevent the condensed methyl bromide from contacting air (and therefore evaporating), the methyl bromide was introduced under a layer of water inside the volumetric cylinder. ...

Jon D. Snyder; James G. Leesch

2001-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

114

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Methyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere from temperate woodland ecosystems   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The environmental importance of methyl bromide (CH3Br) arises from its contribution to stratospheric ozone loss processes and, as a consequence, its emissions from anthropogenic sources are subject to the Montreal Protocol. A better understanding...

Drewer, Julia; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A; Heal, Mathew R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Genetics of de novo Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

domains akin to UHRF1 and the VIM proteins. These proteinsthe VARIANT IN METHYLATION (VIM) family. In higher orderUHRF1 in mammal or the VIM proteins in plants. UHRF1/VIM

Greenberg, Maxim Van Cleef

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate onto short leather fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer onto short leather fibers (SLF) was investigated as a function of the ... grafting efficiency) were determined. Composites formulated wi...

T. J. Madera-Santana; F. Vázquez Moreno

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The synthesis of some N-methylated aminoalkylphosphonic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(XLIII) were o heated with diethyl hydrogenphosphonate (XVI) at approximately 100 until the evolution of dimethylarnine (XXX) ceased. The 1-dimethyl- amino 1-alkenes (XLIV) reacted exothermically with diethyl hydro- genphosphonate (XVI) once... exothermically with methyl iodide at room temperature whereas the other eaters, which contained more bulky (R) substituents, did not. Secondly, the betaine obtained m the highest yield, N, N, N-trimethyl-N-(phosphono- methyl)ammonium hydroxide, mner salt...

Eikenberry, Jon Nathan

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of a novel, modified ?-cyclodextrin (SBE4-?-CD; a variably substituted sulfobutyl ether with an average degree of substitution of four) on eye irritation and miotic response of an ophthalmically applied pilocarpine ...

Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Neutron scattering investigations on methyl group dynamics in polymers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Among the different dynamical processes that take place in polymers, methyl group rotation is perhaps the simplest one, since all the relevant interactions on the methyl group can be condensed in an effective mean-field one-dimensional potential. Recent experimental neutron scattering results have stimulated a new revival of the interest on methyl group dynamics in glasses and polymer systems. The existence of quantum rotational tunnelling of methyl groups in polymers was expected for a long time but only very recently (1998), these processes have been directly observed by high-resolution neutron scattering techniques. This paper revises and summarizes the work done on this topic over last ten years by means of neutron scattering. It is shown that the results obtained in many chemically and structurally different polymers can be consistently described in the whole temperature range — from the quantum tunnelling limit to the classical hopping regime — as well as in the librational spectrum, in terms of the Rotation Rate Distribution Model (RRDM), which was first proposed in 1994. This model introduces a distribution of potential barriers for methyl group rotation, which is associated to the disorder present in any structural glass. The molecular and structural origin of the barrier distribution in polymers is discussed on the basis of a huge collection of investigations reported in the literature, including recent fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

Juan Colmenero; Angel J. Moreno; Angel Alegría

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric dimethyl arginine-dimethylarginine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

methyl acetate is selectively produced by reaction of dimethyl ether with carbon monoxide... .; "Superacid-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methane, Methyl Halides, Methyl Alcohol,...

123

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase induction of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction potencies of 29 polychlorinated diphenyl ethers were determined in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell bioassay and compared with that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included as additional reference substances. PCDE congeners tested were PCDEs 47, 66, 77, 85, 99, 105, 118, 126, 128, 137, 138, 140, 147, 153, 154, 156, 157, 167, 170, 180, 181, 182, 190, 194, 195, 196, 197, 203 and 206. The purity of these congeners was > 99%. Because several of these congeners induced EROD activity when tested at high concentrations, the amount of PCDD and PCDF impurities of these active PCDEs was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The activity of the active PCDEs was concluded to be mainly due to contamination with 2,3,7,8-chloro substituted PCDFS, because after an additional clean-up on a Florisil column, which removes PCDDs and PCDFs, only three PCDEs (156, 180, 194) remained active. The potencies of PCDEs 156, 180 and 194 (TEF {approximately} 10{sup {minus}6}), however, were about 100-fold less than that of PCB 77 (TEF {approximately} 10{sup {minus}4}). The poor induction potencies of the non- and mono-ortho-PCDEs indicates that PCDEs do not have structure-activity relationships analogous to those of PCBs. If the authors use EROD inducing potency in H4IIE cells as a relative measure of potential Ah receptor-mediated toxic potency, the PCDEs in the study would be expected to be less toxic than analogous PCBs and considerably less-toxic than certain PCDDs and PCDFs.

Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaskyla (Finland)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Effect of pressure on methylated glycine derivatives: relative roles of hydrogen bonds and steric repulsion of methyl groups  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase transitions with fragmentation of the single crystals into fine powder were observed for partially methylated N-methyl and N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas the structural changes in N,N,N-trimethylglycine were continuous with some peculiar features in the 1.4-2.0 GPa pressure range, and accompanied by splitting of the crystals into several large fragments. Structural rearrangements in N-methylglycine and N,N,N-trimethylglycine were strongly dependent on the rate of pressure variation: the higher the rate of increasing pressure, the lower the pressure at which the phase transition occurred.

Kapustin, E.A.

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Environmental and age effects on methylation changes in human brain and blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous studies have shown that DNA methylation may 1 e associated with disease, aging, the rate of aging and genetics. In this thesis, age is accurately predicted from DNA methylation in brain and blood tissues using two ...

Giguzinsky, Orit

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation in three fish species (sea food) from Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) were determined in three fish species including benthic, benthopelagic and pelagic fish from Arvand river, northwest of Persian Gulf. Mercury and methyl mercu...

Sajad Abdolvand; Sahar Kayedinejad Esfahani…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Cyclic chronopotentiometric studies of the LiAl anode in methyl acetate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The applicability of methyl acetate as a solvent for ambient temperature lithium secondary batteries was investigated using cyclic chronopotentiometry. Methyl acetate was found to be stable towards lithium-alumin...

Y. S. Fung; H. C. Lai

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Distribution of glycerol ether lipids in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The distributions of microbial glycerol ether lipids in suspended particulate matter in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP) were investigated. Nine groups of glycerol ether core lipids were detected and quantified: isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) (iso-GDGTs), isoprenoid glycerol dialkanol diethers (iso-GDDs) and hydroxylated isoprenoid \\{GDGTs\\} and \\{GDDs\\} (OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs) of archaeal origin; branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br-GDGTs) of bacterial origin and overly branched \\{GDGTs\\} (OB-GDGTs), sparsely branched \\{GDGTs\\} (SB-GDGTs), hybrid isoprenoid/branched \\{GDGTs\\} (IB-GDGTs) and a tentatively assigned H-shaped GDGT (H-1020) of unknown biological origin. The archaeal iso-GDGTs were the most abundant core lipids (89% of total), followed by iso-GDDs (4%), br-GDGTs (2%) and OH-GDGTs (1%). Archaeal intact polar \\{GDGTs\\} (IP GDGTs), including both mono- and diglycosidic iso-GDGTs, had depth profiles similar to OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs, with a maximum concentration in the upper OMZ and secondary peaks in the mid and lower OMZ, suggesting similar but multiple planktonic sources. Core lipids of iso-GDGTs and other glycerol ethers showed deviating concentration profiles compared with IP \\{GDGTs\\} and OH-GDGTs and were most abundant in the mid OMZ. This is the first report of OH-GDDs, OB-GDGTs, SB-GDGTs, IB-GDGTs and H-1020 in the marine water column and the distribution patterns of these “orphan lipids” suggest that anaerobic planktonic microbes are their main source.

Sitan Xie; Xiao-Lei Liu; Florence Schubotz; Stuart G. Wakeham; Kai-Uwe Hinrichs

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Mercury Methylation by Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mercury Methylation by Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ... The similarity of the relationships in the presence and absence of a biofilm indicates that the existence of the biofilm does not appear to change the relative availability of the dominant mercuric sulfide species to SRB, which is consistent with our previous work with E. coli (18). ...

Chu-Ching Lin; Jennifer A. Jay

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ultrafast photochemistry of methyl hydroperoxide on ice particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast photochemistry of methyl hydroperoxide on ice particles M. A. Kambouresa , S. AOOH, on water clusters produces a surprisingly wide range of products on a subpicosecond time scale | photodissociation Photoinduced processes at surfaces of water or ice are of interest in atmospheric chemistry

Nizkorodov, Sergey

133

Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that are soluble in NaOH scrubbing solution for iodine analysis. But when NOx and H2O are not present, then the majority of the uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent is in the form of methyl iodide. Methyl iodide adsorption efficiencies have been high enough so that initial DFs exceed 1,000 to 10,000. The methyl iodide mass transfer zone depths are estimated at 4-8 inches, possibly deeper than mass transfer zone depths estimated for I2 adsorption on AgZ. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Use of Nonionic Poly(Ethylene glycol) p-Isooctyl-Phenyl Ether (Triton X-100) Surfactant Mobile Phases in the Thin-Layer Chromatography of Heavy-Metal Cations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article The analytical potential of poly(ethylene glycol) p-isooctyl-phenyl ether...40, March 2002 Use of Nonionic Poly(Ethylene glycol) p-Isooctyl-Phenyl Ether...Bidlingmeyer, S.N. Deming, W.P. Price, B. Sachok, and M. Petrusek. Retention......

Ali Mohammad; Eram Iraqi; Iftkhar Alam Khan

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons ... (1, 3-6) Methanol and derived dimethyl ether (DME) are also excellent fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE) and in a new generation of direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFC), as well as convenient starting materials for producing light olefins (ethylene and propylene) and subsequently practically any derived hydrocarbon product. ... Methanol produced this way was used in the 19th century for lighting, cooking, and heating purposes but was later replaced by cheaper fuels, especially kerosene. ...

George A. Olah; Alain Goeppert; G. K. Surya Prakash

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

136

Experimental investigation on thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-ethanol-diethyl ether blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work diesel-biodiesel-ethanol (DBE) and diesel-biodiesel-diethyl ether (DBD) fuels are tested with normal diesel engine and the diesel engine coated with the layers of aluminum oxide (Al 2O3) of 0.3?mm and yttria-stabilized zirconia of 0.2?mm. The various performance and emission parameters are analyzed and determined. The experimental work was carried out in a single cylinder water cooled engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The AVL make five gas analyzer and smoke meter were used to measure the different exhaust pollutants. The result shows that the brake thermal efficiency of coated engine is more than that of base diesel at high loads. The thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and ethanol (TDBE) produces the lowest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions among all the fuels that are selected. In addition it produces the lowest carbon dioxide (CO2) at higher loads. Both the thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and diethyl ether (TDBD) and TDBE have higher NOx emissions among almost all the fuels used. The TDBE and TDBD have higher smoke emissions at initial loads but eventually show lower smoke emissions at higher loads. The thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with DBE and DBD shows an increase in engine power and specific fuel consumption as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions except NOx.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Small-angle neutron scattering study of poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) and poly(sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate) triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Small-angle neutron scattering experiments were made on poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) [p(MMA-b-NaA-b-MMA)] and p(NaA-b-MMA-b...-NaA) solutions by varying the compositi...

Szabolcs Vass; Kristina Haimer; Gerhard Meier…

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

139

Occurrence of Methyl Triclosan, a Transformation Product of the Bactericide Triclosan, in Fish from Various Lakes in Switzerland  

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Occurrence of Methyl Triclosan, a Transformation Product of the Bactericide Triclosan, in Fish from Various Lakes in Switzerland ... The bactericide triclosan and methyl triclosan, an environmental transformation product thereof, have been previously detected in lakes and a river in Switzerland. ... Both compounds are emitted via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with methyl triclosan probably being formed by biological methylation. ...

Marianne E. Balmer; Thomas Poiger; Christian Droz; Kathrin Romanin; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Markus D. Müller; Hans-Rudolf Buser

2003-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

140

Role of methyl nitrate in plasma exhaust treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is growing interest in the use of a nonthermal plasma combined with a catalyst for NO{sub x} removal from diesel engine exhaust streams. Such exhaust streams contain excess oxygen (typically 6--10%), low concentrations of hydrocarbons (typically 100--1,000 ppm), and significant concentrations of water (typically 5--12%). Conversion of NO{sub x} to environmentally acceptable compounds, without requiring a scrubber or an added reductant, is the desired end result. In their research the authors observe the formation of substantial amounts of methyl nitrate (CH{sub 3}ONO{sub 2}) in the plasma-catalyst system. CH{sub 3}ONO{sub 2} was prepared and added to the gas blend on test equipment simulating a diesel exhaust gas. A dielectric barrier plasma discharge was followed by a zeolite-based catalyst. Methyl nitrate introduced upstream of the plasma discharge is largely unreacted upon passing through the plasma. CH{sub 3}ONO{sub 2} arriving at the catalyst is converted to methanol and NO{sub 2}. While methyl nitrate was shown to be formed in this system, it is not a significant intermediate in the mechanism of conversion of NO{sub x} to nitrogen.

Hoard, J.W.; Wallington, T.J.; Ball, J.C.; Hurley, M.D.; Wodzisz, K.; Balmer, M.L.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

(2/94)(2-4,9/95)(7/97)(11,12/98)(1,9,11/99) Neuman Chapter 3 Haloalkanes, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Ethers, and Amines from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, emeritus://web.chem.ucsb.edu/~neuman/orgchembyneuman/> Chapter Outline of the Book ************************************************************************************** I. Foundations 1. Organic Molecules and Chemical Bonding 2. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 3. Haloalkanes

Reed, Christopher A.

142

Role of Endocytosis in the Action of Ether Lipids on WEHI-3B, HL60, and FDCP-Mix A4 Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lipid by WEHI-3B Cells Has an Energy- dependent and an Energy-independent Component. Uptake...protective agents, suggested that the energy-dependent component of ether...of ET-18-OCH., by FDCP-mix A4 cells was measured, it was...

G. W. Bazill and T. M. Dexter

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Reactions of 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5 ethers with metal acetylacetonate ions in the gas phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was carried out on the ion-molecule reactions of ions arising in the dissociation of ferric, cobaltic, chromic, manganous, neodymium(II), gallium(III), and indium(III) acetylacetonates upon electron impact with 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5. The ratio of the yields of (acac)x-1 /SUP M+L/ ions is determined by the case of reduction of M /SUP x+1+/ to M /SUP x+/ and for (acac)/sub 3/M complexes, this ratio decreases in the series Nd, In, GA > Cr > Fe, Co. The rate constant for the formation of acacCoL/sup +/ ions is greater than for acacFeL/sup +/ ions. The possibility of fixing transition metals in unstable oxidation states by crown ethers is demonstrated in the case of nickel.

Timofeev, O.S.; Bogatskii, A.V.; Gren, A.I.; Lobach, A.V.; Nekarsov, Y.S.; Zagorevskii, D.V.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

144

Single-Step Syngas-to-Dimethyl Ether Processes for Optimal Productivity, Minimal Emissions, and Natural Gas-Derived Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-step conversion of synthesis gas (syngas, H2/CO mixture) to dimethyl ether (DME, CH3OCH3) is very attractive as a route for indirect coal liquefaction, natural gas utilization, and production of synthetic liquid fuels, fuel additives, and chemicals. ... The main driving force for developing a single-step syngas-to-DME process is to produce DME at a cost lower than that from the commercially available two-step process, namely, syngas-to-methanol followed by methanol dehydration in sequential reactors. ... Furthermore, the composition of most commercially available syngas (except that produced by a CO2?methane reformer) is not the optimal composition (1:1 H2:CO) for the syngas-to-DME reactor. ...

X. D. Peng; A. W. Wang; B. A. Toseland; P. J. A. Tijm

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

145

"Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). figure 1 Figure 1. Mercury health risks Health advisory from the CALFED Science Program to limit consumption of fish, in order to avoid excessive accumulation of Hg. Methylated Hg is biomagnified up the food chain, attaining high levels in some types of sportfish. http://science.calwater.ca.gov/images/scinews_hg_da_lg.jpg

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydroecgonine methyl ester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Idaho Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 A Novel Post-translational Modification of Yeast Elongation Factor 1A Summary: that is released as volatile methyl groups...

147

Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misun [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Jaerang, E-mail: jrrho@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); GRAST, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - arginine methylated miwi Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2005 IEEE Intrinsic Disorder and Protein Modifications Summary: studies methylated proteins and describes methods of building a predictor for arginine and lysine... arginine...

149

Structures, intermolecular rotation barriers, and thermodynamic properties of chlorinated methanols and chlorinated methyl hydroperoxides.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Thermochemical property data on chlorinated methanols and methyl hydroperoxides are important in oxidation, combustion and atmospheric photochemistry of chlorocarbons, Enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacities are… (more)

Sun, Hongyan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Pressure dependence of tunneling and librational modes of coupled methyl groups in lithium acetate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pressure dependence of the tunneling and librational modes of the coupled methyl groups in lithium acetate dihydrate was studied by inelastic neutron scattering...

A. Heidemann; J. Eckert; L. Passell…

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Tunneling of coupled methyl groups in lithium acetate: The isotope effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We studied by high resolution inelastic neutron scattering the isotope effect of tunneling of coupled methyl groups in lithium acetate dihydrate (LIAC). Fully protonated, fully...

A. Heidemann; H. Friedrich; E. Günther…

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Linking Low-Level Stable Isotope Fractionation to Expression of the Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Encoding ethB Gene for Elucidation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Biodegradation in Aerated Treatment Pond Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...application of CSIA in field investigations to detect biodegradation...52). An alternative remedial strategy could be the use...application of CSIA in field investigations to detect biodegradation may lead to...application of CSIA in field investigations to detect biodegradation...

Sven Jechalke; Mònica Rosell; Paula M. Martínez-Lavanchy; Paola Pérez-Leiva; Thore Rohwerder; Carsten Vogt; Hans H. Richnow

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

153

Ethynyl terminated ethers. Synthesis and thermal characterization of 2,2 bis (ethynyl-4-phenylcarbonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl) propane and 2,2 bis (ethynyl-4-phenylsulfonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl) propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two ethynyl end-capped ethers 2,2 Bis [ethynyl-4-phenylsulfonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl] propane and 2,2 Bis [ethynyl-4-phenylcarbonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl] propane have been prepared by a three steps...

Georges Lucotte; Laurent Cormier; Bruno Delfort

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural through the dehydration of sugars with caprolactam hydrogen sulfate ([CPL]HSO4) ionic liquid catalyst in a water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether mixed solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through the dehydration of sugars...4) ionic liquid or using metal halide as the co-catalyst in a new water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent system....

Pingzhen Huang; Aijuan Gu; Jinxing Wang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Advances in the design of co-poly(ether-imide) membranes for CO2 separations. Influence of aromatic rigidity on crystallinity, phase segregation and gas transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In our previous works, it was observed a clear relationship between the structure and the properties for different copoly(ether-imide)s, besides a good relation was found between SAXS characterization and permeability results. Here, a series of aliphatic aromatic copoly(ether-imide)s, based on an aromatic diamine (ODA), a diamine terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO2000) of a molecular weight of 2000 g/mol and different aromatic dianhydrides (BPDA, BKDA (or BTDA) and PMDA) has been synthesized and characterized. The permeability for O2, N2, CO2 and CH4, increased with the rigidity of the monomers (BKDA CO2/N2 separation. This work gives indications on how to design advanced materials for this separation with the increasing possibilities of controlled structure and properties.

Alberto Tena; Ángel Marcos-Fernández; Mónica de la Viuda; Laura Palacio; Pedro Prádanos; Ángel E. Lozano; Javier de Abajo; Antonio Hernández

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in U.S. Sewage Sludges and Biosolids: Temporal and Geographical Trends and Uptake by Corn Following Land Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale *, Mark J. La Guardia , Ellen Harvey , Da Chen , Thomas M. Mainor , and Drew R. Luellen , ... An internal standard (decachlorodiphenyl ether) was added and the final extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with electron-capture negative chemical ionization (EC-NCI). ... This work surveyed PBDE in spruce needles and air (gaseous and particle-bound) over an annual cycle to model PBDE accumulation in vegetation. ...

Robert C. Hale; Mark J. La Guardia; Ellen Harvey; Da Chen; Thomas M. Mainor; Drew R. Luellen; Lakhwinder S. Hundal

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

157

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic Keywords: Triclosan Triclosan methyl Waste water treatment Aerobic transformation a b s t r a c t Triclosan of this compound has led to the elevated concentrations of triclosan in wastewater, wastewater treatment plants

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

159

Mercury methylation in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance of anaerobes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury methylation in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance Keywords: Methylmercury Oxygen minimum zone Arabian Sea Equatorial Eastern Pacific Mercury methylation Although a large fraction of the world's population is exposed to mercury through consumption of marine

Morel, François M. M.

160

Genome Sequence of Mercury-Methylating and Pleomorphic Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of producing methylmercury (MeHg), a potent human neurotoxin. The mechanism of methylation by this and other organisms is unknown. We present the 4.2-Mb genome sequence to provide further insight into microbial mercury methylation and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Wall, Judy D. [University of Missouri; Kucken, A M [University of Missouri, Columbia; Gilmour, C C [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Samual [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [ORNL; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in contaminated and uncontaminated stream sediments and identification of potential mercury methylators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at 5 contaminated sites and 1 control site near Oak Ridge, TN, USA, to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury (Hg) methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over 3 quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85% of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria, the only group known to methylate Hg, using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated statistically significant positive linear correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl-Hg concentrations at the Hg-contaminated sites. In contrast, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax spp. was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations but not to Hg or methyl-Hg. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in uncontaminated sediments, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known potential metal-reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species. Given the abundance relative to other known Hg methylators and the association with methyl-Hg, Desulfobulbus spp. is considered a prime candidate for involvement in Hg methylation in these streams.

Mosher, Jennifer [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

-methyl-adenine: an epigenetic signal for DNA-protein interactions Didier Wion 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and pathogenic E. coli, Dam methylation is required for virulence. In - Proteobacteria, CcrM methylation, and has attracted ample interest because of its involvement in human disease 8 . In contrast 9 and alters DNA curvature 10 . Such structural effects can influence DNA-protein interactions

Boyer, Edmond

163

Epigenetic regulation, such as cy-tosine DNA methylation, is im-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The project mapped 100,000 synthetic RRBS reads from human chr21 directly to the fragments using RRBSProject 4 Epigenetic regulation, such as cy- tosine DNA methylation, is im- portant in gene regulation. Precise measurements of genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base resolution have only recently

Wang, Hsin-Min

164

et al. (2008) identified several additional methylation sites on FOXO1 that ap-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it remains to be deter- mined how methylation alters the activity and posttranslational regulation. In this light, methylation could, therefore, play a very general role in the regulation of FOXO1 activity serve as a link between aging and age-related diseases such as diabe- tes and cancer. FOXO dysregulation

Hertel, Klemens J.

165

M3D: a kernel-based test for spatially correlated changes in methylation profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......properly cited. M3D: a kernel-based test for spatially correlated changes in methylation...shape, across pre-defined regions. The test statistic explicitly accounts for differences...analysis of methylation data. Empirical tests on real and simulated data sets show an......

Tom Mayo; Gabriele Schweikert; Guido Sanguinetti

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Sorption/Desorption Kinetics and Equilibria of Atrazine, Diuron, And Bensulfuron Methyl on Selected Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption/Desorption Kinetics and Equilibria of Atrazine, Diuron, And Bensulfuron Methyl on Selected Soils M. Zhou, R. K. Trubey, T. M. Priester and T. H. Carski Sorption/desorption isotherm equilibria to diuron and bensulfuron methyl sorption. The low l/nd (isotherm slope for desorption) values showed

Sparks, Donald L.

167

NEUTRON SCATTERING STUDY OF METHYL GROUP ROTATION IN SOLID PARA-AZOXYANISOLE (PAA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

587 NEUTRON SCATTERING STUDY OF METHYL GROUP ROTATION IN SOLID PARA-AZOXYANISOLE (PAA) H. HERVET diffusion incohérente de neutrons, que dans le PAA solide les groupes méthyle sont animés d'un mouvement de that the methyl groups in solid PAA undergo random rotational motion around their three-fold axis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Design and synthesis of the next generation of crown ethers for waste separations: An inter-laboratory comprehensive proposal. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'The purpose of this task is to undertake the design, synthesis, and characterization of the next generation of crown ethers for metal-ion separations applicable to USDOE''s environmental needs. Target problems include: Li{sup +} ions leaching from burial sites at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; fission products 90 Sr and {sup 137}Cs contaminating high-level tank wastes at Hanford, INEEL, and Savannah River; and radium in wastes at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Unfortunately, the technologies needed to address these problems either do not exist or exhibit substantial deficiencies. Separation techniques such as solvent extraction and ion exchange promise to play a strong role, especially as enhanced with highly selective crown ethers and calixarenes. This project is midway through year 2 of a 3-year effort. Below is given a summary of progress in the approximate period September, 1997, to May, 1998, for each of the four co-investigators at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the University of Tennessee (UTK). The overall approach entails utilization of theory and molecular modeling (PNNL), organic synthesis of novel crown compounds (ORNL), solvent extraction studies (ORNL and ANL), and studies of polymer-immobilized crown ethers (UTK).'

Moyer, B.A.; Hay, B.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Sachleben, R.A.; Chiarizia, R.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Promoting effect of polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether on Cu/ZnO catalysts for low-temperature methanol synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cu/ZnO catalysts were prepared by the co-precipitation method with the addition of OP-10 (polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether) and were chemically and structurally characterized by means of XRD, BET, H2-TPR, CO-TPD and N2O-titration. The effect of OP-10 addition on the activity of Cu/ZnO for the slurry phase methanol synthesis at 150 °C was evaluated. The results showed that Cu/ZnO prepared with addition of 8% OP-10 (denoted as C8) exhibited the promoted activity for the methanol synthesis. The conversion of CO and the STY (space time yield) of methanol were 42.5% and 74.6% higher than those of Cu/ZnO prepared without addition of OP-10 (denoted as C0), respectively. The precursor of C8 contained more aurichalcite and rosasite, and the concerted effect of Cu-Zn in C8 was found to be stronger than that in C0. Compared with C0, C8 showed smaller particle size, lower reduction temperature and larger BET and Cu surface areas.

Ling Liu; Tiansheng Zhao; Qingxiang Ma; Yufang Shen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction potency of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some PCDE congeners have been reported to cause toxic responses similar to those caused by some of the non-ortho-substituted PCBs, which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Twenty-nine PCDEs were tested for their potency as AhR agonists relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by measuring their ability to induce the cytochrome P-450 1A1-associated enzyme activity, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. All PCDE congeners tested were found to be inactive as EROD inducers except for PCDE 156, which was a weak EROD inducer with a 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalency factor of about 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}. During this study the authors determined that small amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that occurred as impurities in the PCDE preparations were the cause of the apparent EROD induction initially measured in their experiments. Once the PCDF impurities were removed by purification on florisil, little or no activity could be attributed to the PCDEs.

Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Investigation of HCCI Combustion of Diethyl Ether and Ethanol Mixtures Using Carbon 14 Tracing and Numerical Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the rapid combustion typically experienced in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), components in fuel mixtures do not ignite in unison or burn equally. In our experiments and modeling of blends of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol (EtOH), the DEE led combustion and proceeded further toward completion, as indicated by {sup 14}C isotope tracing. A numerical model of HCCI combustion of DEE and EtOH mixtures supports the isotopic findings. Although both approaches lacked information on incompletely combusted intermediates plentiful in HCCI emissions, the numerical model and {sup 14}C tracing data agreed within the limitations of the single zone model. Despite the fact that DEE is more reactive than EtOH in HCCI engines, they are sufficiently similar that we did not observe a large elongation of energy release or significant reduction in inlet temperature required for light-off, both desired effects for the combustion event. This finding suggests that, in general, HCCI combustion of fuel blends may have preferential combustion of some of the blend components.

Mack, J H; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A; Flowers, D L

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Monodisperse porous polymer particles containing macrocyclic ether as a new class of sorbent for SR(II) separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strontium{sup 90} is one of the typical fission products that may be found in high level liquid waste (HLLW). Separation of Sr{sup 90} prior to the vitrification is beneficial to the final treatment of solid radioactive waste. In this study, a new class of sorbent for Sr(II) was developed by loading the macrocyclic ether DtBuCH18C6 into the monodisperse porous polymer particles (MPPPs). The MPPPs are well-known as a promising chromatographic material due to the uniform particle size, porous morphology, good compatibility with organic extractants, and rigid matrix. The structure and micro-morphology of the sorbent particles were characterized. The adsorption behavior towards Sr(II) in HNO{sub 3} media was investigated by both batch and column experiments. High adsorption efficiency and selective separation of Sr(II) was obtained. The sorbent particles can be recycled for at least several times before obvious lose of the adsorption ability. This kind of sorbent possesses the potential to be used for strontium separation in radioactive liquid waste.

Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Faculty of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 100084 (China); Ye, Gang; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Life cycle study of coal-based dimethyl ether as vehicle fuel for urban bus in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, a life cycle model of coal-based dimethyl ether (CBDME) as a vehicle fuel is established for China. Its life cycle from well to wheel are divided into three phases. They are feedstock extraction, fuel production and fuel consumption in vehicle. The primary energy consumption (PEC) and global warming potential (GWP) of CBDME pathway are analyzed and compared with coal-based diesel (CBD) as a latent rival to replace conventional petroleum-based diesel (CPBD). This study demonstrates that the LCA methodology is very suitable and effective for the choice of vehicle fuels. One result is that the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of coal-based vehicle fuel pathways is usually concentrated on fuel production stage. The percentages of CBDME and CBD pathways both exceed 60%. The application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is helpful for coal-based vehicle fuel pathways to improve their global warming effect dramatically. Compared with CBD pathway, CBDME pathway consumes less PEC and emits less \\{GHGs\\} emission as well. Even though the CCS and CH4-fired generation are used, the advantages of CBDME are still kept. For saving petroleum energy and reducing global warming effect, CBDME has greater potential than CBD to substitute CPBD under current fuel synthesis technologies. If the hurdles such as the maturity of engine and vehicle technologies, corresponding regulations and standards and infrastructures are reliably solved, CBDME will have better prospect in China.

Liang Zhang; Zhen Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 054301 (2013) Photodissociation dynamics of the methyl perthiyl radical at 248 nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the photodissociation of the methyl perthiyl radical CH3SS at 248 nm. The radical was produced by flash pyrolysis

Neumark, Daniel M.

176

Optical measurements of methyl group tunneling in molecular crystals: Temperature dependence of the nuclear spin conversion rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) The tunneling methyl groups in dimethyl-s-tetrazine (DMST) doped single crystals of durene were investigated

177

Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

Dunn, John J

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

178

High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Modelling Study of the Low-Temperature Oxidation of Large Methyl Esters J. Biet, V. Warth, O. Herbinet*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-decane / methyl palmitate mixture in a jet-stirred reactor. This paper also presents the construction and a comparison of models for methyl esters from C7 up to C17 in terms of conversion in a jet-stirred reactor, the development of renewable energy is more vital than ever [1,2]. The production of biofuels such as methyl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Genomic DNA methylation in various developmental stages of two plant pathogenic fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blotting procedure. The blots were then hybridized with DNA probes from the highly repeated Neurospora crassa rDNA repeat unit labeled with [a. P] dCTP in a random-primed oligolabeling reaction. Results of the hybridizations were visualized... shows s. high degree of methylation at the inner (3') C in both stages (mycelia and sclerotia) at the genomic level. The rRNA genes exhibit the same high level of methylation at the 3' C with the addition of some stage specific methylation...

Schliesing, Laura Jo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Bioremediation of the organophosphate methyl parathion using genetically engineered and native organisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to remediate hazardous substances at significantly higher rates than found with natural systems. Specifically, degradation of methyl parathion (MP) by hydrolysis with a genetically engineered Escherichia coli was investigated along with degradation of one...

Diaz Casas, Adriana Z.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Rotating disk sorptive extraction of triclosan and methyl-triclosan from water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method of sample preparation based on use of rotating disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) has been developed for determination of triclosan (TCS) and methyl-triclosan (MTCS) in water samples. The sorptive...w/v), d...

Lourdes Jachero; Betsabet Sepúlveda; Inés Ahumada…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies of Methyl Iodide and Hydrogen Confined in Porous Media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??X-ray diffraction was used to study the liquid - solid phase transition and structure of methyl iodide confined in porous GelTech© glass, with 25, 50… (more)

Glanville, Yvonne

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Aberrant Promoter Methylation and Silencing of Laminin-5-Encoding Genes in Breast Carcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cells, become motile, and subsequently force their path through surrounding obstacles...Alterations in DNA methylation: a fundamental aspect of neoplasia. Adv. Cancer Res...Breast Staging in AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook, Ed. 5 171-180, Lippincott-Raven...

Ubaradka G. Sathyanarayana; Asha Padar; Chun Xian Huang; Makoto Suzuki; Hisayuki Shigematsu; B. Nebiyou Bekele; and Adi F. Gazdar

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Cara L. Jenkins1 Summary: phosphoramidite. Tetrahedron Lett 28, 101-102. 19 Giner J-L & Ferris WV Jr (2002) Synthesis of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol Source: Raines,...

187

Proton spin conversion of coupled methyl groups in lithium acetate studied by inelastic neutron scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temperature dependence of the tunneling spectrum of methyl groups in lithium acetate dihydrate has been studied in the temperature...3 pairs which are isolated from each other. However, from the fact that the...

A. Heidemann; K. J. Abed; C. J. Barker…

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

Pangallo, Kristin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Choi, G.N. [Bechtel, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Tam, S.S. [Bechtel, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tischer, R.E. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Srivastava, R.D. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An exploded view of the monitor is illustrated in Figure 1. The theory of diffusive sampling considers a concentration gra- dient between the ambient air and the adsorbent to be the driving force for sampling. For the adsorption to be controlled by diffu...AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM...

Andrew, Lloyd B.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

192

Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

193

Storage effects on desorption efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and styrene collected on activated charcoal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficier&cy nf methyl etiiy', Ketone and styrene monomer adsorbed on activated charcoal samples, and stored under isotherm&al condit'ions, were investigated as a function of storage time. The dependence of the storage time effects on the storage temp...- erature and compound concentration were also studied. Results showed no siqnif', cant storag&e time effects on adsorbed styrene after sixty days of storage. A very significant decrease in the desorption ef iciency of methyl ethyl ketone was observed...

Dommer, Richard Alvin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Extinction and Ignition of Methyl Decanoate in Laminar Nonpremixed Flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl decanoate is a large methyl ester that can be used as a surrogate for biodiesel. In this experimental and computational study, the combustion of methyl decanoate is investigated in nonpremixed, nonuniform flows. Experiments are performed employing the counterflow configuration with a fuel stream made up of vaporized methyl decanoate and nitrogen, and an oxidizer stream of air. The mass fraction of fuel in the fuel stream is measured as a function of the strain rate at extinction, and critical conditions of ignition are measured in terms of the temperature of the oxidizer stream as a function of the strain rate. It is not possible to use a fully detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate to simulate the counterflow flames because the number of species and reactions is too large to employ with current flame codes and computer resources. Therefore a skeletal mechanism was deduced from a detailed mechanism of 8555 elementary reactions and 3036 species using 'directed relation graph' method. This skeletal mechanism has only 713 elementary reactions and 125 species. Critical conditions of ignition were calculated using this skeletal mechanism and are found to agree well with experimental data. The predicted strain rate at extinction is found to be lower than the measurements. In general, the methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Seshadri, K; Lu, T; Herbinet, O; Humer, S; Niemann, U; Pitz, W J; Law, C K

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

195

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Biosynthesis and urinary excretion of methyl sulfonium derivatives of the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, and other thioethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thioether methyltransferase was previously shown to catalyze the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of diemthyl selenide, dimethyl telluride, and various thioethers to produce the corresponding methyl onium ions. In this paper we show that the following thioethers are also substrates for this enzyme in vitro: 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, thiodiglycol, t-butyl sulfide, and isopropyl sulfide. To demonstrate thioether methylation in vivo, mice were injected with (methyl-{sup 3}H)methionine plus different thioethers, and extracts of lungs, livers, kidneys, and urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the presence of ({sup 3}H)methyl sulfonium ions. The following thioethers were tested, and all were found to be methylated in vivo: dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, methyl n-propyl sulfide, tetrahydrothiophene, 2-(methylthio)ethylamine, 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. This supports our hypothesis that the physiological role of thioether methyltransferase is to methylate seleno-, telluro-, and thioethers to more water-soluble onium ions suitable for urinary excretion. Conversion of the mustard gas analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, to the methyl sulfonium derivative represents a newly discovered mechanism for biochemical detoxification of sulfur mustards, as this conversion blocks formation of the reactive episulfonium ion that is the ultimate alkylating agent for this class of compounds.

Mozier, N.M.; Hoffman, J.L. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Polystyrene/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends in the Presence of Cyclohexane: Selective Solvent Washing or Equilibrium Adsorption?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cyclohexane (PS:CH), poly(methyl methacrylate)-carbon tetrachloride (PMMA:CCl4), and PS:CCl4 adsorbing

198

Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 9 Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III) Intermediates of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the terminal step in biological methane synthesis. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to form methane and the heterodisulfide product, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox active nickel tetrapyrrolic cofactor called coenzyme F430 at its active site, which is active in the reduced Ni(I) state (MCRred1). All of the biologically generated methane, amounting to 1 billion tons per annum globally, is formed by MCR. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that anaerobic methane oxidation is also catalyzed by MCR and occurs by a reversal of the methane synthesis reaction. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, trapping 20 times more heat than CO2. In addition, methane is also an important and clean fuel as it produced the least amount of CO2 per unit of heat released. Thus, it is critically important to understand the mechanism of formation of the smallest hydrocarbon in nature.

199

Metathesis of tobacco fatty acid methyl esters: Generation of industrially important platform chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Self-methathesis of vegetable oil based unsaturated fatty acids provide a renewable and convenient route for the preparation of a number of platform chemicals useful for the production of polymers, biolubricants and other industrial products. The present study is focused on the use of the unsaturated non-edible oil methyl esters of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 82.2%) self- metathesis. Metathesis was carried out reacting equimolar quantities of fatty acid methyl esters (6.8 mm) with Grubbs second generation catalyst (0.3 mm) at 40–45 °C for 36 h. The metathesized products were characterized using GC and GC–MS analysis. Self-metathesis of the tobacco methyl esters resulted in the formation of hydrocarbons, of which 9-octadecene (24%) and a cyclodecacyclododecene (19%) were found to be major. In addition 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (17%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl esters (11%) were also observed. The study also discusses the molecules involved in the formation of the above intermediates which are useful for the preparation of a number of industrial products.

Yelchuri Vyshnavi; Rachapudi B.N. Prasad; Mallampalli S.L. Karuna

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Electron stimulated reactions of methyl iodide coadsorbed with amorphous solid water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron stimulated reactions of methyl iodide (MeI) adsorbed on and suspended within amorphous solid water (ice) were studied using a combination of postirradiation temperature programmed desorption and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. For MeI adsorbed on top of amorphous solid water (ice), electron beam irradiation is responsible for both structural and chemical transformations within the overlayer. Electron stimulated reactions of MeI result principally in the formation of methyl radicals and solvated iodide anions. The cross section for electron stimulated decomposition of MeI is comparable to the gas phase value and is only weakly dependent upon the local environment. For both adsorbed MeI and suspended MeI, reactions of methyl radicals within MeI clusters lead to the formation of ethane, ethyl iodide, and diiodomethane. In contrast, reactions between the products of methyl iodide and water dissociation are responsible for the formation of methanol and carbon dioxide. Methane, formed as a result of reactions between methyl radicals and either parent MeI molecules or hydrogen atoms, is also observed. The product distribution is found to depend on the film's initial chemical composition as well as the electron fluence. Results from this study highlight the similarities in the carbon-containing products formed when monohalomethanes coadsorbed with amorphous solid water are irradiated by either electrons or photons.

Perry, C. C.; Faradzhev, N. S.; Madey, T. E.; Fairbrother, D. H. [Department of Chemistry, Oakwood College, Huntsville, Alabama 35896 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Two Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns Nan Zhao a , Ju Guan a , Farhad Forouhar b , Timothy J. Tschaplinski c , Zong-Ming Cheng a , Liang Tong b , Feng Chen a, * a Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, 252 Ellington Plant Science Bldg., 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA b Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 3 June 2008 Received in revised form 27 October 2008 Available online 10 January 2009 Keywords: Black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Methyl esterase SABP2 Methyl salicylate Salicylic acid Gene family Molecular modeling a b s t r a c t Two genes encoding proteins

202

DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

57 57 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER CUM ~~~~~~~~ DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLORINATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Image are produced from the best available original document. &E/,Etq --,/s7 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE PROPOSED METHYL CHLORIDE V

203

Experimental investigations on diesel engine fuelled with methyl esters of cotton seed oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this investigation, cotton seed methyl ester (CSME) was prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. The engine performance was analysed with different blends of biodiesel and was compared with neat diesel. It was concluded that the lower blends of biodiesel are closer to diesel as far as thermal efficiency is concerned. In the lower blends, the brakes specific fuel consumption is also comparatively reduced. The smoke density also increases for the blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil diesel compared to neat diesel operation. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission level are decreased with the blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil compared to neat diesel. The results proved that the use of biodiesel (produced from cotton seed oil) in compression ignition engine is a viable alternative to diesel.

M. Saravanan; A. Anbarasu; M. Loganathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including ?-globin, ?-globin, ?-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including ?-globin, ?-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ? Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ? Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ? Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Genomic DNA methylation at specific stages in the life cycle of two fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Member) John R, Gold (Member) J. A. ang (Head of De artment) August 1985 ABSTRACT Genomic DNA Methylation at Specific Stages in the Life Cycle of Two Fungi. (August 1985) Eldon Ralph Jupe, B. S. , Texas A df M University Chairman of Advisory... Member) John R, Gold (Member) J. A. ang (Head of De artment) August 1985 ABSTRACT Genomic DNA Methylation at Specific Stages in the Life Cycle of Two Fungi. (August 1985) Eldon Ralph Jupe, B. S. , Texas A df M University Chairman of Advisory...

Jupe, Eldon Ralph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Aerogels and Polymorphism of Isotactic Poly(4-methyl-pentene-1)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerogels and Polymorphism of Isotactic Poly(4-methyl-pentene-1) ... Monolithic and highly crystalline aerogels of isotactic poly(4-methyl-pentene-1) (i-P4MP1) have been prepared by sudden solvent extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from thermoreversible gels. ... Gels with cocrystalline phases lead to aerogels exhibiting the denser crystalline form II, whereas all the other considered gels lead to aerogels exhibiting the thermodynamically stable form I. Aerogels obtained from form I gels, which do not undergo a crystalline phase transition during the CO2 extraction process present the high structural stability most suitable for the preparation of porous membranes. ...

Christophe Daniel; Jenny G. Vitillo; Gianluca Fasano; Gaetano Guerra

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

207

Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithiumand Dimethyl Carbonate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the understanding of passive film formation on metallic lithium in organic electrolyte, we synthesized and characterized lithium methyl carbonate (LiOCO{sub 2}CH{sub 3}), a prototypical component of the film. The chemical structure of this compound was characterized with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and its thermal stability and decomposition pathway was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR spectrum of chemically synthesized compound enabled us to resolve multiple products in the passive film on lithium in dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Lithium methyl carbonate is only one of the components, the others being lithium oxalate and lithium methoxide.

Zhuang, Guorong V.; Yang, Hui; Ross Jr., Philip N.; Xu, Kang; Jow, T. Richard

2005-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effects of Triclocarban, Triclosan, and Methyl Triclosan on Thyroid Hormone Action and Stress in Frog and Mammalian Culture Systems  

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Effects of Triclocarban, Triclosan, and Methyl Triclosan on Thyroid Hormone Action and Stress in Frog and Mammalian Culture Systems ... Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used broad spectrum bactericides that are common pollutants of waterways and soils. ... Methyl triclosan (mTCS) is the predominant bacterial TCS metabolite. ...

Ashley Hinther; Caleb M. Bromba; Jeremy E. Wulff; Caren C. Helbing

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

209

An alternative approach to multiple testing for methylation QTL mapping reduces the proportion of falsely identified CpGs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......loci exist for DNA methylation and gene expression in human brain. PLoS Genet. (2010) 6:e1000952. Goeman JJ , Solari A...individual differences in gene-specific methylation in human brain. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2010) 86:411-419. Supplementary......

René Luijk; Jelle J. Goeman; Eline P. Slagboom; Bastiaan T. Heijmans; Erik W. van Zwet

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

The Acquisition of hMLH1 Methylation in Plasma DNA after Chemotherapy Predicts Poor Survival for Ovarian Cancer Patients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...these patients, 78 had died, giving the methylation study 74% power to detect a hazard ratio of 2 for the effect of acquired methylation...carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95: 6870-5, 1998. 23 De Wind N, Dekker M, van Rossum A, et al Mouse models for hereditary...

Gillian Gifford; Jim Paul; Paul A. Vasey; Stanley B. Kaye; and Robert Brown

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Syntrophs Dominate Sequences Associated with the Mercury Methylation-Related Gene hgcA in the Water Conservation Areas of the Florida Everglades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...methylation in this ecosystem. The dominant methylators...microorganisms in the aquatic environment: a critical...biogeochemistry in subtropical ecosystems. Lewis Publishers...in the South Florida ecosystem: distribution, sources...and management for restoration. Crit. Rev. Environ...

Hee-Sung Bae; Forrest E. Dierberg; Andrew Ogram

2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

212

Synthesis of Signals for De Novo DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Tests of various 25- to 100-bp synthetic DNA sequences revealed that both T...developed a new system to test short synthetic DNA fragments for their potential...DNA methylation in N. crassa by synthetic DNA fragments a Plasmid designation...

Hisashi Tamaru; Eric U. Selker

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate Mercuric Sulfides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate in the environment is partly controlled by the bioavailability of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) to anaerobic matter to form chemical species that include organic-coated mercury sulfide nanoparticles as reaction

214

An experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

platform chemical 5hydroxymethylfurfural now a possibility [4], [5], [6] and [7]. 25DMF offers significantAn experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation.55­1.65, initial temperatures of 298­398 K and atmospheric pressure. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

Chloromethane, Methyl Donor in Veratryl Alcohol Biosynthesis in Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Other Lignin-Degrading Fungi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...standard on a GE Omega 500-MHz NMR spectrometer, with 16...1 ppb (vol/vol) in the atmosphere (27). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We...Analysis of human serum and plasma using the LKB 4400 amino acid...distribution of methyl chloride in the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 85...

David B. Harper; John A. Buswell; James T. Kennedy; John T. G. Hamilton

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Combustion, performance and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with methyl esters of Pongamia oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are increasingly becoming popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine, and that they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Methyl ester of Pongamia oil (PME) is derived through transesterification process. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine properties, performance and emissions of different blends (B00, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100) of PME comparison to diesel. A computer assisted single cylinder constant speed water cooled four stroke direct diesel engine (5 HP), which is commonly used in the agricultural sector for driving the pumps and small electrical generators is selected for the experimental investigation. The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics are analysed. The combustion parameters considered for this analysis are cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. The brake thermal efficiency is slightly reduced and hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions in the exhaust are reduced when fuelled with methyl esters compared to diesel. But the NOx emissions are high when fuelled with methyl esters compared to diesel. [Received: December 11, 2009; Accepted: March 21, 2010

T. Hari Prasad; K. Hema Chandra Reddy; M. Muralidhara Rao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Experimental and modeling study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in internal combustion engines [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6]. Biodiesel fuels are composed of methyl esters) 1288-1300" DOI : 10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.11.009 #12;1. Introduction Fuel thermal decomposition are of importance in some practical cases such as diesel engines. The first reactions of diesel fuels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Selective Methylation Changes on the Bacillus subtilis Chemotaxis Receptor McpB Promote Adaptation*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the same background, McpB(E630D,E637D) produced methanol only upon aspara- gine addition, whereas McpB(Q371D,E630D) produced methanol only upon asparagine removal. Thus methanol release from Mcp, from which methanol is released in response to all stimuli. McpB has four putative methylation sites

Ordal, George W.

219

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

220

Arsenic methylation capacity and obesity are associated with insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The goal of the present study was to compare the arsenic methylation capacities in elementary school and junior high school students in an area of Taiwan with low arsenic exposure, and explore the influence of both arsenic methylation capacity and obesity on insulin resistance in these children and adolescents using the HOMA-IR index. We recruited 303 elementary school students and 319 junior high school students in Taipei City from September 2007 to November 2011. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (arsenite?+?arsenate), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Insulin resistance was determined by HOMA-IR. Elementary school students had significantly lower inorganic arsenic percentage and a higher DMAV percentage than junior high school students. It seems that the former had better arsenic methylation capability than the latter. The HOMA-IR value was significantly and positively related to the sum of the urinary inorganic and methylated arsenic (TotalAs) concentrations and also the BMI Z score, with the regression coefficients (?) being 0.058 (p?

Hsiu-Chen Lin; Yung-Kai Huang; Horng-Sheng Shiue; Liang-Sien Chen; Cheuk-Sing Choy; Shiau-Rung Huang; Bor-Cheng Han; Yu-Mei Hsueh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Evidence for low-temperature isotopic ordering in methyl-monodeuterated lithium acetate dihydrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measured the heat capacities of methyl-monodeuterated lithium acetate dihydrate single crystals (LiC2H2DO2·2H2O) at 2 K < T < 20 K and Raman spectra at ambient conditions. Significant excess heat capacities were found at T = 14.5 K and 5.5 K. The thermodynamic data is compared to that of fully protonated and fully deuterated LiAc and interpreted in terms of phase transitions between a classical dynamically disordered phase above 14.5 K, a phase stable between 14.5 K and 5.5 K in which there is quantum tunnelling of the methyl groups, and an isotopically ordered phase below 5.5 K.

F. Schröder; B. Winkler; J.D. Bauer; E. Haussühl; B. Rivera Escoto; F. Tristan López; M. Avalos Borja; C. Richter; J. Ferner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Iron-catalyzed reaction products of ?-tocopherol with methyl 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9(Z),11(E)-octadecadienoate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?-Tocopherol was reacted with methyl 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9(Z),11(E)-octadecadienoate in the presence of an iron-chelate, Fe(III)-acetylacetonate, at 37°C in benzene. The...E)-octadecenoate, four stereoisomers of me...

Ryo Yamauchi; Norio Yamamoto; Koji Kato

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

N-Methyl-N-Allylpyrrolidinium Based Ionic Liquids for Solvent-Free Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prepared four new ionic liquids consisting of N-methyl-N-allylpyrrolidinium cation in conjunction with anions including iodide, nitrate, thiocyanate, and dicyanamide, respectively, and measured their physical properties of density, viscosity, and ...

Ning Cai; Jing Zhang; Difei Zhou; Zhihui Yi; Jin Guo; Peng Wang

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

225

Consumption of Tropospheric Levels of Methyl Bromide by C1 Compound-Utilizing Bacteria and Comparison to Saturation Kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ARTICLE GEOMICROBIOLOGY Consumption of Tropospheric Levels of Methyl...bacteria showed no significant consumption of 12 pptv MeBr; thus, the ability...experiments supplied with pptv MeBr. Consumption of MeBr was measured on duplicate...

Kelly D. Goodwin; Ruth K. Varner; Patrick M. Crill; Ronald S. Oremland

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM to sporopollenin or algaenan. This is in agreement with flash pyrolysis­gas chromatography­mass spectrometry (py

227

Assessment of the acute toxicity of triclosan and methyl triclosan in wastewater based on the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the contributions of triclosan and its metabolite methyl triclosan to the overall acute toxicity of wastewater...Vibrio fischeri.... The protocol used in this paper involved various steps. First, th...

Marinella Farré; Daniela Asperger; Lina Kantiani…

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Enhanced reductive degradation of methyl orange in a microbial fuel cell through cathode modification with redox mediators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model azo dye, methyl orange (MO), was reduced through in situ utilization of the electrons derived from the anaerobic conversion of organics in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The MO reduction process could be...

Rong-Hua Liu; Guo-Ping Sheng; Min Sun…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Coupled tunnelling motion of a pair of methyl groups in lithium acetate studied by inelastic neutron scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tunnelling and torsional motions of methyl groups in lithium acetate dihydrate (CH3COOLi·2H2O) have been studied in detail by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. The results are interpreted by a model of...

S. Clough; A. Heidemann; A. H. Horsewill…

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Cyclic voltammetric investigation of the formation of intermetallic phases at a LiAl electrode in methyl acetate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation of various Li/Al intermetallic phases at the LiAl electrode in methyl acetate was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The thickness ... the reverse sweep, increased acceptance of deposited lithium, ro...

Y. S. Fung; H. C. Lai

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Abstract 293: High-throughput methylation sequencing of targeted genes in breast cancer specimens using nanofluidic PCR prepared libraries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...are more than 100 candidate genes reported throughout the literatures as promoter hypermethylated in breast cancers (Pubmeth web resource). More recently, with the application of genome wide array-based methylation profile analysis and next generation...

Jun Wang; Zibo Li; Yepeng Wu; Xinwu Guo; Shengyun Li; Zhi Xiao; Feiyu Chen; Zhongping Deng; Lizhong Dai; Wenjun Yi; Lili Tang

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

CORRELATION OF DNA METHYLATION WITH MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN MARINE ORGANISMS: A CASE STUDY OF NOAA MUSSEL WATCH TISSUE SAMPLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) obtained from the NOAA Mussel Watch program were screened for DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic response to stressors. Oysters were collected from sites in the Gulf of Mexico having high mercury...

Brinkmeyer, Robin; Taylor, Robert; Germ, Kaylyn E.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

233

Comparative Study on Engine Performance and Diesel Emissions with European Diesel Fuel (DF)?Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether (DGM) and Fischer?Tropsch (FT)?DGM Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Department of Energy and Process Engineering ... The general picture of the methyl- and methylene-related vibrations in the DF used here confirms the results of the GC analyses; i.e., that the DF resembles a n-alkane-dominated hydrocarbon mixture. ... To investigate influences of fuel design on regulated and non-regulated emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, a Mercedes-Benz OM 906 Euro 3 engine was run with common diesel fuel (DF), first- and second-generation alternative fuels (Gas-to-liq. ...

Md. Nurun Nabi; Rudolf Schmid; Johan Einar Hustad

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Remediation of Methyl Iodide in Aqueous Solution and Soils Amended with Thiourea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remediation of Methyl Iodide in Aqueous Solution and Soils Amended with Thiourea ... Therefore, spraying thiourea on the soil surface to form a “reactive surface barrier” may be an effective and innovative strategy for controlling fumigant emissions to the atmosphere and for improving environmental protection. ... Currently, new and innovative remediation technologies including bioremediation, phytoremediation, and chemical remediation have been proposed for use in cleaning polluted soil and groundwater. ...

Wei Zheng; Sharon K. Papiernik; Mingxin Guo; Scott R. Yates

2004-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

DNA methylation patterns in IGF-II promoters and prognosis of ovarian cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of DNA methylation; 3 targeted regions of P2 (P2A, P2B and P2C), while 2 assays each focused on P3 (P3A and P3B) and P4...promoters, which varied from 20% (P2A) to 47% (P2B) and 52% (P2C) in promoter 2, 49% (P3A) and 13% (P3B) in promoter 3...

Alicia Beeghly; D. Katsaros; S. Fracchioli; H. Chen; A. T. Prescott; A. Wiley; Herbert Yu

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

An assessment of methyl mercury and volatile mercury in land-applied sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations covering the land-application of municipal sewage sludge. These regulations established maximum pollutant concentrations and were based upon a risk assessment of human exposure. Mercury, assumed to be inorganic and non-volatile, was one pollutant evaluated. From April, 1995 through February, 1996, the authors studied the species of mercury contaminating municipal sludge applied to land, and the potential for volatilization of mercury from land-applied sludge. Methyl mercury was found at 0.1% of total mercury concentrations and was emitted from land-applied sludge to the atmosphere. Elemental mercury (Hg) was formed in land-applied sludge via the reduction of oxidized mercury and was also emitted to the atmosphere. Hg emission from land-applied sludge was significantly elevated over background soil emission. Methyl mercury is more toxic and more highly bioaccumulated than inorganic mercury, and warrants assessment considering these special criteria. Additionally, mercury emission from sludge-amended soil may lead to the contamination of other environmental media with significant concentrations of the metal. Although these pathways were not evaluated in the regulatory risk assessment, they are an important consideration for evaluating the risks from mercury in land-applied sludge. This presentation will summarize the results of a re-assessment of US EPA regulations regarding the land-application of municipal sewage sludge using data on methyl mercury toxicity and mercury transport in the atmosphere.

Carpi, A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lindberg, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Electrochemical properties of lithium hexafluoroarsenate in methyl acetate at various temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrical conductivities of LiAsF6 in methyl acetate were measured in concentration range of 0.4269–2.2672 mol·kg? 1 at 253.15, 263.15, 273.15, 283.15, 293.15, 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15 K. Data were treated by using the semi-empirical Casteel–Amis equation at high concentrations. The dependence of conductivities on the temperature was described by the Arrhenius relationship. It was shown that activation energies for conductivity linearly increased with the mole fraction of LiAsF6. The variation tendency of the energies of activation for the conductivities of LiAsF6 in the order of aprotic solvents (propylene carbonate, ?-butyrolactone, methyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran) has been discussed on the basis of the hypothesis that various conduction mechanisms occur at high concentration in the solvents of low permittivity. The anodic and cathodic stabilities of the LiAsF6 in methyl acetate were measured on a Pt electrode, a wide enough electrochemical stability window being observed.

Elena Yu. Tyunina; Marina D. Chekunova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Gas transport properties of reverse-selective poly(ether-b-amide6)/[Emim][BF4] gel membranes for CO2/light gases separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present research investigates deeply effect of 1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF4]) ionic liquid on separation performance and transport properties of poly(ether-b-amide6)(Pebax1657) at different operating pressures from 2 to 20 bar and temperatures from 25 to 65 °C. [Emim][BF4] showed interesting separation factor for CO2/light gases as a solvent and it was expected that its addition to Pebax1657 leads more amorphous structure, thereby diffusion and permeability of gases increase. [Emim][BF4] was added to the polymer solution up to 100 wt.% of Pebax1657 weight and permeation coefficients of CO2, H2, CH4 and N2 through the prepared membranes were measured. The results showed remarkable increment in permeation of all the tested gases, particularly CO2 and ideal selectivity of CO2/H2 enhanced significantly due to high solubility selectivity of the added compound. Effect of operating conditions on solubility coefficients were also investigated, thus sorption isotherms and activation energies of permeability, solubility and diffusion were calculated. In addition, the membranes were characterized by SEM, DSC, FT-IR spectroscopy and Tensile analysis to inspect changes in their physical and thermal properties, precisely.

Hesamoddin Rabiee; Ali Ghadimi; Toraj Mohammadi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk in subjects living in arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in southwestern Taiwan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) from drinking water has been shown to be associated with hypertension in a dose-response pattern. This study further explored the association between arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk among residents of arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in Taiwan considering the effect of CAE and other potential confounders. Method: There were 871 subjects (488 women and 383 men) and among them 372 were diagnosed as having hypertension based on a positive history or measured systolic blood pressure {>=} 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure {>=} 90 mm Hg. Urinary arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Primary arsenic methylation index [PMI, defined as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) divided by (As{sup III} + As{sup V})] and secondary arsenic methylation index (SMI, defined as dimethylarsinic acid divided by MMA{sup V}) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capability. Results: The level of urinary arsenic was still significantly correlated with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) calculated from a questionnaire interview (p = 0.02) even after the residents stopped drinking the artesian well water for 2-3 decades. Hypertensive subjects had higher percentages of MMA{sup V} and lower SMI than subjects without hypertension. However, subjects having CAE > 0 mg/L-year had higher hypertension risk than those who had CAE = 0 mg/L-year disregard a high or low methylation index. Conclusion: Inefficient arsenic methylation ability may be related with hypertension risk.

Huang, Y.-K. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C.-H. [National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Development, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Yun-Lin, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.-L. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Yang, M.-H. [Department of Nuclear Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Y.-M. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Condensation Reaction of Methyl N-Phenylcarbamate with Formaldehyde over H? Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the condensation of N-methyl carbamate (MPC) with formaldehyde, liquid acid catalysts, such as H2SO4(12, 13) HCl,(14) and ZnCl2(15) have shown the best catalytic performance with water as a reaction medium. ... Using the organic solvents entails several challenges, such as the recovery and separation of solvents, and consequently increases the production cost. ... Finally, the temperature was increased under He atmosphere [50 cm3 (STP) min–1] at 10 °C min–1 and TPD profiles were recorded at temperatures up to 500 °C. ...

Fang Li; Rui Min; Jing Li; Liya Gao; Wei Xue; Yanji Wang; Xinqiang Zhao

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Chapter 22 - Whole Algal Biomass In situ Transesterification to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Biofuel Feedstocks  

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Abstract This chapter addresses the yield of lipids quantified as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, and the acid catalyst hydrochloric acid providing a consistently high level of conversion to FAME. The discussion is accompanied by a link to the large-scale application of this process as a whole biomass conversion pathway. Microalgae-focused lipid technologies for biofuel applications, renewable and biodiesel fuel properties are described along with in situ transesterification of oleaginous algal biomass, choice of catalyst for in situ whole biomass transesterification, and the analytical characterization of lipid content in algal biomass using in situ transesterification.

Lieve M.L. Laurens

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

Susial, P.; Ortega, J. (Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

N-Benzoyloxy-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene: Its Carcinogenic Activity in the Rat and Its Reactions with Proteins and Nucleic Acids and Their Constituents in Vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ether, and 50 mg of finely powdered lithium aluminum hydride were added. The...acetate were added dropwise to destroy excess lithium aluminum hydride and 1 ml of water...atmosphere. After extraction of the excess dye 3 times with equal volumes of...

Lionel A. Poirier; James A. Miller; Elizabeth C. Miller; and Kei Sato

1967-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments and Identification of Potential Mercury Methylators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at five contaminated sites and one control site near Oak Ridge, TN in order to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over three quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16s rRNA pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85 % of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria by the RDP classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated significant positive correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl mercury concentrations in the contaminated sites. On the contrary, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in the sediments of the site, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known metal reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species.

Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

Huggins, John Mitchell

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Long-Range Ferromagnetic Ordering in Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymers Co[N(CN)2]2(L) [L ) Pyrazine Dioxide (pzdo) and 2-Methyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Pyrazine Dioxide (pzdo) and 2-Methyl Pyrazine Dioxide (mpdo)] with Dual µ- and µ3-[N(CN)2] Bridges Hao by the addition of ancillary ligands of pyrazine dioxide (pzdo) and 2-methyl pyrazine dioxide (mpdo) into the Co]- , possesses three coordination nitrogen atoms and several possible coordination modes: terminal, bidentate 1

Gao, Song

248

Polarization insensitive in-fiber mode-locker based on carbon nanotube with N-methyl-2-pryrrolidone solvent filled fiber microchamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarization insensitive in-fiber mode-locker based on carbon nanotube with N-methyl-2-pryrrolidone://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Polarization insensitive in-fiber mode-locker based on carbon nanotube with N-methyl-2; published online 8 March 2012) We report an in-fiber laser mode locker based on carbon nanotube with n

Turitsyn, Sergei K.

249

Hydrogen Peroxide Acts as a Second Messenger for the Induction of Defense Genes in Tomato Plants in Response to Wounding, Systemin, and Methyl Jasmonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...levels of proteinase inhibitor I in their leaves...systemin, OGA, chitosan, and the plant...accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I that was induced...systemin, OGA, and chitosan, as well as methyl...or 125 mug/mL chitosan or exposed to methyl...assayed for proteinase inhibitor I content in leaf...

Martha L. Orozco-Cárdenas; Javier Narváez-Vásquez; Clarence A. Ryan

250

Wear of poly (methyl methacrylate) against a metallic surface in dry Jean Geringer, Bernard Forest, Pierre Combrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@emse.fr b Centre technique Framatome-ANP 1, rue B. Marcet F-71205 Le Creusot Cedex Abstract Wear of Poly1 Wear of poly (methyl methacrylate) against a metallic surface in dry conditions Jean Geringer, femoral stem-bone cement in the field of hip prosthesis. First of all, no significant wear was observed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

251

The Acquisition of hMLH1 Methylation in Plasma DNA after Chemotherapy Predicts Poor Survival for Ovarian Cancer Patients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...died, giving the methylation study 74% power to detect a hazard ratio of 2 for the effect...subgroup analysis and greatly weaken the power of the statistical analysis. However...Sci USA, 95: 6870-5, 1998. 23 De Wind N, Dekker M, van Rossum A, et al Mouse...

Gillian Gifford; Jim Paul; Paul A. Vasey; Stanley B. Kaye; and Robert Brown

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Reaction of trans-dichloro-bis[N(1)-methyl-2-(arylazo)imidazole] ruthenium(II) with tertiary phosphines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Trans-dichloro-bis[N(1)-methyl-2-(arylazo)imidazol e] ruthenium(II) (tcc-Ru(MeL)2Cl2) reacts with tertiary phosphines giving rise to species of type [RuCl(P)-(MeL)2]+ and [Ru(P-P)(MeL)2]2+ in which Cl, P and P...

Tarun Kumar Misra; Chittaranjan Sinha

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

MODELING FRETTING-CORROSION WEAR OF 316L SS AGAINST POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) WITH THE POINT DEFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MODELING FRETTING-CORROSION WEAR OF 316L SS AGAINST POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) WITH THE POINT; ddm2@psu.edu c Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion Research Institute King Fahd University at investigating experimentally fretting corrosion, that is, corrosion induced by friction of AISI 316L SS against

Boyer, Edmond

254

Regionally Specific and Genome-Wide Analyses Conclusively Demonstrate the Absence of CpG Methylation in Human Mitochondrial DNA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...genome-wide in vertebrate nuclear DNA, the state of methylation...cytosines at non-CpG sites in the nuclear DNA in these studies ranged...Table 6 Analysis of published datasets of genome-wide sodium bisulfite...Cs in mtDNA At non-CpGs in nuclear DNA Akalin et al. (10) a...

Elizabeth E. Hong; Cindy Y. Okitsu; Andrew D. Smith; Chih-Lin Hsieh

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

255

Abstract 4242: Methylation, SNP and expression analysis of the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in different tumor tissues.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...receptor (VDR) gene in different tumor tissues. Matthew L. Poulin Ann Meyer Gregory Gonzalez Kevin Bi Liying Yan EpigenDx, Inc...biomarkers for different cancers. Citation Format: Matthew L. Poulin, Ann Meyer, Gregory Gonzalez, Kevin Bi, Liying Yan. Methylation...

Matthew L. Poulin; Ann Meyer; Gregory Gonzalez; Kevin Bi; Liying Yan

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

Abstract 1360: DNA methylation analysis in self-sampled material as a triage test in hrHPV positive women  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in self-sampled material as a triage test in hrHPV positive women Aniek Boers 1 Remko...DNA methylation analysis as a triage test in hrHPV positive women outperformed cytology...in self-sampled material as a triage test in hrHPV positive women. [abstract...

Aniek Boers; Remko P. Bosgraaf; Roland W. van Leeuwen; Ed Schuuring; Leon FAG Massuger; Johan Bulten; Willem J. Melchers; Ate GJ van der Zee; Ruud L. Bekkers; Bea Wisman

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Class I Chitinase and -1,3-Glucanase Are Differentially Regulated by Wounding, Methyl Jasmonate, Ethylene, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Ethylene, and Gibberellin in Tomato Seeds and Leaves1 Chun-Ta Wu2 and Kent J. Bradford* Department. Wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induced Chi9 expression, whereas ethylene, abscisic acid, sodium. However, MeJA, wounding, and particularly ethylene induced both genes in leaves, whereas GA induced only

Bradford, Kent

258

Gas-Phase Identity SN2 Reactions of Halide Anions and Methyl Halides with Retention of Configuration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-Phase Identity SN2 Reactions of Halide Anions and Methyl Halides with Retention back-side and front-side SN2 reactions are found to involve the same ion-molecule complex (X-,,,H3CX of a front-side SN2 reaction with retention of configuration at saturated carbon. Analysis of our

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

259

Societies and Academies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... with methyl sulphate gives methyl ether and the sulphate of the metal.—M. Delpech: Flameless powders. An account of experiments on the effect of adding charcoal, vaseline, and ...

1919-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

3-Methyl-1,2-BN-Cyclopentane: A Promising H2 Storage Material?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We provide detailed characterization of properties for 3-methyl-1,2-BN-cyclopentane 1 that are relevant to H2 storage applications such as viscosity, thermal stability, H2 gas stream purity, and polarity. The viscosity of 1 at room temperature is 25±5 cP, about one fourth the viscosity of olive oil. TGA/MS analysis indicates that liquid carrier 1 is thermally stable at 30 °C but decomposes slowly at 50 °C. RGA data suggest that the H2 desorption from 1 is a clean process, producing relatively pure H2 gas. Compound 1 is a polar zwitterionic type liquid consistent with theoretical predictions and solvatochromic studies. "T.A. acknowledges support from the Fuel Cell Technology Program at U.S. DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency 65 and Renewable Energy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle."

Luo, Wei; Neiner, Doinita; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Parab, Kshitij; Garner, Edward B.; Dixon, David A.; Matson, Dean W.; Autrey, Thomas; Liu, Shih-Yuan

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Energy Saving in Conventional and Unconventional Batch Reactive Distillation: Application to Hydrolysis of Methyl Lactate System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, energy consumption in a middle vessel batch reactive distillation (MVBRD) column is considered for the production of lactic acid via hydrolysis of methyl lactate. A dynamic optimization problem incorporating a process model is formulated to minimize the batch time which consequently minimizes the total energy consumption. The problem is subject to constraints on the amount and purity of lactic acid. The optimisation variables are reflux ratio and/or reboil ratio which are treated as piecewise constant. The earlier work of the authors on energy consumption in conventional batch reactive distillation column (CBRD) for the same reaction system is used for comparative analysis with the energy consumption in MVBRD. As an example, for a given separation task, the optimization results show that MVBRD is capable of saving over 23 % energy compared to energy consumption in CBRD column for the same task.

Elmahboub A. Edreder; Mansour Emtir; Iqbal M. Mujtaba

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

Xia Minggang [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Center on Experimental Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Isomerization of methyl linoleate on ruthenium(III) alkoxide complex; Mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isomerization of methyl linoleate using ruthenium alkoxide complexes is described. With alcohols, such as isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol, isomerization of double bonds to produce a conjugated system is the main reaction, with hydrogenation being the side reaction. The latter is formed via the conjugated product. Based on kinetic and infrared spectroscopic data, it is concluded that the active catalytic species is a ruthenium hydride complex formed by the decomposition of the unstable alkoxide. The reaction is mathematically modeled, and the rate parameters are obtained by fitting the simulation to experimental data. These values are compared with data obtained from reactions carried out with supported ruthenium-nickel heterogeneous catalyst.

Mukesh, D.; Narasimhan, C.S.; Ramnarayan, K.; Deshpande, V.M

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Performance analysis and exhaust emissions of neem methyl ester operated compression ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neem oil methyl ester (NOME) was prepared from neem oil using alkaline catalyzed transesterification. The important fuel properties of NOME 20% blend of NOME with diesel were compared with those of diesel. Optimum injection pressures were determined for neat diesel and NOME-20 blend. Comparison of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and smoke density was done for diesel and NOME-20 blend at their respective optimum injection pressure. Higher BSFC a slight decrease in BTE and a sharp decrease in EGT and smoke density were recorded with NOME-20 blend. Emissions with NOME-20 blend were also compared with diesel emissions at their respective optimum injection pressures. Significant reductions in carbon monoxide hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen and increase in carbon-di-oxide were observed with NOME-20 blend. Hence neem biodiesel has an environmental importance over diesel and shows a promising future.

Vinod Singh Yadav; Kamal Kishore Khatri; Deepak Tanwar; Ajayta; Dilip Sharma; S. L. Soni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Testing Waste Olive Oil Methyl Ester as a Fuel in a Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this sense, to gain knowledge about the implications of its use, waste olive oil methyl ester was evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines during a 50-h short-term performance test in a diesel direct-injection Perkins engine. ... At the beginning of the last century, Rudolph Diesel fueled a diesel engine with the oil of an African groundnut (peanut), thus demonstrating the idea of using vegetable oil as a substitute for No. 2 diesel fuel. ... In this way, we obtained a volume value for each trio of working values, making a brake-specific fuel consumption comparison between different tests or fuels possible, as shown in Table 2, where Vi is the volume value for each test and V50 corresponds to that of No. 2 diesel fuel after 50 h (the test that showed the minimum value). ...

M. P. Dorado; E. Ballesteros; J. M. Arnal; J. Gómez; F. J. López Giménez

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

Performance and emissions of a diesel tractor engine fueled with marine diesel and soybean methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is cleaner than petrodiesel. Biodiesel can be used directly as fuel for a diesel engine without having to modify the engine system. It has the major advantages of having high biodegradability, excellent lubricity and no sulfur content. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of soybean methyl ester (SME) and its blend with marine diesel fuel from 5%, 20% and 50% blends by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. The results indicate that the use of biodiesel produces lower smoke opacity (up to 74%), but higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (up to 12%) compared to marine fuel (MF). The measured carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of B5 and B100 fuels were found to be 3% and 52% lower than that of the MF, respectively.

B. Gokalp; E. Buyukkaya; H.S. Soyhan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Embedded Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors Functionalized for the Detection of Methyl Salicylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sensors designed to detect the presence of methyl salicylate (MeS) have been tested. These sensors use a sensor platform based on the embedded piezoresistive microcantilever (EPM) design. Sensing materials tested in this study included the polymer poly (ethylene vinyl acetate), or PEVA as well as a composite sensing material consisting of the enzyme SA-binding protein 2, or SABP-2. The SABP-2 was immobilized within a biocompatible Hypol gel matrix. The PEVA-based sensors exhibited slower but reversible responses to MeS vapors, recovering fully to their initial state after the analyte was removed. SABP-2 sensors exhibited faster overall response to the introduction of MeS, responding nearly instantly. These sensors, however, do not recover after exposures have ended. Sensors using the SABP-2 sensing materials act instead as integrating sensors, measuring irreversibly the total MeS dose obtained.

Porter, T. L. [UNLV; Venedam, R. J. [NSTec

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

269

Poly(vinylidenefluoride)-hexafluoropropylene–methyl N-methylpyrrolidinium-N-acetate trifluoromethanesulfonylimide–lithium trifluoromethanesulfonylimide gel electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New polymer-ionic liquid-lithium salt gel electrolytes (PILGEs) were prepared using poly(vinylidenefluoride)-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (PVdF(HFP)), methyl N-methylpyrrolidinium-N-acetate trifluoromethanesulfonimide ([MMEPyr][TFSI]), and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonylimide (LiTFSI) in order to investigate the effects of ionic liquids containing an ester group on the electrochemical properties of polymer gel electrolytes. Free standing ionic gels consisting of PVdF(HFP), [MMEPyr][TFSI], and LiTFSI were prepared in a range of weight ratio of polymer/[MMEPyr][TFSI]/LiTFSI = 1/2/0.1 ? 1. Ionic conductivities for the prepared \\{PILGEs\\} were measured with changing temperature and weight ratio of LiTFSI and the obtained values were found to be reasonable (10?4 S cm?1) over the operating temperatures.

Ki-Sub Kim; Seul Bee Lee; Hyunjoo Lee; Hoon Sik Kim; Youngwoo Lee; Kwangsoo Kwack

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Barrier to Rotation around the Csp2-Csp2 Bond of the Ketoaldehyde Enol Ether MeC(O)CHCH?OEt As Determined by 13C NMR and ab Initio Calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NMR measurements and ab initio calculations were applied to determine the barriers to rotation around formally single bonds of the title methyl-?-ethoxyvinyl ketone, i.e., the vinylogue of the ethyl ester of acetic acid. For comparison, ab initio ...

Hans-Christian Siebert; Emad Tajkhorshid; Janusz Dabrowski

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

271

A determination of the heats of combustion of the five-carbon fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'srr Ins~ Ce?c ~c Dl? 30? Tbe bstwLs sodAL 1Need wss ohtwixlsd frccc ths Q?S? Wool? Bar? of ghsnclalPds? Tbs hest ef ~tdocc wss giwRl se g6?QQ shs? kja/g? cocos (weighed in wceccs) er QLg eaL/g? essa (in @sees)? 3 oslorie? 0?wg$840 sbs, +? 'ei ~ r...LLd bs ~aied fer tbs fi~carhc?L aCCLds?ad the baste of vaoorisat4os of tbs ether Lsaee4e ac@de ae4hsated a4 their ~g, xdn4s The bs?te of vsyorhwQ. oe o' ths sands a4 2~ C? wars estiaated ly a?S~ 4R? k", ~? ~4lcsi55, ccsd '~ ~ . -? AIL' %7? Q? ~ +sad...

Gilby, Ralph F

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

272

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

273

4-O-Methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid linked to xylan from kraft pulp: isolation procedure and characterisation by NMR spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tetrasaccharide 2?-O-(4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid)xylotriose was isolated from enzymatically hydrolysed, unbleached, birch kraft pulp by anion-exchange chromatography in two steps. The primary structure of the tetrasaccharide was determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional techniques. NOE data and 3JH.H coupling constants show that the 4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid in the tetrasaccharide is predominantly in the 1C4 chair conformation. The pKa value (3.17) for 4-O-methyliduronic acid attached ?-(1 ? 2) to xylose was determined from the pH-dependent chemical shift of H-5. The amount of 4-O-methyliduronic acid (0.1–0.5 mol%) in surface xylan of unbleached birch and pine kraft pulps was determined by extensive xylanase treatment and further analysis by NMR spectroscopy and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography.

Anita Teleman; Matti Siika-aho; Harri Sorsa; Johanna Buchert; Marjukka Perttula; Tiina Hausalo; Maija Tenkanen

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl-triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant receiving stream and effects of triclosan on algal lipid synthesis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), widely used antimicrobial agents found in numerous consumer products, are incompletely removed by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processing. Methyl-triclosan (M-TCS)… (more)

Coogan, Melinda Ann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose with solid acid catalysts in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([bmIm][Cl]) with sequential water addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective glucose production by cellulose hydrolysis with initial or sequential water addition in the presence of solid acid catalysts in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([bmIm][Cl]) under microwave irra...

Kaori Ishida; Shiho Matsuda; Masaru Watanabe…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Effect of monomer/nanoclay interaction on the kinetics of atom transfer radical homo- and copolymerization of styrene and methyl acrylate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atom transfer radical homo- and copolymerization of styrene and methyl acrylate initiated with CCl3...-terminated poly(vinyl acetate) macroinitiator were performed at 90°C in the presence of nanoclay (Cloisite 30...

Mahdi Abdollahi; Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Study on PCB 101, PCB 153, mercury and methyl mercury content in blue crab Portunus Pelagicus from Khuzestan shore (Persian Gulf)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB 101, PCB 153), Mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) in muscle, gill and hepatopancreas of blue swimming crab Portunus segnis from Persian Gulf were investigated. In...

Abdolah Raeisi Sarasiab; Mehdi Hosseini

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Oxidation Kinetics of Pure and Blended Methyl Octanoate/n-Nonane/Methylcyclohexane: Measurements and Modeling of OH*/CH* Chemiluminescence, Ignition Delay Times and Laminar Flame Speeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels at 1.5 atm indicated the following ignition delay time order, from shortest to longest: methyl octanoate atm (nominal) the order remained, in general, consistent. Under fuel-lean conditions, ignition...

Rotavera, Brandon Michael

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

279

Hydrogenolysis of methyl formate over copper on silica. I. Study of surface species by in situ infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogenolysis of methyl formate to methanol over silica-supported copper has been studied using in situ infrared spectroscopy coupled with simultaneous determination of rate. Under flow reaction conditions two forms of adsorbed methyl formate exist. One has a carbonyl absorption at 1726 cm/sup -1/ and is bound to the support by the hydrogen bonding with a heat of adsorption of 65 kJ mol/sup -1/. The second absorbs at 1666 cm/sup -1/ and is bound to copper with an approximate heat of adsorption of 140 kJ mol/sup -1/. At 457 K the hydrogenolysis rate is directly proportional to the band intensity of the latter and hence it, or another species in equilibrium with it, is involved in the rate-determining step. Adsorption of CO from CO/H/sub 2/ mixtures gives rise to a single infrared band at 2117 cm/sup -1/, the corresponding heat of adsorption being 60 kJ mol/sup -1/. Competitive measurements under hydrogenolysis conditions show that methyl formate will partially displace adsorbed CO and not vice versa. Nonetheless CO does reversibly inhibit the rate and this is attributed to its adsorption displacing hydrogen from the surface. The lower concentration of surface hydrogen also reduces the rate of hydrogenation of a formaldehyde intermediate leading to its deposition as a polymer as revealed by infrared bands at 1483 and 1375 cm/sup -1/. The same polymer accretes more rapidly during the reverse methanol to methyl formate reaction for which CO is a substantial by-product and hydrogen pressures are much lower than used for hydrogenolysis. Continuous deactivation of the catalyst is then observed.

Monti, D.M.; Cant, N.W.; Trimm, D.L.; Wainwright, M.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Re-refining of waste mineral insulating oil by extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) via the three-stage mixer–settler operation was studied as possible process for re-refining of waste mineral insulating oil. The following extraction process parameters were investigated systematically in order to determine their optimum values: amount of water as co-solvent in NMP, extraction temperature and solvent/oil ratio. The process parameters and resulting oil chemical compositions were found to influence the electrical properties and the oxidation stability of the re-refined oil. The levels of aromatic, paraffinic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined using IR spectroscopy and HPLC, while other relevant chemical and electrical properties of waste and re-refined oil were determined according to IEC, ISO and ASTM standards. Extraction using NMP was found to be an adequate method for waste mineral insulating oil re-refining, according to the application properties of the re-refined oil. Moderate extraction temperature, 1% water in NMP and a low solvent/oil ratio (0.5) were determined to be the optimum process parameters.

Jelena Luki?; Aleksandar Orlovi?; Michael Spiteller; Jovan Jovanovi?; Dejan Skala

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Effect of reticuloendothelial system blockade on the biotransformation of methyl mercury in the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been reported that methyl mercury (MeHg) administered to animals is biotransformed to inorganic mercury. Several studies have presented that there are two degradation process, by intestinal microflora and by animal tissues themselves. In a previous paper, the authors reported the biotransformation of MeHg in the rat was enhanced by phenylhydrazine administration, and inhibited by splenectomy or treatment with carrageenan (CAR). They suggested that spleen and liver might be the important sites for formation of inorganic mercury, and that reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells in these organs might play a major role in this biotransformation. The clearance activity of RES cells, mainly located in the liver and spleen, can be depressed by saturating those cells with CAR, colloidal carbon (CC), trypan blue (TB), colloidal iron (CFe), dextran sulfate, silica. The purpose of this study is to confirm the relationship between RES function and biotransformation of MeHg by using four representative blockers, CC, TB, CFe and CAR. The inhibited biotransformation of MeHg in RES-blocker-treated rats was evaluated by measuring the amount of total and inorganic mercury in tissues. On the other hand, RES cell activity was measured by carbon clearance tests.

Suda, Ikuo; Takahashi, Hitoshi (Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The dependence of the methylation of mercury on the landfill stabilization process and implications for the landfill management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mercury species and other chemical characteristics of the leachate from anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills were analyzed to investigate the factors that control mercury methylation during the landfill stabilization process. At the early landfill stage, the total mercury (THg) and the monomethyl mercury (MMHg) released rapidly and significantly, the \\{THg\\} concentration of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate was obviously higher than that of the anaerobic landfill leachate, while compared with the semi-aerobic landfill, the \\{MMHg\\} concentration in the anaerobic landfill was higher. As the landfill time increased, both of \\{THg\\} and \\{MMHg\\} concentration decreased quickly, the \\{THg\\} concentration in the anaerobic landfill was much higher than that in semi-aerobic landfill, while the \\{MMHg\\} concentration in the anaerobic landfill was lower than that in the semi-aerobic landfill. Generally, the concentrations of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in the anaerobic landfill leachate were slightly higher than in the semi-aerobic landfill leachate during the stabilization process. A significant positive correlation was found between the \\{DMHg\\} concentrations and the pH value in anaerobic landfill leachate, but this correlation was opposite in the semi-aerobic landfill. The oxidative–reductive potential (ORP) condition was found to be the controlling factor of the methylation process during the early stage. However, the chemical characteristics, especially the TOC concentration, appeared to be the dominant factor affecting the methylation process as the landfill time increased.

Xiaoli Chai; Yongxia Hao; Zhonggen Li; Wei Zhu; Wentao Zhao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

2009-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

285

Microhydration Effects on the Intermediates of the SN2 Reacation of Iodide Anion with Methyl Iodine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactions of halide anions with methyl halides (X- + CH3Y ? XCH3 + Y-) are bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions that have been well investigated in the last few decades.[1] Figure 1 shows typical potential energy surfaces (PESs) proposed for symmetric (X- + CH3X ? XCH3 + X-) SN2 reactions along the reaction coordinate. In the gas phase, the PES has two minima corresponding to the stable X-(CH3X) complexes.[2] The PES is substantially distorted by the solvation. Since the negative charge is delocalized over the [X•••CH3•••X]- moiety at the transition state the stabilization energy gained by the solvation is smaller for the transition state than that for the (X- + CH3X) reactants or the X- (CH3X) complexes. In solution, a large potential barrier exists between the reactants and products. The rate constants of these reactions in protic solvents were reported to be a few orders of magnitude smaller than those in aprotic solvents; this trend was explained by the formation of solvation shells of protic molecules around the halide anions.[1,3] Morokuma has previously reported a theoretical study on the PES of the (Cl- + CH3Cl ? ClCH3 + Cl-) SN2 reaction with a few H2O molecules. The attachment of H2O molecules to the Cl-(CH3Cl) reactive system produces metastable isomers, which affect the reaction mechanism.[4] Johnson and coworkers extensively investigated the structure and reactions of halide anion complexes in the gas phase using photodissociation spectroscopy.

Doi, Keisuke; Togano, Eijiro; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki; Inokuchi, Yoshiya

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Change of caged dynamics at Tg in hydrated proteins found after suppressing the methyl-group rotation contribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In conventional glassformers at sufficiently short times and low enough temperatures, molecules are mutually caged by the intermolecular potential. The fluctuation and dissipation from motion of caged molecules when observed by elastic incoherent neutron scattering exhibit a change in temperature dependence of the mean square displacement (MSD) at the glass transition temperature Tg. This is a general and fundamental property of caged dynamics in glassformers, which is observed always near Tg independent of the energy resolution of the spectrometer. Recently we showed the same change of T-dependence at Tg is present in proteins solvated with bioprotectants, coexisting with the dynamic transition at a higher temperature Td. In these solvated proteins, all having Tg and Td higher than the proteins hydrated by water alone, the observation of the change of T-dependence of the MSD at Tg is unobstructed by the methyl-group rotation contribution at lower temperatures. On the other hand, proteins hydrated by water alone have lower Tg and Td, and hence unambiguous evidence of the transition of MSD at Tg is hard to find. Notwithstanding, evidence on the break of the MSD at Tg can be found by deuterating the protein to suppress the methyl-group contribution. An alternative strategy is the use of a spectrometer that senses motions faster than 15 ps, which confers the benefit of shifting both the onset of methyl-group rotation contribution as well as the dynamic transition to higher temperatures, and again the change of MSD at Tg becomes evident. The break of the elastic intensity or the MSD at Tg coexists with the dynamics transition at Td in hydrated and solvated proteins. Recognition of this fact helps to remove inconsistency and conundrum encountered in interpreting the data that thwart progress in understanding the origin of the dynamic transition and its connection to biological function.

K. L. Ngai; S. Capaccioli; A. Paciaroni

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Rheological Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Nanoclay Composites As Investigated by Creep Recovery in Shear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rheological Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Nanoclay Composites As Investigated by Creep Recovery in Shear ... For different polymer systems filled with nanoclays a strong influence of the filler on rheological properties of the composites in the molten state was reported from experiments performed in oscillatory shear. ... Very interesting is the fact that there is no difference of the mean layer distance for the exemplarily shown PMMA 7N masterbatch with 23.8 vol % nanoclay after solution mixing compared to the composite diluted with pure PMMA 7N after melt mixing. ...

Helmut Muenstedt; Nikolaos Katsikis; Joachim Kaschta

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

288

PEMFC cathode catalyst contamination evaluation with a RRDE-methyl methacrylate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study was undertaken to provide insight into the mechanism of methyl methacrylate (MMA) contamination on the cathodes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The effect of various concentrations of MMA on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated using a rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE). The adsorption of MMA on the Pt/C electrode leads to a reduction in the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and a decrease in the mass activity of the ORR. Increasing the MMA concentration causes an increase in its coverage on Pt and a decrease in the ORR mass activity. At high MMA concentration (0.1 M), the O2 transportation is also affected, resulting in a large decrease in the diffusion limiting current. For all of the MMA concentrations measured, a shift in the ORR reaction pathway from a 4-electron to 2-electron mechanism is observed, as indicated by the increase in the H2O2 production on the ring. Using the RRDE measurements and the Levich plots, the total charge transfer number is confirmed to decrease from 4 for the clean electrode to lower values due to the increase in the H2O2 side reactions. The shift in the reaction pathway is hypothesized to be caused by the inhibition of dual adsorption of the O2 molecules, due to steric hindrance induced by MMA adsorption on the Pt/C electrode. Tafel evaluation indicates a continuous increase in the slope with an increase in the MMA concentration, which indicates that the passage of electrons for the ORR at the electrode surface is altered by the adsorption of MMA. A recovery effect was also investigated and a water rinsing process was used to recover the electrode. Only a partial recovery was obtained with a water rinse followed by potential cycling over the same potential range as the initial ECSA measurements. The unrecovered performance is attributed to MMA remnants on the catalyst surface, which can be removed by potential cycling over a wider potential range with a larger anodic potential limit.

Junjie Ge; Jean St-Pierre; Yunfeng Zhai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB {number_sign}2 diesel in a DCC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, California ARB No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emissions trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with delays in engine timing and technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transits (except in California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB No. 2 diesel in a DDC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emission trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transit sectors (except California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C. [ADEPT Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

General matrix ENDOR line shape model applied to the methyl radical in lithium acetate dihydrate using single crystal data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new general matrix ENDOR line shape model is tested against ENDOR data on the methyl radical in ??irradiated lithium acetate dihydrate. All parameters in the line shape model are determined or narrowly limited by experiment. These include the dipolar tensors of all protons within 5 Å of the methyl radical the microwave and radiofrequency magnetic fields and the electronic and nuclear spin–lattice and spin–spin relaxation times. The theoretical simulations agree satisfactorily with the experimental lineshape microwavemagnetic field dependence radiofrequency magnetic field dependence and angular variation of single crystalENDOR line intensities. The effective nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time is ?10 ms at 77 K and seems to be dominated by an angularly independent nuclear relaxation mechanism. The angularly dependent electron–nuclear dipolar interaction is found to be of much less importance for the ENDOR response. It is noted that the angular variation of ENDOR intensities is an important parameter to assess the nuclear relaxation mechanisms that control the ENDOR response. Data on cw and pulsed matrix ENDOR are compared and found to be similar. It is also shown that a model based on idealized line shape theory for disordered systems can satisfactorily reproduce matrix ENDOR line shapes. Both models allow calculation of the relative contributions from angularly independent and dependent ENDOR responses.

Larry Kevan; P. A. Narayana; K. Toriyama; M. Iwasaki

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Hydration properties of natural and synthetic DNA sequences with methylated adenine or cytosine bases in the R.DpnI target and BDNF promoter studied by molecular dynamics simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adenine and cytosine methylation are two important epigenetic modifications of DNA sequences at the levels of the genome and transcriptome. To characterize the differential roles of methylating adenine or cytosine with respect to their hydration properties we performed conventional MD simulations and free energy perturbation calculations for two particular DNA sequences namely the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter and the R.DpnI-bound DNA that are known to undergo methylation of C5-methyl cytosine and N6-methyl adenine respectively. We found that a single methylated cytosine has a clearly favorable hydration free energy over cytosine since the attached methyl group has a slightly polar character. In contrast capping the strongly polar N6 of adenine with a methyl group gives a slightly unfavorable contribution to its free energy of solvation. Performing the same demethylation in the context of a DNA double-strand gave quite similar results for the more solvent-accessible cytosine but much more unfavorable results for the rather buried adenine. Interestingly the same demethylation reactions are far more unfavorable when performed in the context of the opposite (BDNF or R.DpnI target) sequence. This suggests a natural preference for methylation in a specific sequence context. In addition free energy calculations for demethylating adenine or cytosine in the context of B-DNA vs. Z-DNA suggest that the conformational B-Z transition of DNA transition is rather a property of cytosine methylated sequences but is not preferable for the adenine-methylated sequences investigated here.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

High-Throughput Hacking of the Methylation Patterns in Breast Cancer by In vitro Transcription and Thymidine-Specific Cleavage Mass Array on MALDI-TOF Silico-Chip  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Article Cancer Genes and Genomics High-Throughput Hacking of the Methylation Patterns in Breast Cancer by In vitro Transcription...Supplement: Supplementary Data Supplementary Data High-throughput hacking of the methylation patterns in breast cancer by in vitro transcription...

Ramin Radpour; Mahdi Montazer Haghighi; Alex Xiu-Cheng Fan; Peyman Mohammadi Torbati; Sinuhe Hahn; Wolfgang Holzgreve; Xiao Yan Zhong

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

295

Syntrophs Dominate Sequences Associated with the Mercury Methylation-Related Gene hgcA in the Water Conservation Areas of the Florida Everglades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...great concern because of potential adverse impacts on human and wildlife health through mercury accumulation in aquatic food webs. We developed a new PCR primer set targeting hgcA, a gene encoding a corrinoid protein essential for Hg methylation across...

Hee-Sung Bae; Forrest E. Dierberg; Andrew Ogram

2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

296

1-Methyl Naphthalene Reorientation at the Air-Liquid Interface upon Water Saturation Studied by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will encounter gas-phase water molecules or may react with atmospheric oxidants. The uptake and reaction1-Methyl Naphthalene Reorientation at the Air-Liquid Interface upon Water Saturation Studied by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Elizabeth L. Hommel and Heather C. Allen

297

Anharmonicity and isomorphic phase transition: a multi-temperature X-ray single-crystal and powder diffraction study of 1-(2'-aminophenyl)-2-methyl-4-nitroimidazole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multi-temperature single-crystal and powder diffraction experiments on 1-(2'-aminophenyl)-2-methyl-4-nitroimidazole show that this crystal undergoes an isomorphic phase transition with the coexistence of two phase domains over a wide temperature range. The anharmonic approach was the only way to model the resulting disorder.

Poulain, A.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

298

Downregulation of Filamin A Interacting Protein 1-Like is Associated with Promoter Methylation and Induces an Invasive Phenotype in Ovarian Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...System as described in Materials and Methods. The y-axis...artifacts resulting from the handling of FFPE tissues, by...out as described in Materials and Methods. Methylation...A, the schematic diagram of the putative CpG...out as described in Materials and Methods, and is...

Elizabeth R. Burton; Aneesa Gaffar; Soo Jin Lee; Folashade Adeshuko; Kathleen D. Whitney; Joon-Yong Chung; Stephen M. Hewitt; Gloria S. Huang; Gary L. Goldberg; Steven K. Libutti; and Mijung Kwon

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Bis(4-methyl­anilinium) and bis­(4-iodo­anilinium) penta­molybdates from laboratory X-ray powder data and total energy minimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal structures of bis­(4-methyl­anilinium) and bis­(4-iodo­anilinium) penta­molybdates were determined using laboratory X-ray data and refined by total energy minimization methods. The obtained structures present alternating organic cation and inorganic polyanion layers bound by weak bonding (apart from ionic inter­actions).

Oszajca, M.

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Application of basic zeolites in the decomposition reaction of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol and the isomerization of 3-carene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basic zeolite catalysts can be generated via ion exchange or via impregnation with alkali metals and alkali metal acetates following different methods. The decomposition of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol and the isomerization reaction of 3-carene to 2-carene have been studied in the gas phase over various basic zeolites to investigate their value as test reactions for basic properties of zeolites.

U Meyer; W.F Hoelderich

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Determination of Total Biodiesel Fatty Acid Methyl, Ethyl Esters, and Hydrocarbon Types in Diesel Fuels by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Research and Engineering, Paulsboro...determining total biodiesel methyl and...in diesel fuels by supercritical...mixture. Introduction The proposed use of biodiesel esters derived...as diesel fuel blending...of Total Biodiesel Fatty Acid...in Diesel Fuels by Supercritical...Research and Engineering, Paulsboro......

John W. Diehl; Frank P. DiSanzo

302

Pelargonium Oil and Methyl Hexaneamine (MHA): Analytical Approaches Supporting the Absence of MHA in Authenticated Pelargonium graveolens Plant Material and Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles Pelargonium Oil and Methyl Hexaneamine (MHA): Analytical...Pelargonium graveolens Plant Material and Oil Mahmoud A. ElSohly 1 2 3 4 * Waseem Gul...Pelargonium graveolens) leaves, stems, roots or oil, and therefore qualifies as a dietary ingredient......

Mahmoud A. ElSohly; Waseem Gul; Kareem M. ElSohly; Timothy P. Murphy; Aroona Weerasooriya; Amar G. Chittiboyina; Bharathi Avula; Ikhlas Khan; Amy Eichner; Larry D Bowers

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Determination of Total Biodiesel Fatty Acid Methyl, Ethyl Esters, and Hydrocarbon Types in Diesel Fuels by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Determination of Total Biodiesel Fatty Acid Methyl...vortex mixer. This process produced solutions ranging...D5186 indicated that the biodiesel esters were not eluted...0%. For further evaluation, the quantitative analysis...determination of the biodiesel ester components by......

John W. Diehl; Frank P. DiSanzo

304

Combustion analysis of a direct injection diesel engine when fuelled with sunflower methyl ester and its diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uncertainty in the availability of petroleum-based fuels in the near future and stringent pollution norms have triggered a search for renewable and clean-burning fuels. The use of vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has for long been in the pipeline, but its direct use has been limited because of its higher viscosity. In this work, sunflower oil was taken as feedstock and the feasibility of sunflower oil methyl ester (SFME) as an alternative fuel for diesel engines was investigated. Tests were conducted in a 4.4 kW, single cylinder, naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the premixed combustion phase of SFME and its blends were less intense compared with diesel oil. In addition, it was observed that SFME and its blends had slightly lower thermal efficiency and lower tailpipe emissions than diesel oil.

G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Saravanan; P. Selva Ilavarasi; G. Devasagayam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The comparative analysis of diesel engine combustion and emission parameters fuelled with palm oil methyl esters and its diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel-Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) blends are investigated. This study shows that the ignition delay decreases with increase in the POME addition. The maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum rate of heat release decreases with increase in POME addition at all loads. As the percentage of POME in the blend increases, the crank angle at which the maximum rate of heat release takes place advances. The brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in POME addition. The unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and soot intensity decreases, while nitrogen oxides (NOx) increase with increase in POME addition. [Received: April 4, 2008; Accepted: November 24, 2008

G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Saravanan; P. Selva Ilavarasi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What's New What's New November 2013 Updates ECO mammalian SSLs were updated for cadmium, antimony , arsenic, inorganic, barium, Beryllium, chromium VI, cobalt, copper, lead, silver, vanadium, cyanide (total complex), methyl mercury, sulfide, thallium and tin. October 2013 Updates The biota intake rates for the radionuclide PRG and risk tools were updated to correct an improper units conversion. September 2013 Updates IRIS updates for 1,4-Dioxane and Biphenyl were completed. PPRTV values have been updated for Biphenyl, 3,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride, Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (Tetryl), Endosulfan Sulfate, 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane, Nitromethane, Dibenzothiophene, 2-Ethoxyethanol, 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Ethyl Acetate, tert-Amyl Alcohol, 2,2-Difluoropropane,

307

Lack of induction of O/sup 6/-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in mammalian cells treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A synthetic DNA substrate containing O/sup 6/-methyl(8-/sup 3/H)-guanine was used to assay demethylation of the premutagenic base by O/sup 6/-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in extracts of HeLa cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells and normal rat kidney cells which had been treated with multiple doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). No induction of methyltransferase activity was observed in any of the cell lines tested. Constitutive levels of methyltransferase in cell lines proficient (Mex/sup +/) in O/sup 6/-methylguanine repair were decreased in a dose-dependent fashion by either single or multiple treatments with MNNG over a broad range of dose levels. Recovery of constitutive levels of activity required 24- to 48-h incubation periods. Repair deficient (Mex/sup -/) cell lines lacked both constitutive and inducible methyltransferase activity. 42 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Foote, R.S.; Mitra, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Characteristics of the performance and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine running with cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends with diesel fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the use of various blends of cottonseed oil or its methyl ester (bio-diesel) with diesel fuel, in blend ratios from 10/90 up to 100/0, in a fully instrumented, four-stroke, High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine. The tests were conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat fuels, with the engine working at a medium and a high load. Volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust-regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons were measured. The differences in the performance and exhaust emissions from the baseline operation of the engine, that is, when working with neat diesel fuel, were determined and compared, as well as the differences between cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion were used to aid the correct interpretation of the engine behaviour.

Constantine D. Rakopoulos; Kimon A. Antonopoulos; Dimitrios C. Rakopoulos; Emmanuel C. Kakaras; Efthimios G. Pariotis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A comparative evaluation of Al 2 O 3 coated low heat rejection diesel engine performance and emission characteristics using fuel as rice bran and pongamia methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study for the first time a nanoceramic Al 2 O 3 was used as a coatingmaterial in the low heat rejection engine concept. Experiments were conducted on single cylinder four stroke water cooled and direct injection diesel engine. First the engine was tested at different load conditions without coating. Then combustion chamber surfaces (cylinder head cylinder liner valves and piston crown face) were coated with nanoceramic material of Al 2 O 3 using plasma spray method. Comparative evaluation on performance and emission characteristics using fuel as rice bran methyl ester pongamia methyl ester and biodiesel/diesel fuel mixtures was studied in the ceramiccoated and uncoated engines under the same running conditions. An increase in engine power and a decrease in specific fuel consumption as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NOx) and smoke density were observed in the ceramiccoated engines compared with those of the uncoated engine.

M. Mohamed Musthafa; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A theoretical study of the ion pair SN2 reaction between lithium isocyanates with methyl fluoride with inversion and retention mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to a detailed theoretical study of an ion pair SN2 reaction LiNCO+CH3F in the gas phase and in solution at the level of MP2(full)/6-31+G**//HF/6-31+G**. Two possible reaction mechanisms, inversion and retention, are discussed. There are eight possible reaction pathways. The inversion mechanism is more favorable no matter in the gas phase or in solution based on analyses of the transition structures. Methyl isocyanate should form preferentially in the gas phase and more stable methyl cyanate is the main product in solution. The retardation of the reaction in solvents was attributed to the difference in solvation in the separated reactants and in the transition state.

Hua-jie Zhu; Yi Ren; Jie Ren

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Experimental studies on poly methyl methacrylate based gel polymer electrolytes for application in electrical double layer capacitors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies have been carried out on gel polymer electrolytes comprising poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-ethylene carbonate (EC)–propylene carbonate (PC)–salts, LiClO4, NaClO4 and (C2H5)4NClO4 (TEAClO4) with a view to using them as electrolytes in electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on activated charcoal powder electrodes. The optimum composition of gel electrolytes, PMMA (20?wt%)–EC?:?PC (1?:?1 v/v)–1.0?M salts exhibit high ionic conductivity of the order of ~10?3?S?cm?1 at room temperature with good mechanical/dimensional stability, suitable for their application in EDLCs. The EDLCs have been characterized using linear sweep cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge tests and ac impedance spectroscopy. The values of capacitance of 68–151?mF?cm?2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 38–78?Fg?1 of activated charcoal powder) have been observed. These values correspond to a specific energy of 5.3–10.8?Wh?kg?1 and a power density of 0.19–0.22?kW?kg?1. The capacitance values have been observed to be stable up to 5000 voltammetric cycles or even more. A comparison of studies shows the predominant role of anions of the gel electrolytes in the capacitive behaviour of EDLCs.

S A Hashmi; Ashok Kumar; S K Tripathi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evaluation of RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and mineral diesel fuels behaviour in quiescent vessel and EURO 5 engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Alternative diesel fuels for internal combustion engines have grown significantly in interest in the last decade. This is due to the potential benefits in pollutant emissions and particulate matter reduction. Nevertheless at possible increase in nitrogen oxide (NOx), and almost certainly increase of fuel consumption have been observed. In this paper, mineral diesel and RME (rapeseed methyl ester) fuels have been characterized in a non-evaporative spray chamber and in an optically-accessible single-cylinder engine using a Common Rail injector (8 holes, 148° cone opening angle and 480 cc/30s@10 MPa flow number) to measure the spatial fuel distribution, the temporal evolution and the vaporization–combustion processes. The injection process and mixture formation have been investigated at the Urban Driving Cycle ECE R15: 1500 rpm at 0.2 MPa of break mean effective pressure. Characteristic parameters of the spray like penetration length and liquid fuel distribution have been analysed and they have been correlated with the exhaust gaseous and particulate matter emissions. In the spray-analysis in non-evaporative conditions, short events (pilot) are mostly affected by asymmetries in the fuel distributions with noticeable standard deviations at low injected quantities. In the engine tests, the jets reached immediately the stabilization. A comparative analysis on the liquid phase of the spray, in non-evaporative and evaporative conditions, has permitted to investigate better the mixture formation. Its effect on pollutant emissions has been analysed for both fuels.

Luigi Allocca; Ezio Mancaruso; Alessandro Montanaro; Luigi Sequino; Bianca Maria Vaglieco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

Agung Sudrajad; Ismail Ali; Khalid Samo; Danny Faturachman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Investigation on combustion characteristics of crude rice bran oil methyl ester blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, an attempt was made to test the suitability of crude rice bran oil methyl ester (CRBME) blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel. A four stroke, six cylinder direct injection 117.6 kW turbo-charged compression ignition (CI) engine was used for the work. The operation of the engine with CRBME blend showed that the peak pressure increased with lower maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum heat release rate with shorter delay period. Burning rate of the CRBME blend was slower and required a higher crank angle to complete the combustion cycle when compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of the CRBME blend was lower than that of diesel at all speeds except at 2300rpm. As the measured combustion and performance parameters for CRBME blend differs only by a smaller magnitude when compared with diesel, this investigation ensures the suitability of the CRBME blend as fuel for heavy duty automotive engine without any design modifications [Received: August 12, 2010; Accepted: August 29, 2010

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Self-supported poly(methyl methacrylate–acrylonitrile–vinyl acetate)-based gel electrolyte for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Self-supported gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was prepared based on copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate–acrylonitrile–vinyl acetate) (P(MMA–AN–VAc)). The copolymer P(MMA–AN–VAc) was synthesized by emulsion polymerization and the copolymer membrane was prepared through phase inversion. The structure and the performance of the copolymer, the membrane and the GPE were characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEM, XRD, DSC/TG, LSV, CA, and EIS. It is found that the copolymer was formed through the breaking of double bond CC in each monomer. The membrane has low crystallinity and has low glass transition temperature, 39.1 °C, its thermal stability is as high as 310 °C, and its mechanical strength is improved compared with P(MMA–AN). The GPE is electrochemically stable up to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li+) and its conductivity is 3.48 × 10?3 S cm?1 at ambient temperature. The lithium ion transference number in the GPE is 0.51 and the conductivity model of the GPE is found to obey the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) equation.

Y.H. Liao; D.Y. Zhou; M.M. Rao; W.S. Li; Z.P. Cai; Y. Liang; C.L. Tan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (?130?°C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k?=?3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

317

Investigations on the quality of dispersion of nanofillers in poly(methyl methacrylate) composites by creep-recovery experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate) as the matrix and three different types of fillers namely nanoclay nanosilica and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared using various methods for the dispersion of the particular fillers. The morphology was analyzed using light and transmission electron microscopy. The composites were investigated by creep-recovery experiments in addition to conventional dynamic-mechanical measurements. While the changes of the storage modulus G ? are not very distinctive for low filler concentrations the differences in the recoverable compliance measured by creep-recovery experiments become significant. The better the quality of dispersion the higher is the recoverable compliance. This finding is explained by an interaction of macromolecules with the particle surface which is more pronounced for well dispersed particles as they offer a larger surface area. Therefore creep-recovery measurements can very sensitively be used for the determination of the quality of dispersion. This rheological method integrates over the state of the whole sample whereas transmission electron microscopy analyses only a tiny part of it.

Christian Triebel; Nikolaos Katsikis; Hana Stará

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

APPENDXD.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Report The Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report" provides production data for fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). End-of-month stock data held at ethanol...

319

The feasibility of ethanol production in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural interests across Texas are looking at the possibility of an ethanol industry in Texas. Continued conflict in the Middle East, the ban of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in California, and low commodity prices have all lead...

Herbst, Brian Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a Michael Bizimisb and rare earth ions. Ethylene oxide-based oligomers (polyethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol methyl ether

Latturner, Susan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

322

Gas leakage and distribution characteristics of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride during fumigations in a pilot flour mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The half-loss time (HLT) is used as an indicator to quantify gas leakage rates during methyl bromide (MB) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) fumigations. Comparisons of \\{HLTs\\} between three MB and three SF fumigations were quantified in the Hal Ross pilot flour mill, Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, USA. The sealing quality or gas tightness of the mill before each fumigation was verified by a pressurization test. Fumigant concentrations during the six fumigations were monitored continuously at 30 locations among the five mill floors during the 24 h fumigation period. A weather station on the mill roof monitored barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, temperature, and relative humidity. A data logger on each mill floor recorded temperature and relative humidity. The pressurization test showed that the relationship between airflow rate and building static pressure varied among the fumigations despite the same areas being sealed by two separate fumigation service providers due to environmental conditions not being identical among the fumigations. Concentration differences of both fumigants within the mill ranged from 2 to 7 g/m3. The observed \\{HLTs\\} for the MB and SF fumigations were in the range of 3.61 to 28.64 h and 9.97 to 31.65 h, respectively, and were inversely related only to wind speeds during fumigation and not any other environmental conditions recorded. In our study, the fumigant leakage rate was found to be predominantly a function of wind speed rather than inherent gas characteristics of MB and SF.

Watcharapol Chayaprasert; Dirk E. Maier; Bhadriraju Subramanyam; Michelle Hartzer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.45–16.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X{sup 2}E of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} is stable, and both A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH{sub 3}{sup +}. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH{sub 3}{sup +} dissociated from specific state-selected CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br({sup 2}P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion along C–Br rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion in A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E states along C–Br rupture are revealed. For CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion, the CH{sub 3}{sup +} + Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X{sup 2}E state followed by rapid dissociation. C–Br bond breaking of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation.

Tang, Xiaofeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhou, Xiaoguo, E-mail: xzhou@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shilin [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, Zhongfa [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: xzhou@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

325

Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol amended to 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Final technical report, July 25, 1991--January 25, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a draft final technical report on Task 1 of a contract to synthesize 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol, as amended to 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. This report is a compilation of data presented in earlier reports. The first annual report dealt with an attempted synthesis of 4-methoxy-6-methyl-9- propyldibenzothiophene (the original target compound), the successful synthesis and delivery of 200 grams of the sulfide 1,4-diethyl-2- [(2{prime}-methoxyphenyl)-thio]benzene, and initial work on a new synthesis route for the preparation of the new target compound 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. The change to the new target compound and the new synthesis route became necessary when it was learned that the sulfide mixture could not be cyclized to the substituted dibenzothiophene mixture. The second annual report described the successful preparation of 45 g of the new target compound using the new synthesis route. Subsequently funds were provided to synthesize an additional 45 g of the new target using the same reaction scheme. This task was recently completed.

Eisenbraun, E.J.

1992-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

326

Effect of palm methyl ester-diesel blends performance and emission of a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate engine performance and exhaust emission when using several blends of neat palm oil methyl ester (POME) with conventional diesel (D2) in a small direct injection diesel engine and to compare the outcomes to that of the D2 fuel. Engine performances exhaust emissions and some other important parameters were observed as a function of engine load and speed. In addition the effect of modifying compression ratio was also carried out in this study. From the engine experimental work neat and blended fuels behaved comparably to diesel (D2) in terms of fuel consumption thermal efficiency and rate of heat released. Smoke density showed better results than that emitted by D2 operating under similar conditions due to the presence of inherited oxygen and lower sulphur content in the biofuel and its blends. The emissions of CO CO2 and HC were also lower using blended mixtures and in its neat form. However NOx concentrations were found to be slight higher for POME and its blends and this was largely due to higher viscosity of POME and possibly the presence of nitrogen in the palm methyl ester. General observation indicates that biofuel blends can be use without many difficulties in this type of engine but for optimized operation minor modifications to the engine and its auxiliaries are required.

Mazlan Said; Azhar Abdul Aziz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Study of degumming process and evaluation of oxidative stability of methyl and ethyl biodiesel of Jatropha curcas L. oil from three different Brazilian states  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work describes the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil. The kernel samples provided by Embrapa-PI, were first crushed in a blender and then subjected to extraction with hexane. The oil yield was between 54.71 ± 0.47 and 64.16 ± 2.88%. The J. curcas oil was then submitted to two different kinds of degumming, first with water and second with H3PO4 to evaluate the influence of these processes in the yield of the transesterification reaction. Methyl and ethyl biodiesel prepared from the degummed oil with H3PO4 had higher conversions than those prepared with the degummed with water. Therefore, among the processes of degumming studied, H3PO4 was more suitable for the treatment of J. curcas oil. The study shows the results about oxidation stability were good, because the biodiesels methyl and ethyl biodiesel have induction period at 13.51 h and 13.03 h without antioxidant addition when submitted a Rancimat text. Such biodiesels had their physicochemical parameters defined under the specifications of ANP Resolutions n° 14/2012 (ANP- National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels from Brazil). The results showed that J. curcas cultivation in Brazil is an adequate source for biodiesel production, considering the technical standards available.

Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo; Iranildo C. Araújo; Isabella Cristhina G. Costa; Carla Verônica Rodarte de Moura; Mariana H. Chaves; Eugênio Celso E. Araújo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal of the isomorphous anhydrous ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid and (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and that of the hemihydrate ammonium salt of 4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid show two-dimensional layered structures based on conjoined cyclic hydrogen-bonded motifs.

Smith, G.

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

329

Charting a dynamic DNA methylation landscape of the human Michael J. Ziller1,2,3, Hongcang Gu1, Fabian Mller3,4, Julie Donaghey1,2,3, Linus T.-Y.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charting a dynamic DNA methylation landscape of the human genome Michael J. Ziller1,2,3, Hongcang Center, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany 7Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric GenomicsGs participate in genomic regulation. Here we report the in depth analysis of 42 whole genome bisulfite

330

Experimental Autoignition of C4-C6 Saturated and Unsaturated Methyl and Ethyl Esters H. Bennadji*, J. Biet, L. Coniglio-Jaubert, F. Billaud, P.A. Glaude, F. Battin-Leclerc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: Biodiesel, Methyl esters, Ethyl esters, Shock tube, Reaction mechanism. 1. Introduction Biodiesel is an alternative fuel which can be used directly to a diesel engine without modifying the engine system. Basically separate infrastructure. The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in substantial

Boyer, Edmond

331

Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102 (India)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Correlation of hetorogeneous blood flow and uptake of a di-methyl-branched IODO fatty acid in the normal and ischemic dog heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Myocardial blood flow (MBF) is heterogeneously distributed in normal and ischemic myocardium (myoc). Methylated iodinated fatty acids, like 15-(p-I-125-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPPA) can be used to study fatty acid metabolism with SPECT. We studied the relationship between DMIPPA uptake and MBF. In 10 open-chest dogs, ischemica was induced in the LAD coronary artery by an extra-corporal bypass system. MBF was measured with Sc-46 labeled microspheres. Fourty min. after DMIPPA iv. (34{plus_minus}4 MBq), hearts were excised and left ventricles were cut into 120 pieces, weighed and radioactivities counted. MBF and DMIPPA uptake were determined by counting in normal and ischemic myoc. Heterogeneity is expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) and agreement as the CV of the DMIPPA uptake to MBF ratio. A control study, normal flow in LAD, in 4 dogs revealed no differences in MBF or DMIPPA uptake between the cannulated versus native perfused myoc. We conclude the DMIPPA detects ischemia, in which it shows a different relation with MBF compared to normal myoc. DMIPPA is less heterogeneously distributed than MBF and agreement between MFB and DMIPPA uptake decreases during ischemia.

Sloof, G.W.; Visser, F.C.; Comans, E.F.I. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

A comparative study of Al2O3 coated LHR engine characteristic using rice bran and mahua methyl ester as a fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, for the first time, a nano material of Al2O3 was used as ceramic layer in low heat rejection engine concepts. The coating was carried out by plasma spray method on the combustion chamber surfaces (cylinder head, cylinder liner, valves and crown surfaces) of the DI diesel engine. A comparative evaluation of Al2O3 coated engine was carried out between two types of biodiesel (methyl ester of rice bran and mahua oil) and diesel. Experiments were conducted on single cylinder, four strokes, water cooled and direct injection diesel engine. The test run was also repeated for uncoated engine and compared. The results indicated that, an increase in engine power (6.3-11.4%) and decrease in specific fuel consumption (0.8-10.9%), as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NOx) and smoke opacity (19.6-28.9%) were observed in Al2O3 coated engine compared with that of the uncoated engine.

M. Mohamed Musthafa; S.P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Response surface methodology based prediction of engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with canola oil methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fuel injection timing and engine speed on engine performance and exhaust emission parameters using a diesel engine running on canola oil methyl ester (COME). COME was produced by means of the transesterification method and tested at full load with various engine speeds by changing fuel injection timing (12 15 and 18?°CA) in a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine. The experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM) which is one of the well-known design of experiment technique for predicting the responses engine performance and exhaust emission parameters from a second order polynomial equation obtained by modeling the relation between fuel injection timing (t) and engine speed (n) parameters. By using the second order full quadratic RSM models obtained from experimental results responses brake power brake torque brake mean effective pressure brake specific fuel consumption brake thermal efficiency exhaust gas temperature oxygen (O2) oxides of nitrogen (NOx) carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and light absorption coefficient (K) affected from factors t and n were able to be predicted by 95% confidence interval.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUV plasma source (pulse energy 3 mJ at {lambda}=13.5 nm, plasma diameter {approx}300 {mu}m). By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of {approx}75 mJ/cm{sup 2} at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results, including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUV irradiation. Furthermore, the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 {mu}m diameter, which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium-Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet(EUV)radiation a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUVplasma source (pulse energy 3 ? mJ ? at ? ? = 13.5 ? nm plasma diameter ? 300 ? ? m ). By 10 × demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of ? 75 ? mJ ? cm 2 at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUVirradiation. Furthermore the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 ? ? m diameter which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

Frank Barkusky; Christian Peth; Armin Bayer; Klaus Mann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Engine performance and emissions from the combustion of low-temperature Fischerâ??Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel and biodiesel rapeseed methyl ester blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of oxygenated biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) improves the engine-out particulate matter, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, while the low-temperature Fischerâ??Tropsch synthetic paraffinic diesel fuel improves engine-out NOx, CO, hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. Blending synthetic diesel (SD) fuel with oxygenated biodiesel could unlock potential performance synergies in the fuel properties (e.g. O2 content in RME and high cetane number of the synthetic fuels) of such blends and benefit engine performance and emissions. The combustion of synthetic diesel fuel/RME blend, named synthetic diesel B50, has shown similar combustion characteristics to diesel fuel, while simultaneous improvements in engine efficiency and smoke-NOx trade-off were achieved by taking advantage of the fuel's properties. The engine thermal efficiency was dependent on the fuel type, and followed the general trend: synthetic diesel > SDB50 > diesel > RME. Therefore, it has been shown that the design of a synthetic fuel with properties similar to the fuel blends presented in this work could improve engine-out NOx, smoke and hydrocarbon emissions and maintain or improve engine performance.

Kampanart Theinnoi; Athanasios Tsolakis; Sathaporn Chuepeng; Andrew P.E. York; Roger F. Cracknell; Richard H. Clark

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Miscibility of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) and oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and ethylene oxide or propylene oxide branches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud-point curves of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with a series of oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and short branches of poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(propylene oxide) (BPA-EO or BPA-PO), and with PEO and PPO oligomers, were obtained using a light transmission device. Experimental results were fitted with the Flory- Huggins model using an interaction parameter depending on both temperature and composition. For PMMA/PEO and PMMA/PPO blends, the miscibility increased when increasing the size of the diol, due to the significant decrease in the entropic and enthalpic terms contributing to the interaction parameter. This reflected the decrease in the selfassociation of solvent molecules and in the contribution of terminal OH groups to the mismatching of solubility parameters. For PMMA/BPA-EO blends, a decrease of the entropic contribution to the interaction parameter when increasing the size of the oligodiol was also found. However, the effect was counterbalanced by the opposite contribution of combinatorial terms leading to cloud-point curves located in approximately the same temperature range. For PMMA/BPA-PO blends, the interaction parameter exhibited a very low value. In this case, the effect of solvent size was much more important on combinatorial terms than on the interaction parameter, leading to an increase in miscibility when decreasing the oligodiol size. For short BPA-PO oligodiols no phase separation was observed. The entropic contribution of the interaction parameter exhibited an inverse relationship with the size of the oligodiols, independent of the nature of the chains bearing the hydroxyls and the type of OH groups (primary or secondary). This indicates that the degree of self-association of solvent molecules through their OH terminal groups, was mainly determined by their relative sizes.

B. Jaffrennou; E. R. Soule; F. Mechin; J. Borrajo; J. P. Pascault; R. J. J. Williams

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of ?- as well as ?-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Liquefied Dimethyl Ether: An Energy-Saving, Green Extraction Solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extraction is an essential procedure in the fields of food, pharmacy, and renewable bio-fuels, and it affords the recovery of desired components and the removal of undesired components from the natural feedstock....

Peng Li; Hisao Makino

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: The Pennsylvania State University

343

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether (DME): Fuel of...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

The AFDC is a resource of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Contacts | Web Site Policies | U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov Content Last Updated: 01022015...

344

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a Transportatio...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

similar to that of propane, in that both are required to be kept in pressurized storage tanks at ambient temperature. DME has several fuel properties that make it attractive for...

345

Surface Modification of Silicone Elastomer Using Perfluorinated Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a silicone-coated substrate.29 In addition, higher molecular weight perfluoropolyethers have been included

Chaudhury, Manoj K.

346

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants in Virginia Freshwater Fishes (USA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale ,* Mark J. La Guardia , Ellen P. Harvey , T. Matteson Mainor , William H. Duff , and Michael O. Gaylor ... Following solvent exchange to hexane, the halogenated compounds in the purified extracts were separated on a gas chromatograph (GC; Varian 3400, Sugar Land, TX), equipped with a 60-m DB-5 column (J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA; 0.25 ?m film, 0.32 i.d.). ...

Robert C. Hale; Mark J. La Guardia; Ellen P. Harvey; T. Matteson Mainor; William H. Duff; Michael O. Gaylor

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KNJJUG................................................................................................................Mailing Clerk STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. H U M T 9 L 3L H G U . 9 Z R 11 3J X C I T P P T L I 0 Y uUM T 9 L U 9 0. B. A U P s S 3 D D ...................................................... Austin t 3 T S D T L . L D 1u U M T 9 L U 9 i 3 P P... n R r . 0 T J ......................................................Brownwood A U O O 3J J 3U L T 9 U o V H 9 3 I S P D S 9 T X Z w R dU L T ...................................................... Austin DIRECTOR OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. B. l U...

Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Quantum-Gravity Phenomenology and the DSR Ether Theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guided primarily by versions of a theoretical framework called Doubly Special Relativity, or DSR, that are supposed to entail speeds of light that vary with energy while preserving the relativity of inertial frames, quantum-gravity phenomenologists have recently been seeking clues to quantum gravity, in hoped-for differing times of arrival, for light of differing energies, from cosmologically distant sources. However, it has long been known that signals, of arbitrarily high speed in opposing directions, could be used to observe the translational state of (absolute) rest, as could signals of a fixed speed different from c. Consequently, the above versions of DSR are nonviable.

Kenneth M. Sasaki

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial CuZnOAl2O3 catalyst, utilized...

350

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

351

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Sediments of the Great Lakes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

source of many pollutants, including PCBs and dioxins, to the Great Lakes. This has been particularly analysis demonstrated that the pattern of PBDEs in Lake Superior sediments differs from those in air from the point sources. Sediments are an important sink and reservoir of per- sistent pollutants

Rockne, Karl J.

352

Network Structure of Cellulose Ethers Used in Pharmaceutical Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, have studied these two processes (1,3­6). Significant models have been proposed by Peppas molecules dissolve in water and are released by diffusion. The processes of swelling, ero- sion, and drug mathematical models that include all interrelated parameters and that fit accurately the experimental results

Peppas, Nicholas A.

353

European-Scale Modeling of Concentrations and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Pentabromodiphenyl Ether Product  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YQ, United Kingdom ... Limited survey data in the Mediterranean (Cyprus) were surprisingly high (20); it was assumed that the advection into Europe from the south was probably lower, but this assumption needs to be tested by future field data. ... VP-derived EFs should be suited to solid?gas-phase releases (13) and may therefore describe outgassing of the lighter components of PeBDE under ambient temperatures from solid matrixes where they have been used as additives. ...

K. Prevedouros; K. C. Jones; A. J. Sweetman

2004-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

354

High-performance Organic Thin-film Transistor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition PGMEA Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate PMMA Poly (methyl methacrylate) PVA Polyvinyl acetate RFID Radio Frequency Identification RIE Reactive Ion Etching SAM Self-Aligned Monolayer SEM Scanning... ............................................................................................ 25 2.2.1 Adhesion improvement and dual polymer layer on SiO2 ................................ 25 2.2.2 Non-compatibility testing for PMMA and P3HT ............................................ 26 2.2.3 Single-layer patterning...

Jung, Yunbum

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ?2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Quantitation of Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Metabolites in Human Urine Using Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......IL). To use the generator, 132 mg of N-methyl-N...inside tube with 0.5 mL water, and 0.75 mL of ether...ionization efficiency using atmospheric pressure ionization...liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressurechemical ionisation...liter levelsin ground- water.J. Chromatogr.A......

W. Jack Driskell; Ming Shih; Larry L. Needham; Dana B. Barr

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, biogas, hydrogen, and alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, and n-butanol), and fuel additives (MTBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether, H2O2 or hydrogen peroxide, 2-EHN or ethylhexyl nitrate and DTBP or di...

Sun, Jiafeng

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

358

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

359

SPME in Environmental Analysis: Biotransformation Pathways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......SPMEGCMS to study the degradation of ethyl benzene using...methyl-t-butyl ether and its degradation products, t-butyl...food by determining degradation products and other released...Bitumen is a fossil fuel rich in sulfur, which...Aliquots of the cell suspension (2 mL......

Annamaria Halasz; Jalal Hawari

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 00(0):000000 (2001) 1064-3389/01/$.50  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-3389/01/$.50 © 2001 by CRC Press LLC The Transport and Fate of Ethanol and BTEX in Groundwater Contaminated by Gasohol water contamination by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have made policymakers more cognizant of the need). It has been discovered that MTBE is a ubiquitous contaminant in surface and ground waters throughout

Alvarez, Pedro J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tetrahedron Letters,Vo1.30,No.44,pp 5997-6000,1989 0040-4039/89 $3.00 + .oo Printed in Great Britain Pergamon Press plc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-alkoxy tin reagent 5.ltJ2 preparation of the copper lithium reagent of 5 followed by the addition resulted in the formation of the methyl acetal from the enol ether to give 9 (3:l mixture of anomers of the 1,3-dicarbonyl system with lithium diethylamide followed by treatment of the lithium species

362

Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Long-Chain Fatty Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......6 FEBRUARY 1968 of lithium aluminum hydride hydrogenolysis...starting materials for the synthesis of glyceryl ethers...polar liquid phases. Acetate derivatives used by...TMS) and trifluoro- acetate (TFA) derivatives...the methyl esters by lithium aluminum hydride reduction......

Randall Wood

1968-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a toxic gasoline component might be just what the doctor ordered for Maine's con- taminated groundwater with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which is found in gasoline. Once the first field trial is complete out of the reformulated gasoline pro- gram (RFG) .The gasoline, which con- tains 11 percent MTBE

Lovley, Derek

364

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Act mandated oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) in certain areas percent. The State of Maine elected to use reformulated gasoline (RFG) that contained at least 11 percent and by 1995, oxygenated gasoline use was common in the northeast. Soon after the widespread use of gasoline

366

Exact analysis of polycrystalline electron spin echo envelope modulation including mutual nuclear arrangements and quadrupole interactions and its application to methyl radicals in irradiated crystals of lithium acetate dihydrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The method of exact analysis including mutual nuclear arrangements and quadrupole interactions is developed for electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEM) from polycrystalline samples using the formulation in an arbitrary laboratory coordinate system which makes it possible to perform an exact angular integration. In order to assess polycrystalline ESEM by comparing with electron nuclear double resonance(ENDOR) data the method is applied to analyze deuterium hyperfine modulation on the two?pulse electron spin echo (ESE) envelope decay observed for methyl radicals radiolytically produced in CD3COOLi???2H2O and CH3COOLi???2D2O. The results are totally consistent with our previous study by single crystal1H ENDOR. Through this application importance of the nuclear quadrupole term is also shown based on the exact method. The rigid deuterons in the water of crystallization show a marked quadrupole effect as compared with those in the freely rotating CD3 group. The contributions from the distant nuclei to the modulation pattern are also studied by the exact method using the crystallographic data. We have further clarified that the origin of the disagreement of a previous Li ESEM with our ENDOR is mainly in the use of a unit spin density on the spin probe despite its reduction by delocalization to the environment.

Machio Iwasaki; Kazumi Toriyama

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Counter-anion role in the formation of two supra­molecular complexes: [Ag2(DPP)2](ClO4)2?CH3CN and [Ag2(DPP)2(NO3)2] {DPP is N-[(di­phenyl­phosphanyl)methyl]pyridin-4-amine}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Ag complex of N-[(di­phenyl­phosphanyl)methyl]pyridin-4-amine (DPP) with perchlorate, the unique Ag+ cation has a near-linear coordination geometry consisting of one pyridine N atom and one P atom from two different DPP ligands. In the analogous complex with nitrate, the nitrate anions weakly chelate to each Ag+ cation, leading to each Ag+ cation having a distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry consisting of one pyridine N atom and one P atom from two different DPP ligands, and two chelating nitrate O atoms.

Liang, G.-M.

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

368

Molecular Cell Methylation of a Histone Mimic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,3 Andrew N. Krutchinsky,2 Ingrid Mecklenbra¨ uker,1 Agnes Viale,5 Eugene Rudensky,1 Ming-Ming Zhou,4., 2004; Huang et al., 2006; Kouskouti et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2005). In contrast, little progr

Chait, Brian T.

369

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Conformation-Selective Methylation of Geminivirus DNA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...X15984) (22) were inoculated into the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin and grown in a greenhouse with supplementary lighting or in a climate chamber as described previously (81), under containment according to gene technology...

T. Paprotka; K. Deuschle; V. Metzler; H. Jeske

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

A fivefold inter­penetrating diamond­oid three-dimensional metal-organic framework constructed from benzene-1,4-di­acetic acid and flexible triazole derivatives: poly[[(2-benzene-1,4-di­acetato-2O:O){2-1,4-bis­[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]benzene-2N4:N4'}zinc(II)] monohydrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The title compound has a fivefold inter­penetrating diamondoid three-dimensional metal-organic framework, with each ZnII centre surrounded by two O-donor atoms from monodentate carboxyl­ate groups belonging to two different benzene-1,4-di­acetate ligands and by two triazole N-donor atoms from two different 1,4-bis­[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]benzene ligands.

Shen, H.

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

Suggestions for Controlling Insects in Farm-Stored Grain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage structures, or too high temperatures and high grain moisture at binning. Importance of Keeping Insects Out of Stored Grains Grain prices are based on clean, dry, wholesome grain. Anythirig that lowers quality also lowers its price. Insect... tetrachloride odor Ethyhme Yes Poor None Sweet Depresses dibromide Ethylene Yes Poor High Ether Little dichloride odor Chloropicrin Yes Poor None Tear gas Depresses Sulfur dioxide Yes None Irritating Destroys Methyl Yes Excellent None None Depresses...

Hamman, Philip J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The stereochemistry of excited state atom reorganization processes; the di-pi-methane rearrangement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

allyl-radicaloid intermediate will predominate, as exemplified for the excited sta'te conversion of dehydroergosteryl acetate (+7) to photo- dehydroergosteryl acetate (58) in Figure 5. The mech- anistic pathways used for this predictive method... (+). The 0-isopropyl ether, ~7 , was converted to 3-phenylcyclohexene-1-carbox- aldehyde (~6) by lithium aluminum hydride reduction 30 followed by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Alkylation of the potassium salt of aldehyde 76 with methyl iodide...

Ko, Jan Kwei

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

374

Green Solvents for Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate to Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solvents are often volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ... decade, chemistry research into the use of greener, alternative solvents has been grown enormously. Alternative solvents suitable for green chemistry are t...

S. Krishna Mohan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Formation of Methyl Nitrite and Methyl Nitrate during Plasma Treatment of Diesel Exhaust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify CH3ONO and CH3ONO2 as products of the nonthermal plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust. This is the first observation of CH3ONO formation in such systems. The yield of CH3ONO relative to CH3ONO2 scaled ...

T. J. Wallington; J. W. Hoard; M. P. Sulbaek Andersen; M. D. Hurley; Y. Nakano; M. Kawasaki

2003-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

376

The Role of the Ocean in the Atmospheric Budgets of Methyl Bromide, Methyl Chloride and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis Committee Members, John D. Kessler Robert Rhew Gunnar W. Schade... to work with her. I would like to thank my committee members, Drs. John D. Kessler, Robert Rhew and Gunnar W. Schade. I went to two cruises with John and coauthored several papers with him. He gave me a lot of help and inspiration for methane study. He...

Hu, Lei

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

377

Identification of Differentially Methylated Sequences in Colorectal Cancer by Methylated CpG Island Amplification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...genotype of each panel was determined. Linkage analysis was performed using the RH server of Stanford University (http://www-shgc.stanford.edu/RH/index.html). PCR primer sequences used to amplify each clone are available upon request. RT-PCR...

Minoru Toyota; Coty Ho; Nita Ahuja; Kam-Wing Jair; Qing Li; Mutsumi Ohe-Toyota; Stephen B. Baylin; Jean-Pierre J. Issa

1999-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha -chloro ethers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies and Information Sciences 31 NetInfo Editions 4.x User Manual Summary: and Internet addresses: alpha 192.42.172.1 bravo 192.42.172.2 charlie 192.42.172.3 Two of the...

379

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic crown ethers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 4 Aggregation and Reactivity of Phenyllithium Solutions Hans J. Reich,* D. Patrick Green, Marco A. Medina, Wayne S. Goldenberg, Summary: ), N,N-dimethylpropyl- eneurea...

380

Comparison of CO and NO Emissions from Propane, n-Butane, and Dimethyl Ether Premixed Flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements were made with a water-cooled stainless steel sampling probe situated above the visible reaction zone of a co-flow burner. ... Dehydration is satisfactory for DME production geared toward current demand but it is not cost-effective for the mass production of DME required for widespread fuel use.10 The recent and intense interest in DME as a transportation fuel has arisen from development of new methods to produce DME on a larger scale from natural gas10 and from syngas in a one-step slurry phase process. ...

Christopher A. Frye; André L. Boehman; Peter J. A. Tijm

1999-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Determination of properties of PVE lubricants with HFC refrigerants[PolyVinylEther  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyalkyleneglycol (PAG) and polyol ester (POE) have been developed as refrigeration lubricants, used with HFC134a. PAG is used for automotive air conditioning systems and POE is used for domestic reciprocating refrigerators and for A/C systems. Although PAG exhibits good lubricity performance, it is difficult to use for domestic reciprocating refrigerators due to its low dielectric property. POE is difficult to use for automotive A/C systems, due to hydrolysis and poor lubricity performance. Polyvinylether (PVE) can be used in place of PAG and POE with HFC refrigerants. PVE is used for A/C systems as well as refrigerator and freezer applications. PVE is an ideal lubricant for use with HFCs.

Kaneko, Masato; Sakanoue, Shuichi; Tazaki, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Shoichi; Takagi, Minoru; Goodin, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl tert-butyl ether Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

> >> 1 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple Summary: .S.Patent 5,091,590,1992. 0 1995American Chemical Society...

383

Tribology of Confined Fomblin-Z Perfluoropolyalkyl Ethers: Role of Chain-End Chemical Functionality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, polysiloxanes,1-4 polybutadiene,1,5 or perfluorinated perfluoropolyethers6-8) in which the chain end

Granick, Steve

384

Antarctic Research Bases: Local Sources of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Flame Retardants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale †, Stacy L. Kim ‡, Ellen Harvey †, Mark J. La Guardia †, T. Matt Mainor †, Elizabeth O. Bush † and Elizabeth M. Jacobs † ... Purified extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ...

Robert C. Hale; Stacy L. Kim; Ellen Harvey; Mark J. La Guardia; T. Matt Mainor; Elizabeth O. Bush; Elizabeth M. Jacobs

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

385

Sulfonated Polybenzophenone/Poly(arylene ether) Block Copolymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Major car companies have announced that they will commercialize fuel cell vehicles from 2015. ... Future articles will describe the performance of these copolymers as proton-exchange membranes in hydrogen/air and direct methanol fuel cells. ...

Takahiro Miyahara; Tetsuji Hayano; Soichi Matsuno; Masahiro Watanabe; Kenji Miyatake

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

386

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with realistic air-exchange and product usage rates, theand total rate of air freshener product volatilization (26, 589-597. Cleaning Product and Air Freshener Emissions (

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Fluoroalkylation of aryl ether perfluorocyclobutyl polymers S. Clark Ligon, Jr.a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Bernard Boutevinb , Dennis W. Smith, Jr.a* a Advanced Materials Research Laboratories, Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University applications [6,7], in aerospace coatings applications [8], and in battery electrolyte applications [9

Boyer, Edmond

388

Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

389

Ether-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for One-Trial Conditioning in Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...16 January 1961 A World-wide Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Abstract. An aerosol layer has been identified by a stratospheric balloon and aircraft aerosol collection program. Meas-urements of horizontal extension and ver-tical distribution...

John P. Abt; Walter B. Essman; Murray E. Jarvik

1961-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

390

Synthesis and Modification of Alternating Copolymers Based on Vinyl Ethers, Chlorotrifluoroethylene, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in dynamic mode, under air, showed decomposition temperatures (Td,10%) higher than 200 °C. Electrochemical recent fuel cells technology, combining the best of both alkaline batteries and solid polymer electrolyte-exchange membranes, do not require noble metals (Pt, Ru...) as catalysts to function, which is one of the main

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Fingerprints in the Ether: Using the Physical Layer for Wireless Authentication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transmitters (users) based on their channel frequency responses in a given office environment. For several environment typical of wireless scenarios, the response of the medium along any transmit- receive path. In this paper we propose ways to exploit the fact that, in a typically rich scattering environment, the radio

Trappe, Wade

392

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leclercb , Henry J. Currana a Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland on a flatflame burner using the heat flux method. The experimental pressure was 1 atm are compared with experimental and computational data reported in the literature. The data reported

Boyer, Edmond

393

Isolation of Acetobacterium sp. Strain AG, Which Reductively Debrominates Octa- and Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether Technical Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...day 33; all lactate was depleted by then, producing 7.5 mM...sediments contaminated with uranium(VI). Appl. Environ. Microbiol...Peterson. 2006. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of...and neurotoxicity. Environ. Health Perspect. 119 . 44. Drake...

Chang Ding; Wai Ling Chow; Jianzhong He

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Peak-Shift Technique in Gas-Liquid Chromatography : Trimethylsilyl Ether Derivatives of Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in Mass Spectrometry. Proc. Joint Conf. by Inst. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Res. Group and ASTM Comm. E-14, edit. by Waldron, J. (Pergamon Press, London 1959) ...

STANLEY H. LANGER; PETER PANTAGES

1961-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

Electronic structure of unsaturated ethers and thioethers by uv photoelectron spectroscopy andab initio quantum mechanical calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy measurements of ... and thioethers provided a reliable description of the electronic structure, in particular as far ...

G. Modena; F. Marcuzzi; E. Tondello; D. Ajó

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Exergy Analysis of the Process for Dimethyl Ether Production through Biomass Steam Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About 6.37% of the total carbon is released to the environment in the form of wastewater and waste gas. ... If the heat for gasifying the biomass could be obtained from other energy resource, the carbon atom utilization could be increased greatly, and the CO2 emissions could be decreased considerably. ... A Cost?Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry: Volume 1 Main Report; Princeton University: Princeton, NJ, 2006. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Christian Solli; Edgar G. Hertwich; Xiao Tian; Suojiang Zhang

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

397

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthesia ether cyclopropane Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology Collection: Chemistry 58 Three-Electron SN2 Reactions of Arylcyclopropane Cation Radicals. 2. Steric and Electronic Effects of...

398

Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Statistical Copolymers Bearing Perfluoroalkylsulfonic Acid Moieties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Number-average molecular weight (Mn) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymeric materials were measured using a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) system consisting of a Waters Alliance 2695 separation module, an online multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector fitted with a gallium arsenide laser (power: 20 mW) operating at 690 nm (MiniDAWN, Wyatt Technology Inc.), an interferometric refractometer (Optilab DSP, Wyatt Technology Inc.), and two Polymer Laboratories mixed D columns (5 ?m bead size) connected in series. ... (23) After experimentation with several alternative neutralizing agents including pyridine and alkali metal hydroxides and carbonates, we determined that the aliphatic tertiary amine, N,N-diisopropylethylamine, produces a salt with favorable solubility and crystallization behavior. ... It is sparingly soluble in water, which facilitates isolation, and as will be shown, it may be used directly in polymerization, and under these conditions, the free amine is released and volatilized out of the polymer product. ...

Haibo Li; Andrew B. Jackson; Nathan J. Kirk; Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robson F. Storey

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

399

SORPTION OF A NONIONIC POLYOXYETHYLENE LAURYL ETHER SURFACTANT BY 2:1 LAYER SILICATES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Surfactants find their way into the soil environment through agrochemical formulations, detergents, cosmetics, textiles and other...Ca-SWy, Ca-PC, Ca-IMV1 and Ca-IMV2. The elemental compositions of Ca-saturated clay samples were determined by inductively...

L. S. Sonon; M. L. Thompson

400

Fruit flies learn to avoid odours associated with virulent infection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...induced by ingestion or injection of toxic compounds, such as lithium chloride, alkaloids or glycosides, or immune elicitors...odours and comparing their choice between these odours. Amyl acetate (AA) and ethyl hexanoate (EH) were used as odorants; these...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

403

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

404

Why Sequence Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Ethers such as 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and methyl tert-butyl ether are widespread contaminants of groundwater resources. 1,4-Dioxane is widely used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). 1,4-Dioxane is a carcinogen, and causes acute toxic effects on the nervous system, liver, and kidneys. One promising approach for remediating 1,4-dioxane-impacted water supplies is in-situ bioremediation using aerobic bacteria. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 is a unique bacterial strain that can grow using 1,4-dioxane as a sole source of carbon and energy. It can degrade several other water contaminants and also fix dinitrogen, making it an attractive bioaugmentation culture even for nitrogen-limited

405

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

406

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

407

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

409

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FL Kansas City, MO Lake Charles, LA Los Angeles, CAFL Kansas City, MO Lake Charles, LA Los Angeles, CA

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

The contribution of oceanic methyl iodide to stratospheric iodine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

horizontal wind speed and vertical transport efficiency (speed Horizontal wind speed and vertical transport CH 3 Ivertical transport. Note that for these two days high www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/11869/2013/ horizontal wind speeds

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Isoprenylcysteine Methylation and Demethylation Regulate Abscisic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Loraine et al., 1996; Yalovsky et al., 1996...Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 126: 670-684. Loraine, A.E., Yalovsky, S., Fabry, S...Cell 12: 1267-1278. Yalovsky, S., Loraine, A.E., and Gruissem, W. (1996...

David H. Huizinga; Olutope Omosegbon; Bilal Omery; Dring N. Crowell

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Hg L3 XANES Study of Mercury Methylation in Shredded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,indicatingbioaccumulationofmercury.Plantsamples collected at this site were also grown in nutrient solution with 1 ppm HgCl2 under (1) aerobic conditions

413

Some sympathomimetic activities of N-methyl-tyramine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this depletion by the blockage of the storage mechanism in the norepine- phrine granules and not by blocking a pump in the cell membrane (Dahlstrom et al. , 1965). It does not block the synthesis or action of catecholamines. Schumann and Philippu (1962) have... described another difference between the depletions produced by tyramine and by reserpine. Reserpine mobilizes both the catecholamines and the ATP of the storage granules while tyramine and other sympathomimetic amines release only the catecholamines...

Blankenship, James William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ethionine-induced Changes in Rat Liver Transfer RNA Methylation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...given food and water ad libitum...their drinking water for 3 days prior to the drug treatment and maintained...the drinking water. [Addition...supernatant. Where dialysis was used the...subjected to paper electrophoresis in ammo- nium...

Elsie Wainfan; Mary L. Moller; Frank A. Maschio; and M. Earl Balis

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The DNA methylation landscape of human early embryos  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center & Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

Hongshan Guo; Ping Zhu; Liying Yan; Rong Li; Boqiang Hu; Ying Lian; Jie Yan; Xiulian Ren; Shengli Lin; Junsheng Li; Xiaohu Jin; Xiaodan Shi; Ping Liu; Xiaoye Wang; Wei Wang; Yuan Wei; Xianlong Li; Fan Guo; Xinglong Wu; Xiaoying Fan; Jun Yong; Lu Wen; Sunney X. Xie; Fuchou Tang; Jie Qiao

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

416

Superhydrophobic Transparent Surface of Nanostructured Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of nonselective plasma etching of AlGaN by CF4/Ar/Cl2 V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, J. Saxena-period superlattices with various doping properties. Etching is performed using mixed CF4/Ar feed gases in a combined describe experiments on CF4-based plasma etching of AlGaN layers with widely varying com- positions

Kim, Ho-Young

417

Methyl arsenic adsorption and desorption behavior on iron oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as competitive ligands. Arsenic was measured by FI-HG-AAS. MMAsV and iAsV were adsorbed in higher amounts than DMAsV on goethite and ferrihydrite at all pH values studied. Although MMAsV and iAsV were adsorbed quantitatively at lower concentrations on goethite...

Lafferty, Brandon James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

Classical trajectory simulations of photodissociation of methyl bromide at surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the P -phase of solid CH&Br to simulate dissociation from high coverages of the adsorbate where CH&Br ice is formed. The intermolecular interaction between the gas and surface atoms included long-range dispersion forces and short-range repulsive forces... ~ Cia coefficients for the interaction of CH&Br with LiF. 28 II. Structure and energetics parameters of CH&Br adsorbed on rough surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " " 31 III. Buckingham potential parameters for CHsBr. . . 42...

Watson, Joseph Marion

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

419

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. R. Holmes (1977): “Nitrogen Dioxide Photolysis in the LosO3 Ozone NO Nitric Oxide NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide NO3 NitrateNitrogen Pentoxide HONO Nitrous Acid HNO3 Nitric Acid HNO4 Peroxynitric Acid HO2H Hydrogen Peroxide CO Carbon Monoxide SO2 Sulfur Dioxide

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Diffusion of propane (1); 2-methyl-propane (2)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This document is part of Subvolume A ‘Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures’ of Volume 15 ‘Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes’ of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV ‘Physical Chemistry’. It is part of the ...

J. Winkelmann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

known amounts of ethylene, propane, propylene, n-butane, n-3 ppm -1 min -1 . (Primarily propane) ALK3 Alkanes and other

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Microbial Methylation of Metalloids: Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sewage gas, and As(C2H5)3 has been recorded in landfill gas; they are likely formed by microbial action, thus...2C2H5As. Only sewage gas formed CH3AsH2, and only landfill gas formed (C2H5)3As. Particularly noteworthy is the...

Ronald Bentley; Thomas G. Chasteen

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Measurement of Mercury Methylation in Lake Water and Sediment Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...suggest a linear relation- ship between overall microbial activity...weeks to 4 days, enabling the detection of short-term fluctuations...seawater by ultra-violet radiation, analytical and other applications...no. 25. Canadian Fish and Marine Service, Winnipeg. 34. Stary...

Akira Furutani; John W. M. Rudd

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Introduction Biodiesel is a renewable fuel source suitable for use within the current transport of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA b Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Available online 5 September

Walter, M.Todd

425

Engineering of Bacterial Methyl Ketone Synthesis for Biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...composition to optimize diesel fuel properties. Supplemental...for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. Nature...2003. Tools for genetic engineering in the amino acid-producing...Knothe, G . 2008. biodiesel: optimizing fatty ester composition to improve fuel properties. Energy Fuels...

Ee-Been Goh; Edward E. K. Baidoo; Jay D. Keasling; Harry R. Beller

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

426

Methylation of 16S RNA during ribosome assembly in vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 16S RNA. Little is known, however, about the role of ribosomal proteins in the processing of precursor 16S RNA7. Recent experiments which demonstrated that 16S RNA from kasugamycin-resistant ... RNA and the assembly map (Fig. 4)14,16 indicates these proteins are strongly interrelated and occupy an early part of the map. In addition to S4, S8, ...

Pallaiah Thammana; William A. Held

1974-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

427

Microbial Methylation of Metalloids: Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...about 50%) is used in the pharmaceutical industry (76, 201, 254). The 1899 edition...metalloid compounds in gases from domestic waste deposits with GC/ICP-MS. Fresenius...1991. Microbial energetics applied to waste repositories. Experientia 47: 645-687...

Ronald Bentley; Thomas G. Chasteen

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Synthetic approaches to the activation of substituted 2-methyl pyridines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increases in the yield and rate of these reactions is an important objective. This thesis describes synthetic approaches to a new class of ligands containing two picolinic acid units conected together by a non-oxidizable chain. An improved procedure...

Cancanon, Fernadina de la Caridad

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

429

Computational prediction of methylation status in human genomic sequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. Bestor , and Michael Q. Zhang* *Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724 and ¶Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 Communicated by Michael H. Wigler, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, April 12, 2006 (received for review October 25

430

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Proceedings of the 1995 SAE alternative fuels conference. P-294  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains 32 papers and five panel discussions related to the fuel substitution of trucks, automobiles, buses, cargo handling equipment, diesel passenger cars, and pickup trucks. Fuels discussed include liquefied natural gas, natural gas, ethanol fuels, methanol fuels, dimethyl ether, methyl esters from various sources (rape oil, used cooking oils, soya, and canola oils), hydrogen fuels, and biodiesel. Other topics include fuel cell powered vehicles, infrastructure requirements for fuel substitution, and economics. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, J.M.

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Modification of Y Zeolite with Alkaline Treatment: Textural Properties and Catalytic Activity for Diethyl Carbonate Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Compared to dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol, DEC has been proposed as a potential fuel oxygenate additive to replace methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because of its high oxygen content (40.6 wt %) and favorable fuel/water partition coefficient. ... For CuY using untreated zeolite as a support, there were only two H2-comsumption peaks at 473 and 681 K, ascribed to the Cu+ located on sites III? and II. ... Dunn, B. C.; Guenneau, C.; Hilton, S. A.; Pahnke, J.; Eyring, E. M.Production of diethyl carbonate from ethanol and carbon monoxide over a heterogeneous catalyst Energy Fuels 2002, 16, 177– 181 ...

Shouying Huang; Pengzhen Chen; Bing Yan; Shengping Wang; Yongli Shen; Xinbin Ma

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

436

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Inputs & Utilization Inputs & Utilization Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline.

439

Properties of some ionic liquids based on 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids as green solvents: progress and prospects.ionic liquids are “green” solvents, i.e. , environmentally

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Yakelis, Neal; Salminen, Justin; Bergman, Robert; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Global budgets of oceanic and atmospheric methyl iodide: development of methyl iodide as a tracer for marine convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), wetlands (7 Gg yr \\Gamma1 ) and wood fuel (3 Gg yr \\Gamma1 ) are also included in the model. A global

Jacob, Daniel J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Synthesis and structure of methyl 8-allyl-6-bromo-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-4-carboxylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compound C{sub 15}H{sub 18}NO{sub 2}Br was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystals belong to the monoclinic system, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/n, a = 8.913(2) A, b = 23.637(6) A, c = 13.892(3) A, {beta} = 90.31(2){sup o}, Z = 8, V = 2926.8(12) A{sup 3}, {rho}{sub calc} = 1.472 g/cm{sup 3}. The bond lengths and bond angles in two molecules are equal within an experimental error and are typical of this class of compounds. The conformational differences of the saturated heterocyclic and methoxycarbonyl fragments of the molecules result in the presence of two crystallographically independent molecules in the crystal structure.

Zhuravleva, Yu. A., E-mail: orgchem@samgtu.ru; Zimichev, A. V.; Zemtsova, M. N. [Samara State Technical University (Russian Federation); Rybakov, V. B., E-mail: rybakov@struct.chem.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Klimochkin, Yu. N. [Samara State Technical University (Russian Federation)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

The toxicity of triclosan, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether to the regeneration of cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A ... cosmetics, cleaners and plastic bowls. However, triclosan has been detected in sewage samples after ... are commonly exposed to phenolic chemicals such as triclosan

Hyung-Geun Park; Min-Kyeong Yeo

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reaction of partial oxidation is exothermic and the residence time is very short (? = 3.6-72 ms). The overall reaction between CH4 and O2 is; CH 4 + 0.5O 2 ? CO + 2H 2 ?H o 298K = ?36 kJ/mol (3... sufficient cooling of reactor to continue healthy reactor conditions because the reactions that occur in reactor are highly exothermic [32]. Type of reactor has significant effect on the final products in reactor. Multitubular fixed-bed reactors...

Karagoz, Secgin

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

444

Performance and Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether and Rapeseed Oil Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorenson and Mikkelsen2 had studied DME in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Meanwhile, these parameters are compared with those of pure diesel fuel in order to clarify the effect of blends on the combustion and emission of engines (a CI engine cannot run for much longer of a period with pure DME fuel, so a comparison is only made with pure diesel fuel). ... Moreover, owing to the lower calorific value of the blend compared to diesel fuel, the fuel supply amount per cycle for blend operation is enlarged by increasing the plunger stroke of the fuel pump in order to make the power and torque output of the blends approach those of the corresponding diesel engine. ...

Wang Ying; Zhou Longbao

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

445

Fast Scan Ion Mobility Spectra of Diethyl, Dipropyl, and Dibutyl Ethers as Determined by the Plasma Chromatograph  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......v U U) The Beta VII plasma chromatograph is equipped...signal produced has a 5 kHz bandwidth. The oscilloscope...oscilloscope. Under identical plasma chromatographic conditions...a reaction chamber at atmospheric pressure where collisional...formed. The use of the plasma chromatograph as an identi......

Michael M. Metro; Roy A. Keller

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Development of air and dust sampling methods for quantitative measurements of polybromated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in offices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, published in "10. International Conference Healthy Buildings (HB2012), Brisbane : Australia (2012)" #12

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

448

Indoor Air Is a Significant Source of Tri-decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers to Outdoor Air via Ventilation Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four apartments in each building were selected randomly for air sampling and these contained household goods, electronic equipment, and furniture typical of Swedish households. ... The PBDE levels in Japan are comparable to those found in European countries. ...

Justina Awasum Björklund; Kaj Thuresson; Anna Palm Cousins; Ulla Sellström; Gunnel Emenius; Cynthia A. de Wit

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 results: 7 results: BibTex RIS RTF XML Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year (Desc) ] Filters: Author is Elton J. Cairns [Clear All Filters] 2008 Shin, Joon Ho, Pratyay Basak, John B. Kerr, and Elton J. Cairns. "Rechargeable Li/LiFePO4 Cells Using N-Methyl-N-butyl pyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI Electrolyte Incorporating Polymer Additives." Electrochimica Acta 54, no. 2 (2008): 410-414. Shin, Joon Ho, and Elton J. Cairns. "N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI-poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether mixture as a Li/S cell electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 177 (2008): 537-545. 2007 Nakahara, Kentaro, Jiro Iriyama, Shigeyuki Iwasa, Masahiro Suguro, Masaharu Satoh, and Elton J. Cairns. "Al-laminated film packaged organic radical

450

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

451

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Mercury Distribution across 14 U.S. Forests. Part II: Patterns of Methyl Mercury Concentrations and Areal Mass of Total and Methyl Mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(9) In summary, the sites include (in order from south to north): (S1) a pine forest located near Gainesville, Florida; (S2) a mixed deciduous hardwood forest near Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (S3) an oak forest in Ashland, Missouri; (S4 and S5) two sites in the Sierra Nevada Mountain range south of Reno, Nevada, with one site affected by a stand-replacing wildfire in 1981 and an adjacent “intact” site that received no mature tree mortality;(28) (S6) a blue oak site in the foothills of California near Marysville; (S7 and S8) two Jeffrey pine forests near Truckee, California, where one site experienced prescribed burning treatments in 2002 while no prescribed burning was conducted in an adjacent site; (28) (S9) a high-elevation Rocky Mountain coniferous forest at Niwot Ridge, Colorado; (S10) a sugar-maple forest located near Hart, Michigan; (S11) a mixed, deciduous forest in Bartlett, New Hampshire; (S12) a coniferous forest in Howland, Maine; and (S13 and S14) two forest sites southeast of Seattle, Washington, one dominated by previously planted coniferous Douglas fir and an adjacent deciduous stand dominated by red alder. ... MeHg was analyzed for 12 of the 14 sites, not considering the two sites affected by prescribed burning and wildfires (sites S5 and S8). ...

Daniel Obrist

2012-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

454

GC and Mass Spectral Studies on Acylated Side Chain Regioisomers of 3-Methoxy-4-methyl-phenethylamine and 4-Methoxy-3-methyl-phenethylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......amine in 50 L of ethyl acetate followed by addition...with 200 L of ethyl acetate and 50 L of pyridine...working solutions. Synthesis The methods for the...upon reduction with lithium aluminum hydride (LAH...R.F.X. Klein. Synthesis and characteri- zation......

Tamer Awad; Jack DeRuiter; Tarek Belal; C. Randall Clark

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Zelenay named Electrochemical Society Fellow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and dimethyl ether oxidation; hydrogen, direct methanol, and direct dimethyl ether fuel cells; electrode and membrane-electrode - 2 - assembly development; and performance...

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl bisdiazeniumdiolates potent Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Hindered Alkyl-Aryl Ethers Thomas F. Woiwode... synthesis.2 Our retrosynthetic analysis of phomopsin A targeted the chiral tertiary alkyl-aryl ether... substitution (SNAr)...

457

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ignition Using Isooctane, Ethanol and Natural Gas - AModel for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation," Internationalof Bio-Derived Carbon from Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends in the

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as Bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. 1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Eggs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Eggs from Lyons Creek (Niagara River AOC) reflected a local PCB source over a range of 7.5 km (3.2 ? 10.8) from the Welland Canal. ... AOC ... Mean ?PBDEs concentrations in turtle eggs ranged from 3.8 ng/g ww (Algonquin Park) to 73.3 ng/g (Hamilton Harbour AOC; Figure 2). ...

S. R. de Solla; K. J. Fernie; R. J. Letcher; S. G. Chu; K. G. Drouillard; S. Shahmiri

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Because ofwater solubility, fuel oxygenate...toluene. When water supplies are contaminated...followed by gas chromatography-high-resolution...helium-sparged distilled water (26) to produce...blanks,and water standardsfor daily...column carrier gas for all analyses...using liquid nitrogen from Air Liq......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......which performsautomatedsample heating, SPME extraction, and GC injection...fibers were preconditioned by heating at 250~ for 2 h. Fuel oxy...accurate, the high purchase price of the HRMSand the high cost...Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Petroleum Supply Monthly......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Synthesis, Structure, and Dispersion Property of a Novel Lignin-Based Polyoxyethylene Ether from Kraft Lignin and Poly(ethylene glycol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(19) Dimethomorph was provided as a light white powder (50 ?m) with a minimum purity of 98.5% from Noposion Agrochemicals Co., Ltd., China. ... Effect of Molar Ratio of ECH to PEG on the Composition of KL-PEG Copolymer ... Table 3. Structural Compositions of KL-PEG Copolymers ...

Xuliang Lin; Mingsong Zhou; Suya Wang; Hongming Lou; Dongjie Yang; Xueqing Qiu

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

462

MTBE Production Economics  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE Production MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne market) of MTBE rose from $1.00 per gallon to over $1.60 per gallon. This represented an increase in the price premium for MTBE over the wholesale price of conventional gasoline from its normal (1995 though 2000 average) $0.26 per gallon to $0.60 per gallon. The MTBE

463

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Stocks Total Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

464

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Background As a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), the year-round use of reformulated gasoline (RFG) has been required in cities with the worst smog problems since 1995 (Figure 1). One of the requirements of RFG specified by CAAA90 is a 2- percent oxygen requirement, which is met by blending "oxygenates," 1 including methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol, into the gasoline. MTBE is the oxygenate used in almost all RFG outside of the Midwest. Ethanol is currently used in the Midwest as an oxygenate in RFG and as an octane booster and volume extender in conventional gasoline. Several years ago, MTBE was detected in water supplies scattered throughout the country, but predominantly in areas using RFG. MTBE from RFG was apparently

465

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

466

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Weekly Supply Estimates Weekly Supply Estimates Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

467

Appendix A - Acronyms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A - ACRONYMS A - ACRONYMS AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials CNG Compressed Natural Gases CVO Commercial Vehicle Operation DOE Department of Energy DOT Department of Transportation E85 85% Ethanol, 15% Gasoline EPA Environmental Protection Agency ExFIRS Excise Files Information Retrieval System ExSTARS Excise Summary Terminal Activity Reporting System FHWA Federal Highway Administration FTA Federation of Tax Administrators GAO General Accounting Office HTF Highway Trust Fund IFTA International Fuel Tax Agreement IM Interstate Maintenance IRS Internal Revenue Service LNG Liquid Natural Gases LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases M85 85% Methanol, 15% Gasoline MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NHS National Highway System ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory STP Surface Transportation Program

468

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Outlook Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year. Three impending State bans on MTBE blending could significantly affect gasoline

469

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports & Exports Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

470

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

02/22/2006 02/22/2006 Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006 Summary In 2005, a number of petroleum companies announced their intent to remove methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from their gasoline in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline, and perceived potential for increased liability exposure due to the elimination of the oxygen content requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG) included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EIA's informal discussions with a number of suppliers indicate that most of the industry is trying to move away from MTBE before the 2006 summer driving season. Currently, the largest use of MTBE is in RFG consumed on the East Coast outside of

471

Why sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sequence ethene and vinyl sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains? Mycobacteria are known for causing human and animal diseases but they are also important degraders of hard-to-break-down water contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). So far the handful of bacterial species representing the Mycobacterium genus that have been sequenced all break down PAHs. In this project, researchers focus on the genomes of mycobacterial species isolated from soil, freshwater and marine environments that use the alkene compounds ethene and vinyl chloride as carbon sources. Chlorinated ethene compounds are difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater but necessary because of their toxicity. Additionally these compounds reduce the ozone levels in the atmosphere.

472

Assessment of Summer RBOB Supply for NY & CT  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut May 5, 2004 In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) 1 that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline. As discussed on our earlier report, the NY and CT bans on MTBE mainly affect reformulated gasoline (RFG), which in recent years has been provided by domestic refineries on the East Coast (PADD 1) and imports. Our recent findings indicate that

473

Identification of Triclosan-O-Sulfate and other transformation products of Triclosan formed by activated sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Aerobic degradation experiments of Triclosan were performed in activated sludge to identify possible transformation products for this compound. During 7 days, the formation of biotransformation products such as 2,4-Dichlorophenol, 4-Chlorocatechol, 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan and other Monohydroxy-Triclosan derivatives as well as Dihydroxy-Triclosan-derivatives were observed. The structure of 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan was elucidated by NMR data for the first time in sludge degradation experiments. Additionally the production of a hitherto unknown transformation product in sludge, i.e., Triclosan-O-Sulfate was detected. During the incubations, the concentrations of this transformation product changed from zero to 330 ?g L? 1. Based on the analysis of the biodegradation products, three types of reactions were identified: 1) chemical scission of ether bond to form phenols and catechols, 2) addition of OH moieties to the aromatic ring, and 3) adding of methyl or sulfate groups to the original hydroxyl group.

Xijuan Chen; Mònica Escolà Casas; Jeppe Lund Nielsen; Reinhard Wimmer; Kai Bester

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

energy savings by the use of mtbe to replace alkylate in automotive gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents data on the differences in energy consumption in the production of leaded and unleaded AI-93 gasolines with various blend components. The authors investigate as high-octane components certain products that are more effective in use and less energy-consuming in production in comparison with alkylate. In particular, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is discussed; it is not poisonous, it has a high heat of combustion, and it does not attack materials of construction. The addition of 11% MTBE to gasoline lowers the cold start temperature of engines by 10-12 degrees. Moreover, no adjustment of the carburetor is required for the changeover to gasoline with 11% MTBE.

Englin, B.A.; Emel'yanov, V.E.; Terent'ev, G.A.; Vinogradov, A.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number, in particular lead-free gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing gasoline of high octane number from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts, such as those obtained by fractional distillation of a C/sub 3/ / C/sub 4/ catalytic cracking cut. It includes the steps of: (A) oligomerizing propylene of the C/sub 3/ cut to obtain a first gasoline fraction, (B) reacting the isobutene of the C/sub 4/ cut with methanol to produce methyl tert.-butyl ether which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons to form a second gasoline fraction, (C) alkylating said unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons with isobutane in the presence of an alkylation catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid, to form a third gasoline fraction, and (D) admixing, at least partially, said first, second and third gasoline fractions, so as to obtain gasoline of high octane number.

Chauvin, Y.; Gaillard, J.; Hellin, M.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q.D.

1981-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

476

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

480

Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to investigate the emissions effects of low-oxygenate gasoline blends on exhaust and evaporative emissions from a test fleet of California certified light-duty autos. Thirteen vehicles were procured and tested using four gasoline-oxygenate blends over three test cycles. The four gasoline blends were: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and 'match' and 'splash' blends of ethanol (in the 'match' blend the fuel Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is held constant, while in the 'splash' blend the fuel RVP is allowed to increase). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions were generally reduced for the oxygenated blends, the exception being the 'splash-blended' ethanol gasoline which showed mixed results. Older technology vehicles (e.g., non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst) showed the greatest emissions reductions regardless of gasoline blend, while later technology vehicles showed the smallest reductions. Evaporative emissions and toxics were generally reduced for ETBE, while results for the other blends were mixed.

Born, G.L.; Lucas, S.V.; Scott, R.D.; DeFries, T.H.; Kishan, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "amyl methyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

CRC fuel rating program: road octane performance of oxygenates in 1982 model cars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the widespread interest in the use of alcohols and ethers as gasoline blending components, this program was conducted to evaluate the effects of several oxygenates on gasoline octane performance and to evaluate the effects of car design features such as engine and transmission type. Five oxygenates were evaluated at two nominal concentrations, 5 and 10 volume%, at both regular- and premium-grade octane levels: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (ETOH), isopropanol (IPA), tertiary butanol (TBA), and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). A blend of 5% MeOH and 5 percent TBA was also tested at both octane levels. Twenty-eight unleaded fuels, including four hydrocarbon fuels, two hydrocarbon fuels plus toluene, and twenty-two oxygenated fuels, were rated in duplicate in thirty-eight cars using the Modified Uniontown Technique (CRC Designation F-28-75 described in Appendix C), plus some additional instructions. All testing was done on chassis dynamometers. Ratings were obtained at full throttle with all thirty-eight cars, and at the most critical part-throttle condition (occurring with manifold vacuum of 4 in. Hg (13.5 kPa) or greater above the full-throttle vacuum) with nine cars.

Not Available

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Isolation and characterization of methyl viologen-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MV), or paraquat, is a powerful superoxide radical propa- gator (12, 17, 18). MV is readily reduced by a single electron...only to MV and are resistant to other active oxygen propa- gator reagents (19) such as hydrogen peroxide and ionizing radiation...

M Morimyo

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Calmodulin-Mediated Signal Transduction Pathways in Arabidopsis Are Fine-Tuned by Methylation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...unique corresponding sites. CaM KMT OX Construct A synthetic DNA fragment of general structure 5-XhoI-native CaM...HindIII-CaM KMT was designed and the corresponding synthetic DNA fragment generated (GeneArt; see Supplemental Table...

Joydeep Banerjee; Roberta Magnani; Meera Nair; Lynnette M. Dirk; Seth DeBolt; Indu B. Maiti; Robert L. Houtz

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

484

Effect of Methyl Methanesulfonate on Macromolecular Biosynthesis in P388F Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...4-Dimethanesulphonoxybutane (Myleran), S-/3-L-Alanyltetrahydrothiophenium Mesylate, Tetrahydrothiophene and Tetrahydrothiophene-l:l-dioxide in the Rat, Rabbit and Mouse. Biochem. Pharmacol., 6: 217- 227, 1961...

Brian W. Fox and Margaret Fox

1967-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Maize Chromomethylase Zea methyltransferase2 Is Required for CpNpG Methylation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...RACE). RACE was conducted using the Marathon cDNA Amplification Kit (Clontech, Palo...isolated, and ends were sequenced using Marathon primers and gene-specific primers...100-muL aliquots and overlaid with mineral oil. The bisulfite modification was conducted...

Charles M. Papa; Nathan M. Springer; Michael G. Muszynski; Robert Meeley; Shawn M. Kaeppler

486

Fate of Triclosan and Triclosan-Methyl in Sewage TreatmentPlants and Surface Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fate of triclosan in diverse stages of two sewage treatment ... two-stage biologic (activated sludge) process removed triclosan more efficiently than the STP with a ... not very effective. The elimination rat...

Kai Bester

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Inhibition of Host Cell Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Methylation by Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chromatography, which has a high resolving power for the nucleic acids (based on secondary...and J. Polatnick. 1968. The site of foot-and-mouth disease virus ribonucleic...and G. Vande Woude. 1966. Studies on foot-and-mouth disease virus ribonucleic...

Richard Ascione; George F. Vande Woude

1969-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Unconventional Air-Stable Interdigitated Bilayer Formed by 2,3-Disubstituted Fatty Acid Methyl Esters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model is applied to describe the formation of the fractal structures of the bilayer as observed in the second plateau. ... For the fluorescence microscopy investigations, the film balance (144 cm2, Riegler & Kirstein) was mounted onto the stage of the Olympus microscope BX-FLA (Hamburg, Germany) equipped with a mercury lamp (USH-102D 100 W, power supply unit BH2-RFL-T3), an objective (LMPLFL 50×), and a CCD camera with a camera controller (Hamamatsu C4742-95, Hamamatsu, Japan). ...

Xiaodong Chen; Susanne Wiehle; Markus Weygand; Gerald Brezesinski; Ute Klenz; Hans-Joachim Galla; Harald Fuchs; Günter Haufe; Lifeng Chi

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

489

Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

author. E-mail: jones@chem.rochester.edu. (1) Topsøe, H.; Clausen, B. S.; Massoth, F. E. Hydrotreating

Jones, William D.

490

Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl-Substituted Phenols: Correlations of Kinetic Parameters with Molecular Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction As a result of increasing environmental concerns, catalytic hydrotreating has become an important, oil shale, and tar sands would render the hydrotreating of oxygen-containing com- pounds, mostly

Simons, Jack

491

Absorption Spectra and Photolysis of Methyl Peroxide in Liquid and Frozen Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, United States Department of Physical Chemistry with low temperatures, in the presence of clouds with a high liquid-water content and large solar zenith

Nizkorodov, Sergey

492

Toward Organic Photohydrides: Excited-State Behavior of 10-Methyl-9-phenyl-9,10-dihydroacridine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, United States § Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 be powered using the photon's energy. Such a photochemical event can, in turn, be used to generate solar

Krylov, Anna I.

493

Photochemistry of Methyl Bromide on the ?-Cr2O3(0001) Surface...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

desorption (PSD). Irradiation of adsorbed CH3Br with broad band light from a Hg arc lamp resulted in both photodesorption and photodecomposition of the parent molecule at...

494

Multiple Fatalities Involving a New Designer Drug: Para-Methyl-4-Methylaminorex  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......so-called head shops or over the internet and are often described as not...submitted in a number of drug abuse deaths; some of which were...Aks S.E. Emerging drugs of abuse. Emergency Medicine Clinics...Future synthetic drugs of abuse. (1988) Castonguay, R......

S. Cosbey; S. Kirk; M. McNaul; L. Peters; B. Prentice; A. Quinn; S.P. Elliott; S.D. Brandt; R.P. Archer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Production and Fate of Methylated Sulfur Compounds from Methionine and Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Anoxic Salt Marsh Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2374-2377. 15. Howarth, R. W., and J. M...a New England salt marsh. Limnol. Oceanogr...reduction pathways in salt marsh sediments. Limnol...1037-1051. 18. Kiene, R. P., R. S. Oremland...26. Oremland, R. S., L. Marsh, and D. J. DesMarais...

Ronald P. Kiene; Pieter T. Visscher

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300 C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NO{sub x}-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NO{sub x} conversion begins at between 100 and 200 C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250-400 C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NO{sub x} conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400 C. However, when masked with biodiesel, NO{sub x} conversion is observed to begin at temperatures as low as 200 C. Engine test results also show low-temperature recovery from HC storage. Engine tests indicate that, overall, the SCR system has a faster recovery from HC masking with biodiesel. This is at least partially due to a reduction in exhaust HCs, and thus total HC exposure with biodiesel.

Williams, A.; Ratcliff, M.; Pedersen, D.; McCormick, R.; Cavataio, G.; Ura, J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liq- uids have been considered and used as a new generation of green solvents for a number of or solvents, a much smaller amount of the catalyst was used. After a relatively easy removal of the polymer Chemistry, Vol. 41, 143­151 (2003) © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 143 #12;tion solvents will make

Wan, Xin-hua

498

Methylation of Histone H3 Lysine 36 Is Required for Normal Development in Neurospora crassa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...slowly, and though they produced abundant aerial hyphae, they conidiated sparsely (Fig...Microscopic examination revealed that most aerial hyphae lacked the constrictions and budding...Yoshiura Ki, T. Ohta, T. Kishino, Y. Fukushima, N. Niikawa, and N. Matsumoto. 2002...

Keyur K. Adhvaryu; Stephanie A. Morris; Brian D. Strahl; Eric U. Selker

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Disruption of DNA methylation induces genome-specific changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis allotetraploids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the contrib- uted genomes of the new polyploid are meiotically recombinant or nonrecombinant, re- spectively, where the meiotic behavior reflects genome ?divergence?. Polyploidy is a prominent phenomenon among plants. 1Around 95% of angiosperms and 70... that govern gene expression in polyploids. The subspecies Arabidopsis thaliana and A. arenosa diverged from each other ~5.8 Mya and share more than 95% similarity in genomic sequence (Koch et al., 2001). Interspecific hybridization can occur between...

Chen, Meng

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

500

Type II restriction-modification system methylation subunit of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering recombination inside or outside of a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and/or nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

Lee, Brady D; Newby, Deborah T; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Roberto, Francisco F; Reed, David W

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z