Sample records for amount cost reductions

  1. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional...

  2. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  3. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  4. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Status and Cost Reduction Prospects EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV...

  5. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  6. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between...

  7. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap

  8. IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment Brian Subirana subirana@mit.edu MIT Center for Coordination Science WP #222 July 2003 #12;IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel maintaining existing service levels. "We want you to reduce automation costs by 50% while maintaining equal

  9. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life...

  10. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source...

  11. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Principal Investigator: Y.-X. Tao Florida International...

  12. Microsoft Word - CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount Custom Fields

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions forCheneyNovember S. DEPARTMENTthe UseCR-091 Primary Basis of Cost

  13. Some effects of differential amounts of response cost on human responding to unstructured stimuli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, James Vernon

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of punishment intensity during variable- t 1 1 f t J . 1 f th ~E' t 14~1 of Behavior, 1960, 3, 123-142. Baer, D. M. Escape and avoidance response of pre-school children to two schedules of reinforcement withdrawal. Journal of the ~E' t 1 A~l' f 7th ', 1969...), Knowledge of Results controls (KR), and No Treatment controls (NT), (d) treatment phase--incorrect responses resulted in loss of money for the Cost groups in these amounts: HC - 10 cents, MC ? 5 cents, LC - 1 cent. KR Ss received knowledge of incorrect...

  14. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes how Learning-by-Doing (LBD) is implemented endogenously in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for generating plants. LBD is experiential learning that correlates to a generating technology's capacity growth. The annual amount of Learning-by-Doing affects the annual overnight cost reduction. Currently, there is no straightforward way to integrate and make sense of all the diffuse information related to the endogenous learning calculation in NEMS. This paper organizes the relevant information from the NEMS documentation, source code, input files, and output files, in order to make the model's logic more accessible. The end results are shown in three ways: in a simple spreadsheet containing all the parameters related to endogenous learning; by an algorithm that traces how the parameters lead to cost reductions; and by examples showing how AEO 2004 forecasts the reduction of overnight costs for generating technologies over time.

  16. Energy Cost Reduction Measures Identified for Texas State Agencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigg, T. J.; Verdict, M. E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation opportunities and capital intensive energy cost reduction measures. Though more square feet was audited in 1984, more utility cost savings per square foot were identified in 1986. Changes in the screening process, the audit report format... square foot for the audited facilities by building type. Maintenance and operation savings are included in this table. A sufficient number of academic buildings, medical research facilities, libraries, hospitals, and office buildings were audited...

  17. Project Project Funding Operational & Maintenance Costs Univ. Project Title GSF Brief Description of Project Location Amount Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    Estimated Annual Amount For Amount Source STATE UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 2012-2013 Fixed Capital Outlay ProjectsProject Project Funding Operational & Maintenance Costs Univ. Project Title GSF Brief Description that will respond to the latest trends in small-group learning, technology resources, and collaboration spaces

  18. Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of International Learning on Technology Cost. In Issues ofbetween initial new technology cost estimates and actualthe revolutionary technologies have cost reductions beyond

  19. Corporate Real Estate and Facilities Cost Reduction IBM Corporation | December 2, 2009 Page 1 of 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corporate Real Estate and Facilities Cost Reduction © IBM Corporation | December 2, 2009 Page 1 of 7 - Internal distribution only Corporate Real Estate and Facilities Cost Reduction Summary By moving and facilities costs by 15-20%, whilst still improving services. Successful cost reduction in corporate real

  20. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  1. Rethinking Standby & Fixed Cost Charges: Regulatory & Rate Design Pathways to Deeper Solar PV Cost Reductions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While solar PV's impact on utilities has been frequently discussed the past year, little attention has been paid to the potentially impact posed by solar PV-specific rate designs (often informally referred to as solar "fees" or "taxes") upon non-hardware "soft" cost reductions. In fact, applying some rate designs to solar PV customers could potentially have a large impact on the economics of PV systems.

  2. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 1 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Marc Ross for Light Duty Vehicles Critical to the Pavley bill's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from trucks (large symbols). The emissions from midsize and smaller cars, emit about half as much. Question

  3. Report of the Finance Cost Reduction Working Group to the Federal ESPC Steering Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Report of the Finance Cost Reduction Working Group to the Federal ESPC Steering Committee Reducing Financing Costs for Federal ESPCs Federal Energy Management Program Energy Savings Performance Contracting 2. REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPETITIVE FINANCING ACQUISITION .................................7 2.1 Use

  4. The cost of noise reduction for powered-lift S.T.O.L. aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Wesley F.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct operating costs and noise impacts of a wide variety of Externally Blown Flap and Augmentor Wing STOL short haul transport aircraft designs were evaluated to study the costs of noise reduction for these types of ...

  5. A Stochastic Unit-Commitment Model to Estimate the Costs of Changing Power Plant Operation under High Amounts of Intermittent Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Stochastic Unit-Commitment Model to Estimate the Costs of Changing Power Plant Operation under High Amounts of Intermittent Wind Power Integration Meibom, P.1 , Brand, H.2 , Barth, R.2 and Weber, C in several European countries. The introduction of substantial amounts of wind power in a liberalized

  6. Redundancy Reduction Techniques and Content Analysis for Multimedia Services the European COST 211quat Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabbouj, Moncef

    Redundancy Reduction Techniques and Content Analysis for Multimedia Services ­ the European COST, such as the ongoing ISO MPEG-4 standardisation phase as well as the new ISO MPEG-7 initiative. The aim is to define philosophy of COST projects is introduced before narrowing the focus to the COST 211 series. For more than 20

  7. Test Cost Reduction for SOCs Using Virtual TAMs and Lagrange Multipliers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    : 1. Explicit test cost (Cost of investing in a new ATE, also known as Capital Expenditure): ComplexTest Cost Reduction for SOCs Using Virtual TAMs and Lagrange Multipliers Ł Anuja Sehgal˝ as to an underutilization of resources, thereby resulting in an increase in testing time. We present a new technique

  8. Evaluating cost-reduction alternatives and low-cost sourcing opportunities for aerospace castings and forgings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obermoller, Amber J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As companies continue to outsource large portions of their manufacturing, managing costs in the supply chain is increasingly important in reducing overall costs and remaining competitive. Low-cost sourcing has become an ...

  9. The cost of noise reduction in commercial tilt rotor aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, Henry B.

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between direct operating cost and departure noise annoyance was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various ...

  10. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  11. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) program, DOE is funding new components and system designs to overcome scientific, technological, and engineering barriers to...

  12. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  13. An Analysis of Energy Reductions from the Use of Daylighting in Low-Cost Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rungchareonrat, N.

    AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2003 Major Subject: Architecture AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY REDUCTIONS FROM THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING IN LOW-COST HOUSING A Thesis by NAYARAT RUNGCHAREONRAT...

  14. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  15. EHV transmission line design opportunities for cost reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennon, R.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Douglass, D.A. (Power Technologies, Inc., New York, NY (US))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of transmission lines is often limited to a few standard conductors and structures in order to minimize the costs of engineering, construction, inventory, and speed of damage restoration. Certain design factors, such as unloaded conductor tensions, maximum allowable conductor temperatures, and phase spacing to avoid ice galloping induced flashovers, are also fixed. Limiting the designer's choices can be economic in certain situations but not in others. What makes economic sense in flat terrain or with a lightly loaded line may not be economic in hilly terrain or with a line whose electric load is consistently high. This paper considers a range of line optimization techniques which can be applied to decide whether standard or optimized line designs are appropriate. It is found that even simple methods of optimization can help the designer keep his costs to a minimum.

  16. CO{sub 2} reduction potential in power production and its cost efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aijala, M.; Salokoski, P.; Alin, J.; Siikavirta, H.; Nykaenen, J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} reduction potential and the economy of it in power production are handled in this presentation. The main focus is on combined heat and power production, CHP. The reference case has been the conventional coal fired condensing power plant and district heating with heavy fuel oil. Various CHP concepts are handled as substitutive technology for the reference case. Considered fuels are coal and biomass. CO{sub 2} produced in biomass firing processes is not regarded to increase the net CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. Reference case can be substituted by a more efficient coal-fired power plant, so called USC plant or by natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant. Both changes lead to very limited reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. On the other hand the shifting is profitable. CO{sub 2} reduction potential differs in various CHP concepts according to the fuel used. With biomass the reduction is 100% and in the smallest considered coal-fired industrial power plant it is only 6%. Looking at CO{sub 2} reduction costs, ECU/t CO{sub 2}, the best alternative seems to be the changing to coal-fired CHP in industrial power plants. Due to different reduction potentials of different methods the reduction cost illustrates poorly the quality of the method. For example, in a case where the profitability is good but reduction potential is small the reduction cost is strongly negative and the case seems to be cost-effective. To avoid the previous effects the profitability of the changes has to be studied with and without CO{sub 2} emission fees. Biomass-CHP will be cost-effective compared to coal-CHP with the prices 2.5--5 ECU/t CO{sub 2} saved. The industrial CHP plant will be cost-effective despite of the fuel used and without CO{sub 2} emission fees. The district heating CHP plant will be cost-effective, if the plant size is large. The small district heating CHP plants are cost-effective, if the saved CO{sub 2} ton has a price.

  17. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO sub 2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: Emissions, cost, and employment tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO{sub 2} emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: accurately models random outages of generating units, must-run constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emissions trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable.

  18. UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project`s environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions.

  19. Case Study: Sustained Utility Cost Reduction in a Large Manufacturing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study presents results of a systematic utility cost reduction plan implemented at a 450,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in a hot and humid climate. Electricity, natural gas, and water usage were all reduced on an absolute basis in both...

  20. Fuel Cells for Transportation FY 2001 Progress Report V. PEM STACK COMPONENT COST REDUCTION1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and flow field. - Optimize the fuel cell flow field design for optimized water management and air bleedFuel Cells for Transportation FY 2001 Progress Report 113 V. PEM STACK COMPONENT COST REDUCTION1 A. High-Performance, Matching PEM Fuel Cell Components and Integrated Pilot Manufacturing Processes Mark K

  1. The Cost Reduction Incentive Program at the Savannah River Site. Audit report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (Department) established a Cost-Reduction Incentive Program (CRIP) at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse) in October 1992. In 1997, the Department performed a comprehensive review of Westinghouse`s performance-based incentives and cost-reduction incentives, and concluded that most of the savings identified through the CRIP occurred through greater management focus on reducing costs, working smart, or the results of budget constraints, as opposed to innovative changes in work methods and processes. The Assessment Team recommended that the Savannah River Operations Office (Operations Office) re-evaluate the effectiveness of the CRIP and consider either modifying the program to provide for payment only for innovative ideas, or cancel the program and utilize performance-based incentives to reward cost savings over some pre-established threshold. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Operations Office took appropriate action in response to the Department`s internal assessment of the CRIP. The Operations Office did not take appropriate action in response to the internal assessment. The Operations Office stated that Westinghouse did not agree to the modification or cancellation of the CRIP, and the Department could not unilaterally modify or cancel the program because it was incorporated into the contract. However, the Operations Office could have substantially reduced its CRIP payments to Westinghouse without amending the contract by (1) enforcing the contract terms that required Westinghouse to use best commercial practices and industry standards in contract performance, and (2) requiring Westinghouse to comply with its internal procedures which required that cost-reduction proposals be innovative.

  2. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  3. Thanks go to Mumtaz Hussain and Dilip Parajuli for excellent research assistance.1 The limited amount of empirical work on transport costs include Sampson and Yeats (1976) and Pace2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    amount of empirical work on transport costs include Sampson and Yeats (1976) and Pace2 (1979) on OECD of labor was likely to develop first along sea coasts and navigable rivers, where transport costs were determinants of a country's development prospects? Though interest in transport costs has recently risen

  4. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  5. Inspection of the cost reduction incentive program at the Department of Energy`s Idaho Operations Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this inspection was to review the economy and efficiency of Idaho`s Fiscal Year 1992 Cost Reduction Incentive Program, as well as to provide information to Departmental officials regarding any difficulties in administering these types of programs. The report is of the findings and recommendations. According to Idaho officials, their Cost Reduction Incentive Program was designed to motivate and provide incentives to management and operating contractors which would result in cost savings to the Department while increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the contractors` operations. Idaho officials reported that over $22.5 million in costs were saved as a result of the Fiscal Year 1992 Cost Reduction Incentive Program. It was found that: (1) Idaho officials acknowledged that they did not attempt a full accounting records validation of the contractor`s submitted cost savings; (2) cost reduction incentive programs may result in conflicts of interest--contractors may defer work in order to receive an incentive fee; (3) the Department lacks written Department-wide policies and procedures--senior Procurement officials stated that the 1985 memorandum from the then-Assistant Secretary for Management and Administration was not the current policy of the Department; and (4) the Department already has the management and operating contract award fee provisions and value engineering program that can be used to provide financial rewards for contractors that operate cost effectively and efficiently.

  6. A least cost energy analysis of US CO sub 2 reduction options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Solomon, B.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Hill, D. (Hill (Douglas), Huntington, NY (USA))

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public policy debate on global climate change is increasingly focused on the cost of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Discussion in the US has centered on national energy policy and the desirability and cost of increased energy conversion efficiency and end-use conservation, and on shifting from high greenhouse gas emitting fuels to natural gas, renewable and nuclear-based energy sources. This paper overviews the US MARKAL model, a dynamic linear programming (LP) model of US energy supply and demand. Useful energy projections are specified exogenously to the model, which then determines the optimal energy supply that can meet the demand. We have updated MARKAL with currently available energy technology cost and market penetration data and have applied it to the CO{sub 2} reduction problem for the US. In addition, we have varied some key inputs to the model to test the sensitivity of the energy system to alternative assumptions and to overcome some of the key limitations of the input data. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Strategies for cost-effective carbon reductions: A sensitivity analysis of alternative scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumerman, Etan; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Brown, Marilyn

    2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of alternative futures often present results for a limited set of scenarios, with little if any sensitivity analysis to identify the factors affecting the scenario results. This approach creates an artificial impression of certainty associated with the scenarios considered, and inhibits understanding of the underlying forces. This paper summarizes the economic and carbon savings sensitivity analysis completed for the Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future study (IWG, 2000). Its 19 sensitivity cases provide insight into the costs and carbon-reduction impacts of a carbon permit trading system, demand-side efficiency programs, and supply-side policies. Impacts under different natural gas and oil price trajectories are also examined. The results provide compelling evidence that policy opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions and save society money.

  8. Life-Cycle Cost Reduction for High Speed Turbomachinery Utilizing Aerothermal - Mechanical Conditioning Monitoring Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, M. P.; Meher-Homji, C.; Bowman, J. C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for high performance, centrifugal and axial flow turbomachinery such as gas turbines, compressors and pumps is very strongly influenced by fuel (energy) consumption and by maintenance costs. Additionally, the penalty costs...

  9. Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

  10. Advanced Thermal Control Enabling Cost Reduction for Automotive Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, T.; Kelly, K.; Bennion, K.; Vlahinos, A.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes NREL's work on next-generation vehicle cooling technologies (jets, sprays, microchannels) and novel packaging topologies to reduce costs and increase performance and reliability.

  11. Total cost analysis of process time reduction as a green machining strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helu, Moneer; Behmann, Benjamin; Meier, Harald; Dornfeld, David; Lanza, Gisela; Schulze, Volker

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantifyLife Cycle Cost Analysis and LCA, in: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment,

  12. On Setup Cost Reduction in the Economic Lot-Sizing Model Without Speculative Motives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoesel, Stan Van

    An important special case of the economic lot-sizing problem is the one in which there are no speculative motives to hold inventory, i.e., the marginal cost of producing one unit in some period plus the cost of holding it ...

  13. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 32183232 Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in photovoltaics Gregory F. NemetĂ Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall 3050 changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of which has declined by a factor of nearly in the most impor- tant factors--plant size, module efficiency, and the cost of silicon. Ways in which

  14. Project process mapping : evaluation, selection, implementation, and assessment of energy cost reduction opportunities in Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Steven J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company X uses large amounts of electricity in its manufacturing operations. Electricity prices at selected plants in the company's Region 1 territory rose by over 350% between 2000 and 2011, in part due to increasing ...

  15. Identifying and Evaluating Energy Cost Reduction Opportunities for Harvesters - The Community Food Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Aaron M.

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate opportunities where energy costs can be reduced for Harvesters - The Community Food Network. This is accomplished by conducting an energy audit, analyzing the data collected during the audit...

  16. Utilizing an encroachment probability benefit-cost model to estimate accident reduction factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Carolyn A

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving safety on Texas roadways is a major public concern. Over the years, the Texas Department of Transportation and other highway agencies have become interested in reducing society's accident cost while maximizing returns on accident...

  17. Cost Savings and Energy Reduction: Bi-Level Lighting Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackley, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Community Environmental Center implements Bi- Level Lighting fixtures as a component of cost-effective multifamily retrofits. These systems achieve substantial energy savings by automatically reducing lighting levels when common areas are unoccupied...

  18. The cost of noise reduction for departure and arrival operations of commercial tilt rotor aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, Henry B.

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and noise annoyance due to a departure and an arrival operation was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt ...

  19. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  20. Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead of ContractingofReducing WasteReduction

  1. Reduction on synthesis gas costs by decrease of steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios in the feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basini, L.; Piovesan, L. [Snamprogetti S.p.A. Research Labs., Milano (Italy)] [Snamprogetti S.p.A. Research Labs., Milano (Italy)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The costs for syngas production at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios have been analyzed for simplified process schemes of the main syngas production technologies (steam-CO{sub 2} reforming, autothermal reforming, and combined reforming) and different synthesis gas compositions. The broad analysis arises from experimental indication on the possibility of preventing carbon formation at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios in the feedstock by choosing an appropriate catalyst or by introducing small amounts of sulfur compounds in the reactant feed. The analysis is limited to the synthesis gas production step and does not include its downstream processes. The results indicate that technologies at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios would have a significant positive impact on synthesis gas costs.

  2. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  3. Project: Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Barriers:2. Barriers: Durability (cathode electrocatalyst) Costs (cathode electrocatalyst) Electrode metal loading: 0.2 mgPGM /cm2 (cathode) ( 0.3 mgPGM /cm2 both electrodes) Activity (PGM catalysts): 0-STEM images of the Pd(core)-Pt(shell) NPs having 1 ML and 4MLs of Pt on Pd/C #12;5 (111) facets (111) and (100

  4. Energy cost reduction in the synchronization of a pair of nonidentical coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Moujahid; A. D'Anjou; F. J. Torrealdea; C. Sarasola

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Many biological processes involve synchronization between nonequivalent systems, i.e, systems where the difference is limited to a rather small parameter mismatch. The maintenance of the synchronized regime in this cases is energetically costly \\cite{1}. This work studies the energy implications of synchronization phenomena in a pair of structurally flexible coupled neurons that interact through electrical coupling. We show that the forced synchronization between two nonidentical neurons creates appropriate conditions for an efficient actuation of adaptive laws able to make the neurons structurally approach their behaviours in order to decrease the flow of energy required to maintain the synchronization regime.

  5. Energy cost reduction in the synchronization of a pair of nonidentical coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moujahid, A; Torrealdea, F J; Sarasola, C; 10.1007/978-3-642-12433-4_77

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many biological processes involve synchronization between nonequivalent systems, i.e, systems where the difference is limited to a rather small parameter mismatch. The maintenance of the synchronized regime in this cases is energetically costly \\cite{1}. This work studies the energy implications of synchronization phenomena in a pair of structurally flexible coupled neurons that interact through electrical coupling. We show that the forced synchronization between two nonidentical neurons creates appropriate conditions for an efficient actuation of adaptive laws able to make the neurons structurally approach their behaviours in order to decrease the flow of energy required to maintain the synchronization regime.

  6. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

  7. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  8. Cost reduction and manufacture of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC module: Phase I Annual Report : 21 April 1998 -- 31 October 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, E.; Kern, G.

    2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made by Ascension Technology in Phase 1 of the cost reduction and manufacturing improvements of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module. This work, conducted under NREL subcontract, is a two-phase effort consisting of investigations into improving inverter packaging, soft switching, circuit optimization, design for manufacturing, manufacturing processes, and pilot production manufacturing. The objective of this subcontract is to significantly reduce the cost of the SunSine{reg_sign} inverter, enhance its performance, and streamline and expand the manufacturing process. During Phase 1, the soft-switching topology was designed, then refined to meet stringent cost and performance goals. This design resulted in improved performance, smaller overall footprint, and reduced costs. The aluminum inverter housing was redesigned, and the decision was made to conformal coat the circuit boards, which was verified through the HAST (Highly Accelerated Stress Testing) method. Potential international markets were identified, and the inverter is designed to be easily modified to meet the requirements of other countries. Significant cost reduction and performance improvements have been achieved in Phase I, and accomplishments during Phase I include: (1) SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module costs have been reduced enough to be able to reduce the suggested list price; (2) successful implementation of soft-switching; (3) power circuit-board size reduced 53{percent}; (4) power circuit-board component count reduced 34{percent}; (5) total inverter parts count reduced 49{percent}; (6) anticipated inverter manufacturing cost reduced 57{percent} on a $/Wp rating; (7) transformer efficiency improved 1.4{percent}; and (8) inverter efficiency improved 4.7{percent} to 91.0{percent} at 275 Wac.

  9. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on energy use.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO{sub 2} emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  11. ALARP Evaluation: Using Cost Effectiveness and Disproportionality To Justify Risk Reduction ANCOLD 2003 Conference on Dams Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowles, David S.

    A key principle in achieving Tolerable Risk under ANCOLD (2001) Guidelines is "reducing risks as low estimation of the degree of disproportionality associated with a potential risk reduction measure/Benefit ratio that includes both economic and life safety benefits. Example guidelines are offered for using

  12. Energy cost reduction study of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority metrorail system. volume 2: appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uher, R.A.; Sathi, N.; Sathi, A.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is the first time that the Energy Management Model (EMM), developed for the transit industry by the Rail Systems Center at Carnegie-Mellon University, was comprehensively applied to a rapid transit property. The application to Metrorail was verified by comparing the simulated results to actual data obtained from the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO). The simulated results agree to within 3 percent of the actual energy consumption. Five energy conservation strategies were recommended for implementation based on high benefit and low cost, namely: coasting, catch-up operation, passenger load factor improvement, regeneration of braking energy, and passenger station lighting improvements.

  13. Strong reduction of V{sup 4+} amount in vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes by doping with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions: Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleta, M. E.; Troiani, H. E.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Ruano, G.; Sanchez, R. D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Malta, M. [Depto. de Cs. Exatas e da Terra, Univ. do Estado da Bahia, Cabula Salvador CP 2555 (Brazil); Torresi, R. M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo CP 26077, 05513-970 (Brazil)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a complete characterization and magnetic study of vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes (VO{sub x}/Hexa NT's) doped with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. The morphology of the NT's has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the metallic elements have been quantified by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The static and dynamic magnetic properties were studied by collecting data of magnetization as a function of magnetic field and temperature and by electron paramagnetic resonance. At difference of the majority reports in the literature, we do not observe magnetic dimers in vanadium oxide nanotubes. Also, we observed that the incorporation of metallic ions (Co{sup 2+}, S = 3/2 and Ni{sup 2+}, S = 1) decreases notably the amount of V{sup 4+} ions in the system, from 14-16% (nondoped case) to 2%-4%, with respect to the total vanadium atoms (fact corroborated by XPS experiments) anyway preserving the tubular nanostructure. The method to decrease the amount of V{sup 4+} in the nanotubes improves considerably their potential technological applications as Li-ion batteries cathodes.

  14. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  15. Development of the integrated environmental control model: Cost models of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) NO{sub x} control systems. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1994-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. Increasingly strict NO{sub x} control requirements are being imposed by various state and local regulatory agencies in the U.S. These requirements may lead to U.S. SCR applications, particularly for plants burning low sulfur coals (Robie et al.). Furthermore, implicit in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment is a national NO{sub x} emission reduction of 2 million tons per year. Thus, there may be other incentives to adapt SCR technology more generally to U.S. coal-fired power plants with varying coal sulfur contents. However, concern remains over the applicability of SCR technology to U.S. plants burning high sulfur coals or coals with significantly different fly ash characteristics than those burned in Germany and Japan. There is also concern regarding the application of SCR to peaking units due to potential startup and shutdown problems (Lowe et al.). In this report, new capital cost models of two SCR systems are developed. These are {open_quotes}hot-side high-dust{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}tail-end low-dust{close_quotes} options. In a previous quarterly report, performance models for these two systems were developed.

  16. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process. Quarterly report No. 6, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The project`s objective is to demonstrate innovative applications of technology for cost reduction for the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. The CT-121 process is a wet FGD process that removes SO{sub 2}, can achieve simultaneous particulate control, and can produce a salable by-product gypsum thereby reducing or even eliminating solid waste disposal problems. Figure 1 shows a flow schematic of the process. CT-121 removes SO{sub 2} and particulate matter in a unique limestone-based scrubber called the Jet Bubbling Reactor (JBR). IN the JBR, flue gas bubbles beneath the slurry, SO{sub 2} is absorbed, and particulate matter is removed from the gas. The agitator circulates limestone slurry to ensure that fresh reactant is always available in the bubbling or froth zone sot that SO{sub 2} removal can proceed at a rapid rate. Air is introduced into the bottom of the JBR to oxidize the absorbed SO{sub 2} to sulfate, and limestone is added continuously to neutralize the acid slurry and form gypsum. The JBR is designed to allow ample time for complete oxidation of the SO{sub 2}, for complete reaction of the limestone, and for growth of large gypsum crystals. The gypsum slurry is continuously withdrawn from the JBR and is to be dewatered in a gypsum stack. The stacking technique involves filing a diked area with gypsum slurry, allowing the gypsum solids to settle, and removing clear liquid from the top of the stack for recycle back to the process.

  18. Statewide Electrical Energy Cost Savings and Peak Demand Reduction from the IECC Code-Compliant, Single-Family Residences in Texas (2002-2009) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................................................ 5? 3? ENERGY SAVINGS AND DEMAND REDUCTIONS PER HOUSE ............................................... 8? 3.1? Annual Per-House Energy Consumption ......................................................................................... 8? 3....2? Annual Per-House Energy Savings from Adoption of the 2001 and 2006 IECC ............................ 9? 3.3? Per-House Peak Demand Reductions from 2001 and 2006 IECC ................................................... 9? 4? STATEWIDE ELECTRICITY...

  19. Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions...

  20. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Schweizer, T.; Laxson, A.; Butterfield, S.; Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Veers, P.; Ashwill, T.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  1. Energy, Cost-Savings and Pollution-Reduction Impacts of Industrial Programs Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Placet, M.; Weakley, S. A.; Roop, J. M.

    -efficient technologies. OIT's cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), technology transfer, and information-sharing efforts have helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environmental performance, enhance...

  2. Energy, Cost-Savings, and Pollution-Reduction Impacts of Industrial Programs Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weakley, S. A.; Friedman, K.

    air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the most recent PNNL review (conducted in 2002). From 1976-2001, the commercialized technologies from OIT's R&D programs and other OIT activities have cumulatively saved 3.4 quads...

  3. Estimating Marginal Cost of Quality Improvements: The Case of the UK Electricity Distribution Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Orea, Luis; Pollitt, Michael G.

    of operational and capital expenditures (Totex) as the dependent variable. Improving quality of services involves operating cost (Opex) and capital cost (Capex) for the utilities. Due to the presence of possible trade-offs between Opex and Capex (Giannakis et... saving Opex than by an equal amount of Capex reduction (Ofgem, 2003a). Hence, in order to examine existence of different strategies in the UK utilities to improve quality, and to ascertain whether the current regulation has distorted the allocation...

  4. 10 Kammen and others/p. 1 Cost-Effectiveness of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and light trucks in the United States consume about 8 million barrels of gasoline per day, which is more between the latter two types: they can run either in gasoline-fueled hybrid electric mode (like an HEV pollutants and GHGs offset their increased capital costs. However, that study used U.S. fuel prices in its

  5. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Gather and analyze independently the available technical, cost, financial incentive data on installed GSHP/HGSHP applications in residential, commercial and schools in hot and humid climate regions, and develop a calibrated baseline and performance period model of new construction and retrofitted buildings in conjunction with the energy simulation program.

  6. Investments of uncertain cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study irreversible investment decisions when projects take time to complete, and are subject to two types of uncertainty over the cost of completion. The first is technical uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the amount ...

  7. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  8. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  9. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  10. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    the initial fuels reduction treatments leave the site with regard to long-term forest vegetation and soil are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what reduction operations for existing markets and new markets? (eg. biomass energy) Research Rationale

  11. Cost reduction performance enhancements of multiple site cooling water systems, enabled by remote system monitoring/control and multifaceted data management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, B. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Young, D. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Tari, K. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, New York, NY (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An outsourced cooling water treatment automated control and data acquisition package, has been designed, installed, and commissioned in over 70 sites in North America and offshore. The standard package consists of a controller, sensors, human-machine interface software, data acquisition and management software, communications, and reporting. Significant challenges to applying this standard package in multiple sites arose from variations in cooling system design and makeup water quality as well as operations, environmental considerations, metrics, and language. A standard approach has met these challenges and overcome effects of downsizing through significant reduction in non-value-added, manual activities. Overall system reliability has been improved by migration to best practice throughout the organizations involved and immediate proactive response to out-of-specification conditions. This paper documents the evolution of a standard cooling water automation and data management package from its inception to current practice.

  12. Pension costs and liabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Harley Macon

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be to charge the cost over the current and subsequent years on the assumption that the cost, even though measured by past services, is incurred in contemplation of present and future 1 services. 1'he development of accounting thought concerning retire...? present liabilities are under- stated and owner's equity is overstated by a corresponding amount. It seems, however, that charging retained earnings with the past service cost does not, represent the true picture. Pension payments based solely on past...

  13. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  14. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  15. Estimate of the Potential Amount of Low-Level Waste from the Fukushima Prefecture - 12370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Carolyn; Olson, Eric A.J.; Elmer, John [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, Colorado 80021 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of waste generated by the cleanup of the Fukushima Prefecture (Fukushima-ken) following the releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) is dependent on many factors, including: - Contamination amounts; - Cleanup levels determined for the radioisotopes contaminating the area; - Future land use expectations and human exposure scenarios; - Groundwater contamination considerations; - Costs and availability of storage areas, and eventually disposal areas for the waste; and - Decontamination and volume reduction techniques and technologies used. For the purposes of estimating these waste volumes, Fukushima-ken is segregated into zones of similar contamination level and expected future use. Techniques for selecting the appropriate cleanup methods for each area are shown in a decision tree format. This approach is broadly applied to the 20 km evacuation zone and the total amounts and types of waste are estimated; waste resulting from cleanup efforts outside of the evacuation zone is not considered. Some of the limits of future use and potential zones where residents must be excluded within the prefecture are also described. The size and design of the proposed intermediate storage facility is also discussed and the current situation, cleanup, waste handling, and waste storage issues in Japan are described. The method for estimating waste amounts outlined above illustrates the large amount of waste that could potentially be generated by remediation of the 20 km evacuation zone (619 km{sup 2} total) if the currently proposed cleanup goals are uniformly applied. The Japanese environment ministry estimated in early October that the 1 mSv/year exposure goal would make the government responsible for decontaminating about 8,000 km{sup 2} within Fukushima-ken and roughly 4,900 km{sup 2} in areas outside the prefecture. The described waste volume estimation method also does not give any consideration to areas with localized hot spots. Land use and area dose rate estimates for the 20 km evacuation zone indicate there are large areas where doses to the public can be mitigated through methods other than removal and disposal of soil and other wastes. Several additional options for waste reduction can also be considered, including: - Recycling/reusing or disposing of as municipal waste material that can be unconditionally cleared; - Establishing additional precautionary (e.g., liners) and monitoring requirements for municipal landfills to dispose of some conditionally-cleared material; and - Using slightly-contaminated material in construction of reclamations, banks and roads. Waste estimates for cleanup will continue to evolve as decontamination plans are drafted and finalized. (authors)

  16. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs to estimate hydrogen pipeline costs. Davis, CA: ITS-hydrogen trucks, and hydrogen pipelines, were devel- opedFor large amounts of hydrogen, pipeline transmission is pre-

  17. NOx Reduction through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R.; Thompson, R.; Staedter, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a novel control design to deliver a comprehensive boiler controls retrofit that provides reductions in emissions as well as substantial cost savings. Combining mechanical engineering expertise with substantial experience in control engineering...

  18. Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk...

  19. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    to update costs of specific equipment, raw material or labor or CAPEX and OPEX of entire plants Cost Indices

  20. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years. The availability of this equipment in a packaged system form makes it feasible to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity...

  1. Lead reduction in ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Kiehn, O.A.; Wilburn, D.R.; Bowyer, R.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bureau of Mines evaluated the emission control methods, including the capital investments and operating cost, necessary for further reducing lead levels in ambient air at the Glover, Herculaneum, and Buick smelter-refineries in Missouri and the East Helena, MT, smelter. This report presents theoretically achievable lead emission reductions and estimated capital and operating costs.

  2. Number of Award Federal Agencies Awards Amount

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Space Administration 4 218,658 National Science Foundation 46 10,354,587 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Departments, Institutes and Programs Amount Chemical Engineering 6,651,755 Colorado Energy Research Institute

  3. The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer F.

    We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

  4. The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer F.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

  5. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  6. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A; Simonot, E. (2011). The Cost of Wind Energy. Spanish Wind5. DRIVERS OF FUTURE WIND ENERGY COST REDUCTIONS A largeput upward pressure on wind energy costs, such as continued

  7. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5. DRIVERS OF FUTURE WIND ENERGY COST REDUCTIONS A largeput upward pressure on wind energy costs, such as continuedE. (2011). The Cost of Wind Energy. Spanish Wind Energy

  8. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

  9. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Break-Even Turnkey Cost of Residential Wind Systems in theaggregate installed cost of a small wind system that couldand wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions

  10. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Zhang, Kun (Brighton, MA)

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  11. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  12. National Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: A Comparison of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 Editions of the IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yield positive benefits for U.S. homeowners and significant energy savings for the nation. Moving from a baseline of the 2006 IECC to the 2009 IECC reduces average annual energy costs by 10.8%, while moving from the same baseline to the 2012 IECC reduces them by 32.1%. These reductions amount to annual energy cost savings of $168 and $497, respectively. The 2012 IECC saves $329 in energy costs compared to the 2009 IECC.

  13. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  14. Solid Waste Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute expresses the strong support of the State of Wisconsin for the reduction of the amount of solid waste generated, the reuse, recycling and composting of solid waste, and resource...

  15. Low Cost, Scalable Proteomics Data Analysis Using Amazon's Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Cost, Scalable Proteomics Data Analysis Using Amazon's Cloud Computing Services and Open. Nodes #12;ViPDAC Costs per Run Charge Amount Used Unit Size Units Cost / Unit Cost EC2 EC2 - Data ­ Consistent data analysis for long term projects ­ SOP across laboratories #12;Advantages of ViPDAC · Cost

  16. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standridge, Brad Lee

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature band within which reduction is achieved; (3) increase the maximum amount of reduction. It was found that, with the exception of methanol and hydrogen peroxide, these additives had the tendency to shift the reduction "window" toward slightly lower...

  18. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

  19. A Multiple Model Cost-Sensitive Approach for Intrusion Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Wenke

    that are optimized for user-de#12;ned cost metrics. Empirical experiments in o#11;- line analysis show a reduction of approximately 97% in operational cost over a single model approach, and a reduction of approximately 30 the initial results of our current research in extending our data mining framework to build cost

  20. Survey Results and Analysis of the Cost and Efficiency of Various Operating Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, John

    2011-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing Hydrogen Fueling Stations were surveyed to determine capital and operational costs. Recommendations for cost reduction in future stations and for research were developed.

  1. Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.undp.orgenergydocsCatalogue-Energy%20for%20Poverty%20Reduction% Cost: Free Language: English This catalogue contains...

  2. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  3. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would stimulate wind technology cost reductions on theprojections of renewable technology costs, fossil fuel priceavailability. Renewable technology cost: Reflects changes to

  4. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  5. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  6. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrügg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  7. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  8. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.

  10. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  11. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that have influenced wind energy costs in the past and areSources of Future Wind Energy Cost Reductions R&D/Learninghistorical declines, wind energy costs were increasing for

  12. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 1 #12;OverviewOverview · Cost components · Estimation of costsEstimation of costs · Examples ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 2 #12;Cost

  13. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  14. Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

  15. PVMaT cost reductions in the EFG high volume PV manufacturing line: Annual report, 5 August 1998--4 August 1999[PhotoVoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Edge-defined Film-fed Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kalejs, J.; Kardauskas, M.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B.

    1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed by ASE Americas researchers during the first year of this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology 5A2 program. Significant accomplishments in each of three task are as follows. Task 1--Manufacturing Systems: Researchers completed key node analysis, started statistical process control (SPC) charting, carried out design-of-experiment (DoE) matrices on the cell line to optimize efficiencies, performed a capacity and bottleneck study, prepared a baseline chemical waste analysis report, and completed writing of more than 50% of documentation and statistical sections of ISO 9000 procedures. A highlight of this task is that cell efficiencies in manufacturing were increased by 0.4%--0.5% absolute, to an average in excess of 14.2%, with the help of DoE and SPC methods. Task 2--Low-Cost Processes: Researchers designed, constructed, and tested a 50-cm-diameter, edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) cylinder crystal growth system to successfully produce thin cylinders up to 1.2 meters in length; completed a model for heat transfer; successfully deployed new nozzle designs and used them with a laser wafer-cutting system with the potential to decrease cutting labor costs by 75% and capital costs by 2X; achieved laser-cutting speeds of up to 8X and evaluation of this system is proceeding in production; identified laser-cutting conditions that reduce damage for both Q-switched Nd:YAG and copper-vapor lasers with the help of a breakthrough in fundamental understanding of cutting with these short-pulse-length lasers; and found that bulk EFG material lifetimes are optimized when co-firing of silicon nitride and aluminum is carried out with rapid thermal processing (RTP). Task 3--Flexible Manufacturing: Researchers improved large-volume manufacturing of 10-cm {times} 15-cm EFG wafers by developing laser-cutting fixtures, adapting carriers and fabricating adjustable racks for etching and rinsing facilities, and installing a high-speed data collection net work; initiated fracture studies to develop methods to reduce wafer breakage; and started a module field studies program to collect data on field failures to help identify potential manufacturing problems. New encapsulants, which cure at room temperature, are being tested to improve flexibility and provide higher yields for thin wafers in lamination.

  16. Direct costing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, Donald Bullock

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    segregation of expenses and sahib seoondarilg a method of inventorjI valuation. Sy this ayyroaoh& full attention on ths yrofit auC loss statement anC supylementarg x'eyorts I Xu answering the Eglestion "What is Cirset oosttugV", it is helpful to oossi... ~aoturing overhead) is exoluded. k proper evaluation of this argument should inolude eonsi@ex ation of the fast that direst seating does not yroyose to fix inventory values at an amount equal, to what inventories cue worth. Othex methods of inventory vaLuation...

  17. Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ). Of that amount, the cost of lands, easements, rights-of-way, relocations, and dredged or excavated material on October 2014 (FY15) price levels, the estimated First Cost of the Recommended Plan is about $14,182,000, which would be cost-shared, based on full compliance with parking and access requirements, at 65

  18. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  19. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  20. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  1. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  2. Resource Portfolio Model's Determination of Conservation's Cost-Effectiveness1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,008 average megawatts of conservation8. The electricity price forecast used for this initial estimResource Portfolio Model's Determination of Conservation's Cost- Effectiveness1 The regional Resource Portfolio Model (RPM) finds large amounts of conservation cost effective. The cost of some

  3. Optimal Deployment Plan of Emission Reduction Technologies for TxDOT's Construction Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................ 13 Emission Reduction Options .......................................................... 15 Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Technologies for Emissions Reductions... Page Figure 15 Total NOx Reduction at the First Stage at Different Budget Amounts (Case 2A) ........................................................................... 66 Figure 16 Total NOx Reduction at the First and Second Stage...

  4. Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison Burke Anderson-2008 Abstract: Alternative fuel resources such as biodiesel are important to combat fossil fuel use reduction. Biodiesel is made through a process of transesterification that can be preformed in a variety

  5. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  6. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andproperties of employee replacement costs, using a panel2008. We establish that replacement costs are sub- stantial

  7. Hydrogen demand, production, and cost by region to 2050.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Moore, J.; Shadis, W.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of potential hydrogen (H{sub 2}) demand, production, and cost by region to 2050. The analysis was conducted to (1) address the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) request for regional H{sub 2} cost estimates that will be input to its energy modeling system and (2) identify key regional issues associated with the use of H{sub 2} that need further study. Hydrogen costs may vary substantially by region. Many feedstocks may be used to produce H{sub 2}, and the use of these feedstocks is likely to vary by region. For the same feedstock, regional variation exists in capital and energy costs. Furthermore, delivery costs are likely to vary by region: some regions are more rural than others, and so delivery costs will be higher. However, to date, efforts to comprehensively and consistently estimate future H{sub 2} costs have not yet assessed regional variation in these costs. To develop the regional cost estimates and identify regional issues requiring further study, we developed a H{sub 2} demand scenario (called 'Go Your Own Way' [GYOW]) that reflects fuel cell vehicle (FCV) market success to 2050 and allocated H{sub 2} demand by region and within regions by metropolitan versus non-metropolitan areas. Because we lacked regional resource supply curves to develop our H{sub 2} production estimates, we instead developed regional H{sub 2} production estimates by feedstock by (1) evaluating region-specific resource availability for centralized production of H{sub 2} and (2) estimating the amount of FCV travel in the nonmetropolitan areas of each region that might need to be served by distributed production of H{sub 2}. Using a comprehensive H{sub 2} cost analysis developed by SFA Pacific, Inc., as a starting point, we then developed cost estimates for each H{sub 2} production and delivery method by region and over time (SFA Pacific, Inc. 2002). We assumed technological improvements over time to 2050 and regional variation in energy and capital costs. Although we estimate substantial reductions in H{sub 2} costs over time, our cost estimates are generally higher than the cost goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) hydrogen program. The result of our analysis, in particular, demonstrates that there may be substantial variation in H{sub 2} costs between regions: as much as $2.04/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE) by the time FCVs make up one-half of all light-vehicle sales in the GYOW scenario (2035-2040) and $1.85/GGE by 2050 (excluding Alaska). Given the assumptions we have made, our analysis also shows that there could be as much as a $4.82/GGE difference in H{sub 2} cost between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by 2050 (national average). Our national average cost estimate by 2050 is $3.68/GGE, but the average H{sub 2} cost in metropolitan areas in that year is $2.55/GGE and that in non-metropolitan areas is $7.37/GGE. For these estimates, we assume that the use of natural gas to produce H{sub 2} is phased out. This phase-out reflects the desire of DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT) to eliminate reliance on natural gas for H{sub 2} production. We conducted a sensitivity run in which we allowed natural gas to continue to be used through 2050 for distributed production of H{sub 2} to see what effect changing that assumption had on costs. In effect, natural gas is used for 66% of all distributed production of H{sub 2} in this run. The national average cost is reduced to $3.10/GGE, and the cost in non-metropolitan areas is reduced from $7.37/GGE to $4.90, thereby reducing the difference between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas to $2.35/GGE. Although the cost difference is reduced, it is still substantial. Regional differences are similarly reduced, but they also remain substantial. We also conducted a sensitivity run in which we cut in half our estimate of the cost of distributed production of H{sub 2} from electrolysis (our highest-cost production method). In this run, our national average cost estimate is reduced even further, to

  8. Differences in radar derived rainfall amounts due to sampling intervals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdenek, David James

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIFFERENCES IN RADAR DERIVED RAINFALL AMOUNTS DUE TO SAMPLING INTERVALS A Thesis by DAVID JAMES ZDENEK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1986 Major Subject: Meteorology DIFFERENCES IN RADAR DERIVED RAINFALL AMOUNTS DUE TO SAMPLING INTERVALS A Thesis by DAVID JAMES ZDENEK Approved as to style and content by: eorge L. Huebner (Chairman of Committee) CP~ CG~& Robert C...

  9. A Compressed Air Reduction Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, K. D.

    A COMPRESSED AIR REDUCTION PROGRAM K. Dwight Hawks General Motors Corporation - Ruick-Oldsmobi1e-Cadillac Group Warren, Michigan ABSTRACT The reascn for implementing this program was to assist the plant in Quantifying some of its leaks... in the equipme~t throuqhout the plant and to provide direction as to which leaks are yenerat~ng high uti 1ity costs. The direction is very beneficial in lIlaking maintenance aware of prolill,Pls within equipment .IS \\Iell as notifying them as to whf're thei...

  10. The cost effectiveness of geotechnical investigations in commercial building construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temple, Merdith Wyndham Bolling

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and conducting thorough geotechnical investigations will be demonstrated. A range estimation and frequency histogram are introduced to illustrate the nominal expense of such studies compared to total project cost. These cost estimation techniques are based... have on project construction costs, particularly with respect to foundation expenditures. This data ". . . is believed by many to hold the key to significant cost reductions in. . . construction programs" . (46). It will be clearly demonstrated...

  11. COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

  12. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

  13. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  14. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Could influence membrane durability MPL Loading Controls the pore structure at the CCMCL interface Permeability Relates to water management in a stack Basis Weight Impacts...

  15. M28 Fixed wing transport aircraft cost reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, YuXin, M.B.A. Sloan School of Management

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The M28 is a Polish short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) light cargo aircraft developed in 1984 and currently built by PZL Mielec, a subsidiary of United Technology Corporation (UTC). There has been renewed interest in the ...

  16. OLED Manufacture Challenge: Strategy for Cost Reduction and Yield...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    activity in China will help to leverage the fund for potential market of OLED lighting: Eye-shielding Lamps for Children Shadowless Surgical Operating Lamp New Construction Design...

  17. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  18. Condensate polishing cost reduction at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomquist, R.J. [Peco Energy Company, Delta, PA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1995, PECO Nuclear began an investment of over 3 million dollars for improvements in the condensate polishers at Peach Bottom Unit 3. Based on current performance, the investment is expected to be returned by the first quarter of 1997. The centerpiece of the improvements is the backfit of pleat filters on most of the vessels. Manual isolation valves and new precoating equipment will assure sustained performance. This report summarizes the improved performance and the new equipment and methods used to achieve it.

  19. Designing and Implementing Monitoring Based Energy Cost Reduction Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMullan, A. S.; Pretty, B. L.; Hart, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Accountability: • The incentive to take action must be clearly stated and understood throughout the organization. Typically this involves making energy performance a normal part of business performance reviews at high levels in the organization... of historical performance using sophisticated computing tools to ‘discover’ and reveal (in an understandable way) relationships between process parameters and energy performance. The relationships facilitate development of a predictive model...

  20. Designing and Implementing Monitoring Based Energy Cost Reduction Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMullan, A. S.; Pretty, B. L.; Hart, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operation where ambient air is heated and used to remove moisture from a slurry. The site in question has multiple dryers. Figure 1. Schematic of drying operation Figure 2 summarizes historical energy performance. XYZ Chemicals Fuel... Consumption Rate vs. Production 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 TOTAL PRODUCTION (Units/MONTH) E N E R G Y / Unit XYZ Chemicals Specific Energy Use Vs. Ambient Temperature 25.0 30.0 35...

  1. EV Everywhre Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune- BatteryVehicles | EV Everywhere Grand

  2. Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015ParentsMiddle SchoolPhysicsDeliveryfor LoanEfficient American Autos

  3. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work4/11 ENVIROISSUES ESF| Department ofEnergy

  4. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexas EnergyofIdahoExceptions toPhotovoltaicsExternalOpportunity

  5. Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013Department of

  6. Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next >PresentationsNow LEADER WebCampaigns tois PV

  7. Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »Usage »DownloadSolarSequestrationofPrepared forthe HouseTechnological

  8. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergy Vehicle Analysis3 FacilityA. Kipp, ande3Final

  9. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar

  10. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in Representative Geologic Media |Efficient Solutions for NewServices »Extreme

  11. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan BlanchAmiteInExploration At Geothermal WellsAreas

  12. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e& Fuel CellsCompatibilityAddendum |

  13. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  14. A simplified and scalable should-cost tool in the oilfield services industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mealer, Clayton M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Third party spend accounts for a significant amount of a business' costs. When procuring unique, highly-engineered components, this cost is often negotiated with suppliers during the procurement process. Due to the limited ...

  15. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department to groundwater and soil contamination. In particular, VC can be produced as an intermediate in the reductive- lenging. Traditional "pump-and-treat" treatment systems have proven to be costly and ineffective in many

  16. Walton County Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Walton County, FL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ). Of that amount, the cost of lands, easements, rights-of-way, relocations, and dredged or excavated material construction and renourishment will be dredged from a borrow site identified offshore of the project area, the estimated total nourishment cost of the recommended plan is $170,197,000, which includes the project first

  17. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  18. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Trust. (2008). Offshore Wind Power: Big Challenge,Financial Support for Offshore Wind. The UK Department ofCost Reduction Prospects for Offshore Wind Farms. ” Wind

  19. Approximate Dynamic Programming for Networks: Fluid Models and Constraint Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veatch, Michael H.

    of approximating functions for the differential cost. The first contribution of this paper is identifying new or piece-wise quadratic. Fluid cost has been used to initialize the value iteration algorithm [5Approximate Dynamic Programming for Networks: Fluid Models and Constraint Reduction Michael H

  20. amount energy level: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    amount energy level First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 On Energy Expenditure per Unit of...

  1. Serum lipoprotein composition and amounts in eutrophic and hypotrophic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Serum lipoprotein composition and amounts in eutrophic and hypotrophic newborn at term. H Merzouk 1 with that of eu- trophic newborn at term. Twelve eutrophic newborn (birth weight 3 570 ± 93 g) and 18 hypotrophic cholesterol was analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. In the hypotrophic newborn, compared with the eutrophic

  2. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Trough Receiver (NRELTP-550-45633): NREL, 2009. 2. Kutscher C, et al. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan: NREL Milestone Report, 2010. 3. Mahoney R. Trough...

  3. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  4. Operations Cost Allocation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms...

  5. Kinetics of the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite with iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald, J.R.; Pickles, C.A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, which can be considered as a by-product of the steel recycling process, contains significant quantities of recoverable zinc and iron, as well as hazardous elements such as cadmium, lead and chromium, which can be leached by ground water. The zinc in the EAF dust is found almost entirely in the form of either zinc oxide or zinc ferrite, the latter accounting for 20 to 50 percent of the total zinc. It is important that an efficient process be developed which renders the dust inert, while reclaiming the valuable metals to off-set processing costs. During the conventional carbothermic reduction processes, iron is formed, and this iron can participate in the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite. In the present work, the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite by iron according to the following reaction: ZnO{sup {sm_bullet}}Fe{sub 2}O{sub (s.s.)} + 2 Fe{sub (s)} = Zn{sub (g)} + 4 FeO{sub (s)} was studied in an argon atmosphere using a thermogravimetric technique. First, a thermodynamic analysis was performed using the F*A*C*T computational system. Then, the effects of briquette aspect ratio (l/d), temperature, zinc ferrite particle size, amount of iron added, as well as additions such as lime, sodium chloride, and calcium fluoride were investigated.

  6. On Energy Expenditure per Unit of the Amount of Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Granik

    2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that for an equilibrium state of time-symmetric system of non-relativistic strings the energy per unit of information transfer (storage, processing) obeys the Bekenstein conjecture. The result is based on a theorem due to A.Kholevo relating the physical entropy and the amount of information. Interestingly, the energy in question is the difference between the ensemble average of the energy and the Helmholtz free energy.

  7. System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Dzenitis, John M. (Danville, CA); Ness, Kevin D. (Mountain View, CA)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing and/or analysis. Dispensing means moves the fluid. The dispensing means is operated by a pneumatic force. Connection means delivers the fluid to the desired location. An actuator means provides the pneumatic force to the dispensing means. Valving means transmits the pneumatic force from the actuator means to the dispensing means.

  8. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  9. Systems Engineering Cost Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    on project, human capital impact. 7 How to estimate Cost? Difficult to know what we are building early on1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost

  10. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  11. Un-reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins Bruveris; David C. P. Ellis; Francois Gay-Balmaz; Darryl D. Holm

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a full geometric development of a new technique called un-reduction, for dealing with dynamics and optimal control problems posed on spaces that are unwieldy for numerical implementation. The technique, which was originally concieved for an application to image dynamics, uses Lagrangian reduction by symmetry in reverse. A deeper understanding of un-reduction leads to new developments in image matching which serve to illustrate the mathematical power of the technique.

  12. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  13. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elec Del Cali: Del Investment Cost Delivery Cost OperatingCost Feedstock Cost Investment Cost Delivery Cost Operatingcosts Annualized investment cost, 1000$/yr Total annualized

  14. Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System Discussion Fuel Cell Tech Team FreedomCar Detroit. MI October 20, 2004 TIAX LLC Acorn Park Cambridge Estimates Task 3: Identify Opportunities for System Cost Reduction Tasks 4, 5, 6 & 7: Annual Updates Develop

  15. Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    be in the range of $50 million to $100 million per year (given current gasoline prices). Direct Costs to Motorists if their vehicles fail. Gasoline savings offset some of the costs to owners of failing vehicles. Owners of older of pollution reductions. This estimate includes estimates of non-tailpipe hydrocarbon benefits and gasoline

  16. AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne Veith Abstract The overall goal of this research was to increase, relative to targeting recommendations, the cost-effectiveness of pollution reduction measures

  17. Economic Costs & Adaptations for Alternative Delta Regulations: Appendix F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Integrated water management: ­ Reservoir reoperation ­ Groundwater & conjunctive use ­ Water conservation conditions: Water deliveries and shortages Water scarcity costs Operating costs Mix of water management % Export Reduction %NoExportEconomicLoss #12;12 Ending Water Exports Water management adaptation Unfettered

  18. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

  19. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  20. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  1. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  2. Impact of Utility Costs on the Economics of Energy Cost Reduction & Conservation Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Chao, Y. T.

    This paper summarizes some key results obtained from an EPRI funded study the main objective of which was to investigate the principal economic and technical factors that influence the energy related investment strategy of industrial site operators...

  3. Impact of Utility Costs on the Economics of Energy Cost Reduction & Conservation Technologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Chao, Y. T.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes some key results obtained from an EPRI funded study the main objective of which was to investigate the principal economic and technical factors that influence the energy related investment strategy ...

  4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for comparing multiple technologies and policies to one another), focusing exclusively on customer-sited solar customers to others constitute undue price discrimination against solar PV. Perhaps most damaging for solar TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST REDUCTIONS The Current Terrain In recent years, electric utilities have experienced

  5. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  6. About Cost Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the university, fee-for-service contracts, as well as establishing CAMD as a cost center. We know that our users are reluctant to see CAMD become a cost center, however...

  7. The iron reduction ability of various rose rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Garry Vernon

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and day 14. . . . . . . . 3. Summation of peak iron reduction rates in the rose genotypes at day 7, and FeEDTA concentration of peak reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page . . . . 30 . . . . 36 . . . . 38 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Iron nutrition..., usually as oxides. The amount of iron that is soluble in a soil is quite low compared to the total iron content, being dependent on the solubility of inorganic iron oxides. Soluble forms of inorganic iron include Fe +, Fe(OH) +, Fe(OH)g+ and Fe...

  8. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  9. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschall, R.K. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, Mail Stop IB57, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp[gt]870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified.

  10. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the technical issues, associated with implementing this process improvement are addressed, the results discussed, effectiveness of Lessons Learned evaluated, and waste savings presented.

  11. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    notes that comparisons of cost data remain difficult becausethese resources into cost data, and a description of themigrations), the cost of processing the data may rise

  12. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs Annualized Investment Cost, 1000$/yr Total AnnualizedH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/yr) OperatingH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/kg) Operating

  13. Predicting travel costs for recreational visits at aquatic sites within the Caribbean National Forest using GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Predicting travel costs for recreational visits at aquatic sites within the Caribbean National to visit various recreation sites. Cost surface models, developed in a GIS, can estimate the amount' predictive capabilities. The GIS models were then used to estimate the travel costs associated

  14. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes 1 fey, 1David Feasibility of Achieving a ZeroNetEnergy, ZeroNetCost Homes 1 #12;2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The material reduction, by requiring design entries to meet "zero net energy" and "zero net cost" criteria

  15. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Christopher R. Knittel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Program Christopher R. Knittel of the implied cost of carbon dioxide reductions under the Cash for Clunker program. The estimates suggest pollutants. Conservative estimates of the implied carbon dioxide cost exceed $365 per ton; best case scenario

  16. NREL's Gearbox Reliability Collaborative leads to wind turbine gearbox reliability, lowering the cost of energy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the cost of energy. Unintended gearbox failures have a significant impact on the cost of wind farm will result in increased gearbox reliability and an overall reduction in the cost of wind energy. ProjectNREL's Gearbox Reliability Collaborative leads to wind turbine gearbox reliability, lowering

  17. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  18. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  19. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    experience - as needed - in project management, scheduling, cost estimatingcost engineering, risk management, as well as subject matter experts (SMEs) with knowledge of...

  20. Target Cost Management Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okano, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

  1. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  2. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners.

  3. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL, COST-EFFECTIVE, AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY APPROACHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Manure 3.1 Methods 9 3.1.1 Advent of Hauling Poultry Manure in Large Trucks 11 3.1.2 Conveyor-Cost Manure Storage Facility Option 8 2.42 Manure Storage Agreement and Network 9 3.0 Loading and Hauling 4.0 Manure Transport to Distant Markets 4.1 Manure 16 4.2 Manure Hauling Cost 16 4.3 4.4 Amounts

  5. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  6. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  7. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  8. Time Domain Partitioning of Electricity Production Cost Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrows, C.; Hummon, M.; Jones, W.; Hale, E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production cost models are often used for planning by simulating power system operations over long time horizons. The simulation of a day-ahead energy market can take several weeks to compute. Tractability improvements are often made through model simplifications, such as: reductions in transmission modeling detail, relaxation of commitment variable integrality, reductions in cost modeling detail, etc. One common simplification is to partition the simulation horizon so that weekly or monthly horizons can be simulated in parallel. However, horizon partitions are often executed with overlap periods of arbitrary and sometimes zero length. We calculate the time domain persistence of historical unit commitment decisions to inform time domain partitioning of production cost models. The results are implemented using PLEXOS production cost modeling software in an HPC environment to improve the computation time of simulations while maintaining solution integrity.

  9. Site Energy Reduction Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagen, P. R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DuPont’s Sabine River Works site is the largest energy consuming location within DuPont. In the year 2000, each production area was encouraged to reduce energy costs. By 2003 site energy consumption was down 16% on an absolute basis and 12% on a BTU...

  10. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  11. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    identify particularly useful cost data and cost models thatcontaining hydrogen cost data for production, storage,Volume Validates cost data with Industry Operating Costs

  12. An Investigation Into the Potential for PVC Reduction in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Investigation Into the Potential for PVC Reduction in Residential Building Drainage Lines A Triple Bottom Line Analysis of PVC vs. HDPE For Penny Martyn, Stakeholder of Project, Green Building for flexibility and cheap cost, PVC comes with numerous harmful side-effects to both the environment

  13. Cost Analysis Procedures for Use in Promoting Fine Filtration Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renfert, David A.

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    to run a compressor in standby mode (unloaded) or in reserve. (2) Many plants are limited in compressed air capacity and any reduction in compressed air demand will have benefits around the plant. ii) Controlling the cleaning cycle based... to estimate the percentage of time a compressor runs unloaded, so the calculation determines the theoretical costs to produce the volume of compressed air used for cleaning media. Motor efficiency (? motor ) = 0.9. {Company name} 27 Cost Analysis...

  14. Technical Report No. 249, Department of Computer Science, ETH Zurich, July 1996 1 Faster Algorithms for Integer Lattice Basis Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storjohann, Arne

    a given integer lattice basis b1 ; b2 ; : : : ; bn 2 ZZ n into a reduced basis. The cost of L 3 ­reduction product. The L 3 ­reduction algorithm presented in [12] guarantees to return a basis with initial vector for Integer Lattice Basis Reduction Arne Storjohann Eidgen¨ossische Technische Hochschule CH­8092 Z

  15. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  16. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  17. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

  18. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  19. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  20. Standard costs for labor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STANDARD COSTS FOR LABOR A Thesis By MD. NURUL ABSAR KHAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texms in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... January 1960 Ma/or Sub)acts Accounting STANOAHD COSTS FOR LABOR ND, NURUL ABSAR KHAN Approved as t style and content bys Chairman of Committee Head of Hepartment January 1960 The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. T. M. Leland, Mr. T. D...

  1. New results on (LAMPF II) superconducting linac cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaffer, G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A consolidated cost estimate for a superconducting 800 MeV extension of the LAMPF I linac is presented in this note. Based on recent CERN-LEP tender results for 20 superconducting cavities, the cost of a superconducting linac structure (402.5 MHz) can be projected with much better accuracy than so far. The total construction cost for an 800 MeV extension amounts to 99.5 M$, buildings, cryoplant etc. included. The corresponding figure for a normal conducting structure (1207.5 MHz, on axis coupled) is 104.6 M$.

  2. A case study of cost overruns in a Thai condominium project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roachanakanan, Kwanchai

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    major research subject in the last century due to the importance of this industry and the amount of money it attracts. One critical problem facing construction managers is inefficient cost control procedures, particularly in developing regions...

  3. Calculator program optimizes bit weight, rotary speed, reducing drilling cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.A.

    1984-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Bit selection, bit weight, and rotary speed have repeatedly proven to be the most important and commonly overlooked alterable factors which control penetration rate, footage, and overall drilling cost. This is particularly true in offshore operations where drilling costs are highest and the greatest cost savings stand to be achieved through implementation of proven optimization techniques. The myth that bit weights and rotary speeds cannot be optimized in directional holes has hindered the industry from using this virtually cost-free method for reducing drilling cost. The use of optimized bit weights and rotary speeds in conjunction with minimum cost bit programs based on cost per foot analysis of previous bit runs in the area was implemented on a five-well platform in the Grand Isle Block 20 field, offshore Louisiana. Each of the directional wells was drilled substantially faster and cheaper than the discovery well, which was a straight hole. Average reductions in footage cost of 31.3%, based on daily operating cost of $30,000/day, and increase in average daily footage drilled of 45.2% were effected by ''collectively optimizing'' drilling performance. The ''Optimizer'' program is an HP-41CV adaptation of the Bourgoyne and Young drilling model. It was used to calculate the optimum bit weights and rotary speeds based on field drilling tests; historical bit and bearing wear data; and current operating conditions, cost, and constraints.

  4. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. (Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey))

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  5. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)] [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  6. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  7. Reducing Life Cycle Cost By Energy Saving in Pump Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bower, J. R.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pumps consume about 15% of all electricity generated world wide. In the USA alone this accounts for over 130TWh per annum. A saving of only 1% would amount to $80 million in electricity cost. The importance of energy saving, in pump systems...

  8. Optimal Trading with Transaction Costs and Momentum Dr. Timothy Simin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjřrnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Optimal Trading with Transaction Costs and Momentum Dr. Timothy Simin Associate Professor for the regression of asset returns on predictor variables with varying amounts of explanatory power (R2 compared to the weeks required using only a single processor. Related Publications 1. Optimal Trading

  9. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  10. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  11. Edisto Beach Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Colleton County, South Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ,395,000 (35 percent). Of that amount, the cost of lands, easements, rights-of-way, relocations, and dredged the cost of protecting that portion of beach. The non-Federal sponsor for the project is the Town of Edisto for the berm and dune construction and renourishment will be dredged from a borrow site located approximately 1

  12. Concentrating Solar Panels: Bringing the Highest Power and Lowest Cost to the Rooftop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Deck; Rick Russell

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Soliant Energy is a venture-capital-backed startup focused on bringing advanced concentrating solar panels to market. Our fundamental innovation is that we are the first company to develop a racking solar concentrator specifically for commercial rooftop applications, resulting in the lowest LCOE for rooftop electricity generation. Today, the commercial rooftop segment is the largest and fastest-growing market in the solar industry. Our concentrating panels can make a major contribution to the SAI's objectives: reducing the cost of solar electricity and rapidly deploying capacity. Our commercialization focus was re-shaped in 2009, shifting from an emphasis solely on panel efficiency to LCOE. Since the inception of the SAI program, LCOE has become the de facto standard for comparing commercial photovoltaic systems. While estimation and prediction models still differ, the emergence of performance-based incentive (PBI) and feed-in tariff (FIT) systems, as well as power purchase agreement (PPA) financing structures make LCOE the natural metric for photovoltaic systems. Soliant Energy has designed and demonstrated lower-cost, higher-power solar panels that consists of 6 (500X) PV module assemblies utilizing multi-junction cells and an integrated two-axis tracker. In addition, we have designed and demonstrated a prototype 1000X panel assembly with 8. Cost reductions relative to conventional flat panel PV systems were realized by (1) reducing the amount of costly semiconductor material and (2) developing strategies and processes to reduce the manufacturing costs of the entire system. Performance gains against conventional benchmarks were realized with (1) two-axis tracking and (2) higher-efficiency multi-junction PV cells capable of operating at a solar concentration ratio of 1000X (1000 kW/m2). The program objectives are: (1) Develop a tracking/concentrating solar module that has the same geometric form factor as a conventional flat, roof mounted photovoltaic (PV) panel - the Soliant module will produce more power and cost less than conventional panels of the same size; (2) Target LCOE: $0.079/kWh in 2010; (3) Target efficiency - 26% in 2010 (22% for 2008 prototype, 24% for 2009 pilot); and (4) Target performance - equivalent to 650Wp in 2010 (490W for 2008 prototype, 540W for 2009 pilot).

  13. Regulatory Control of Vehicle and Power Plant Emissions: How Effective and at What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, S.

    Passenger vehicles and power plants are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. While economic analyses generally indicate that a broader market-based approach to greenhouse gas reduction would be less costly and more ...

  14. Cost analysis of German waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, H.P.; Debski, H.J. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In forecasting costs of final disposal for radioactive waste, the determined disposal concept and operational aspects such as the necessary amount for personnel to operate the repository are important. Even for the German deep geological concept, there are large differences resulting from the assessment to select an already existing mine or a completely new formation as a disposal site. Based on actual planning, the expected total costs of the running waste repository projects in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented including their distribution to single aspects like project management, underground investigation, licensing work and construction. Moreover, the actual expenditures for the different waste repositories are given and as far as possible the prices per m{sup 3}.

  15. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular, ...

  16. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  17. Price/Cost Proposal Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS PriceCost Proposal: Provide complete, current, and accurate cost or pricing data in accordance with Federal and Department of Energy Acquisition...

  18. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  19. Vehicle operating costs: evidence from developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesher, A.; Harrison, R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document presents information concerning the relationships between vehicle operating costs and highway conditions derived from four studies performed in Kenya, the Caribbean, Brazil, and India in the 1970s and early 1980s. The levels of transport costs and the amounts by which they are altered when highway conditions change depend on two main factors. The first is the production technology facing firms, in particular, the types and designs of vehicles to which firms have access. The second is the economic environment that firms face, in particular, relative prices of inputs to the production of transportation, such as fuel, tires, labor, and vehicles, and the nature of the transport markets that firms serve. The first part of the book sets out an economic model of firms managing vehicle fleets within which these influences can be examined. The second part of the book reports and interprets the results of the four major research projects which were designed to study the influences on vehicle operating costs. The third part of the book examines total vehicle operating costs.

  20. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  1. Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    . Equipment access charges Service contracts, running costs, materials and consumables and staff time

  2. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs ­ direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a â��bottom-upâ� costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with DFMA�® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target. In general, tank costs are the largest component of system cost, responsible for at least 30 percent of total system cost, in all but two of the 12 systems. Purchased BOP cost also drives system cost, accounting for 10 to 50 percent of total system cost across the various storage systems. Potential improvements in these cost drivers for all storage systems may come from new manufacturing processes and higher production volumes for BOP components. In addition, advances in the production of storage media may help drive down overall costs for the sodium alanate, SBH, LCH2, MOF, and AX-21 systems.

  4. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  5. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  6. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Idling Reduction Network News Archives Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network News Archives The National Idling Reduction Network brings together trucking...

  8. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous advances in AB synthesis have been made in recent years to improve AB yields and purities

  9. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  10. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development *

  11. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

  12. Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/ addition has been studied in a lean-burning oil fired laboratory combustion tunnel with pyridine and thiophene added to the fuel oil. Two distinct, but interrelated effects were observed. The conversion of a fixed amount of fuel nitrogen to NO in the flame increased as the fuel sulfur concentration increased. In the post-combustion gases, there was a shift in the temperature dependence of the reduction process when the sulfur combustion products were present. The extent of the NO reduction was not significantly altered, but the optimum temperature for reduction shifted to higher values as the sulfur concentration increased.

  13. Allocable costs What are they?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Allocable costs What are they? The A-21 circular definition: a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective (i.e., a specific function, project, sponsored agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost objective in accordance

  14. The Costs and Revenues of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry Owen Davies & Gary Kerr March 2011 #12;2 | Costs and Revenues of CCF | Owen Davies & Gary Kerr | March 2011 Costs and Revenues of CCF The costs and revenues of transformation to continuous cover forestry: Modelling silvicultural options

  15. Hay Harvesting Costs $$$$$ in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, James T.; Taylor, Wayne D.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hay is an important crop in Ta 1 Harvesting costs constitute the major5 pense of hay production in many M Mg and Wayne D . Taylor INTRODUCTION .................................................... 2 Fixed Costs or Ownership Costs... ............................................. 10 Totarl Cost .............................................................. 10 HAY HARVESTING ALTERNATIVES COMPARED ...................... 11 HOW TO MAKE WISE DECISIONS CONCERNING INVESTMENTS IN MACHINERY...

  16. Construction Cost March 6, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ...................................................................................................................................... 14 3.3 UMass Historical Cost Trends-- John Mathews, P.E., MPA, UMass Amherst............. 17 4 PartConstruction Cost Symposium March 6, 2007 University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Construction Cost .......................................................... 22 4.3.2 The need for summer construction schedules and the impact on project cost......... 23 4

  17. Chromium(VI) Reduction by Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    experiments with excess [Cr(VI)] over [H2S]T indicated that the molar amount of sulfide required for the reduction of 1 M Cr(VI) was 1.5, suggesting the following stoichi- ometry: 2CrO4 2- + 3H2S + 4H+ f 2Cr(OH)3 of fully protonated sulfide (H2S) in the pH range of 6.5-10. The nature of buffers did not influence

  18. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  19. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  20. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland; Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  1. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the years the industry has shown a good deal of ingenuity and, as a result, has developed several cost effective methods of processing and handling wood. SMB systems usually cannot afford to perform much onsite processing and therefore usually purchase fuels processed to specification. Owners of larger systems try to minimize onsite processing to minimize processing costs. Whole truck dumpers are expensive, but allow for faster and easier unloading, which reduces labor costs and charges by the haulers. Storage costs are a major factor in overall costs, thus the amount of fuel reserve is an important consideration. Silos and bins are relatively expensive compared to open piles used for larger facilities, but may be required depending on space available, wood characteristics, and amount of wood to be stored. For larger systems, a front-end loader has a lot of flexibility in use and is an essential piece of equipment for moving material. Few opportunities appear to exist for improving the cost effectiveness of these systems.

  2. Accounting for Memory Use, Cost, Throughput, and Latency in the Design of a Media Server

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Edward Y.

    : the per­stream costs and the worst­case initial latency before a new media request can be satisfied. WeAccounting for Memory Use, Cost, Throughput, and Latency in the Design of a Media Server Edward scheduling and data place­ ment ones. We show that, some disk latency reduction techniques can

  3. Cost and Reliability Considerations in Designing the Next-Generation IP over WDM Backbone Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    and reliability. Reduction of equipment and costs at Layer 3 (router and line cards) should not resultCost and Reliability Considerations in Designing the Next-Generation IP over WDM Backbone Networks networks. To address the reliability challenges due to failures and planned outages, ISPs typically use two

  4. Between-sex Variation in Running Speed and a Potential Cost of Leg Autotomy in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Christopher A.

    Between-sex Variation in Running Speed and a Potential Cost of Leg Autotomy in the Wolf Spider of losing a leg is a reduction in burst running speed, which may affect prey capture and predator avoidance differed in either sprint speed or the potential cost of leg loss. Autotomy was fairly common in the field

  5. Large Wind Property Tax Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2001, North Dakota established property tax reductions for commercial wind turbines constructed before 2011. Originally, the law reduced the taxable value of centrally-assessed* wind turbines...

  6. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  7. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)...

  8. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  9. Lower Cost Energy Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maze, M. E.

    the last f1ve years we have saved over $177 m11110n. 0= o u.vncGS AlIOTT DOMUTtC ENERGY COST & SAVINGS 11(000) uxm llOOOO lDXD ""'"lIXlIl ,..,.., 6CIlOll DlOO :om om a L--=.lLol.uLJULl:LJJU11.Lil:Ll..L<.LLLJ..lLo 7374.75'71i771BNlIJ nAIl F...

  10. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hanyung [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ve Cheah, Chang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Namjo [Energy Materials and Convergence Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon, E-mail: jleenano@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of WCU Multiscale Mechanical Design, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm{sup 3} in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

  11. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  12. Synthesis of Pd?Ru@Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Yu; Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Chang, Li-Chung; Wu, Pu-Wei; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles of PdRu, Pd?Ru, and Pd?Ru are synthesized and impregnated on carbon black via a wet chemical reflux process. X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-synthesized samples, PdxRu/C (x=1/3/9), suggest succesful formation of alloy without presence of individual Pd and Ru nanoparticles. Images from transmission electron microscope confirm irregularly-shaped nanoparticles with average size below 3 nm. Analysis from extended X-ray absorption fine structure on both Pd and Ru K-edge absorption profiles indicate the Ru atoms are enriched on the surface of PdxRu/C. Among these samples, the Pd?Ru/C exhibits the strongest electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an oxygen-saturated 0.1more »M aqueous HClO? solution. Subsequently, the Pd?Ru/C undegoes Cu under potential deposition, followed by a galvanic displacement reaction to deposit a Pt monolayer on the Pd?Ru surface (Pd?Ru@Pt). The Pd?Ru@Pt reveals better ORR performance than that of Pt, reaching a mass activity of 0.38 mA ?g?ą Pt, as compared to that of commercially available Pt nanoparticles (0.107 mA ?g?ą Pt). The mechanisms responsible for the ORR enhancement are attributed to the combined effects of lattice strain and ligand interaction. In addition, this core-shell Pd?Ru@Pt electrocatalyst represents a substantial reduction in the amount of Pt consumption and raw material cost.« less

  13. Synthesis of Pd?Ru@Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Yu [National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsin-chu (Taiwan); Hsieh, Yu-Chi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chang, Li-Chung [National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsin-chu (Taiwan); Wu, Pu-Wei [National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsin-chu (Taiwan); Lee, Jyh-Fu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsin-chu (Taiwan)

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles of PdRu, Pd?Ru, and Pd?Ru are synthesized and impregnated on carbon black via a wet chemical reflux process. X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-synthesized samples, PdxRu/C (x=1/3/9), suggest succesful formation of alloy without presence of individual Pd and Ru nanoparticles. Images from transmission electron microscope confirm irregularly-shaped nanoparticles with average size below 3 nm. Analysis from extended X-ray absorption fine structure on both Pd and Ru K-edge absorption profiles indicate the Ru atoms are enriched on the surface of PdxRu/C. Among these samples, the Pd?Ru/C exhibits the strongest electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an oxygen-saturated 0.1 M aqueous HClO? solution. Subsequently, the Pd?Ru/C undegoes Cu under potential deposition, followed by a galvanic displacement reaction to deposit a Pt monolayer on the Pd?Ru surface (Pd?Ru@Pt). The Pd?Ru@Pt reveals better ORR performance than that of Pt, reaching a mass activity of 0.38 mA ?g?ą Pt, as compared to that of commercially available Pt nanoparticles (0.107 mA ?g?ą Pt). The mechanisms responsible for the ORR enhancement are attributed to the combined effects of lattice strain and ligand interaction. In addition, this core-shell Pd?Ru@Pt electrocatalyst represents a substantial reduction in the amount of Pt consumption and raw material cost.

  14. Detailed cost estimate of reference residential photovoltaic designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.S.; Penasa, D.A.; Thomas, M.G.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimated installation costs for four reference residential photovoltaic designs. Installation cost estimates ranged from $1.28 to $2.12/W/sub p/ for arrays installed by union labor (4.1 to 6.07 kW/sub p/-systems), and from $1.22 to $1.83 W/sub p/ for non-union installations. Standoff mounting was found to increase costs from $1.63/W/sub p/ to $2.12/W/sub p/ for a representative case, whereas 25 kWh of battery storage capacity increased installation costs from $1.44/W/sub p/ to $2.08/W/sub p/. Overall system costs (union-based were $6000 to $7000 for a 4.1 kW array in the northeast, to approx. $9000 for a 6.07 kW/sub p/ array in the southwest. This range of installation costs, approx. $1 to $2/W/sub p/ (in 1980 dollars), is representative of current installation costs for residential PV systems. Any future cost reductions are likely to be small and can be accomplished only by optimization of mounting techniques, module efficiencies, and module reliability in toto.

  15. CLSM bleed water reduction test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Rajendran, N. [Bechtel Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous testing by BSRI/SRTC/Raytheon indicated that the CLSM specified for the Tank 20 closure generates about 6 gallons (23 liters) of bleed water per cubic yard of material (0.76 m3).1 This amount to about 10 percent of the total mixing water. HLWE requested that the CLSM mix be optimized to reduce bleed water while maintaining flow. Elimination of bleed water from the CLSM mix specified for High-Level Waste Tank Closure will result in waste minimization, time savings and cost savings. Over thirty mixes were formulated and evaluated at the on-site Raytheon Test Laboratory. Improved low bleed water CLSM mixes were identified. Results are documented in this report.

  16. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., President; Principal Investigator, and

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  17. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  18. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    Electric Utility companies charge industrial clients for two things: demand and usage. Depending on type of business and hours operation, demand cost could be very high. Most of the operations scheduling in a plant is achieved considering labor cost...

  19. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ELEcrRIC DEMAND COST Versus LABOR COST: A CASE STUDY Sanjay Agrawal Richard Jensen Assistant Director Director Industrial Assessment Center Department of Engineering Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549 ABSTRAcr Electric Utility companies...

  20. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  1. Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

  2. Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in Canada: Policy or Window Dressing? Charles Plante, Upstream: Institute for a Healthy Society #12;Overview What is poverty? Current state of poverty in Saskatchewan What is a Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategy (CPRS)? Are CPRS effective at reducing

  3. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  4. chloride tent was permeable to NHs and that small amounts of 4NHs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtman, Richard

    hydroxide hydrolysis of the MgO-distilled water from the tent did release small amounts of NHa. These data suggest that small amounts of amide N may have leaked or been present in the condensed water from, though its glucuronide can be extracted from Joroad bean, Vicia faba (2, 3). Solid pellets of Big Red

  5. The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico, Water ResourThe stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto

  6. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  7. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  8. Statewide Emissions Reduction, Electricity and Demand Savings from the Implementation of Building-Energy-Codes in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J.; Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Zilbershtein, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on the estimate of electricity reduction and electric demand savings from the adoption energy codes for single-family residences in Texas, 2002-2009, corresponding increase in cnstruction costs and estimates of the statewide...

  9. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  10. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

  11. Looking at Resource Sharing Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon, Lars; Kress, Nancy

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose – This paper is the result of a small cost study of resource sharing services in 23 North American libraries. Trends that have affected resource sharing costs since the last comprehensive study are discussed. Design/methodology approach...

  12. User cost in oil production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

  13. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share...

  14. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49,PHEV Battery Cost

  15. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  16. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  17. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  18. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

  19. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E. [DFI/Aeronomics Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  20. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  1. Technological cost%3CU%2B2010%3Ereduction pathways for axial%3CU%2B2010%3Eflow turbines in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laird, Daniel L.; Johnson, Erick L.; Ochs, Margaret Ellen; Boren, Blake [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report considers and prioritizes potential technical costreduction pathways for axialflow turbines designed for tidal, river, and ocean current resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were utilized to understand current cost drivers and develop a list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to axialflow turbines, the U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model effort, and informal webinars and other targeted interactions with industry developers. Data from these various information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy. The four most promising costreduction pathways include structural design optimization; improved deployment, maintenance, and recovery; system simplicity and reliability; and array optimization.

  2. Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As mandated by the Nevada statutes, the Nevada Energy Office prepared a state energy reduction plan which requires state agencies, departments, and other entities in the Executive Branch to reduce...

  3. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  4. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  5. Improving the Performance of Sampling-Based Planners by Using a Symmetry-Exploiting Gap Reduction Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaValle, Steven M.

    reduction technique that exploits group symmetries of the system to avoid costly numerical integrations and extended to generate new nodes and edges. If a path in the graph that connects the initial state and a goalImproving the Performance of Sampling-Based Planners by Using a Symmetry-Exploiting Gap Reduction

  6. Keeping the Lights on While Cutting Costs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1992, the Bonneville Power Administration spent $361 million in capital on a system to transmit electricity. By 1998, it was spending about one-third that amount: $123 million. In 1992, BPA`s expenses for managing, operating and maintaining the transmission system ran $160 million. By 1998, BPA had cut expenses to $128 million. Maintenance costs alone were cut 28%. In 1992, management of the grid was split into six organizations. Today, there is one. About 2,900 people worked for transmission in October 1992. By February 1998, the Transmission Business Line (TBL) employed 1,855. Transmission in 1992 for the most part meant new towers, lines and substations. Today it means computers, digital communications and electronic controls.

  7. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  8. Korean ESL learners' pragmatic competence: motivation, amount of contact, and length of residence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Soo Jin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined the motivation for learning English, the amount of contact with English, and length of residence in the target language area that affects Korean graduate students’ English pragmatic skills studying at Texas A&M University...

  9. Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    XLS Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - XLS Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010. 52Item84Recovery...

  10. Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ODS format Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - ODS format Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010....

  11. Business Systems and Analytics With ever increasing amounts of data, organizations are identifying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, Will

    , business systems analysis and design, enterprise resource planning, project management and business process offered by the International Institute of Business Analysis, SAP, the Project MaBusiness Systems and Analytics With ever increasing amounts of data, organizations are identifying

  12. Business Systems Analysis With ever increasing amounts of data, organizations are identifying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, Will

    , business systems analysis and design, enterprise resource planning, project management and business process Institute of Business Analysis, SAP, the Project Management InBusiness Systems Analysis With ever increasing amounts of data, organizations are identifying

  13. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration B. Parsons and E. Ela National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA H....

  14. regulation. Buoys and ship-based sensors are normally used to measure the amount of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    regulation. Buoys and ship-based sensors are normally used to measure the amount of water of many neurons at once. But researchers based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, have painstakingly mapped

  15. one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple-mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple- mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol (5% v/v), because the menadione was dissolved in ethanol as a stock solution. The reaction was ini

  16. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

  17. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.voltage connections) Capital costs for this equipment must

  18. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kingdom; 2004. [8] Amos W. Costs of storing and transportingcon- nections). Capital costs for this equipment must bein an analysis of station costs. Total station construction

  19. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueling stations; Cost; Shanghai; Fuel cell vehicles 1.and the delivery cost for fuel cell vehicles, however, itthus hydrogen cost therefore depend on the ?eet of fuel cell

  20. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems in China, particularly for the cost of hydrogenthe capital cost for equipment imported to China. Hydrogenestate costs in Shanghai are among the highest in China. $

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  4. Task force reduces stuck-pipe costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, W.B. (BP Research, Houston, TX (US)); Jarman, D. (BP Exploration Operation Co., Aberdeen (GB)); Auflick, R.A.; Plott, R.S. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Houston, TX (US)); Wood, R.D. (BP Exploration Operating Co., London (GB)); Schofield, T.R. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Beijing (CN)); Cocking, D. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Ho Chi Minh City (CN))

    1991-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A task-force approach to stuck pipe has produced more than a 70% reduction in BP Exploration Operating Co.'s worldwide stuck-pipe costs during 1989 and 1990. We believe that these results have been primarily due to focusing our attention on improving personnel performance rather than to the introduction of new technology. Key elements in this paper of the efforts involved: Recognizing the importance of the drilling contractor and the service company staff's role in helping control stuck pipe; Promoting a rig-team approach to tackling the problem; Providing training on rig-team, stuck-pipe problem solving; and raising awareness of stuck pipe through a coordinated worldwide communications program among BP, contractors, and service companies.

  5. Low cost titanium--myth or reality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

  6. Incorporating Perceived Mortality Risks from Arsenic into Models of Drinking Water Behavior and Valuation of Arsenic Risk Reductions: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, W. Douglass

    and estimating values for arsenic reduction risks. Several studies have been undertaken to examine the costs of compliance with the new standard, mainly in the form of capital cost for improved or new public system of Economics Texas A&M University Mark Walker, Associate Professor Dept. of Natural Resource and Environmental

  7. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software. g4301-1chp22.pdf -- PDF Document, 190 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration...

  8. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University] [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University] [Penn State University

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  9. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  10. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

  11. Progress on Footprint Reduction at the Hanford Site - 12406

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenney, Dale E. [CH2M HILL, Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Seeley, Paul [Cenibark International, Inc., Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Farabee, Al [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to reduce the footprint of legacy sites throughout the EM complex. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination and demolition of excess contaminated facilities, soil and groundwater remediation, and solid waste disposition. All of these initiatives are being accomplished with established technologies in proven regulatory frameworks. Ultimately, completion of these environmental cleanup activities will reduce the monitoring and maintenance costs associated with managing large federal facilities, allowing EM to place more focus on other high priority cleanup efforts and facilitate a successful transition to land-term stewardship of these sites. Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) investment, the Department's cleanup footprint has been reduced by 45 percent to date, from 2411 km{sup 2} (931 mi{sup 2}) to 1336 km{sup 2} (516 mi{sup 2}s). With this significant progress on footprint reduction, the Department is on track towards their goal to reduce its overall footprint by approximately 90 percent by 2015. In addition, some areas cleaned up may become available for alternate uses (i.e. recreation, conservation, preservation, industrialization or development). Much of the work to reduce the complex's footprint occurred at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington, but cleanup continues across the complex. Footprint reduction is progressing well at the Hanford Site, supported predominantly through ARRA investment. To date, 994 km{sup 2} (384 mi{sup 2}) (65%) of footprint reduction have been achieved at Hanford, with a goal to achieve a 90% reduction by Fiscal Year 2015. The DOE EM and DOE Richland Operations Office, continue to make great progress to reduce the legacy footprint of the Hanford Site. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination and demolition of excess facilities, both contaminated and uncontaminated, waste site cleanup activities, and debris pile removal. All of these activities can be accomplished with proven technologies and within established regulatory frameworks. Footprint reduction goals for Fiscal Year 2011 were exceeded, largely with the help of ARRA funding. As cleanup projects are completed and the total area requiring cleanup shrinks, overall costs for surveillance and maintenance operations and infrastructure services decrease. This work completion and decrease in funding requirements to maintain waste sites and antiquated facilities allows more focus on high priority site missions (i.e. groundwater remediation, tank waste disposition, etc.) and moves Site areas closer to transition from EM to the Legacy Management program. The progress in the Hanford footprint reduction effort will help achieve success in these other important mission areas. (authors)

  12. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  13. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  14. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications....

  15. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  16. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  17. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

  18. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  19. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

  20. Effectiveness of External Window Attachments Based on Daylight Utilization and Cooling Load Reduction for Small Office Buildings in Hot Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soebarto, V. I.; Degelman, L. O.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reduce the amount of the daylight needed to supplement interior lighting. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore which strategy would give a balance between solar heat gain reduction and daylight utilization and result in the most energy...

  1. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Processing (IT) Lignin-Based Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors * Structural Materials for Vehicles (VT) * Graphite Electrodes for Arc Furnaces (IT) * Nanoporous CF for...

  2. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    production and conversion parameters must be optimized. Lower cost fiber enable CF composite applications. Approach: 1. Complete previous effort by scaling to the CF production...

  3. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  4. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  5. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

  6. JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocioalca, Oana

    JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS "non-systematic" risk, inclusive of transaction costs. We compute the total transac- tion costs and the turnover for different options, transaction costs, and revision intervals

  7. A SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH FOR EFFECTIVE REDUCTION OF TIMING JITTER DUE TO THE ACOUSTIC EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adali, Tulay

    A SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH FOR EFFECTIVE REDUCTION OF TIMING JITTER DUE TO THE ACOUSTIC EFFECT produced by the acoustic effect in soliton communications. The other main sources of timing jitter that predicts the amount of timing jitter as a function of the previ- ous transmitted bits and uses

  8. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain�������¢����������������s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

  9. An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs? Costs involved in conducting sponsored projects are categorized in two ways: direct costs or indirect costs. The federal government refers officially to indirect costs as facilities and administrative (F&A) costs, sometimes simply called "overhead" costs. Direct

  10. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  11. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  12. The VVDS data reduction pipeline: introducing VIPGI, the VIMOS Interactive Pipeline and Graphical Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Scodeggio; P. Franzetti; B. Garilli; A. Zanichelli; S. Paltani; D. Maccagni; D. Bottini; V. Le Brun; T. Contini; R. Scaramella; C. Adami; S. Bardelli; E. Zucca; L. Tresse; O. Ilbert; S. Foucaud; A. Iovino; R. Merighi; G. Zamorani; I. Gavignaud; D. Rizzo; H. J. McCracken; O. Le Fevre; J. P. Picat; G. Vettolani; M. Arnaboldi; S. Arnouts; M. Bolzonella; A. Cappi; S. Charlot; L. Guzzo; B. Marano; C. Marinoni; G. Mathez; A. Mazure; B. Meneux; R. Pello; A. Pollo; L. Pozzetti M. Radovich

    2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS), designed to measure 150,000 galaxy redshifts, requires a dedicated data reduction and analysis pipeline to process in a timely fashion the large amount of spectroscopic data being produced. This requirement has lead to the development of the VIMOS Interactive Pipeline and Graphical Interface (VIPGI), a new software package designed to simplify to a very high degree the task of reducing astronomical data obtained with VIMOS, the imaging spectrograph built by the VIRMOS Consortium for the European Southern Observatory, and mounted on Unit 3 (Melipal) of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal Observatory (Chile). VIPGI provides the astronomer with specially designed VIMOS data reduction functions, a VIMOS-centric data organizer, and dedicated data browsing and plotting tools, that can be used to verify the quality and accuracy of the various stages of the data reduction process. The quality and accuracy of the data reduction pipeline are comparable to those obtained using well known IRAF tasks, but the speed of the data reduction process is significantly increased, thanks to the large set of dedicated features. In this paper we discuss the details of the MOS data reduction pipeline implemented in VIPGI, as applied to the reduction of some 20,000 VVDS spectra, assessing quantitatively the accuracy of the various reduction steps. We also provide a more general overview of VIPGI capabilities, a tool that can be used for the reduction of any kind of VIMOS data.

  13. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  14. Extensive English Summary CPB Special Publication 57: Wind energy at the North Sea: A social Cost-benefit analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    uncertainties, such as developments in the price of CO2 emission rights through the climate policy, the supply of more favourable hypotheses with regard to cost reductions over time, higher fuel prices, higher CO2 production to (1) based on cost effectiveness in renewable electricity 3. Phased construction of 6,000 MW

  15. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  16. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  17. 5, 14791509, 2008 Staged cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 5, 1479­1509, 2008 Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  18. Bistability and pulsations in cw semiconductor lasers with a controlled amount of saturable absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, C.; Lau, K.Y.; Yariv, A.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results of a buried heterostructure cw laser with a controllable amount of saturable absorption introduced by a segmented contact are presented. With no absorption the laser is stable and has a linear output characteristic. Increasing of the saturable absorption by changing the pump current through the control segment causes the light output of the device to pulsate and to show bistable and hysteretical behavior. The introduction of a controllable amount of saturable absorption suggest the usefulness of this device in generating extremely short pulses, for example, by passive mode locking and as a bistable optical device.

  19. Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk Alexander Koller Joachim Niehren Programming partially. In this paper, we introduce beta reduction constraints to describe beta reduction steps between partially known lambda terms. We show that beta reduction constraints can be expressed in an extension

  20. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdan, Monjid [Giner, Inc.] [Giner, Inc.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm˛); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  1. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program W. M. Heffington, S. K. Lum, V. A. Bauer and W. D. Turner Energy Sys tems Group Mechanical Engineering Department Texas ALM University College Station, TX Direct program costs... Science Park of the University of Texas System Cancer Center is treated as one building as it was bv the audit- ing contractor. General Land Office records differ. by more than a factor of four on an area basi,s (Table 4). Figure 1 is a plot...

  2. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  3. Multiple oligo nucleotide arrays: Methods to reduce manufacture time and cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning, Kang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The customized multiple arrays are becoming vastly used in microarray experiments for varies purposes, mainly for its ability to handle a large quantity of data and output high quality results. However, experimenters who use customized multiple arrays still face many problems, such as the cost and time to manufacture the masks, and the cost for production of the multiple arrays by costly machines. Although there is some research on the multiple arrays, there is little concern on the manufacture time and cost, which is actually important to experimenters. In this paper, we have proposed methods to reduce the time and cost for the manufacture of the customized multiple arrays. We have first introduced a heuristic algorithm for the mask decomposition problem for multiple arrays. Then a streamline method is proposed for the integration of different steps of manufacture on a higher level. Experiments show that our methods are very effective in reduction of the time and cost of manufacture of multiple arrays.

  4. Dynamic reduction, Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, G.J.; Wong, D.Y.; Ottevangers, J.; Wang, L. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the theoretical background of the EPRI Dynamic Reduction DYNRED V 1.0. EPRI initiated research under project RP763 to develop the original reduction program DYNEQU. This program was the first to be based on the concept of aggregating of coherent groups of synchronous generators into a single equivalent generator model. While technically advanced, DYNEQU proved difficult to use. Since then, the stability problems encountered in power system planning and operations have changed. The emphasis on first swing transient stability has been replaced by emphasis on inter-area oscillations and voltage stability. The method of identification of coherent generators used in DYNEQU is based on the comparison of rotor angle swings, in a linearized system model, following a fault. It has been shown that this method of coherency identification is good for first swing stability. For inter-area oscillation studies, this method of generator aggregation is less accurate. Far better, are identification methods based on the structure of the power system. Because of these changes in the requirements for reduced order power system models, a new dynamic reduction program (DYNRED) has been developed under EPRI project RP2447-1. It is coherency based, as is DYNEQU, but it has structurally based coherency identification methods in addition to the method used in DYNEQU. This report describes the techniques used in DYNRED, that is: Coherency Identification; Network Reduction; Method of Aggregation, Generator Aggregation, Excitation Aggregation, Primemover/Governor Aggregation. An example of the application of DYNRED to the reduction of a large interconnected power system model is also presented. DYNRED uses the special modeling and network solution techniques developed to enable systems having up to 12,000 bus to be studied. Dynamic data is completely compatible between MASS, PEALS, and the EPRI Extended Transient Midterm Stability Program (ETMSP).

  5. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully exercised the tool's build/turn/drop/hold target capabilities and its higher end ratings for bit weight, torque and rotary speed. The tool teardowns were rigorously analyzed at the conclusion of each field run to assess component wear rates and to fully document any detrimental behavior(s) observed.

  6. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  7. Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmount for IndividualEnergy Political Activity

  8. Testing Miocene Remagnetization of Bey Dalari: Timing and Amount of Neogene Rotations in SW Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Testing Miocene Remagnetization of Bey Dalari: Timing and Amount of Neogene Rotations in SW Turkey Engineering, TR-06531 Ankara, Turkey Received 07 December 2009; revised typescript receipt 07 December 2009 of the Aegean orocline, located in SW Turkey. The current model for this orocline involves a 25

  9. Assessment of the amount of cesium-137 released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Assessment of the amount of cesium-137 released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident and analysis of its dispersion in Japanese coastal waters, J into the ocean from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) after the accident in March 2011 and to gain

  10. Wormholes, Gamma Ray Bursts and the Amount of Negative Mass in the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego F. Torres; Gustavo E. Romero; Luis A. Anchordoqui

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this essay, we assume that negative mass objects can exist in the extragalactic space and analyze the consequences of their microlensing on light from distant Active Galactic Nuclei. We find that such events have very similar features to some observed Gamma Ray Bursts and use recent satellite data to set an upper bound to the amount of negative mass in the universe.

  11. Speeding up disease extinction with a limited amount of vaccine M. Khasin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dykman, Mark

    studied in stochastic population dynamics. Spontaneous extinction of species is important alsoSpeeding up disease extinction with a limited amount of vaccine M. Khasin,1 M. I. Dykman,1 and B stable; disease extinction happens at random and requires a large fluctuation, which can come from

  12. A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO Wiel M.F. Wauben precipitation sensor of Ott has been tested at KNMI in order to find out whether it is a suitable candidate for replacing the current operational KNMI precipitation gauge. Tests performed at the calibration facilities

  13. Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior and Adams, 2009b) ·Condensation, coagulation, nucleation ·40 size bins (1 nm ­ 10 µm) ·Nucleation rates the aerosol mass distribution. However, recent closure studies with field measurements show that a significant

  14. Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU F&A costs at NIU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU #12;F&A costs at NIU What are Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs? F&A Costs (aka "indirect costs" or "overhead") are real institutional costs project, instructional or public service activity. Such costs include utilities, buildings and facilities

  15. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

  16. SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 A HOLISTIC APPROACH IN REDUCTION OF ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    ­ Daylighting vs. Solar Gain · Exterior Control ­ active and passive systems, solar control and shading and Project Goals · Energy Reduction Goals · Design Process · Daylighting and Lighting Systems · Costs Sheikholeslami, MPCSD ­ Erwin Lee, DLM Architecture · Case Study Background ­ Located in Menlo Park, CA ­ Design

  17. Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrold, Mary Jean

    Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage James A. Jones (MC/DC) adequate. Despite its cost, there is evidence that MC/DC is an effective verification technique, and can help to uncover safety faults. As the software is modified and new test cases are added

  18. Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrold, Mary Jean

    Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage James A. Jones condition/decision coverage (MC/DC) adequate. Despite its cost, there is evidence that MC/DC is an effective verification technique and can help to uncover safety faults. As the software is modified and new test cases

  19. DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION OF VISUAL FEATURES USING SPARSE PROJECTORS FOR CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri

    DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION OF VISUAL FEATURES USING SPARSE PROJECTORS FOR CONTENT-BASED IMAGE projectors. In this work, we propose a new efficient method to greatly reduce the signature dimensionality with low computational and storage costs. Our method is based on the linear projection of the signature

  20. Development of the TIGRE This describes the TIGRE method for combinator graph reduction.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    been previously implemented for the G-Ma- chine graph reduction implementation on a VAX (Peyton Jones 1987). In VAX assembly language, unwinding a node while traversing the stack requires four instructions, on average, processing nodes for stack unwinding costs: (4 * 1.38) + 7 = 12.52 VAX instructions per

  1. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5"Âť from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program with die lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  2. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning and Analysis (ESPA) Peter Kabatek WorleyParsons Group, Inc. Alexander Zoelle Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. DOE Contract Number DE-FE0004001 iv Cost and Performance Metrics...

  3. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

  4. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension...

  5. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  6. Stable reduction product of misonidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panicucci, R.; McClelland, R.A.; Rauth, A.M.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predominant stable product (greater than 80%) of the anaerobic radiation chemical reduction (pH 7, formate, N/sub 2/O) of misonidazole (MISO) has been identified as the cyclic guanidinium ion MISO-DDI, a 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolium ion. This cation was prepared as its sulfate salt by the reaction of glyoxal and the appropriate N-substituted guanidinium sulfate. Its formation during MISO reduction was established by NMR spectral comparison and by derivatization as glyoxal bis-oxime, which was formed in 86% yield in fully reduced systems. The toxicity of pure MISO-DDI X sulfate was examined in vivo (C/sub 3/H mice) and in vitro (CHO cells). This product is less toxic than the parent MISO and free glyoxal. A reactive, short-lived, intermediate is suggested as the agent responsible for the toxicity of MISO under hypoxic conditions.

  7. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 1 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT OF RENEWABLES October 2012 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Do TCEQ: Vince Meiller, Bob Gifford ERCOT: Warren Lasher USEPA: Art Diem, Julie Rosenberg ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS p. 3 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 RENEWABLES Solar PV Solar Thermal Hydro Biomass Landfill Gas Geothermal p. 4...

  8. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 9 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 10 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 WIND PROJECTS IN TEXAS Completed, Announced, and Retired Wind Projects in Texas, as of December 2011 p. 11 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Laboratory ? 2012 p. 24 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 25 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 Annual eGrid for NOx Emissions West Zone North Zone Houston Zone South Zone Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs...

  9. Neural Networks and Expert Systems to solve the problems of large amounts of Experimental Data at JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neural Networks and Expert Systems to solve the problems of large amounts of Experimental Data at JET

  10. CBE UFAD cost analysis tool: Life cycle cost model, issues and assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Construction Cost Data. ” RS Means, Kingston MA.schedules Refurbish cost data Tax rate data Maintenance &Maintenance & Repair section, cost data is a combination of

  11. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G. [CD & W Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  12. CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the University for common or joint projects and cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. Some examples of indirect costs include accounting staff

  13. Industrial Heat Pumps--Types and Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, R. N.; Bliem, C. J.; Mills, J. I.; Demuth, O. J.; Plaster, D. S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this categorization, the cost of recovering waste energy with heat pumps was examined. Examples were evaluated in which the cost of energy delivered was calculated based on estimates of capital cost, operating costs, and maintenance costs. Heat pumps from the various...

  14. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and simple cycle costs are the result of a comprehensive survey of actual costs from the power plant developers in California who built power plants between 2001 and 2006. The other costs are based on actual in conjunction with the variable cost information of a production cost market simulation model to produce

  15. Costing Summaries for Selected Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Engineering News-Record Construction Cost Index · Consumer Prices Index · Year Index = average of the monthly;Develop Costing Curves for : · Construction · Operation and Maintenance #12;Small Systems · Limited · Construction Costs · O&M Costs · General Design and Operational Information #12;Update The Costs for year 2000

  16. Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the levelized cost of the aggregate supply curves, the portfolio model does not evaluate each measure's specific of programming constraints, the levelized costs of conservation used in the portfolio model are not adjusted of its costs. May 2005 E-1 #12;include energy and capacity cost savings, local distribution cost savings

  17. Wind resuspension of trace amounts of plutonium particles from soil in a semi-arid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, G.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study of resuspension of soil containing minute amounts of plutonium (Pu-239) has been in progress at the Rocky Flats (RF) Plant since 1978. It is one of several studies initiated after wind relocated small amounts of soil-borne Pu-239 during cleanup of an outdoor storage area. The Pu-239-settled field is now sparsely covered with prairie grass typical of the area. Past studies were limited to comparisons of bulk soil activity with total activity in the airborne dust. This work covers the physics of the particle resuspension process. This report covers the following: (1) Pu-239 resuspension rate versus wind speed, (2) mechanisms of soil particle resuspension, (3) vertical concentration profile of Pu-239 particles, (4) Pu-239 and host particle size distribution and activity concentration. 5 references, 1 table.

  18. daylight 12/17/2007 1 Tracking the change in the amount of daylight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Peter

    daylight 12/17/2007 1 Tracking the change in the amount of daylight Ever notice that at some times successive days? (c) (Calculus) The daylight graph has been drawn with sine-curve. Find its equation. (d) Use get the following diagram. #12;daylight 12/17/2007 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

  19. Using Electronic Adjustable Speed Drives for Efficiency Improvement and Cost Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, N. R.

    U.S. industry and utilities have been using ac adjustable speed drives (ASDs) for more than 50 years. ASDs utilize power electronics technology to control the flow of power to an ac motor, thereby controlling the motor’s speed and rate of energy...

  20. Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2013 Diaphragm Fabrication: Time & Cost Reduction Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    to feasible methods Alternative methods include additive manufacturing: electron beam welding & digital part. Additive manufacturing, which two of the proposed alternatives encapsulated, is a very young process the possibility of implementing additive manufacturing in the future. #12;

  1. Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001. Report#:DOE/ENDOGENOUS LEARNING IN THE ANNUAL ENERGY OUTLOOK REFERENCEDepartment of Energy’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), which is

  2. Hydrogen Infrastructure Expansion: Consumer Demand and Cost-Reduction Potential (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presentation summarizes key challenges in financing hydrogen infrastructure and reviews analysis tools available to inform investment decisions and reduce financial risks.

  3. IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel’s Manufacturing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subirana, Brian

    2004-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Intel manufacturing relies heavily on IT and Factory Automation during the manufacturing processes. At Intel, everything from scheduling products on the floor and product delivery systems to statistical process control is ...

  4. Using quality improvement methodologies to enhance cross departmental collaboration and quality cost reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilburn-Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research and project implementations described in this study took place during a seven-month period in 2004 at a distribution transformer factory in Germany. The purpose of this research is to show how quality management ...

  5. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  6. S-CORE: Scalable Communication Cost Reduction in Data Center Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tso, F.P.

    Tso,F.P. Oikonomou,K. Kavvadia,E. Hamilton,G. Pezaros,D. SoCS Technical Report Series pp 10 Dept of Computing Science, University of Glasgow

  7. Cost reduction of polar class vessels : structural optimization that includes production factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Normore, Stephen S. (Stephen Selwyn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of ship structures was normally optimized to reduce construction material and maintain adequate strength while adhering to a given classification society's rules. In the case of Polar Class vessels, where weight ...

  8. An analysis of incentive strategies for single-source suppliers to drive cost reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resch, Kevin (Kevin Scott)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An organization's decision on which aspects of its operations to outsource represents a key, strategic issue that should be based on maximizing performance throughout the entire value chain. In certain instances strategic ...

  9. Microsoft Word - Heliostat_Cost_Reduction_Main_Report_v2 _NEW_ 6-6-07.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE SWPAURTeC:8CO6 Figureand ProjectHEAT24,33293

  10. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexas EnergyofIdahoExceptions toPhotovoltaicsExternalOpportunity |

  11. Comments on MHK Cost Reduction Pathway White Papers | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergy Offshore Place:WindOil and Gas CommissionComments on

  12. Communication Load Reduction for Neural Network Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    the total amount of communication load, followed by a placement of partitions onto proces- sors 3]. We

  13. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  14. A conceptual model to estimate cost effectiveness of the indoor environment improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Macroeconomic analyses indicate a high cost to society of a deteriorated indoor climate. The few example calculations performed to date indicate that measures taken to improve IEQ are highly cost-effective when health and productivity benefits are considered. We believe that cost-benefit analyses of building designs and operations should routinely incorporate health and productivity impacts. As an initial step, we developed a conceptual model that shows the links between improvements in IEQ and the financial gains from reductions in medical care and sick leave, improved work performance, lower employee turn over, and reduced maintenance due to fewer complaints.

  15. Abstract --Developing software for mobile or ad hoc scenarios is very cost intensive. Different software and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steimann, Friedrich

    for an appropriate development support for devices with short life cycles. Third-party solutions often do not reachAbstract -- Developing software for mobile or ad hoc scenarios is very cost intensive. Different processors and big memories are available in principle, they con- sume a great amount of valuable battery

  16. Arbitration Costs and Contingent Fee Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2005-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A common criticism of arbitration is that its upfront costs (arbitrators' fees and administrative costs) may preclude consumers and employees from asserting their claims. Some commentators have argued further that arbitration costs undercut...

  17. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATIONCann Please use the following citation for this report: Klein, Joel. 2009. Comparative Costs of California............................................................................................................................1 Changes in the Cost of Generation Model

  18. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION and Anitha Rednam, Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1: Summary of Technology Costs

  19. USA oilgas production cost : recent changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

  20. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the delivery cost for fuel cell vehicles, however, itfueling stations, cost, Shanghai, fuel cell vehicles 1.0hydrogen cost therefore depend on the fleet of fuel cell

  1. Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, A. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) is a Management System designed to reduce operating cost in a continuous operating multi product plant by reviewing all cost factors and selecting plant wide production schedules which are most...

  2. Maintenance cost studies of present aircraft subsystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearlman, Chaim Herman Shalom

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes two detailed studies of actual maintenance costs for present transport aircraft. The first part describes maintenance costs for jet transport aircraft broken down into subsystem costs according to an ...

  3. Final Report What Will Adaptation Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..................................................................................................................26 Task 3: Estimate Costs of Implementing Adaptation Strategies ....................................................................34 Task 2: Calculate the Capital and Maintenance CostsFinal Report What Will Adaptation Cost? An Economic Framework for Coastal Community Infrastructure

  4. WVU Personal Rapid Transit Benefit Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WVU Personal Rapid Transit Benefit Cost Analysis Morgantown, West Virginia Prepared For: West.......................................................................................... 15 Travel Time Value - Understanding Travel Time Costs................................................. 15 Travel Time Value - Understanding Travel Time Costs

  5. Designing for cost In an aerospace company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammar, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Deming)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies take different approaches, and achieve different degrees of implementation, in designing products for cost. This thesis discusses Target Costing and its application at The Boeing Company. Target Costing is a ...

  6. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems in China, particularly for the cost of hydrogento the capital cost for equipment imported to China. 2.4.6.estate costs in Shanghai are among the highest in China and

  7. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paviet-Hartmann, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Riddle, C. [Idaho National Laboratory, Material and Fuel Complex, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6150 (United States); Campbell, K. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89144 (United States); Mausolf, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Batelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most widely used reductant to partition plutonium from uranium in the Purex process was ferrous sulfamate, other alternates were proposed such as hydrazine-stabilized ferrous nitrate or uranous nitrate, platinum catalyzed hydrogen, and hydrazine, hydroxylamine salts. New candidates to replace hydrazine or hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) are pursued worldwide. They may improve the performance of the industrial Purex process towards different operations such as de-extraction of plutonium and reduction of the amount of hydrazine which will limit the formation of hydrazoic acid. When looking at future recycling technologies using hydroxamic ligands, neither acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) nor formohydroxamic acid (FHA) seem promising because they hydrolyze to give hydroxylamine and the parent carboxylic acid. Hydroxyethylhydrazine, HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 3} (HEH) is a promising non-salt-forming reductant of Np and Pu ions because it is selective to neptunium and plutonium ions at room temperature and at relatively low acidity, it could serve as a replacement of HAN or AHA for the development of a novel used nuclear fuel recycling process.

  8. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

  9. "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: Is conservation the answer?" Paul van for the foreseeable future. #12;John Beddington's "Perfect Storm" Population Increase Poverty Reduction Food Security Globalisation Climate Change Health Water Security Poverty Alleviation Finance Urbanisation Population Energy

  10. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff or adequacy of the information in this report. #12;Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor Ozone Reductions Using

  11. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium

  12. Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination A Bioprophylactic Concept Karin/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination. A Bioprophylactic Concept. Abstract Pesticides and their residues frequently contaminate surface waters and groundwater so

  13. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of...

  14. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  16.  Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) cost study: analysis of first cost tradeoffs in UFAD systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Quality: Total HVAC Cost Trend Table 5. Wall Thermal20. Climate: Total HVAC Cost Trend HVAC Category Cost ($/the total perimeter HVAC cost trend for increased density of

  17. Statistical Inference for Costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely conducted in the economic evaluation of new treatment options. In many clinical and observational studies of costs, data are often censored. Censoring brings challenges to both medical cost estimation and cost...

  18. Statistical Inference for Costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely conducted in the economic evaluation of new treatment options. In many clinical and observational studies of costs, data are often censored. Censoring brings challenges to both medical cost estimation and cost...

  19. Friction Reduction for Microhole CT Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Newman; Patrick Kelleher; Edward Smalley

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this 24 month project focused on improving microhole coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) reliability and performance, while reducing the drilling cost and complexity associated with inclined/horizontal well sections. This was to be accomplished by eliminating the need for a downhole drilling tractor or other downhole coiled tubing (CT) friction mitigation techniques when drilling long (>2,000 ft.) of inclined/horizontal wellbore. The technical solution to be developed and evaluated in this project was based on vibrating the coiled tubing at surface to reduce the friction along the length of the downhole CT drillstring. The Phase 1 objective of this project centered on determining the optimum surface-applied vibration system design for downhole CT friction mitigation. Design of the system would be based on numerical modeling and laboratory testing of the CT friction mitigation achieved with various types of surface-applied vibration. A numerical model was developed to predict how far downhole the surface-applied vibration would travel. A vibration test fixture, simulating microhole CT drilling in a horizontal wellbore, was constructed and used to refine and validate the numerical model. Numerous tests, with varying surface-applied vibration parameters were evaluated in the vibration test fixture. The data indicated that as long as the axial force on the CT was less than the helical buckling load, axial vibration of the CT was effective at mitigating friction. However, surface-applied vibration only provided a small amount of friction mitigation as the helical buckling load on the CT was reached or exceeded. Since it would be impractical to assume that routine field operations be conducted at less than the helical buckling load of the CT, it was determined that this technical approach did not warrant the additional cost and maintenance issues that would be associated with the surface vibration equipment. As such, the project was concluded following completion of Phase 1, and Phase 2 (design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype surface vibration system) was not pursued.

  20. At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinton, J.R. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs varied wildly across plants. This work provides estimates of the shadow price of SO[sub 2] abatement using the output distance function approach for Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin coal-burning electric plants. The results demonstrate that the coal-burning electric plants with the highest emissions rates are also the plants with the lowest marginal abatement costs, a fact that may explain lower-than-expected prices in the new market for allowances. The data include information about plants with installed scrubber capital allowing for an investigation of the effect of scrubber capital on marginal abatement costs.

  1. Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

  2. Cost objective PLM and CE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Nicolas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during t...

  3. Cost objective PLM and CE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Perry; Alain Bernard

    2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during the progression of the project of product development.

  4. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  5. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  6. Adaptive dimension reduction for clustering high dimensional data Chris Ding a , Xiaofeng He a , Hongyuan Zha b and Horst D. Simon a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Chris

    ) and reduces computational cost. In most applications, dimension reduction is carried out as a preprocessingAdaptive dimension reduction for clustering high dimensional data Chris Ding a , Xiaofeng He in local minimum. Many initialization methods were proposed to tackle this problem , but with only limited

  7. Estimating Specialty Costs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects. g4301-1chp20.pdf -- PDF Document, 56 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  8. Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Eric; Masur, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Eric A. Posner, Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-effects of environmental regulations for other industries.Paper Collection.   Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-

  9. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...

  10. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  11. Driltac (Drilling Time and Cost Evaluation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The users manual for the drill tech model for estimating the costs of geothermal wells. The report indicates lots of technical and cost detail. [DJE-2005

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE

  13. Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: March 20, 2015 FY 2016 February 2015 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

  14. Relative trajectory data reduction analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Kenneth William

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REDATIVE TRAJECTORY DATA RFDUCTION ANA1. YS1S A Thesis KENNE'Ill Vi. GRANT Subrnitl ed to the Gratluate College of 'J exas ASM University in pa) &ial full'illment of the reouir ament for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1969 Major... Trajectory Data Reduction Analysis. (August 1969) Kenneth W. Grant, B. A. , University of California at Riverside Directed by: Dr. Rudolph Freund Knowledge of missile/drone intercept parameters is extremely important in the analysis of ordnance system...

  15. The cost of reducing utility S02 emissions : not as low as you might think

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Anne E.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common assertion in public policy discussions is that the cost of achieving the SO2 emissions reductions under the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act ("Title IV") has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV ...

  16. Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ERTEN ESER

    2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janssen, Michel

    Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs questions regarding human research patient care costs. Human research patient care costs are the costs. The costs of these services normally are assigned to specific research projects through the development

  18. Wind Power: How Much, How Soon, and At What Cost?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan H; Hand, Maureen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global wind power market has been growing at a phenomenal pace, driven by favorable policies towards renewable energy and the improving economics of wind projects. On a going forward basis, utility-scale wind power offers the potential for significant reductions in the carbon footprint of the electricity sector. Specifically, the global wind resource is vast and, though accessing this potential is not costless or lacking in barriers, wind power can be developed at scale in the near to medium term at what promises to be an acceptable cost.

  19. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  20. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

  1. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  2. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able associated with both the manufacture of carbon fibers themselves as well as their composites. Traditional

  3. Private trucking costs and records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haning, Charles R

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ccaystieoa of Ls?sl L?hot Rsyoa?s to See-L?hot Rsyoaeo Coot-hHOL? daslyoio xoc?L Disco coot y?~LLL? kaalyoi? lstseoitg Cost-y?~LL? daelgeio LeeaL Co?C~LNLL? ka?LXaie C?eyeeieoa Roteess Looal sad 1atcmoitg %la-Lstcac Coot-SeHNlo 9 9 Ll LX 14 19 Xi... s aired fleet of trucks was 29 seats psr nile. Of this figure& 14 cents was attributable co tho driver expenses whish included ths wages of tha drivers and helpers. Thoro wes epproxinacaly a 51 cent difference becwesa the per nile costs fot...

  4. Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

  5. Idaho Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Idaho homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Idaho homeowners will save $4,057 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $285 for the 2012 IECC.

  6. Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

  7. Ohio Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Ohio homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Ohio homeowners will save $5,151 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $330 for the 2012 IECC.

  8. Dose reduction improvements in storage basins of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Fan-Hsiung F.

    1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel in storage basins at the Hanford Site has corroded and contaminated basin water, which has leaked into the soil; the fuel also had deposited a layer of radioactive sludge on basin floors. The SNF is to be removed from the basins to protect the nearby Columbia River. Because the radiation level is high, measures have been taken to reduce the background dose rate to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) to prevent radiation doses from becoming the limiting factor for removal of the SW in the basins to long-term dry storage. All activities of the SNF Project require application of ALARA principles for the workers. On the basis of these principles dose reduction improvements have been made by first identifying radiological sources. Principal radiological sources in the basin are basin walls, basin water, recirculation piping and equipment. Dose reduction activities focus on cleaning and coating basin walls to permit raising the water level, hydrolasing piping, and placing lead plates. In addition, the transfer bay floor will be refinished to make decontamination easier and reduce worker exposures in the radiation field. The background dose rates in the basin will be estimated before each task commences and after it is completed; these dose reduction data will provide the basis for cost benefit analysis.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  10. A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Michel

    A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty model reduction with controller reduction for the same PWR system. We show that closed-loop techniques to the design of a low-order con- troller for a realistic model of order 42 of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

  11. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  12. Figure-of-merit analysis and cost effectiveness of low-level radioactive waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, N.D.; Falconer, K.L.; McCormack, M.D.; Hootman, H.D.; Thompson, T.K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two studies were performed to assess low-level waste treatment systems that are available commercially for volume reduction and/or solidification. In the first, a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) decision analysis technique was used to evaluate fourteen low-level radioactive waste processing systems on their ability to treat power reactor wastes. The assessment of the various processing systems was accomplished using a five member task force. The systems were judged on eleven major criteria and twenty subcriteria. The system judged superior to all the others was compaction of dry wastes with liquid wastes and sludges being directly incorporated into concrete. This was also the lowest cost system. The controlled air incinerator was judged the preferred incineration process. The Werner-Pfleider bitumen extruder was the preferred liquid waste treatment system. In the second study, the cost economy of volume reduction measured in land disposal dollars was investigated. The greatest cost savings with volume reduction were realized with a BWR using a deep bed condensate polishing system; the least with a PWR with condensate polishing. For both BWR systems and PWRs without condensate cleanup, over 80% of the savings in land disposal dollars resulted from volume reduction of liquid waste streams (concentrated liquids and filter sludge). For a PWR with a condensate polishing system, which had the least cost effective system for volume reduction, about one-third of the savings resulting from incineration of spent resin and compactible trash was offset by the increased expense of casks required for transporting concentrated liquids which have undergone additional volume reduction.

  13. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  14. Coking Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 48.67 46.59 49.25 78.98...

  15. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  16. Artifact reduction in industrial computed tomography via data fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrapp, Michael; Goldammer, Matthias; Stephan, Jürgen [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As the most stressed part of a gas turbine the first row of turbine blades is not only a challenge for the materials used. Also the testing of these parts have to meet the highest standards. Computed tomography (CT) as the technique which could reveal the most details also provides the biggest challenges [1]: A full penetration of large sized turbine blades is often only possible at high X-ray voltages causing disproportional high costs. A reduction of the X-ray voltage is able to reduce these arising costs but yields non penetration artifacts in the reconstructed CT image. In most instances, these artifacts manifests itself as blurred and smeared regions at concave edges due to a reduced signal to noise ratio. In order to complement the missing information and to increase the overall image quality of our reconstruction, we use further imaging modalities such as a 3-D Scanner and ultrasonic imaging. A 3-D scanner is easy and cost effective to implement and is able to acquire all relevant data simultaneously with the CT projections. If, however, the interior structure is of supplemental interest, an ultrasonic imaging method is additionally used. We consider this data as a priori knowledge to employ them in an iterative reconstruction. To do so, standard iterative reconstruction methods are modified to incorporate the a priori data in a regularization approach in combination with minimizing the total variation of our image. Applying this procedure on turbine blades, we are able to reduce the apparent artifacts almost completely.

  17. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée BRECARD(*) 2009,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée Brécard production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product

  18. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Participant Support Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Policy on Participant Support Costs Effective: May 15, 2006 Purpose costs are separately accounted for, and expended for appropriate and intended objectives. Background in the conference, workshop or training activity. Participant supports costs are defined as direct costs for items

  19. Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle NAFCOM Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . ­ The updated estimates provided both Cost Plus Fee and Firm Fixed Price approaches and included two flight Updated Estimate Cost Plus Fee Cost Plus Fee Firm Fixed Price Cost Plus Fee Total Total Total Total in structure Interstage (composite material) was included in structures (aluminum lithium material) Interstage

  20. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Abstract: Water reduction under two visible...